Succinic Acid Production Plant

July 6, 2017 | Author: Hafiidz Malek | Category: Water Purification, Corrosion, Hydroxide, Carbon Dioxide, Sodium Carbonate
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Short Description

plant design...




























Process Description


Equipment Design


Economic Analysis


Environmental Considerations


Plant Layout


Summary & Conclusion







This plant has been designed to produce succinic acid and focused on all aspects that are important for the production of succinic acid. The plant is located at Bukit Minyak Free Industrial Zone, Penang and this report will explain thoroughly on the details about the variation of methods, process selection, the reaction being generated and the description on the production of succinic acid based on 1000 kg of raw material supplied. Basically, this project had chosen the fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens as the method of operation. This reaction will consume 100% pure carbon dioxide gas at 39 0C and absolute pressure of 1.013 bars. Product specification has been carried out and the result obtained at the end of the process is purified succinic acid. The environmental impact assessment, ways to control the pollution, the characteristics and the behaviour of the populace surrounding are also discussed in this report. This plant considers full safety of overall plant operations starting from the handling of raw materials until the recovery of final product. The product will be sold to local and foreign markets and being used as a raw material for other manufacturing purposes. 1.1

Product Description

Succinic acid is a white, odorless solid which categorized under dicarbolxylic acid and diprotic acid group. Succinic acid has a chemical formula of C 4H6O4 and molecular weight of 118.088 g/mol. Before this chemical is named as succinic acid, it is known as butanedioic acid. Succinic acid is under organic acid family and has a melting point of 185-188⁰C. This chemical is soluble in water, ehanol and diethyl ether while it is insoluble in chloroform and methylene chloride. Succinic acid could be applied in many different fields, such as chemical, food and medicine industry. In chemical industry, succinic acid is used in the productions of spray paint, dyes, ion exchange resin, pesticide and many more. In medicine industry, this chemical is used in the synthesis of sedative, diuretic, vitamin, contraceptive and cancer drugs. It is also used in foods as seasoning of wine, candy, feed, buffer, and a neutralizing agent.

Figure 1 Structure of succinic acid



Methods of Manufacturing Succinic Acid

Succinic acid can be manufactured by hydrogenation of maleic acid, maleic anhydride, or fumaric acid. This process produces good yields of succinic acid. Chemical compound 1, 4Butanediol can be oxidized to succinic acid in several ways. One of the means is by oxidizing 1, 4-Butanediol with oxygen gas in an aqueous solution of an alkaline-earth hydroxide at 90-110 ⁰C in the presence of Pd-C component. The second way is by ozonolysis of 1, 4-Butanediol in aqueous acetic acid or by applying the third way which is by reacting 1, 4-Butanediol with N 2O4 at low temperature. Succinic acid can also be obtained by phase-transfer-catalyzed reaction of 2-haloacetates, electrolytic dimerization of bromoacetic acid or ester, oxidation of 3-cyanopropanal, and fermentation of n-alkanes. Besides, succinic acid can also be derived from the fermentation of ammonium tartrate. 1.3

The Environmental and Exposure Effect of Succinic Acid

Succinic acid is a component of almost all plant and animal tissues as it is a normal secondary metabolite and involves in Kreb's cycle. If this chemical released into the atmosphere, succinic acid may exist in both the particle and vapor phases in the ambient atmosphere. Therefore, vapor-phase succinic acid will be degraded in the atmosphere by reaction with photochemicallyproduced hydroxyl radicals that has an estimated half-life of about 6 days. Particle phase succinic acid will be physically removed from the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition. If succinic acid is exposed to soil, the succinic acid is expected to have very high mobility in soil while if released into water, succinic acid may not adsorb the suspended solids and sediments present in the water. Besides, the potential for exposure of succinic acid into aquatic organisms is low. Therefore, hydrolysis will not result in crucial environmental effect since this compound lacks functional group that hydrolyzes under environmental conditions. Occupational exposure to succinic acid may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with this chemical at workplaces where succinic acid is produced or applied. Based on data from Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB), the data indicates that the general population may be exposed to succinic acid via inhalation of ambient air, ingestion of food and drinking water, and dermal contact with products containing succinic acid.



Exposure Standard and Regulations

This information is obtained from HDSB where these regulations are set by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 

Substance added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

Succinic acid used as a general purpose food additive in animal drugs, feeds, and related products is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice.

Succinic acid is a food additive permitted for direct addition to food for human consumption, as long as the quantity of the substance added to food does not exceed the amount reasonably required to accomplish its intended physical, nutritive, or other technical effect in food, and any substance intended for use in or on food is of appropriate food grade and is prepared and handled as a food ingredient.




The process start with the medium containing dextrose and corn liquor is charge into the reactor. Inside this reactor it is mix with the water and also nutrients. The solution is mix to make sure that the media is homogenized. After that, it is transfer out from the reactor to the heat sterilization to make sure that the media is no contaminated by other organisms. In this process as shown from the process design, we can see that the fermentation broth A. succiniciproducens is grown in a seed fermentor with a temperature of 39 oC and pressure 1 bar together with a medium containing dextrose, corn liquor, tryptophan, sodium ions, sodium carbonate and also carbon dioxide to produce succinate and also water. The byproduct and unreacted material from this seed fermentation is pump to the waste treatment for further treatment before dispose into the environment.

Figure 1: Diagram of Media Preparation and Inoculums Development The succinate and also water then enter the fermentation reactor where in this reactor the calcium oxide and carbon dioxide is charge in to produce calcium succinate. The calcium oxide is used as to neutralize the product which allowing the calcium succinate to precipitate. The stream 12 which contain calcium succinate, succinate and water enter the filtration process by


using microfiltration to removes the succinate. Inside the mircofiltration the filtrate is heated to 80oC to precipitate additional calcium succinate.

Figure 2: Diagram of Filtration Process The desired succinic acid product is recovered from the precipitated calcium succinate by acidification with sulfuric acid. In this process, gypsum or calcium sulfate is produce as the byproduct. This accidification of the calcium succinate is accomplished by slurrying the calcium succinate with water then with sulfuric acid to precipitate the calcium sulfate followed by a careful neutralization of the acid with calcium hydroxide.

Figure 3: Diagram of Acidification Process, Slurry Tank and Cation Exchanger After that, the process will enter the plate and frame filtration to removes the calcium sulfate from the succinic acid. The filtrate will contain only succinic acid, calcium succinate and also water. This filtrate product then enter the ion exchange for further purification which sodium


hydroxide and also hydrochloric acid is charge in the equipment to get the final product of succinic acid.


PROCESS DETAILS 1. Feed Stream Stream 1: 900 kg/batch fermentation broth Stream 2, 18, and 27: 100 kg/batch water Stream 3: 0.01 kg/batch nutrients Stream 6: 100 kg/ batch microorganisms Stream 7: 3018 kg/batch Carbon Dioxide Stream 10: 10 kg/batch Calcium Oxide Stream 21: 100 kg/ batch Sulfuric Acid Stream 23: 148.5 kg/batch Calcium Hydroxide Stream 31: 191.34 kg/batch Sodium Hydroxide Stream 30: 99.47 kg/batch Hydrochloric Acid Stream 33: 210.82 kg/batch Succinic Acid 2. Equipments 1. Seed Fermentation (SFR-101) 2. Fermentation (FR-101)

: Ferment the media to produce succinate : Do the fermentation process to produce calcium

succinate 3. Microfiltration (MF-101) 4. Vessel Procedure (R-101) (R-102)

: To filter the calcium succinate from succinate : To slurrying the calcium succinate with water : Slurrying and precipitate the calcium succinate

(R-103) Neutralization (V-101) P&F Filtration (PFF-101) Ion Exchange (INX-101) Heat Sterilization (ST-101) Fluid Flow ( PP-102) ( PM-101,102,103) 10. Mixing (MX-101) 11. Gate Valve ( GTV- 101,102) 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

with sulfuric acid : Media preparation : Neutralize the acidic condition : To remove gypsum/calcium sulfate : To recover purified succinic acid : To sterilize the media before inoculation : Pump the fluid. : Mix the by-product. : To prevent backflow.


Figure 4: Process Flow Diagram of the Production of Succinic Acid












CHEMICAL DESIGN In order to develop a commercially succinic acid by the batch fermentation, several

important fermentation and product purification criteria need to be accomplished. The fermentation of succinic acid should be able to produce higher yield production concentration by using inexpensive raw material and nutrients .The fermentation broth contains cells, proteins and unwanted materials. The efficient recovery and purification need to be considered for the production of higher concentration of succinic acid. 3.1.1

Material Balance The material balance is fundamental to the control of processing, particularly in the

control yield of the products. It is an important part in the process design. The first material balances are determined in the exploratory stages of a new process that improved during the pilot plant experiments. During the succinic acid production A.succiniproducens, were conducted in a low cost media that contain carbohydrates; dextrose (C 6H12O6), other nutrients, such as corn steep liquor; trytophan (C11H12N2O2) and water are used as a raw material with basis of raw material of succinic acid production is 1000 Kg/batch. The carbon dioxide is supply to ensure that the process in the anaerobically fermentation process. The law of conservation of mass leads to what is called a mass or a material balance:

Mass In = Mass Out + Mass Stored Raw Materials = Products + Wastes + Stored Materials

Table 3.1.1 below provides a summary of the overall material balances and figure 3.1.1 is the process flow diagram of our plant in producing succinic acid. Our final product will be the succinic acid. From the table below, dextrose will represent the fermentable carbohydrates in molasses. These quantities of these compounds depend on the chemistry of the recovery process and cannot be reduced without changing the recovery technology. The large amount of wastewater is worth noting.


