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GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

1

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JC Physics Tuition

Mr Tan Kheng Siang, B.Eng. (Hons).

EXPERIENCED JC tutor offers excellent exam preparation.

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Weekdays (Mon, Tue & Fri) : JC Physics (7.00pm – 8.30 pm)

Saturday : JC Physics (12.30 pm – 2.00 pm) Date/Timing Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Saturday (12.30 pm – 2.00 pm)

Venue Potong Pasir Community Club Paya Lebar Kovan Community Club Kampong Kembangan Community Club Yio Chu Kang Community Club Toa Payoh Hub (3rd Level)

Description of Venue Within 5 min walking distance from SAJC & Potong Pasir MRT Within 5 min walking distance from Kovan MRT

Ways to get there. Potong Pasir MRT, Bus 13, 107, 133, 142, 147 Kovan MRT, Bus 112, 113, 115, 119

Within 5 min walking distance from Kembangan MRT

Kembangan MRT, Bus 2, 7, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 33

Within 5 min walking distance from Yio Chu Kang MRT

Yio Chu Kang MRT, Bus 86, 162M, 269 Toa Payoh Bus Terminal Station

** Please Call or SMS 9620 7426 or email to [email protected] to Register. Slots are limited. Please register early.

Superposition 1.

Diffraction Diffraction is the spreading of waves when they pass through an opening or around an obstacle.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

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Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

2

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2.

Principle of superposition

3.

If two or more waves of the same kind meet at a point, the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements due to the waves at the point. Coherence Two wave sources are said to be coherent if they have a constant phase difference. This necessarily means that the two waves are of the same frequency.

4.

Path difference The difference between the distances traveled by the two waves from the sources to the point where they meet.

5.

Interference Interference occurs when two or more waves of the same type superpose at a point in space to give a resultant wave whose amplitude is given by the principle of superposition. Constructive interference occurs when the two waves meet in phase, or the path difference is an integer number of wavelengths, i.e. path difference = nλ and phase difference n 2 2n Destructive interference occurs when the two waves meet in antiphase, or the path difference is an odd number of half ( 2n 1) 2 2 ( 2n 1) wavelengths, i.e. path difference = (2n + 1) λ/2 and phase difference

6.

For a two-source interference to be observable, the conditions required are that the two waves (i) must be coherent. This is to ensure that their phase relationship does not change with time so that our eyes can observe a ‘stationary’ pattern. (ii) must have roughly the same amplitude. This is to ensure good contrast between maxima and minima of intensity. (iii) for transverse waves, must be completely unpolarised or polarized in the same plane.

7.

Interference of water waves in a ripple tank

All points on AB are equidistant from S1 and S2. The path difference is zero and the two waves meet along AB in phase. At all points along EF the path difference is one wavelength, and the two waves also meet in phase. There is constructive interference. Lines AB and EF are called antinodal lines. Points on CD are half a wavelength nearer to S1 than S2. The path difference is half a wavelength. The crests (or troughs) from S1 arrive simultaneously with troughs (or crests) from S2. The waves arrive in antiphase and there is destructive interference. Similarly, there is destructive interference along GH where the path difference is 1½ wavelengths. Lines CD and GH are called nodal lines.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745) 8.

3

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Interference of light Monochromatic light falls on single slit S (which acts as a point light source). Diffraction at this slit causes light to spread and fall on the two slits S1 and S2 (which act as coherent sources). Superposition occurs in the area where the diffracted beams from S1 and S2 overlap. Alternate bright and dark equally spaced fringes can be observed at the screen. The intensity pattern is as shown below. Note that we usually assume that the fringes are of equal brightness.

Fringe separation x D , where λ is the wavelength of the light, D is the distance between the double slits and the a screen and a is the separation of the double slits. Note that if more than one wavelength is used, each wavelength will form its own fringe pattern and the patterns will overlap one another. When certain parameters are changed, you may be asked to comment on the change to the fringe separation, intensity etc. 9.

Diffraction grating A diffraction grating has many closely spaced slits. When a beam of light incidents on a diffraction grating, each slit acts as a coherent source. Interference of the waves generated from each slit produces bright lines in a certain directions. In these directions, all the waves interfere in phase. Reinforcement of the waves from each slit occurs and constructive interference occurs. The relevant formula is d sin θ = n λ, where d is the separation between the slits and n is the order of the fringe. Note that d = 1/N where N is the number of slits per unit length.

