Subject Cataloging Notes

July 14, 2017 | Author: Roxanne Peña | Category: Cataloging, Bibliography, Library And Museum, Languages, Philosophical Science
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SUBJECT CATALOGING AND CLASSIFICATION REVIEW NOTES Part one: Subject Cataloging A. Definition of terms 1. Subject cataloging – the process of providing subject access points to bibliographic records 2. Subject analysis – the process of identifying the intellectual content of a work. The results may be displayed in a catalog or bibliography by means of notational symbols as in a classification system or by verbal terms such as subject headings or indexing terms. 3. Subject heading – the term (a word or group of words) denotes a subject under which all materials on that subject are entered in a catalog. 4. Subject entry – an entry in a catalog or a bibliography under a heading which indicates the subject of a work. 5. Subject authority record – a record of a subject heading that shows its established form, cited the authorities consulted in determining the choice and form of the heading, and indicates the cross references made to and from the heading. B. Purpose of subject cataloging 1. To provide access by subject to all relevant materials 2. To bring together all references to materials on the same subject 3. To show affiliations to all subject fields 4. To provide a format description of the subject content C. Types of Catalog 1. Classed / Classified Catalog - A classed entry begins with the term at the top of the hierarchy to which the subject being represented belongs, with each level in the hierarchy included in the subject heading - A subject catalog consisting of class entries arranged logically according to a systematic scheme of classification. The order of progression of subject is from the general to the specific. 2. Alphabetical-classed catalog – a variation of the classed catalog, is a hybrid of the classified approach and the alphabetical approach. Entries are listed under broad subjects and subdivided hierarchically by topics. The entries on each level of the hierarchy are arranged alphabetically. 3. Alphabetical Specific catalog – a catalog containing entries based on the principle of specific and direct entry and arranged alphabetically. 4. Online catalog – a catalog based on MARC records accessible in an interactive mode. Arrangement of subject entries is of no concern to users, since they cannot see how the records are arranged in the computer memory. It offers improved subject access: keyword searching, selective search combination through Boolean operators and automatic switching from lead-in terms to controlled terms. D. General Principles of Subject Cataloging 1. The User and the usage – convenience of the public is always to be set before the ease of the cataloger - David Haykin calls this principle as “the reader as the focus” 2. Literary warrant – bottom up approach in building a controlled-vocabulary subject-access system that is looking at what are written and selecting terms and interconnectors based on what is found in the literature. 3. Uniform Heading – each subject should be represented in the catalog under only one name and under one form of that name. The purpose of this principle is to avoid scattering of terms. a. Choice among synonyms terms – example: Oral medication – Drugs by mouth, medication by mouth, peroral medication

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b. Choice between variant spellings – example: Aesthetics – esthetics c. Choice between English and foreign terms – if possible, the heading to be used should be English but a foreign word may be used when no English word expresses the subject of the word Haykin states the rules as follows: 1.) When the concept is foreign to Anglo-American experience and no satisfactory term for it exists. E.g. Reallast. Precieuses 2.) When especially in the case of scientific names, the foreign term is precise, whereas the English one is not, e.g. Pityrosporum ovale rather than Bottle bacillus. d. Choice between technical (or scientific) and popular terms – choice of terms must be different from a library serving a general public form that in a library serving specialists, e.g. Lizards instead of Lacertilia. e. Choice between obsolete and current terms – in establishing a new heading, a current term must be chosen over an obsolete term, e.g. Computers instead of Electronic-calculating machines. 4. Unique heading – each heading should represent only one subject and this concern the presence of homographic, e.g. Rings (Jewelry) : Ring (Algebra) : Ring (Gymnastics) 5. Specific Entry and Coextensivity a. Specific entry – means that the item is entered under its subject heading, not under the heading of a class which includes the subject. Example: “The Cat” Subject Heading: Cats (Specific direct entry) Zoology – Vertebrates – Mammals – Domestics Animals – Cats (Specific Indirect Entry) E. Subject Cataloging Systems 1. The List of Subject Headings for Use in Dictionary Catalog (1895) – was issued by the American Library Association and is based on Cutter’s principles. It went through three editions: 1895, 1893. 2. Subject Headings Used in the Dictionary Catalogues of the Library of Congress (1910-1914) – became a standard tool for subject cataloging for American libraries. 3. Library of Congress Subject Headings a. The Library of Congress subject headings system was originally designed as a controlled vocabulary for representing the subject and form of the books and serials in the Library of Congress collection, with the purpose of providing subject access points to the bibliographic records contained in the Library of Congress catalogs. b. At present, it is also used as a tool for subject cataloging and indexing performed by other libraries 4. List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries (1923) – was compiled by Minnie Earl Sears. It was intended for medium-sized or small collections. 5. Sears List of Subject Headings (6th ed.) 6. Medical Subject Headings – is the system designed and used by the National Library of Medicine for assigning subject heading to books and journal articles in the medical sciences. F. Types of Headings 1. Topical heading – represents the subject content of a work 2. Form Headings (bibliographic, artistic or literary) 3. Name headings a. Persons – used as subject headings for biographies, eulogies, festschriften, criticism b. Corporate bodies – works related to the origin, development, activities and functions of individual corporate bodies are assigned subject entries under their names c. Places