COMPONENT A. succiniprodu









Ca Hydroxide














Carb. Dioxide










Corn Liquor










0.00 242.000 214.31 550.000 99.000






0.00 6.24 1.89

0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 2.78 0.85

0.00 3.46 1.05

0.00 0.00 0.00






0.00 0.00 0.00

0.01 0.00 0.00

0.01 4.40 214.31

0.00 0.00 0.00

Sulfuric Acid





Tryptophan Water TOTAL

0.00 0.00 8.13

0.00 1792.06 9506.29

0.00 2540.06 9508.85

0.00 0.00 5.57

0.00 4.40 214.31 99.000 0.00 748.00 0.00

Calcium succina CaOxide

Hydrochloric ac Na2CO3 Nitrogen Oxygen Sodium Hydroxide Sodium ions Succinate Succinic Acid

Table 3.1 Summary of the overall material balance


OUT-IN 99.000 99.000

3.1.2 Chemical Reaction

a) Seed Fermentaion P-2 / SFR-10 A chemical reaction occurs in the process fermentation is the inoculum development.For this unit procedures, the fermentation process of this invention is carried out at a temperature between about 25˚C and about 45˚C (Datta, Glassner et al. 1992). The optimum growth of the A. succinicproducens organism is about 39˚C (Datta, Glassner et al. 1992).The fermentation of this process is carried out under anaerobic conditions in a medium which has been strelized before by heat.In this reaction A.succiniproducens will act as Reaction-Limiting Components and we extent to achieved 99.00% from this reaction. The pH in this fermentor is adjusted to to 6.4 by adding 3M Na2CO3 (Datta, Glassner et al. 1992) .The overall stream seed fermentation mass is shown below: Table 3.2 The summary stream for the seed fermentation reactor. Stream Table Temperature (˚c) Pressure (bar) Vapor fraction Mass flowrate (kg/batch) Volumetric Flowrate (L/batch) Corn liquor dextrose A.succinicproducen Water Sodium ion Trytophan Na2co3 Carbon Dioxide Nitrogen Oxygen Succinate


6 7 INLET 25 25 25 10.116 1.013 1.013 0 3 3 1000.011 100 3081.723 1002.219 100.532 1713134 Component Flowrates (kg/batch) 585 315 100 100 0.0077 0.0011 0.0022 -



3081.723 -

8(a) 39 1.014 3 252 254.28

9 11(a) OUTLET 20 39 1.013 0.579 19 3 2841.15 1090 1553493 1101.454

35 216 1 -

0.0077 0.0011

650 -


0.0022 2839.141 1.53269 0.46529 -


Mass Balance at SuperPro

18 A. Succiniproducens + 44 Carbon Dioxide + 100 Corn Liquor + 18 Dextrose → 80 Succinate + 100 Water.

Calculated Mass Balance

Corn liquor+ Dextrose+ Biomass + Na+ + Trytophan + Na2CO3 + Co2 + water Na+ + Trytophan + Na2CO3 + CO2 + N2 + O2 + H2O+ Succinate + Corn liquor + Dextrose+ Biomass

585 kg/batch + 315 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch + 0.0077 kg/batch + 0.0011kg/batch+ 0.0022g/batch+ 3081.723 kg/batch +100 kg/batch

0.0077 kg/batch + 0.0011 kg/batch +

0.0022 kg/batch + 2839.141 kg/batch + 1.53269 kg/batch + 0.46529kg/batch +650 kg/batch + 440 kg/batch+35 kg/batch +216 kg/batch + 1 kg/batch

Mass In = Mass Out

4181.734 kg/batch

4181.734 kg/batch


b) Fermentation P-1 / FR-10

A.succiniciproducens fermentations of carbohydrate (dextrose) were conducted in batch fermentors.For this unit procedures, succinate will act as Reaction-Limiting Components and we extent to achieved 99.00% from this reaction. In this process carbohydrate that containing substrate is fermented with succinate.Table shows the summary stream for the fermentor reactor.

Table 3.3 The summary stream for the fermentation reactor. Stream Table


Temperature (˚c) Pressure (bar) Vapor fraction

39.01 1.529 3

13 INLET 25 1.013 3 3083.19 4

10 25 1.013 3

Mass flowrate (kg/batch) 1090 10 Volumetric Flowrate 1101.45 (L/batch) 8 1713952 3.448 Component Flowrates (kg/batch) Water 650 Nitrogen Oxygen 3083.19 Carbon Dioxide 4 Carbon Oxide 10 Calcium succinate Succinate 440 -

12(a) 14 OUTLET 39 20 1.014 1.013 3 19 3094.34 1090 2 1101.45 4 1690594 650 435.6 4.4

Mass Balance at SuperPro

The fermentation mass stoichiometry (reaction) is as shown below: 56.00 Succinate → 56.00 Calcium Succinate


1.24916 0.37922 3082.71 4 10 -

Calculated Mass Balance

Water + Succinate+ CO2 + CO

Water + Calcium Succinate+ Succinate+N2 + O2 + CO2 + CO

650 kg/batch + 440 kg/batch + 3083.194 kg/batch + 10 kg/batch 650 kg/batch + 435.6 kg/batch + 4.4 kg/batch +1.24916 kg/batch + 0.37922 kg/batch + 3082.714 kg/batch +10 kg /batch

mass in = mass out

4182.94 kg/batch

4184.3438 kg/batch

* The mass balance is not equal maybe due to the presence of side reaction inside the reactor


c) Vessel Procedure P-5 / R-102

The desired succinic acid product is recovered from the precipitated calcium succinate by the acidification with the sulphuric acid followed by filtration to remove the calcium sulfate which precipitate.The fermentation mass stoichiometry (reaction) is as shown below: Table 3.4 The summary stream for the vessel reactor (acidification process). Stream Table



Temperature (˚c) 37.81 25 Pressure (bar) 10.605 1.013 Vapor fraction 3 3 Mass flowrate (kg/batch) 1178.99 100 Volumetric Flowrate (L/batch) 1190.856 54.687 Component Flowrates (kg/batch) succinic acid Water 746.0422 CaSO4 Sulphuric acid 100 Calcium succinate 432.9477 -

22 OUTLET 37.45 4.319 3 1278.99 1046.394 214.3091 746.0422 214.3091 100 4.3294

Mass Balance at SuperPro 100.00 Calcium Succinate → 50.00 CaSO4 Succinic Acid For this unit procedures, calcium succinate will act as Reaction-Limiting Components and the extent to achieve is 99.00% from this reaction.


Calculated Mass Balance

Water + Calcium succinate + Sulphuric acid → Succinic acid + Water + CaSO4 + Calcium succinate + Sulphuric acid

746.0422 kg/batch + 432.9477 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch → 214.3091 kg/batch + 746.0422 kg/batch + 4.3294 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch + 214.3091 kg/batch

mass in = mass out

1278.9899 kg/batch

1278.9899 kg/batch



Adding excess of sulfuric acid in the (P-5/R-102) vessel procedure is followed by the neutralization of the excess acid with 148.5 kg/batch calcium hydroxide. Thus ,the stream, than goes to the filtration at (P-6/PFF-101) to filtrate any unwanted succinic acid at the filter cake with the 100 kg/batch of hot water .The succinic acid aqueous also contain some cation and anions ,thus its use ion exchanger to stabilize the charge ions without removing the succinic acid .The succinic acid production in the ion-exchange (P-9/INX) is 210.819 kg/batch with the volumetric flow is 152.826 L/batch.The fermentation mass stoichiometry (reaction) in the neutralization process is as shown below: Table 3.5 The summary stream for the vessel reactor (Neutralization process) Stream Table



24 25 OUTLET 35.68 25 1.013 1.013 3 0 1427.49 0 1212.55 4 0

INLET Temperature (˚c) 37.45 25 Pressure (bar) 4.319 1.013 Vapor fraction 3 3 Mass flowrate (kg/batch) 1278.99 148.5 Volumetric Flowrate 1046.39 (L/batch) 4 63747 Component Flowrates (kg/batch) 214.309 214.309 succinic acid 1 1 746.042 944.042 Water 2 2 Calcium succinate 4.3294 4.32948 Succinate Sulphuric acid 100 1 214.309 214.309 CaSO4 1 1 Calcium Hydroxide 148.95 49.5


Mass Balance at SuperPro 50.00 Calcium Hydoxide + 50.00 Sulfuric Acid → 100.00 Water


Calculated Mass Balance Succinic acid + water + Calcium Succinate + Sulphuric Acid + CaSO4 + Calcium Hydroxide Succinic Acid + Water + Calcium Succinate + Sulphuric Acid + CaSO4 + Calcium Hydroxide

214.3091 kg/batch + 746.0422 kg/batch + 4.3294 kg/batch + 100 kg/batch + 214.3091 kg/batch + 148.95 → 214.3091 kg/batch + 944.0422 kg/batch + 4.32948 kg/batch + 1 kg/batch + 214.3091 kg/batch + 49.5 kg/batch

mass in = mass out

1427.9398 kg/batch

1427.9398 kg/batch






This chapter covers the mechanical design of the succinic plant production. The purpose of this chapter is to detail out the design information of major equipment used in the bioproduction of succinic acid. The summary of the design information of the equipment are tabulated. They include the parameter of equipment sizing and mechanical design of major equipment. 3.2.2

Mechanical Design of Fermentor

Sample Calculation Design Pressure The seed fermentor will designed based on maximum operating pressure. The design pressure that will be used is in 5%-10% range above the maximum operating pressure. For safety purpose, the design pressure 10% above the maximum operating pressure was used. The process flow was designed using SuperPro Designer and equipment report stated that the design pressure that was used for fermentor is 1.52 bar. Pdesign = 1.52 bar X 0.1N/mm2 = 0.152 N/mm2 1 bar Design Temperature The design temperature of the equipment depends on the temperature of the material used in the process. The design temperature is chosen 10% above the maximum operating temperature to avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets and for safety reasons. Operating temperature = 39°C Design temperature = 1.1 x 39°C = 42.9 °C