10. Stationary waves

t = T/2

A stationary or standing wave is produced when two progressive waves of equal frequency and amplitude traveling with the same speed in opposite directions superpose. Positions along the wave that are permanently at rest (zero displacement) are called nodes, while positions along the wave that have the greatest amplitude of vibration are called antinodes.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

t = T/8

t = 5T/8

t = T/4

t = 3T/4

t = 3T/8

t = 7T/8

t = T/2

t=T

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

4

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11. Comparison between progressive and stationary waves Stationary wave Varies according to position from zero at the nodes to a maximum at 2a at the antinodes

Progressive wave same for all particles in the path of the waves

Frequency

All particles vibrate in SHM with the same frequency (except for those at the nodes which are at rest)

All particles vibrate in SHM with the frequency of the wave.

Wavelength

It is equal to twice the distance between two adjacent nodes or two adjacent antinodes

It is equal to the distance between adjacent particles which have the same phase

Phase

Phase of all particles between two adjacent nodes is the same.

All particles within one wavelength have different phases.

Amplitude

Particles in adjacent segments have a phase difference of rad Waveform

Does not advance.

Advances with the velocity of the wave.

Energy

No translation of energy, but there is energy stored in the wave.

Energy translation in the direction of travel of the wave.

12. Experimental set-up to demonstrate stationary waves for microwaves Distance between two consecutive minima (nodes) is equal to half the wavelength of the microwaves.

13. Experimental set-up to demonstrate stationary waves in a stretched string The speed of waves in the string is determined by the mass per unit length of the string and the tension in the string.

To signal generator

The string is made (driven) to vibrate at the frequency of the signal generator. The string would vibrate with greatest amplitude in several frequencies (its natural modes of vibration). For the stationary wave that is formed, the two fixed ends must be nodes because the string there is not free to vibrate. The first few modes of vibration are shown below. f1 is called the fundamental frequency.

f1 = v/λ1 = v/2L

f2 = v/λ2 = v/L = 2 f1

f3 = v/λ3 = 3v/2L = 3 f1

f4 = v/λ4 = 2v/L = 4 f1

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

5

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14. Experimental set-up to determine stationary waves for air columns The closed end of a column is a displacement node where the particles cannot vibrate. The open end of a column is a displacement antinode because the air there is free to vibrate. Closed tube Let the fundamental frequency be f1. f1 = v/λ1 = v/4L, where v is the speed of the air in the tube. L = ¼1

This is the first overtone.

f2 = v/λ2 = 3v/4L = 3 f1 L = ¾ 2

This is the second overtone. f3 = v/λ3 = 5v/4L = 5 f1 L = 5/4 3

The frequencies of vibration in a closed tube are odd multiples of the fundamental frequency. Open tube Let the fundamental frequency be f1. f1 = v/λ1 = v/2L

L = ½ 1

Verify for yourselves that the frequencies of vibration in an open tube are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. 15.

Measurement of wavelength of sound using stationary waves through the resonance air tube method

Choose a frequency. Adjust the length of the tube until there is resonance – a loud sound will be heard. Adjust the length until the next loud sound is heard. The difference in length is equal to half a wavelength, i.e. λ = 2 (L2 – L1). Obtain the speed of sound from v = fλ.

Note that in this experiment, stationary waves are set up with a displacement node at the water surface and a displacement antinode at the open end of the tube.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

6

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Superposition Discussion Questions 1. Two loudspeakers S1 and S2 each emit sound of frequency 330 Hz uniformly in all directions. S1 has an acoustic output of 1.2 x 10-3 W while S2 has an acoustic output of 1.8 x 10-3 W. S1 and S2 vibrate in phase. A point P is 4 m from S1 and 3 m from S2. The speed of sound in air is 330 m s-1. (a) How are the phases of the two waves arriving at P related? (b) What is the intensity of sound at P with (1) S1 on alone, (2) S2 on alone, and [5.97 x 10-6 W m-2, 1.6 x 10-5 W m-2, 4.15 x 10-5 W m-2] (3) S1 and S2 both on.

S1

4m a) Phase Difference =

P

x 43 2 2 2 rad 1

The two waves are in phase

3m

S2

b) (1) S1 alone: I1

(2) S2 alone: I 2

P1 1.2 10 3 5.97 10 6 Wm-2 2 A1 4 (4)

P2 1.8 10 3 1.59 10 5 Wm-2 2 A2 4 (3)

(3) S1 and S2 ? We cannot add intensity, but can only add amplitude. This is because adding of intensity itself does NOT take into consideration the effects of superposition.

I 1 a1

2

I1 ka1

I 2 a2

2

I 2 ka2

aresultant = a1 + a2 =

I1 k I a2 2 k

2

a1

2

I1 I 2

Iresultant = karesultant2 = k (

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

k I1 I 2 k

) 2 I1 I 2 2 I1 I 2 4.14 10 5 Wm-2

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

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1

http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

JC Physics Tuition

Mr Tan Kheng Siang, B.Eng. (Hons).

EXPERIENCED JC tutor offers excellent exam preparation.

Small Class Size, Comprehensive Revision Notes, Mind maps, Promo/Prelim Questions

Call up for Free Trial Lesson.