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1.) Jurisdictional geographic names – names of countries and political or administrative divisions within countries, such as cities, provinces, towns, etc. 2.) Non-jurisdictional geographic names a.) Archaeological sites, g.) Forests, grasslands historic cities, etc. h.) Geographic features (e.g. b.) Areas and regions caves, deserts, lakes, c.) Canals mountains, etc.) d.) City sections i.) Parks, reserves, recreation e.) Dams areas, etc. f.) Farms, ranches, gardens j.) Roads, streets, trails d. Other proper names (languages, ethnic groups, roads, events, etc.) G. Structure of Subject Headings 1. Single-concept headings – appear in the form of single or multiple-word term a. Single-word headings – a single noun or substantive is chosen as the heading when it represents the object or concept precisely, e.g. Democracy : Aged b. Multiple-word headings – when a concept or object cannot be expressed properly by a single noun, a phrase is used 1.) Adjectival phrase headings – a noun or pronoun phrase with an adjectival modifier, e.g. Social workers : Food service : American drama 2.) Prepositional phrase headings – are used when the concept is generally expressed in the English language in the form of a prepositional phrase, e.g. Boards of trade : Figure of speech 2. Multiple concept headings – appear as compound phrases, prepositional phrases, or subject heading string made up of a main heading with one or more subdivisions. a. Compound phrase headings – consist of two or more nouns, noun phrases or both, with or without modifiers connected by the word and, the word or, or followed by the word etc. e.g. Education and state. Bolts and nuts. Child sexual abuse by clergy. Taxation of bonds, securities, etc. 3. Inverted Headings – are used to bring significant words into prominent positions as entry elements, e.g. Chemistry, Organic, Education, Higher, Philosophy, Modern H. Subdivision of Main Headings 1. Topical subdivision – used to limit the concept expressed by the heading to a special subtopic, e.g. Corp-Harvesting : Automobiles – Motors – Carburettors 2. Form subdivision – an extension of a subject heading based on the bibliographic or physical form or literary or artistic genre in which the material in a work is organized and/or presented. For example: Engineering – Periodicals : Gardens – Poetry 3. Chronological subdivision – used with headings for the history of a place or subject, e.g. United States – History – Civil War, 1861-1865; English language – Grammar – 19504. Geographic subdivision – indicates the origin or the locality of the main subject and may be used after subjects that lend themselves to geographic treatment. Headings that may be subdivided by place carry the designation (May Subd. Geog.) immediately after their listing. The designation (Not Subd. Geog.) after a heading indicates that the subject cannot be subdivided by place. For example: Education (May Subd. Geog.) : Developing countries (Not Subd. Geog.) a. Indirect geographic subdivision means that the name of a larger geographic entity is interposed between the main heading and the place in question (e.g. Music – Philippines – Bicol) b. Direct geographic subdivision means that the place follows the heading or another subdivision immediately without the interposition of a larger geographic entity (e.g. Education – Florida : Agriculture – Thailand)