25 Material Used The material of construction of the fermentor was chosen to be Stainless Steel 316 (SS316). The chemical composition of SS316 includes 16% chromium, 10% nickel and 2% molybdenum (Anderson, 2012).The construction of fermentor should implemented the usage of materials that is anti-corrosive as the metal part in fermentor will corrode due to the varying pH levels and salinity of medium contained in the fermentor for long-term usage (Manjady, 2013). SS316 gives better overall resistant corrosion in chloride environment compared to other stainless steel material used for bioreactor construction (Atlas Steels Australia, 2013). In addition, SS316 also a heat resistance material and it can withstand high temperature condition especially during sterilization process. Maximum Allowable Stress Table










(Sinnott&Towler,2009). Design temperature = 42.9°C X 9/5 + 32

= 109.22°F

Based on Table 3.2, using interpolation; Maximum allowable stress at 109.22°F = 19.80ksi X 6.8948 N/mm2 = 136.52 N/mm2 1ksi At 42.9°C, the maximum allowable stress is 136.52 N/mm2 Welded-Joint Efficiency 26

The joint efficiency that is chosen was 1.0. The type of welds used for this joint efficiency is double-welded butt joints. This joint efficiency is selected because the strength of the joint will be as strong as the virgin plate and the risks can be reduce as any possible defects are cutting out and reconstructed (Sinnott&Towler, 2009). Corrosion Allowance Corrosion allowance is defined as the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material lost by corrosion, erosion or scaling (Sinnott&Towler, 2009). The estimation of corrosion allowances cannot be specified for all conditions as corrosion itself is a complex phenomenon. Moreover, corrosion allowances may also be neglected if there is past experience regarding the same design of reactor that proves or shown no corrosion that occurred. For this fermentor, there is no corrosion allowance that will be used as Stainless Steel 316 has superior corrosion resistance. Minimum Wall Thickness The determination of minimum wall thickness is essential as it will clarify whether the reactor can withstand its own weight and the weight of additional loads. For a cylindrical shell, the minimum wall thickness that is required to withstand the internal pressure during the production of succinic acid can be calculated using the following equation: From ASME BPV Code Sect. VIII D.I. Part UG-27; tdesign =


Pi x Di 2 fJ−1.2 Pi

t = Thickness (mm) f = Maximum Allowable Stress (N/mm2) J =Joint Efficiency Di = Diameter (mm)

Pi = Internal Pressure (N/ mm2)




Pi x Di 2 fJ−1.2 Pi

( 0.152 N /mm2 )( 840 mm) N 0.152 N = 0.468 mm 2 136.52 (1.0)−1.2( ) mm 2 mm 2



Wall thickness = 0.468 mm~1mm A much thicker wall is needed at the base of the vessel to enable the vessel to tolerate wind and dead-weight loads. As a trial, the column is divided into five equal sections and the wall thickness is increased by 1mm as the section further downwards as shown in Figure 3.2.

1.0mm 2.0mm 3.0mm 4.0mm 5.0mm

Figure 3.2: Cross sectional view of design vessel. tavg = (1+2+3+4+5)mm = 3mm 5 Heads and Closures The ends of cylindrical vessels are closed by heads as shown in Table 3.3. According to Sinnott&Towler (2009), there are four principals types of heads used in industry. There are:    

Flat plates and formed flat heads Hemispherical heads Ellipsoidal heads Torispherical heads

The standard torispherical heads was chosen to be used as the head of the fermentor as it is the most commonly used closure for equipment that operating at pressure less than 15bar. This


process only used operating pressure of 1.52bar. The minimum thickness of torispherical head was calculated as follows: Flat plates and Hemispherical




flat heads

Torispherical heads

heads Diagram


 Covers for manways  The channel

Head closure for high pressure vessels

covers of heat Shape


exchangers ‘Flange-only’



Optimum thickness Major and minor

Knuckle to crown

ratio = 7/17


Require plates


thick 



shape Capable

or 

pressures large

head, Domed head,


Domed head,

axis ratio = 2:1

0.06 of Capable

strongest Capable withstand


of pressure twice 15bar.

ratio of

> resisting

the pressure up to 15bar. above

the pressure of a


torispherical head Price



same thickness Expensive



than Cheap yet the price will





as of



pressure. Minimum thickness


CPi fJ


PiDi 4 f −1.2 Pi



PiDi 2 fJ−0.2 Pi


PiRcCs 2 fJ+ Pi (Cs−0.2)

Table 3.3: Comparison of head types (Sinnott&Towler, 2009) Rc = Di = 840mm Rk = 6% of Rc = 6/100 X 840mm = 50.4mm Cs = ¼ (3 + √(Rc/Rk)) = ¼ [ 3+ √(840mm/50.4mm)] = 1.77


PiRcCs 2 fJ+ Pi (Cs−0.2)

0.152 N )(840 mm)(1.77) mm 2 t= 0.152 N 2( 136.52 N /mm 2)(1.0)+( )( 1.77−0.2) mm2 (

t=0.83 mm

*Flat plates and formed flat heads;C= a design constant, depends on the edge constraint; De= nominal plate diameter (L); f= maximum allowable stress (ML -1T-2); J= joint efficiency; Hemispherical Heads& Ellipsoidal Heads: Pi= internal pressure(ML-1T-2); Di= internal diameter (L);Torispherical Heads; Rc= crown radius(L); Cs= stress concentration factor for torispherical heads=1/4(3+√Rc/Rk) Total Height of Fermentor




Figure 3.3: Torispherical heads (Types of Vessel Head, 2013).

The height of the dome is equal to the crown radius. Therefore, Height of dome = 840mm Total height of fermentor = Height of cylindrical vessel + 2(Height of dome) = 2.51m + 2(0.84m) = 4.19m

Weight loads

According to Sinnott&Towler (2009), there are five major sources of loads. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Pressure Dead weight of vessel and contents Wind Earthquake External loads due to piping and attached equipment

However, this process will neglect one source of loads that is earthquake. Earthquake loads can be neglected as there is no earthquake ever occurs in Malaysia.

Dead weight of vessel

Vessel weight According to Sinnott&Towler (2009), the approximate weight of cylindrical vessel with domed heads for steel vessel can be calculated by using equation as stated below; Wv = 240 CvDm(Hv + 0.8Dm)t Where;

Wv = Total weight of shell, excluding internal fittings Cv = A factor to account for the weight of nozzles, manways, internal supports, etc; which can be taken as = 1.08 for vessels with few internal fittings = 1.15 for distillation columns, or similar vessels. Dm = Mean diameter of the vessel = (Di + (t X 10-3)(m) Hv = Length of cylindrical section (m) t = Wall thickness(mm) 31

Dm = Di + (t X 10-3) = 840mm + 3mm = 843mm = 0.843m Wv = 240 CvDm(Hv + 0.8Dm)t = 240 (1.15)(0.843m)[2.51m + 0.8(0.843m)](3X10-3m) = 2.22kN Weight of insulation material Insulation material = Mineral Wool Density

= 130 kg/m3


= 50mm (assume)

Volume of insulation material = п X 0.84m X 2.51m X (50X10-3m) = 0.33m3 Load due to weight of insulation material = ρVg = (130kg/m3)(0.33m3)(9.81m/s2) = 0.42kN 1000 The total weight of insulation material needs to be double to cater for insulation fittings. Total load due to weight of insulation material = 0.42kN X 2 = 0.84kN

Total dead weight of the vessel = Vessel weight + Total load due to weight of insulation material = (2.22 + 0.84)kN = 3.06kN

Wind load

The local wind speed at Bukit Minyak Industrial Zone, Penang is 15mph (24.14km/h). Area of the vessel that projected to wind = 2ᴫ r h = 2ᴫ (0.42m)(2.51m) = 6.62m2 Wind pressure, Psf=( ½ x ρair x v2wind x Cd)/A = [½ x 1.25kg/m3 x (6.706m/s)2 x 0.8] 13.25m2 32

= 1.70N/m2 Mean diameter of vessel = 0.84m + 2(0.003m + 0.05m) = 0.946m Loading per linear meters, Fw = 1.70N/m2 x 0.946m = 1.61 N/m Bending moment at the bottom of the vessel; Mx = Fw Hv2/2 = [1.61N/m x (2.51m)2]/2 = 5.07N.m

Analysis of stress

Circumferential stress

h 

PDi (0.152 N / mm 2 )(840mm)   12.77 N / mm 2 2t 2(5mm)

Longitudinal stress

(0.152 N / mm 2 )(840mm)  6.38 N / mm 2 4(5mm)

PDi L  4t =

Dead weight stress

3.06  10 3 N  0.23 N / mm 2  (840mm  5mm)5mm

Wv  ( Di  t )t

w =


σwis a compressive stress and has a negative magnitude.

Bending stress Do= 840 mm + 2(5mm) = 850mm


b  

M  Di 5070 Nmm  840mm   t    5mm  0.0018 N / mm 2  9 4  I  2 2 1.18  10 mm    I = ᴫ/64 (Do4-Di4) =

ᴫ/64 [8504-8404] mm4= 1.18x109mm4

  L   w   b  (6.38  (0.23)  0.0018) N / mm 2  6.1518 N / mm 2

Resultant longitudinal stress

Upwind stress

  L   w   b  (6.38  (0.23)  0.0018) N / mm 2  6.1482 N / mm 2 Downwind stress 12.77N/mm2

σh=6.152 N/mm2


σh=6.152 σh=6.148 N/mm2 N/mm2

Upwind stress = (12.77 – 6.152)N/mm2

σh=6.148 N/mm2

Downwind stress = (12.77 – 6.148)N/mm2

= 6.618N/mm2

= 6.622N/mm2



Criteria 1 The maximum allowable design stress for SS316 at 42.9°C is 136.52N/mm 2. Both upwind and downwind stresses are below the maximum allowable stress for SS316 material. Therefore, it is safe to specify the wall thickness to be 5mm for the bottom-most part of the vessel. Criteria 2


t  Do

 cbs  2  10 4 

 

  2  10 4 

5mm  2   117.65 N / mm 850 mm   Critical bending stress, σcbs

  w   b  (0.23  0.0018) N / mm 2  0..2318 N / mm 2 Maximum compressive stress

Therefore, maximum compressive stress is less than the critical bending stress. The column will NOT buckle under wind load and dead loads.