Hp: 9620 7426

Email: [email protected]

Blog : http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Weekdays (Mon, Tue & Fri) : JC Physics (7.00pm – 8.30 pm)

Saturday : JC Physics (12.30 pm – 2.00 pm) Date/Timing Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Weekday (7.00 pm – 8.30 pm) Saturday (12.30 pm – 2.00 pm)

Venue Potong Pasir Community Club Paya Lebar Kovan Community Club Kampong Kembangan Community Club Yio Chu Kang Community Club Toa Payoh Hub (3rd Level)

Description of Venue Within 5 min walking distance from SAJC & Potong Pasir MRT Within 5 min walking distance from Kovan MRT

Ways to get there. Potong Pasir MRT, Bus 13, 107, 133, 142, 147 Kovan MRT, Bus 112, 113, 115, 119

Within 5 min walking distance from Kembangan MRT

Kembangan MRT, Bus 2, 7, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 33

Within 5 min walking distance from Yio Chu Kang MRT

Yio Chu Kang MRT, Bus 86, 162M, 269 Toa Payoh Bus Terminal Station

** Please Call or SMS 9620 7426 or email to [email protected] to Register. Slots are limited. Please register early.

Superposition 1.

Diffraction Diffraction is the spreading of waves when they pass through an opening or around an obstacle.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

2

http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

2.

Principle of superposition

3.

If two or more waves of the same kind meet at a point, the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements due to the waves at the point. Coherence Two wave sources are said to be coherent if they have a constant phase difference. This necessarily means that the two waves are of the same frequency.

4.

Path difference The difference between the distances traveled by the two waves from the sources to the point where they meet.

5.

Interference Interference occurs when two or more waves of the same type superpose at a point in space to give a resultant wave whose amplitude is given by the principle of superposition. Constructive interference occurs when the two waves meet in phase, or the path difference is an integer number of wavelengths, i.e. path difference = nλ and phase difference n 2 2n Destructive interference occurs when the two waves meet in antiphase, or the path difference is an odd number of half ( 2n 1) 2 2 ( 2n 1) wavelengths, i.e. path difference = (2n + 1) λ/2 and phase difference

6.

For a two-source interference to be observable, the conditions required are that the two waves (i) must be coherent. This is to ensure that their phase relationship does not change with time so that our eyes can observe a ‘stationary’ pattern. (ii) must have roughly the same amplitude. This is to ensure good contrast between maxima and minima of intensity. (iii) for transverse waves, must be completely unpolarised or polarized in the same plane.

7.

Interference of water waves in a ripple tank

All points on AB are equidistant from S1 and S2. The path difference is zero and the two waves meet along AB in phase. At all points along EF the path difference is one wavelength, and the two waves also meet in phase. There is constructive interference. Lines AB and EF are called antinodal lines. Points on CD are half a wavelength nearer to S1 than S2. The path difference is half a wavelength. The crests (or troughs) from S1 arrive simultaneously with troughs (or crests) from S2. The waves arrive in antiphase and there is destructive interference. Similarly, there is destructive interference along GH where the path difference is 1½ wavelengths. Lines CD and GH are called nodal lines.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745) 8.

3

http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Interference of light Monochromatic light falls on single slit S (which acts as a point light source). Diffraction at this slit causes light to spread and fall on the two slits S1 and S2 (which act as coherent sources). Superposition occurs in the area where the diffracted beams from S1 and S2 overlap. Alternate bright and dark equally spaced fringes can be observed at the screen. The intensity pattern is as shown below. Note that we usually assume that the fringes are of equal brightness.

Fringe separation x D , where λ is the wavelength of the light, D is the distance between the double slits and the a screen and a is the separation of the double slits. Note that if more than one wavelength is used, each wavelength will form its own fringe pattern and the patterns will overlap one another. When certain parameters are changed, you may be asked to comment on the change to the fringe separation, intensity etc. 9.

Diffraction grating A diffraction grating has many closely spaced slits. When a beam of light incidents on a diffraction grating, each slit acts as a coherent source. Interference of the waves generated from each slit produces bright lines in a certain directions. In these directions, all the waves interfere in phase. Reinforcement of the waves from each slit occurs and constructive interference occurs. The relevant formula is d sin θ = n λ, where d is the separation between the slits and n is the order of the fringe. Note that d = 1/N where N is the number of slits per unit length.