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5. Free-floating subdivision – a subdivision that may be used under any existing appropriate subject heading for the first time without establishing the usage editorially. For example, if you look at the heading Periodicals, one is given this instruction. SA English [French, etc] periodicals: And subdivision Periodicals under specific subjects, therefore, an item entitled A monthly magazine for dentists will have this subject heading : Dentistry – Periodicals a. Free-floating subdivisions of general application – are form and topical subdivision that are applicable to a large number of headings, e.g. Abstracts; Cost effectiveness b. Free-floating subdivisions under specific types of headings – subdivisions that are only applicable to, and only authorized for use under specific categories of main headings such as classes of persons, names of places, ethnic groups, names of corporate bodies, etc. For example: Actors – Political activity; Asian-Americans – Race identity c. Free-floating subdivisions controlled by pattern headings – form or topical subdivisions that are common in a particular subject field or applicable to headings in a particular category. Instead of authorizing them heading by heading and repeating them under each heading within the category, they are listed under a chosen heading (pattern heading) in the category. For example, English language is the pattern heading for languages, therefore, all the subdivisions listed under English language are applicable to other types of languages. I.

Cross References – are provided to connect related headings in the catalog. 1. See (or USE) reference – a reference from a term or name not used as a heading to one that is used, e.g. Third world countries See Developing countries 2. See also (including BT, NT and RT) references – connect headings that are related in some way, either hierarchically or otherwise. Related term (RT) reference is used to link headings that are related in concept but not in a hierarchical sense. It calls the user’s attention to materials related to his or her interests, e.g. Physicians RT Medicine BT (Broader Term) and NT (Narrower Term) indicate hierarchical relationship and all headings connected by these terms are all valid. For example: Poetry BT – Literature; NT Classical poetry, Lyric poetry 3. General reference – directs the user to a group or category of headings instead of to individual members of the group or category. It is sometimes called a blanket reference and is represented by the symbol SA. For example: Atlases SA subdivision Maps under names of countries, cities, etc. and under topics

J. General Guidelines in Assigning Subject Headings 1. Specificity – assign the most specific heading which represents exactly the contents of the item 2. Works on a single topic – assign the heading which represents exactly the content of the item. If the item contains a subtopic that falls outside the scope of the expected range, allocate headings for the main topic and an additional heading for the subtopic provided the latter covers at least 20% of the work to warrant another heading. 3. Multi-topical work – for works on more than one topic treated separately, assign headings to bring out each concept separately. a. Two or three related topics in a work – if a heading that exists represents precisely the two or three topics, assign it and not the two or three headings. E.g. Title: The Distinctive excellences of Greek and Latin literature ; Subject heading: Classical Literature b. Rule of three – if a broad heading exists, but includes more than two or three topics in question, assign two or three headings, not the broader heading c. Rule of four – four or more related topics in a work. Do not assign a separate heading for each topic where a single heading which covers al topics can be used.

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4. Multi-element works – if a work treats a single subject from different aspects or contains various elements of one topic, use one pre-coordinated heading, if there is one available. E.g. Title: Chemical plant management in Japan ; Subject heading: Chemical plants – Japan – Management 5. Principle Versus a Specific case – if a work discusses a principle and illustrates the principle by referring to a specific case, assign a heading for the principle and also a heading for the specific case, if appropriate. E.g. Title: The Anatomy of vertebrates; Subject headings: 1. Vertebrates – Anatomy 2. Cats K. Guidelines in Assigning Subject headings for Special Materials 1. Subject Headings for literary works a. Works about literature in general 1.) Works about literature in general are assigned appropriate headings are the approach, type of form of literature treated in a work. Example: English fiction – History and criticism 2.) Works discussing the relationship between literature and other subjects are given headings such as Literature and technology : Politics and literature 3.) Works discussing particular themes in literature are assigned [Subject or theme] in literature in addition to other appropriate literature headings. Example: Women in literature; John Paul II, Pope, in fiction, drama, poetry, etc. b. Anthologies and collections of literary works by more than one author 1.) In addition to other appropriate topical headings, a literary form heading is assigned as main heading. Example: Literature – Collections (for an anthology of world literature not limited to any language or genre); Drama, Medieval (for a collection of medieval drama not limited to a particular language or nationality) 2.) If a collection is organized about a particular theme, an additional topical heading with an appropriate literary form subdivision is also assigned. Example: 1. American poetry – 19 th century; 2. Lincoln, Abraham – 1809-1865 - Poetry c. Works written by individual authors 1.) Headings representing major literary genres are not assigned to individual literary works except in the case of literary works for children which do receive form headings. Thus, mark Twain’s Adventures of Tom Sawyer will not have this heading: American fiction – 19 th century 2.) If the literary work is a drama or poem featuring a specific theme or is based on the life of a real person, a topical heading in the form of a topic or the personal name with the subdivision Drama or Poetry is used. Document title: Henry IV, part 2 : Henry V / by William Shakespeare 1. Henry IV, King of England, 1367-1413 – Drama; 2. Henry V, King of England, 1387-1422 – Drama 3.) Use of heading [Name] Drama or [Name] Poetry for a work featuring the person named as a character. 4.) Use the heading [Name in fiction, drama, poetry, etc. for a discussion of (i.e. work about) the person as a character in literature. 5.) Use a topical heading with the subdivision Literary collections for a collection of works in various forms by an individual author that centers around a particular theme. Document title: Selected works of Angelina Weld Grimke / edited by Carolivia Herron 1. AfroAmericans – Literary collections 6.) For a collection of novels or stories by an individual author, the form subdivision – Fiction is assigned only under an identifiable topic, e.g. Automobile racing – Fiction 7.) For an individual novel or story, a topical heading with the subdivision – Fiction is used only if the work is biographical fiction, historical fiction, or an animal story. Document title:

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Gate of rage / C. Y. Lee 1. China – History – Tiananmen Square incident, 1989 Fiction d. Works about individual authors: Biography and criticism 1.) A work about an individual author is assigned a personal name heading with or without a subdivision. Example: Franco, Ernesto 2.) The subdivision – Biography or a subdivision denoting a biographic approach is used only when the work is a true biography of the author. A second heading representing the class of persons to which the author belongs is also assigned. Document title: Conversations with Mary McCarthy / edited by Carol Gelderman 1. McCarthy, Mary, 1912- - Interviews; 2. Authors, American – 20 th century - - Interviews 3.) The personal name heading without a subdivision is assigned for a work that contains both biographic information and criticism of the author’s work. Document title: Kafka / Pietro Citati 1. Kafka, Franz, 1883-1924; 2. Authors, Austrian – 20 th century Biography 2. Works about individual works a. For a work that contains criticisms or commentaries on another work, the uniform title for the work commented on is assigned in addition to other appropriate headings. Document title: Defoe’s politics: parliamentary, power, politics and Robinson Crusoe / Manuel Schonhorn 1. Defoe, Daniel 1661?-1731 – Political and Social views; 2. Defoe, Daniel, 1661?1731. Robinson Crusoe b. For a work about a foreign title, the uniform title consists of the author’s name and the title in the original language regardless of the language in which the criticism is written. Document title: Crime and punishment: a mind to murder / Gary Cox 1. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 18211881. Prestuplenie I nakazanie c. For an anonymous classic of a sacred work, the subject heading is in the AACR2 form of the uniform title. Examples: Arabian nights; Bible. N. T. Mark 3. Subject Headings for Biography a. Collective Biography 1.) The form heading Biography with or without bibliographical form subdivisions is assigned to a collective biography not limited to a particular period, place, organization, ethnic group, or specific field or discipline. Example: The Random house bibliographical dictionary Biography – Dictionaries 2.) If the work is a collective biography of persons from a particular place the subject heading consists of the name of the place with the subdivision – Biography. Document title: Who’s who in the Philippines 1. Philippines – Biography 3.) The subdivision – Biography is also used under names of corporate bodies and historical events, period, etc. Example: United States – Army – Biography; Philippines – History – Edsa Revolution, 1986 – Biography 4.) When the required term referring to a special class of persons is not found in LCSH, the subject heading consists of the name of the relevant subject or discipline with the subdivision – Biography. Example: Art – Biography (For all kinds of people with the art including artists, dealers, collectors, museum, personnel, etc.) 5.) If the work contains lists of works of authors active in particular fields as well as biographic information about those authors, the subdivision – Bio-bibliography is used under names of countries, cities, etc. and other subjects. For example: California – Bio-bibliography; Philippine literature – Bio-bibliography b. Individual Biography 1.) If the biography focuses on a specific aspect of a person’s life, an appropriate subdivision taken from the list, “Free-floating Subdivisions used Under Names of Persons” or from the pattern heading Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616 (for literary authors) is added. Example: Marcos, Ferdinand Edralin – Correspondence; Joaquin, Nick