Vessel support

According to Sinnott &Towler (2009), the notable criteria that must be observe in order to choose the method to support the vessel are size, shape and weight of the vessel; the design temperature and pressure; the location and arrangement of the vessel and internal and external fittings and the accessories of the vessel. Normally, saddle support is used for horizontal vessel while skirt support is suitable to be used for vertical vessel. The design of the thickness of the skirt must be sufficient to ensure that the skirt is able to withstand the dead-weight loads and bending moment with the exclusion of vessel pressure that subjected to the vessel. For the design of fermentor in this process, the material of construction of the skirt material is plain carbon steel using straight skirt support for the vessel.

Properties of skirt support

Type: Straight skirt support (s = 90) Material of construction: Plain carbon steel Conditions: Ambient temperature and pressure Maximum Allowable Design Stress (plain carbon steel) = 130 N/mm2 Modulus of elasticity, E = 200,000 N/mm2 Skirt support diameter, Ds = Di = 0.84 m


Refer to Figure 13.23(Sinnott&Towler, 2009), by interpolation; Skirt support height = 0.60m As a first trial, the skirt thickness was taken as the same as the bottom section of the vessel, 11mm. Bending moment at the base of the skirt

1 1 Mx  Wx 2  (1.62 N / m)( 2.51  0.60) 2 m 2  7.83 Nm 2 2

The maximum dead weight of vessel

  (0.84m) 2  2.51m  1000kg / m 3  9.81m / s 2  13.65kN 4 Weight of water in vessel = The maximum dead weight of vessel = (3.06+ 13.65)kN = 16.71kN

4M x  ( Ds  t sR )t sR Ds Bending stress in the skirt,  bs =

4(7.83  10 3 Nmm)  (840mm  5mm)(5mm)(840mm) = =



Dead weight stress in skirt, σ

 ws (test ) 

Wtotal  ( Ds  t sR )t SR


16.71  10 3 N  (840mm  5mm)5mm = 1.26N/mm²

 ws (operating ) 

Wv  ( Ds  t sR )t SR

3.06  10 3 N    840mm  5mm 5mm = 0.23N/mm² σs(compression) = σbs + σws(test) = 0.0028N/mm2+1.26N/mm2 = 1.2628N/mm2 σs(tensile) = σbs -σws(operating) = 0.0028N/mm2-0.23N/mm2 = -0.2272N/mm2 The skirt thickness should not exceed the following design criteria: Assume J=1; Criteria 1 s (tensile)


fJ sin s

0.2272N/mm2< 130 (1)( sin 90) 0.2272N/mm2< 130 N/mm2 Criteria 2 s (compression) < 0.125 E (tsR/ Ds) sin  1.2628N/mm2< 0.125(200,000N/mm2)(5mm/840mm)(sin 90°) 1.2628N/mm2 0.0063 m If FP, vessel is less than 1 (corresponding to t


< 0.0063 m), then FP, vessel = 1. For pressure less

than -0.5 barg, FP, vessel = 1.25. This equation is strictly true for case when thickness of the vessel wall is less than ¼ D, vessel in the range D= 0.3 to 0.4. 4.2.3

Pressure Factors for other Process Equipment 2

log 10 F P=C 1+C 2 log 10 P+C 3 (log 10 P)

Bare Module and Material Factors for Heat Exchangers, Process Vessels and Pumps o


C BM =C P F BM =C P (B1 + B2 F M F P ) The value of the constants B1 and B2 are given in Table A.4. in Appendix A in Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, Richard Turton. Table A.5 shows the Equation for Bare Module Cost for Equipment Not covered by Table A.3 and A.4. 4.2.4

Effect of time on Purchased Equipment Cost

To relate the price of equipment from previous year to the current or present year can be calculated as follows: 51

C2 =C1

I2 I1


C = Purchased cost

I = cost index n

= 1.18

∑ C BM ,i









Sample calculation:Reactor Diameter

= 0.88 m


= 2.19 m


= Stainless steel (SS316)


= 1.0 bar = 0.0 barg

Purchased Equipment Cost, C0p From Table A.1, Equipment






Jacketed agitated

= (π /4) D2 H = (π /4) x (0.88)2 x (2.19) = 1.33 m3 = 1.4 m3

log10 Cp0

= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2 = 4.1052 - 0.4680 (log10 1.4) - 0.0005 (log10 1.4)2 = 4.14


= $13733.21 52









Volume, m3

= $13800

From Table A.3 Equipment type

Equipment Description

Bare Module factor, FM


Jacketed agitator


Bare Module Cost, CBM CBM = C0p FBM = $13800 (7.892) = $108382.5462 C1 = CBM = $108400 C2

= C1 (I2/I1) = $108400 (575.4/394) = $158282.5307



Fixed capital investment, CTM n

∑ C BM ,i


= 1.18


=1.18 ($2072648.713)


= $2445725.481 CTM

= $2446000


Capacit y

Cp˚ ($)


FM 53



CBM ($)

CBM˚ ($)

CE (2









Reactor/Ves sel


























7892.2348 48 7892.2348 48 7892.2348 48 13733.216 7 12385.953 3 12385.953 3 12385.953 3 11410.936 49 40864.187 3 7891.3600 12 66680.676 92 59269.161 75 21867.448 07





















































75.055 4



Table 1: Estimation of Capital Cost


39421.713 07 39421.713 07 39421.713 07

* * *

3 3942



108382.54 62 97749.943 46 97749.943 46 97749.943 46 90055.110 75 368611.31 52 32117.835 25

32117.835 25


271390.35 51

271390.35 51


97794.116 89 39361.406 52 1419227.6 55

* * * * * *

* * 303508.19 04












In order to estimate the manufacturing cost, the information that provided on the PFD, an estimate of the fixed capital investment and an estimate the number of operator required to operate the plant. There are many factors that will influence the cost manufacturing chemicals. 4.3.1

Factors Affecting the Manufacturing Cost 1. Direct manufacturing costs - It is represent the operating expenses that vary the production rate. The manufacturing cost related to the demand of the product. 2. Fixed manufacturing costs - Do not effect by the level of the production. It depends of the changes in production rate such as property taxes, insurance and depreciation. 3. General Expenses - The cost related the management level and administrative activities. It not directly related to the manufacturing process Direct Cost -raw material

Fixed Cost -property taxes

General Expenses -administration cost

- waste treatment






-operating labor

-Plant overhead cost

-operating supplies Table 2: Factors Affecting the Manufacturing Cost Cost of Manufacturing 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Fixed capital investment(FCI) Cost of operating labor(COL) Cost of utilities( CUT) Cost of waste treatment(CWT) Cost of materials(CRM)

Cost of Manufacture (COM): Direct Manufacturing 55 Costs (DMC) + Fixed Manufacturing Costs (FMC) + General Expenses (GE)

With depreciation:

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT + CWT + CRM)

Without depreciation:



= 0.180FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CUT +

Fixed Cost Investment Based on the calculation of the fixed cost investment, Fixed investment cost, FCI @ CTM = 2446000 n

CTM =1.18

∑ CBM , i i=1

CTM = 1.18(2073000) CTM= $ 2446000 Stream Factor In order to calculate the yearly cost of raw materials or utilities, the fraction time that the plant is operating in a year must be known. This fraction known as the stream factor where,

Stream factor, f =

number of day operate 365

*The value of factor in range of 0.96 to 0.90. Based on the number of day operate = 330 days

330 Stream Factors, f = 365


= 0.9041 4.3.2

Cost Operating Labor, COL

In order to estimate the cost operating labor, the average hourly wage of an operator is required. The cost of labor is broken into direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include wages for the employees physically making a product, like workers on an assembly line. Indirect costs are associated with support labor, such as employees that maintain factory equipment but don't operate the machines themselves. When manufacturers set the price of a good they take the cost of labor into account. This is because they need to charge more than that good's total cost of production. If demand for a good drops or the price consumers are willing to pay for the good falls, companies must adjust their cost of labor to remain profitable. They can reduce the number of employees, cut back on production, require higher levels of productivity, reduce indirect labor costs or reduce other factors in the cost of production. The technique used to estimate operating labor requirements is based on data obtained from five chemical companies and correlated by Alkayat andGerrard. Based on the Alkahayat and Gerrard method:

COL = f × NOL × annual salary

NOL = (6.29 + 31.7P2 + 0.23Nnp) 0.5 *When refer to the equation: NOL = Number of operator shifts P = Number of processing steps involving particulate solids Nnp = Number of non-particulate processing steps

Based on the Alkahayat and Gerrard method: *Estimation of operating labor requirements for the succinic acid process using the equipment module approach: 57

Equipment Type Vessels

Number of Equipment 1

Nnp -















Heater 1 1 *Pumps, valves and vessels are not counted in evaluating Nnp Table 3: Estimation of Operating Labor Requirement for Succinic Acid Process Therefore, the total Nnp= 5 + 3 + 1 + 1 = 10 Number of operator needed for one equipment Salary Per Month Operator