10. Stationary waves

t = T/2

A stationary or standing wave is produced when two progressive waves of equal frequency and amplitude traveling with the same speed in opposite directions superpose. Positions along the wave that are permanently at rest (zero displacement) are called nodes, while positions along the wave that have the greatest amplitude of vibration are called antinodes.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

t = T/8

t = 5T/8

t = T/4

t = 3T/4

t = 3T/8

t = 7T/8

t = T/2

t=T

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

4

http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

11. Comparison between progressive and stationary waves Stationary wave Varies according to position from zero at the nodes to a maximum at 2a at the antinodes

Progressive wave same for all particles in the path of the waves

Frequency

All particles vibrate in SHM with the same frequency (except for those at the nodes which are at rest)

All particles vibrate in SHM with the frequency of the wave.

Wavelength

It is equal to twice the distance between two adjacent nodes or two adjacent antinodes

It is equal to the distance between adjacent particles which have the same phase

Phase

Phase of all particles between two adjacent nodes is the same.

All particles within one wavelength have different phases.

Amplitude

Particles in adjacent segments have a phase difference of rad Waveform

Does not advance.

Advances with the velocity of the wave.

Energy

No translation of energy, but there is energy stored in the wave.

Energy translation in the direction of travel of the wave.

12. Experimental set-up to demonstrate stationary waves for microwaves Distance between two consecutive minima (nodes) is equal to half the wavelength of the microwaves.

13. Experimental set-up to demonstrate stationary waves in a stretched string The speed of waves in the string is determined by the mass per unit length of the string and the tension in the string.

To signal generator

The string is made (driven) to vibrate at the frequency of the signal generator. The string would vibrate with greatest amplitude in several frequencies (its natural modes of vibration). For the stationary wave that is formed, the two fixed ends must be nodes because the string there is not free to vibrate. The first few modes of vibration are shown below. f1 is called the fundamental frequency.

f1 = v/λ1 = v/2L

f2 = v/λ2 = v/L = 2 f1

f3 = v/λ3 = 3v/2L = 3 f1

f4 = v/λ4 = 2v/L = 4 f1

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

5

http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

14. Experimental set-up to determine stationary waves for air columns The closed end of a column is a displacement node where the particles cannot vibrate. The open end of a column is a displacement antinode because the air there is free to vibrate. Closed tube Let the fundamental frequency be f1. f1 = v/λ1 = v/4L, where v is the speed of the air in the tube. L = ¼1

This is the first overtone.

f2 = v/λ2 = 3v/4L = 3 f1 L = ¾ 2

This is the second overtone. f3 = v/λ3 = 5v/4L = 5 f1 L = 5/4 3

The frequencies of vibration in a closed tube are odd multiples of the fundamental frequency. Open tube Let the fundamental frequency be f1. f1 = v/λ1 = v/2L

L = ½ 1

Verify for yourselves that the frequencies of vibration in an open tube are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. 15.

Measurement of wavelength of sound using stationary waves through the resonance air tube method

Choose a frequency. Adjust the length of the tube until there is resonance – a loud sound will be heard. Adjust the length until the next loud sound is heard. The difference in length is equal to half a wavelength, i.e. λ = 2 (L2 – L1). Obtain the speed of sound from v = fλ.

Note that in this experiment, stationary waves are set up with a displacement node at the water surface and a displacement antinode at the open end of the tube.

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

GCE ‘A’ Level H2 Physics (Syllabus 9745)

6

http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Superposition Discussion Questions 1. Two loudspeakers S1 and S2 each emit sound of frequency 330 Hz uniformly in all directions. S1 has an acoustic output of 1.2 x 10-3 W while S2 has an acoustic output of 1.8 x 10-3 W. S1 and S2 vibrate in phase. A point P is 4 m from S1 and 3 m from S2. The speed of sound in air is 330 m s-1. (a) How are the phases of the two waves arriving at P related? (b) What is the intensity of sound at P with (1) S1 on alone, (2) S2 on alone, and [5.97 x 10-6 W m-2, 1.6 x 10-5 W m-2, 4.15 x 10-5 W m-2] (3) S1 and S2 both on.

S1

4m a) Phase Difference =

P

x 43 2 2 2 rad 1

The two waves are in phase

3m

S2

b) (1) S1 alone: I1

(2) S2 alone: I 2

P1 1.2 10 3 5.97 10 6 Wm-2 2 A1 4 (4)

P2 1.8 10 3 1.59 10 5 Wm-2 2 A2 4 (3)

(3) S1 and S2 ? We cannot add intensity, but can only add amplitude. This is because adding of intensity itself does NOT take into consideration the effects of superposition.

I 1 a1

2

I1 ka1

I 2 a2

2

I 2 ka2

aresultant = a1 + a2 =

I1 k I a2 2 k

2

a1

2

I1 I 2

Iresultant = karesultant2 = k (

H2 Physics - Mr Tan Kheng Siang

k I1 I 2 k

) 2 I1 I 2 2 I1 I 2 4.14 10 5 Wm-2

Hp: 9620 7426

Blog: http://h2jcphysicscafe.blogspot.com/

Email: [email protected] Copyright © 2009

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