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2.) In addition to the personal, a bibliographical heading in the form of [Class of persons] – Place – [Subdivision indicating type of biographic work] is used. Document title: Michael Jordan / Phil. Berger with John Rolfe 1. Jordan, Michael, 1963- - Juvenile literature; 2. Basketball players – United States – Biography – Juvenile literature 3.) For a partial biography which includes material about the field in which the biographee was involved, an additional topical heading or headings may be assigned to bring out the subject. Document title: Franz Boas, social activist: the dynamics of ethnicity / Marshall Hyatt 1. Boas, Franz, 1858-1942; 2. Anthropologists – United States – Biography; 3. Anthropology – History; 4. United States – Ethnic relation 4.) Three types of headings are assigned to a work of a statesman, ruler or head of state which contains information about his life: (1) the personal name heading with applicable subdivision(s), (2) biographical heading, and (3) a heading for the event or period of the country’s history in which the person was involved. Document title: The Presidency of Corazon C. Aquino 1. Philippines – Presidents – 1986-1992; 2. Aquino, Corazon Cojuanco; 3 Presidents – Philippines – Biography 5.) Corporate headings such as Great Britain. Sovereign (1660-1685: Charles II) , which are used as main or added entries in descriptive cataloging are not used as subject entries. Instead, the personal name heading and the appropriate heading for the history of the period are used. L. Subject Cataloging Process 1. Subject Analysis or conceptual analysis – identifying the concepts/topics in a work and determining what aspects of it the users will be interested in. the steps involved are: a. Write down the title of the document. This title is referred to as the Raw Title. Raw title: How to manage barangay finances. b. Read through the other parts of the item, e.g. introduction, foreword, preface, table of contents, etc. in order to identify and express the specific content of the item. This is called the Expressive Title. Below are the parts of an item that will be useful to the cataloguer. Title may or may not be helpful Subtitle often more useful Author may provide an identification of the broad topic if the author has published in the area Foreword, Preface, introduction Usually state the author’s intention Publisher May give an indication if the publisher specializes in a particular subject area Series May be useful Contents and index Usually a good indicator of the main topics Text Use to confirm your ideas about the subject CIP Useful but use with care In the above example, the Expressive Title is: How to manage barangay finances in the Philippines (underscored terms are not included in the title of the item) c. Write down the Kernel title by retaining the substantive or kernel terms that denote each of the substantive ideas and dropping the auxiliary words and connectives such as articles, prepositions and conjunctions. Kernel Title: Manage. Barangay finances. Philippines d. Write down the Transformed Title by rearranging the kernel terms in a sequence that would show which concept is the most significant. Transformed title: Barangay finances. Philippines. Manage.