= $1500


= $4500

Assistant Manager

= $3000

Engineer = $4000 Table 4: Total Salary/Month

Assumptions to estimate the cost operating: Working day for 1 operator

= 4 shift per operator per days

Plant operates

= 3 Shift per day

Plant running


Operation hour

24 hours per day

= 330 days per year × 24 hour = 7920 hours per year

1 year

= 47 weeks per year

1 year

= 330 days per year

Maintenance Table 5: Assumptions to Estimate The Cost Operating

= 5 weeks per year


Therefore, the number of operators per shift, NOL NOL = (6.29 + 31.7P2 + 0.23Nnp) 0.5 NOL = (6.29 + 31.7(1)2 + 0.23 (10))0.5 NOL= 6.34 operator per shift For number of plant operating 330 days/year×3 shift/days = 990 shift/year For single worker 330 days/ year ×1 weeks/day=47 week/year Thus, 47 weeks/year× 4 shift operator per week =188 shift per operator per year Thus,


990 shift year


operater 188 shift

=5.27 per operator Hence operating labor = FOL× Number of operator per shift = 5.81× 6.34 =36.8~ 37 Cost of operating labor, COL = FOL×Labor salary = 37 × 13000 = $ 48100



Cost of utilities, CUT

Basically, the costs of utilities are directly influenced by cost of a fuel. The cost also related to the direct impact of fuel gas, oil, coal, electric power, steam, cooling water, process water, boiler feed water, instrument air, inert gas and refrigeration costs. To determine the utility cost can be quite complicated and the true cost of such streams is often difficult to estimate in a large facility. For the approach, assume the capital investment is required to build a facility to supply the utility. Therefore,the method used to estimate operating labor requirements is based on data obtained from five chemical companies and correlated by Alkayat andGerrard. By using Alkahayat and Gerrard method: Pump utility cost Electric power=(Output Power)/Efficiency

Once the electrical power is being calculated the yearly cost is being calculated. Incremental Economic analysis The calculated overall utilities cost is then must be adjusted to corresponding total operating cost for the assumed of the life of the plant which in our case is 10 years. This is done through the incremental economic analysis. This is due to the fact that the utility cost of each year remains constant even though inflation continues to rise over time. Assume that the discount rate is 7%. The analysis can be evaluated from:

P/A= ([(1+i)]n-1) / (i [(1+i)]n ) Where:

I = discount rate n = no. of years

The calculated value is then multiplied by the yearly cost to obtain the accumulated cost over the 10 years period of time.


Pump Shaft work = 0.01 kW Utility


Cost $/GJ

Cost $/ Common Unit

Electrical substation Electric distribution 110 V 220 V 440 V 16.8 $0.06 kWh Table 6: Data of Pump Utility Assume that the efficiency of 90%,

Electrical power =

output power efficiency

Electrical power

= 0.01/ 0.9 = 0.011

Therefore, yearly cost for electrical substation = 0.011×0.06×24×365×0.9041 = $ 5.227


Slurry Tank Utility DescriptionCost $/GJ

Cost $/ Common Unit

Other Water High purity water a. Process use b. Boiler feed water(available at 115◦C) c. Potable (drinking) d. Deionized water Table 7: Data of Slurry Tank Utility Based on the equation,

Ca Cb


Aa Ab


Cb =

649 100

× 0.067

Cb = $0.043/1000kg Hence, the yearly cost for other water =0.043 × 24 × 365 × 0.9041 = $340.56


$0.067/1000kg $2.45/1000kg $0.26/1000kg $1.00/1000kg

Mixing Utility


Cost $/GJ

Waste water

a. primary(filtration) $41/1000m3


b. Secondary (filtration + activated

Cost $/ Common Unit

$43/1000m 3

sludge $56/1000m 3

c. Tertiary ( Filtration, activated sludge and chemical processing) Table 8: Data of Mixing Utility Thus,

Cb =

293.010 1000

× 56

Cb = $16.41/1000kg Hence, the yearly cost for other water =16.41 × 24 × 365 × 0.9041 = $ 129965.82 Therefore, total utility cost, CUT = $ 5.227 + $340.56 + $ 129965.82 = $130311.61 Discount rate for the 10 years period with assumption of 7% discount rate

(1+i)n−1 = i(1+i)n



(1+0.07)10−1 0.07(1+0.07)10 = 7.0235


Thus, yearly cost accumulated cost over 10 year period, CUT = $130311.61 × 7.0235 CUT = $915243.6 4.3.4

Waste treatment cost, CWT

When dealing with chemical it related to treat the waste and by-product being produced from the process. As environmental regulations continue to tighten, the problems and costs associated with the treatment of waste chemical streams will increase. In recent years there has been a trend to try to reduce or eliminate the volume of these streams through waste minimization strategies. Nowadays, it has be create a strategies involve utilizing alternative process technology or using additional recovery steps in order to reduce or eliminate waste streams. Although waste minimization will become increasingly important in the future, the need to treat waste streams will continue. The calculation of this cost should be done with extreme caution

Production of waste = 1,602,583 kg/year

Utility Description

Cost $/GJ

Waste Solid Waste Gaseous

Cost $/ Common Unit



Table 9: Cost of Waste Treatment Utility Waste treatment cost, CWT = 1,602,583 kg/year× 200 /1000 = $ 320,516.6



Raw material cost, CRW

It is important to estimate the raw material cost according to the current price in industry. Raw material cost is a cost of material or substance used in the primary production or manufacturing of a good. The assessment of raw material cost and the estimation of the potential market size clearly indicate that thecurrent petroleum-based succinic acid process will be replaced by the fermentative succinic acid production system in the foreseeable future. The raw materials cost can be calculated by multiplying the amount produce per year with the cost per unit weight.Succinic acid could well become an important raw material for the plastics industry if it is possible to produce the acid biotechnologically and cost-effectively.Succinic acid, an intermediate product in the metabolism of many organisms, could become an interesting alternative for the petrol-based production of 1, 4-butanediol. New biotechnological methods could considerably increase the appeal of this biomolecule if they turn out to be more economical than traditional methods. Therefore, it is important to determine the cost material to know the currently price that profitable to the process. Material

Mass flow rate tonne/year

Unit Cost($)

A. Succiniproducens



Calcium Hydroxide



Calcium Oxide



Carbon Dioxide



Corn Liquor






Hydrochloric acid










Sodium Hydroxide Sodium ions(intermediate) Sulfuric Acid








25 per month 65

Table 10: Cost of Raw Materials and Chemicals

A.succiniproducens: CRW

= 2.7×259 ×0.9041 = $ 632.24 per year

Calcium Hydroxide:


= 40.1 × 40 × 0.9041 = $ 1450.18 per year

Calcium Oxide:


= 2.7 × 0.9 × 0.9041 = $ 2.20 per year

Carbon Dioxide:


= 1664.53 × 12.01 × 0.9041 = $ 18073.87per year

Corn Liquor:


= 157.95 × 0.00093 × 0.9041 = $ 0.133 per year



= 85.05 × 2 × 0.9041 = $ 153.79 per year

Hydrochloric acid:


= 26.86 × 0.095 × 0.9041 = $ 2.306 per year



= 0.00059× 180 × 0.9041 = $ 0.096 per year

Sodium Hydroxide:


= 51.66 ×18.36 × 0.9041 = $ 857.52 per year

Sodium ions:


= 0 per year (because form intermediate)


Sulfuric Acid:


= 27 × 0.090 × 0.9041 = $ 2.196per year



= 0.0003× 1 × 0.9041 = $ 0.00027 per year



= 483.86 × 2.083 × 0.9041 = $ 911.216 per year

Therefore, total material cost, CRWt

= $ 632.24 per year + $ 1450.18per year + $ 2.20 per year + $18073.87 per year + $ 0.133 per year + $153.79 per year + $ 2.306 per year + $ 0.096 per year + $ 857.52 per year + $ 2.196 per year + $ 0.00027per year + $ 911.216 per year = $ 22085.75per year



Cost of Manufacturing, COM

*With depreciation

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23 (CUT +CWT + CRM)


=0.280($ 2446000)+2.73($48100)+1.23($130311.61+ $320,516.6+ $ 22085.75) =$ 1397877

*Without depreciation

COMd =0.180FCl + 2.73COL+ 1.23(CUT+CWT+ CRM) COMd = 0.180($ 2446000)+2.73($48100)+ 1.23($130311.61+$320,516.6+$ 22085.75) =$ 1153277




Break even analysis must be determined to get the minimum production of succinic acid that required to cover back our production cost. Break even analysis is done by calculating fixed cost, unit selling, price and variable cost with particular reference to the break-even point, to show the effect on break-even point changes. This requires an estimation of fixed costs (FC), variable cost (VC) and total revenues (TR). [Sources: Chemical Engineering Design, Fourth Edition by R.K. Sinnott]

Breakeven Point = Fixed Operating Costs/ (Unit Selling Price - Variable Costs)


Fixed cost (FC)

Fixed cost (FC) is the costs that do not vary with the production rate. This type of cost is actually all the bills that need to be paid throughout the entire plant operation. Such examples are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Maintenance Operating labor Supervision Laboratory cost Plant overheads Capital changes Rates (and any other taxes) Insurance License fees & royalty payments

Fixed cost (FC) can be calculated by this formula

Fixed cost, FC= QT × f Where:

QT = Total plant operating per year 69

f = Fixed cost per tonne

Total plant operating per year, QT =

7 operator × shift

1029 shift year

QT = 7203 operator per year

Total mass flow rate = 2.7 + 40.1+ 2.7 + 1664.53 + 157.95 + 85.05 + 26.857 + 0.00059 + 51.66 + 0.002 + 1 + 27 + 0.0003 + 483.86 = 2543.41 kg per year = 2 .5434 tonne per year

Fixed cost per tonne, f =

year $ 22085.75 × 2.5434 tonne year

f = $ 8683.55 per year Hence,

Fixed cost, FC =

7203 operator $ 8683.55 × year year

FC = $ 62547610



Variable cost (VC)

Variable cost (VC) is the costs that are dependent on the amount of product produced. Examples of variable cost are: 1 2 3 4

Raw materials cost Miscellaneous operating materials costs Utilities cost Shipping and packaging

Variable (VC) can be calculated as below:

Variable Cost, VC=Raw material cost+ Labor cost +Utility cost

Variable Cost, VC = $ 22085.75 per year + $ 9333.33 + $130311.61 VC = $ 161730.69



Total revenue (TR)

Total revenue (TR) is the amount of money generated from the sale of output. The total revenue can be calculated as follows:

Total Revenue , TR=P ×Q Where:

P = Price per unit succinic acid Q = Quantities (tonnes)

The objective of break-even analysis is mainly to determine, the quantity at which the product at an assumed price, will generate enough revenue to start earning profit during the plant starts its operation. Break- even point is to estimate the volume or capacity for the company to reach the total cost equal to the total revenue and no profit was earned yet. So, it can be defined as:

Break−even point , BEP=


Where P= unit selling price

Total Revenue , TR=P ×Q


Q=210.82 kg /batch

P=$ 100/kg Total Revenue , TR=P ×Q

TR=( 210.82 kg /batch ) ×

$ 50 ×270 batch/ year kg

¿ $ 2846070/ year 72

¿ $ 2850000/ year


$ 62547610 50−(0.65+ 0.7)

BEP=1285665.16 kg/ yr

BEP=1290000 kg / yr




Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation

The profitability is evaluated based on: i. Time ii. Cash iii. Interest Rate 4.5.2

Non-discounted Profitability Criteria

There are three criterion of non-discounted profitability which are time criterion, cash criterion and interest rate criterion. The term used in time criterion is the payback period (PBP), also known as the payout period, payoff period and cash recovery period. From the book of Engineering Analysis of Chemical Processes by Richard Turton/Richard C.Bailie/Wallace B.Whiting/Joseph A.Shaeiwitz, the definition of payback period is defined as follows: PBP= time required, after start-up, to recover the fixed capital investment, FCI L, for the project As for the cash criterion, there are two types of it which is cumulative cash position (CCP) and cumulative cash ratio (CCR). CCP is the value of the project at the end of its life.



∑ of All Cash Flows ∑ of All Negative Cash Flows

Finally for the interest rate criterion, the term used is rate of return on investment (ROROI).


Average Annual Net Profit ¿ Capital Investment ( FCI L )

End of Year

Investme nt


FCI - total of dk



























































469632 281779. 2 281779. 2 140909. 6





























285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 285000 0 813000 0




422688.8 140909.6 0

Table 11: Nondiscounted After-Tax Cash Flow Data description:-


Cash Fl

Cost of land, L =176000ft2 x $30/1ft2 = $5280000




$1366900 Total Fixed Capital, FCIL =$2446000

COMd =$526276

Plant start-up at end of year 2

Taxation rate, t = 10%

Depreciation used 5 years MACRS

Assume a project life

of 10 years



= 3 + (-3736548+5646900) / (-3736548+2433796.4) = 1.53 Years


= 21128520/ 8092900 = 2.61


= [15481620/ (10*2446000) -1/10] x 100% = 45.04%


Discounted Profitability Criteria

End of Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Non-discounted Cash Flow -5280000 -1446000 -1366900 1406462 1553212 1396678 1302751.6 1302751.6 1232316.8 1161862 1161862 1161862 3801862

Discounted cash flow -5280000 -1314545.45 -1129669.42 1056695.72 1060864.69 867227.15 735369.32 668517.55 574880.25 492742.9 4479480.09 407225.54 1211390.39

Cumulative discounted Cash Flow -5280000 -6594545.45 -7724214.87 -6667519.15 -5606654.46 -4739427.31 -4004057.99 -3335540.44 -2760660.19 -2267917.29 2211562.8 2618788.34 3830178.73


= 5 + (-3335540.44+5583000) / (-3335540.44+2760660.19) = 4.63 Years


= $ 3830178.73


= [11554393.6 / 7724214.87] = 1.50



Environmental and safety analysis are crucial aspect to be considered in process and plant design. The aim of the analysis is to prevent any undesirable scenaria to occur which can be problem to the process, human and environment. 5.1

Environment Consideration


Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and chemical properties are important because it is used to identify how hazardous and risk of the substance itself. Raw Materials Important pyhsical properties of succinic acid can be summarizing in table 4.1 below: Table 5.1. Physical Properties of Succinic Acid Succinic Acid Chemical type: Substance Substance name: Succinic acid Trade name: Succinic acid CAS No: 110-15-6 EC number: 203-740-4 Formula: C4H6O4 Synonyms: Butanedioic acid, 1,2-Ethannedicarboxylic acid, Amber acid Property Physical state solid Appearance crystalline solid Molecular mass 118.09g/mol Colour white to yellow Odour odourless pH 2.4 to 2.8 (1% aqueous solution) Boiling point at atmospheric pressure 2350C Melting point/freezing point 185 to 1870C Flash point 1600C Density (at 200C) 1.57 g/cm3 Vapour pressure (at 250C ) 0.000025 Pa / 0.00000019 mmHg Solubility (at 1000C) water: 121g/ml Solubilty in water (at 250C) 83g/L Self-ignition temperature 6300C Flammability (solid,gas) non-flammable Byproducts

By products of this plant are calcium succinate (CS) and diethyl succinate (DES). The waste treatment is shown in the appendix section. Properties of these materials are shown in table 4.2 below: Table 5.2. Properties of CS and DES. Properties Formula Molecular weight (g/mol) Boiling point (oC) Melting point Density Flash point Specific gravity Vapor pressure Vapor density


CS C4H4O4Ca.3H2O 210.15 Decomposes -

DES C4H14O4 174.19 2170C -200C 1.04 g/ml at 250C 910C 1.047 (water=1) 72.8 hPa 6 (air-1)

Environment Impact Assessments (EIA) A well thought out environmental plan will be an essential in a succesful plant. The effects of operation of the cheical plant upon both the environment and the population must be considered during both feasibilities study and design stages.

Environmental impact assessment has two related parts which are: 1. The treatment of unwanted chemical and the concentrations of liquids discharges and gas emissions during normal operation and during startup and shutdown. 2. The handling of a major chemical spil, including all chemicals within the plant and any subsequent reaction products, their containment and cleanup. Waste Identifications

This plant produced succinic acid with excess calcium succinate as waste. The wastesthat had been produced from this plant were water, succinate, dextrose, corn liquor, calcium succinate and last but not least were Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteria. Wastewater that produced can be recycled back and reuse in the plant by undergoes some modern day water treatment. While for chemical waste such as calcium succinate and succinate that may be hazardous, the appropriate route of disposal were determine by chemical treatment such as neutralization, followed by disposal to the sanitary sewer system. For the non- hazardous wastes including dextrose and corn liquor that can be disposed in the sanitary sewer or it can be sold to other company as raw materials. For A.succiniciproducens bacteria waste that was known to infect humans and is associated with diarrhea, the proper method of disposal this waste is required. This infectious waste are sterilized and autoclaving at 121oC for 30 minutes before discarding.


Process Safety Consideration Safety consideration is the protection of people and property from episoidic and catastrophic incidents. A plant has to use systematic approach to identify process risk and implements proactive measure to reduce and manage risk.

5.2.1 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) MSDS is an information sheet that lists the hazards, safety and emergency measure which related to the specific products. The list of the sheets that been used for this plant can be seen in Appendix 1.

5.2.2 Hazards Identifications One of the important aspects in plant is the safe work environments. Safety will not be successfully carried out unless it is given fully consideration by either management or workers at the plant. All production processes are faced with hazardous, but in producing chemical product, there are additional hazards associated with the chemical used. Therefore, the organization has obligation to safe-conduct the welfare of its employees

and the public. As shown in Table 4.4, the most common accident that happened in chemical plant is fire, followed by explosions and toxic release. Table 5.3. Three types of chemical plant accidents. Type of accident

Probability of

Potential for fatalities

Potential for

Fire Explosion Toxic release

occurrence High Intermediate Low

Low Intermediate High

economic loss Intermediate High Low

5.2.3 Hazards of succinic acid


Flammability Succinic acid is flammable and has a flash point of 160 0C. It is flammable in air. There is no upper flammable limit as normally conceived in that exothermic decomposition replaces combustion at the higher ranges up to 100% succinic acid. Succinic acid has a boiling point of 2350C which is considered as high. Any leaks of succinic acid for example from flanges must be avoided because of the high risk of ignition. The auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of succinic acid in air atmospheric pressure is 6300C.


Reactivity Succinic acid reacts exothermically to neutralize bases, both organic and inorganic. It can also react with active metals to form gaseous hydrogen and metal salt. Such reactions are slow in the dry but systems may absorb water from the air to allow corrosion of iron, steel and aluminum parts and containers. Succinic acid reacts slowly with cyanide salts to generate gaseous hydrogen cyanide. If it reacts with solutions of cyanides, it can cause the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide. It can also generate flammable toxic gases and heat with diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides and sulfides. It may reacts with sulfites, nitrites, thiosulfates to give out H2S and SO3 and dithionites (SO2) to generate flammable or toxic gases heat. It can also be oxidized exothermically by strong oxidizing agents and reduced by strong reducing agents. It may also initiate polymerization reactions.


Thermal Decompositions Thermal stability and thermal decomposition of succinic acid and its compounds were investigated employing simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) in nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres and (TG-FTIR) in nitrogen atmosphere. On heating, both atmospheres the succinic acid melts and evaporates. For the transition metal succinate the final residue up to 1180 oC in N, atmosphere was a mixture of metal and metal oxide in no simple stoichiometry relation.

5.2.4 Hazards of Succinic Acid Succinic acid is slightly combustible components. Succinic acid is incompatible with materials that are strong oxidizing and reducing agents and also strong bases. It will decompose hazardous products which are carbon oxides (CO and CO2). Under OSHA Regulatory Status, this material is classified as hazardous.

5.2.5 Health Effects Table 5.4: Health Hazard Data of Succinic Acid Plant Chemical Succinic acid

Routes of Entry 1. 2. 3. 4.

Inhalation Skin Contact Eye Contact Ingestion

Effects of Exposure to

First Aid Measures

Products Inhalation:


 May be harmful if inhaled  Removes victim to  Causes respiratory tract fresh air.  If a cough or other irritation. respiratory Skin contact:

symptoms develop,

 Causes skin irritation  May be harmful if

consults medical personnel

absorbed through the skin Skin contact: Eye contact:  Severely irritating to the eyes.

 Wash skin immediately with plenty of soap and water for at least 15

Ingestion:  May be harmful if swallowed

minutes.  If redness, itching or a burning sensation develops, get medical attention.  Wash contaminated clothing and decontaminates footwear before reuse. Eye contact:  Immediately flush with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.  If redness, itching or a burning sensation develops, have eyes examined and treated by medical personnel. Ingestion:  Do not induce vomiting.  Give one or two

glasses of water to drink and refer to medical personnel or take direction from either a physician or a poison control center.  Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

Chemical Diethyl succinate

Routes of Entry 1. 2. 3. 4.

Eye Contact Skin Contact Ingestion Inhalation

Effects of Exposure to

First Aid Measures

Products Eye contact:

Eye contact:

 Severely irritating to the eyes.

 Immediately flush with plenty of water for at least 15

Skin contact:  Causes skin irritation  May be harmful if absorbed through the skin

minutes.  Occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids  Get medical aid.

Ingestion:  May be harmful if

Skin contact:


 Wash skin immediately with

Inhalation:  May be harmful if inhaled  Causes respiratory tract irritation.

plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes.  Wash contaminated clothing and decontaminates footwear before reuse. Ingestion:  Do not induce vomiting.  Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.  Get medical aid

 If conscious and alert, rinse mouth and drink 2-4 cupful of milk or water. Inhalation:  Removes victim to fresh air.  If not breathing, give artificial respiration.  If breathing is difficult, give oxygen  Get medical aid.

Chemical Calcium succinate

Routes of Entry 1. 2. 3. 4.

Eye Contact Skin Contact Ingestion Inhalation

Effects of Exposure to

First Aid Measures

Products Eye contact:

Eye contact:

 Severely irritating to the

 Immediately flush

eyes.  Symptoms may include

with plenty of water for at least 15

stinging, tearing, redness, and swelling of eyes.

minutes.  Occasionally holding eyelids

Skin contact:

apart  Get medical

 Causes skin irritation  May be harmful if


absorbed through the skin Skin contact: Ingestion:

 First aid is not

 Swallowing this material is not likely to be harmful

normally required.  If symptoms develop, seek


medical attention.

 This material is a dust or may produce dust  Breathing small amounts of these materials is not likely to be harmful.

Ingestion:  First aid is not normally required.  If symptoms develop, seek medical attention. Inhalation:  Removes victim to fresh air.  If breathing is difficult, call a physician.

5.2.5 Incidents in Chemical Plant Leakage and burning of hydrogen from a mounting flange of a safety valve in a reactor at a Succinic Acid manufacturing plant. This incident happened on 8 of June 1998 at Kawasaki, Kanagawa in Japan. During usual operation at succinic acid plant, hydrogen leaked from a mounting joint of a safety valve at the upper part of a reactor, and a flame was generated. For inspection at a turnaround shutdown, the safety valve was detached and reattached. A gasket smaller than the correct gasket was used at the joint, the tightening force of bolts was imperfect. Therefore, a gap was generated as time goes by and un-reacted hydrogen leaked. This incident happened when a hydrogenation reaction of Maleic anhydride for manufacturing succinic acid was finished. While an operator went to the site for confirmation, he found a flame jetting from a flange that joint a safety valve to reactor. This accident happened cause by a smaller than the correct gasket was used at the joint of safety valve at the time of a turnaround shutdown. Moreover, the tightness of bolts was imperfect. Due to the small size of a gasket and looseness of bolts, the weight of the piping was applied locally to the joint and the joint inclined gradually. The un-reacted hydrogen blew out

from a gap due to the inclination and thus, ignited by static electricity sparks. The response taken due to this accident were the operation of the plant was stopped besides, water was used to sprayed using faucet and the nitrogen gas was introduced to the reaction system. There were some countermeasures taken after this incident happened included the bolts should be tightened equally and fully besides, a new support for distributing the weight of piping is installed and the thorough control of the parts at construction is required. In addition, thoroughness of checks after construction also required. In the case of many leak tests after construction, a leak is checked by a soap test after pressurizing piping and facilities for the test. As a gasket and bolt torque are specified according to physical properties of a flowing liquid, temperature, long-term use and others. Passing of a leak test is not guaranteed for long-term use. Moreover, regarding a check of tightness of bolts, checks in many cases conducted by striking a bolt lightly with a smaller hammer which called as hammering test. Measurement of torque has been carried out. It is difficult to find a defect from a general examination after completion of construction. Soap test is one of the leak tests. Soapsuds are poured at the place to be checked mainly a joint part after pressurizing where if bubbles are found, that is the evidence of a leak 5.2.6

Relevant OSH Legislation and Regulation The government of Malaysia has outlined many act and regulations to ensure that all employees and employers take seriously of safety and health issues in working are. Some of regulations that have been outlined in Malaysia are Factory and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967 and Control of Industrial major Accident Hazards (CIMAH) 1996 Regulations, under OSHA 1994. Generally, the objective of these act are to control the plant or factor operation with respect to the safety, health and welfare of the person. Other regulation that made under OSHA 1994 are Employer’s Safety and Health General Policy Statement 1995, control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards 1996, Safety and Health Committee 1996, Classification, Packaging and Labeling of Hazardous Chemicals 1997, Safety and Health Officer 1997 and Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health 2000. Employer and employees have their own responsibility and duty to implement safety and health act. Occupational Safety and Health Act OSHA 1994 have already summarized the duties of the employer and employees as the following below:

Duties of Employer: 1. Provide and maintain safe plant and system of work 2. Make arrangement for safe use operation, handling, storage and transportation of plant and substances. 3. Provide instruction, information, training and supervision. 4. Provide and maintain safe pace of work and means of access to and egress from any place of work. 5. Provide and maintain safe and healthy working environment and adequate welfare facilities.

Duties of Employees: 1. Reasonable care for safety and health of himself and others 2. Co-operate with employers and others 3. Wear and use PPE 5.3

Safety analysis

5.3.1 Chemical Storage and Handling Succinic acid is considered not a hazardous substance but can become hazardous if this materials is distributed wrongly. Thus some guidelines on how to hansled succinic acid has been develop in order to reduce the risk of hazards. The guideline are shown as below: I.

Succinic Acid a) Handling 

Additional hazards when processed  use only with adequate ventilation  avoid creating or spreading dust

Precautions for safe handling  reduce/avoid exposure and/or contact

Hygiene measures  wash hands and other exposed areas with mild soap and water before eat, drink, smoke and when leaving work.

b) Storage


Storage conditions  Keep containers tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place

Incompatible materials  Strong oxidizing and reducing agents, strong bases

Storage area  Keep container tightly closed and dry  Keep it cool, well-ventilated place away from acids

CalciumSuccinate a) Handling  Always keep it away from heat or any souces of ignition. If an empty containers pose a fire risk, evaporate the residue under a fume hood. It is advisable to ground all equipment containing material and do not breathe dust b) Storage  Always keep the containers dry and kept in a cool place. The container must be 

tightly closed and keep in a cool, well-ventilated place. Combustible materials should be stored away from extreme heat and away from strong oxidizing agents.


Diethyl Succinate a) Handling  Put on appropriate personal protection equipment. Eating, drinking and smoking should be prohibited in areas where this material is handled, stored and processed. Workers should wash hands and face before eating, drinking and smoking. Do not ingest. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Avoid breathing vapor or mist. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wear appropriate

respirator when ventilation is inadequate. Do not enter storage areas and confined spaces unless adequately ventilated. Keep in the original container or an approved alternative made from a compatible material, kept tightly closed when not in use. Store and use away from heat, sparks, open flame or any other ignition source. Use explosion-proof electrical (ventilating, lighting and material handling) equipment. Use non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures against electrostatic discharges. To avoid fire or explosion, dissipate static electricity during transfer by grounding and bonding containers and equipment before transferring material. Empty containers retain product residue and can be hazardous. Do not reuse container. b) Storage  Store in accordance with local regulations. Store in a segregated and approved area. Store in original container protected from direct sunlight in a dry, cool and well-ventilated area, away from incompatible materials (see section 10) and food and drink. Eliminate all ignition sources. Separate from oxidizing materials. Keep container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Containers that have been opened must be carefully resealed and kept upright to prevent leakage. Do not store









environmental contamination.


Firefighting Measures The purpose of the Fire Fighting Measures section is to describe any fire hazards associated with the material. This information, combined with information from the Handling and Storage and the Stability and Reactivity Data sections, can be used in determining where a certain material should be stored (e.g. flammable liquids should be stored in specially designed facilities away from incompatible chemicals). Information in this section can also be used to plan the appropriate type and placement of fire extinguishers as well as to plan the best response to a fire for a particular work site. Much of the information is intended for firefighters and emergency response personnel.

1. Extinguishing media  The suitable extinguishing media were dry chemical powder, alcoholresistant foam, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water spray. 2. Protection for firefighters  During firefighting, wear self-contained breathing apparatus with full face piece and full protective clothing. If contact occurs with material or its solutions, immediately flush with water and remove contaminated clothing.  Dust can form explosive mixtures with air. Irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion in a fire.


Accidental Release Measure This section covers personal and environmental precautions in case of spills or accidental losses. It should describe the dangers related to the substance or product Special attention should be paid to facts which are not obvious at first sight, like danger of slipping, ignition of combustible air gas mixtures which spread on the floor etc. Instructions for cleaning up or picking up spilt product should be provided. Below are some guidelines:

1. Personal precautions  Wear self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece and full protective clothing. If contact occurs with material or its solutions, immediately flush with water and remove contaminated clothing.  Use proper personal protective equipment during clean up. Ventilate area and avoid creating dusty conditions. 2. Environmental precautions  Sweep up dry powder and dispose properly.  Do not let the products get into the drains. 3. Spills or leakage  Clean up spills immediately, observing precautions in the Protective Equipment section.

 Sweep up, then place into a suitable container for disposal. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation. 4. Methods for containment and clean up  Gather the disposed material without creating dust.  Store in closed containers that are appropriate for disposal.


Exposure Controls/ Personal Protection The main objective of PPE is to ensure the proper selection, use, and care of PPE through work area hazard assessments and appropriate employee training. The primary methods for preventing employee exposure to hazardous materials are engineering and administrative controls. Where these control methods are not appropriate or sufficient to control the hazard, personal protective equipment (PPE) is required. A work area assessment is required to determine the potential hazards and select the appropriate PPE for adequate protection. Employees must receive training which includes the proper PPE for their job, when this PPE must be worn, how to wear, adjust, maintain, and discard this equipment, and the limitations of the PPE. All training must be documented. 1. Engineering control  Provide adequate







concentrations. 2. Personal protective equipment (PPE)  Personal protective equipment  Dust protection, it is better to wear dust mask with filter type P3, 

N100 In case of dust production, use dustproof clothing and protective goggles

 Hand protection  Use protective gloves to cover your hands from hazardous  

chemicals and to prevent spilage on your skin. Eye protection In case of dust production, it is better to use protective goggles.

 Skin and body protection  Use chemically protective clothing for best result.


Disposal Considerations For waste treatment method, first collect all waste in suitable and labelled containers and dispose according to local legislation. It is recommended the materials and its container must be disposed of in a safe way and as per local legislation. The waste is not considered hazardous under US RCRA regulations.


Emergency Response Plan (ERP) Emergency Response Plan (ERP) comprehends planning and activities that are necessary to prepare people and organization to respond to emergencies and disaster. These activities seek to facilitate the response to save lives, minimize damage to property in the event of emergency. Emergency Action Plan describes the initial responsibilities and actions to be taken to protect all employees until the appropriate responders take over. ERP should outline the basic of the preparation steps needed in order to handle the emergencies at plant. Emergency plan are not meant to be comprehensive but they should provide appropriate guidance on what to do in an emergency. For example, a sound disaster response plan should include: 

Clear written policies that designate a chain of command, listing names and job titles of the people (or departments) that are responsible for making decisions, monitoring

response actions and recovering back to normal operations. Names of those who are responsible for assessing the degree of risk to life and

property and who should be notified for various types of emergencies. Specific instructions for shutting down equipment and production processes and

stopping business activities. Facility evacuation procedures, including a designated meeting site outside the facility

and a process to account for all employees after an evacuation. Procedures for employees who are responsible for shutting down critical operations

before they evacuate facility. Specific training and practice schedules and equipment requirements for emploryees who are responsible rescue operations, medical duties, hazardous responses, fire

fighting and other responses specific to your work site. The prefferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies.

ERPs are also the law. The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) requires facilities with over 10 employees to have written emergency plan: in smaller

facilities, the plan can be communicated orally. But whatever the size or type of the organization, top management support and the involvement of all employees are essential. 5.4

Environmental impact assessment For the environmental performance of the refinery the full production system is assed. The following impact categories are taken into account for environmental analysis. This environmental impact assessment ais performed to obtain a first idea of the benefits of biorefineries in that area.        


Abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP) Global warming potential (GWP) Ozone layer depletion potential (ODP) Photochemical oxidation potential (POCP) Human toxity potential (HTP) Eco-toxity potential (ETP) Acidation potential (AP) Eutrophication potential (EP)

Comparison of eco-efficiency The lower eco-efficiency values represent better performance of th system. In the

biorefinery, a large faction of the carbon dioxide (CO 2) emitted by the ethanol fermentation process is fixed by acid fermentation thus give better performance in global warming potential (GWP) compared with gasoline refinery. This shows that the combined production of ethanol and succinic acid is indeed a more promising option. The reason why the eco-efficiency of the ethanol palnt is significantly worse than that of the gasoline refinery is the contribution of agriculture realted emissions to the total, which is significantand does not occur in the gasoline refinery. The eco-efficiencies of the biorefinery and ethanol plant are better than one of gasoline refinery in the abiotic resource depletion potential (ADP) and ozone layer depletion potential (ODP). This is obviously due to the replacement of fossil resources by renewables where crude oil, natural gas and coal are the main contributors to abiotics resource depletion, while ozone layer depletion potentiallevel is mainly contributed by emissions from the crude oil production onshore.

In the rest of the impact categories, biorefining performs worse than gasoline refinery. In the biorefinery and ethanol plant, although emissions causing photochemical oxidation potential (POCP) from natural gas production and oil exploitation decreses, the ones from ethanol production contribute even more photochemical oxidation potential (POCP) level. In most of the impact categories the biorefinery has a better eco-efficiency than ethanol plant, which is attributed to the high-value of the succinicacid derived from such a refinery. The biorefinery designed in this study has clear advantages over the ethanol plant in terms of eco-efficiency. However, when comparing biorefining to gasoline refinery, the overall evaluation of the eco-efficiency depends on the importance attached to each impact category.



In the production of Succinic Acid, there are many equipment involve in the production process. It can be seen on the PFD diagram clearly from the beginning of the process until the end of the process. From the PFD, the equipment involves is reactor, filtration, cation exchanger and etc. in order to make a plant layout several factor must be considered such as economic considerations (construction and operating costs), process requirements, convenience of the operation and maintenance, safety, future expansion, and modular construction.(Ray Sinnott, 2009).

Figure 6.1: Plant Layout of Succinic Acid Plant

SITE LAYOUT The process units and ancillary building should be laid out to give the most economical flow of materials and personnel around the site’. (Ray Sinnott, 2009) In this production, the site layout was constructed based on a few factors include cost and the layout construct as seen below:

Figure 6.2: Site Layout of Succinic Acid Plant

Based on the layout above we can see that the administration building is far from the plant area because the plant produce a dangerous and hazardous substances . So, we want to make sure that the worker are safe to do their work in the administration building because most of the them are working in that building. Furthermore, from the layout there are two area of car park situated near the administration building and the plant area. This is done to minimize the time spent by a worker to travel between the buildings. The administration building is also contain a rest room and also the canteen. The assembly area was also provided in case of fire or any other emergency on plant site or buildings. In this plant aslo provided with fire station in case of anything accident such as fire occur in that plant can be control quickly to prevent further damaged. Other than that is, the warehouse and maintenance room is located near the processing plant which allowing the repair and services of the equipment can be done in that place. The processing plant also has an expansion area in case of the high demands of the product will require more equipment to be used.Therefore more space is needed to palce the new equipment. The laboratory and control room are situated near the plant area because the operation can be handled easily. The product storage located near the plant processing allowing the product from the plant processing can be sent to the product storage easily and low cost of transportation. Raw material storage located near to entrance 2 which is easier for the truck that carry the raw material to transfer the raw material. There are three entrance routes in these sites because it is easier to move in and out of the sites. And these routes situated on three different sides. As you can see on the layout, the above routes are construct to ensure the travelling distance to transport the waste product are shorter.


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Succinic acids are widely used in industry. Succinic acids could be applied in many

different fields such as chemical, food, and medicine industry. In designing the plant for the production of succinic acids, several factors have been taken into considerations. The most important factor is absolutely economic factors. This is because the plant is designed to make benefit for the investor and the return of investment should be quick. To know this factor, things such as the price of the raw materials, price of chemicals used, price of equipment used, and cost of wastewater treatment should be known. All the raw materials and equipment selected are relatively cheap so that profit can be maximized. To do that, the process should be outlined and drafted first. After that, process flow diagram (PFD) is constructed using Superpro Designer software. From there, the most suitable process that should be used is known. Calculations on mechanical and chemical design are also done to ensure that the equipment used are to know the maximum temperature used, maximum wind load, maximum pressure, maximum allowable stress, and tensile strength. For the site selection, the most suitable site for the plant is in Bukit Minyak Industrial Area, Penang. This site is selected because of several factors that are not only economically profitable, but strategic. The plant layout and site layout are also outlined according to the conduciveness of the workplace and safety issues. Safety issues also should be made as priority. As one of the industry that involved with majority of potential hazards, it is bound to have accidents or disaster occurred if the safety issues did not properly considered. The way of handling the hazardous in this plant which is calcium succinate and diethyl succinate have been taken as a great deal in order to ensure the safety of employers and employees. In designing chemical plant, safety issues have to be taken as number priority. As one of the industry that involved with majorly potential hazards, it is bound to have accidents or disaster occurred if the safety issues did not properly considered. The way of handling the hazardous in this plant which is calcium succinate and diethyl succinate have been taken as a great deal in order to ensure the safety of employers and employees. A safer and healthier workplace environment are desirable not only because the welfare of the workers but also minimize the cost and improves the plant productivity. In other words, this succinic acid plant has the safe working environment and healthier working area.


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