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e. Replace the terms in the transformed title with standard terms using a standard list or controlled vocabulary. Subject headings: Local finance – Philippines – Management; Finance, Public – Philippines – Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Translation takes place at the stage when standard terms contained in the controlled vocabulary are used to represent the subject heading(s) of an item. Part Two: Classification A. Definition of Terms 1. Classification – an act of organizing the universe of knowledge into some systematic order. It would also mean grouping things or objects that have the property or characteristics in common into a class. Classification also involves establishing relationships among classes and making distinctions within classes to arrive at subclasses and finer divisions. 2. Library Classification – the systematic arrangement by subject of books and other materials on shelves or of catalogue and index entries in the manner which is most useful to those who read or who seek a definite piece of information. 3. Classification – the inventor or creator of a classification scheme or a person who is engaged in the theory of classification. 4. Classifier – a person who applies/uses a classification scheme B. Purpose of a Classification System 1. To arrange items in a logical order on library shelves – helps the user identify and locate a work through a call number - Groups all works of a kind together 2. To provide a systematic display of bibliographic entries in printed catalogs, bibliographies and indexes (performs a collocation system) 3. In some online catalogs, classification serves a direct retrieval function – helps identify and retrieve a group of related as well as specific known item C. Basic Concepts / Types of Classification 1. Traditional theory of classification/logical or philosophical principles of classification a. Classification begins with the universe of knowledge as a whole and divides it into successive stages of classes and subclasses, with chosen characteristics as the basis for each stage. For example: Universe of Knowledge > Social Science > Economics > Labor > Laboring classes > Duration of work b. Progression is from the general to the specific forming a hierarchical or “tree” structure each class being a species of the class on the preceding level and a genus below it. c. According to hierarchical principles the basis for division within a class in subclasses and subsubclasses may vary considerably from subject to subject. For example, literature can be divided by language, genre/form, or period. Each characteristic is called a facet. d. List all subjects and their subdivisions and provide ready-made symbols for them. Such scheme is known as enumerative scheme. An example of this type of classification scheme is the Library of Congress Classification. 2. Modern Classification Theory a. Places emphasis on facet analysis and synthesis, that is, the analysis (or breaking up) of a subject into its component parts and the synthesis (or reassembling) of those parts as required by the document to be represented. b. Identifies the basic components of subjects and lists under each discipline or main class, the elements or aspects that are topically important within that class. For example, the class Education might have the following facets: Educational institutions, persons taught, Subject taught, Methods of instructions, etc. A system based on these principles is called a faceted or analytic-synthetic classification. A good example of this is the Colon Classification.

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3. Close Classification – means that the content of a work is specified by notation to the fullest extent possible. 4. Broad classification – means that a work is placed in a broad class by use of notation that has been logically abridged. For example, a work on French cooking is classed closely at 641.5944 (641.59 Cooking by place + 44 France from Table 2), or broadly at 641.5 (Cooking) D. Notation 1. Notation is a device consisting of numerals, letters, and/or other symbols used to represent the main and subordinate divisions of a classification scheme. 2. Types of notation a. Pure notation – a notational system using one kind of symbol only e.g. Arabic numerals or letters b. Mixed notation – a notational system using a combination of two or more kinds of symbols, e.g. letters and numbers c. Hierarchical notation – is one that reflects the structural order or hierarchy of the notation d. Expressive notation – one that reflects the relationships among coordinate subjects 3. Specifications for a notation a. Memorability Simplicity Brevity c. Expressiveness b. Hospitality d. Flexibility E. General Principles and Guidelines of Classification 1. Consider usefulness 2. Make subject the primary consideration. Class by subject, then by form, except in literature, where language and literary form are what matter most 3. Use the most specific number available 4. Do not classify from the index alone F. Guidelines in the Classification of Multitopical Works 1. Determine the dominant subject or the phrase relations a. Class under the dominant subject, if one can be determined. Consider the amount of space devoted to the topics and the intention of the author in writing the item. b. Phase relations – refer to the interrelationships of subjects treated in a work c. Influence phase – classify a work about the influence of one thing or author on another under the subject or the author being influenced. d. Bias phase – classify a work or a particular subject written with a bias toward, or aiming at, a specific group of readers under the subject, not the element toward which it is biased. For example: Psychology for College Students (Classify under Psychology not under College Students) e. Tool or Application Phase – classify a work such as Chemical Calculations: an introduction the Use of Mathematics in Chemistry under the subject (chemistry) not under the tool (Mathematics) f. Comparison phase – class under the subject emphasized or under the first subject 2. Class under first subject. If the dominant subject cannot be ascertained, e.g. in works treating two or more subjects separately or in comparison without any indication of preponderance class under the first subject. 3. Class under broader subject a work dealing with two or three subjects that are subdivisions of a broader subject and that together constitute the major portion of that subject, e.g. a work dealing with four or more subjects all of which are divisions of a broader subject, class number the number that covers them all. For example, a work about physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry should be classed under Chemistry.

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Classification Scheme 1. Dewey Decimal Classification System – a classification system for materials conceived by Melvil Dewey in 1873 and first published in 1876. The DDC is published by Forest Press which in 1988 became a division of OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. a. Notation in DDC provides a universal language to identify the class within which the subject belongs and related classes and is expressed in Arabic numerals. b. Basic classes are organized by disciplines or fields of study. At the broadest level, the DDC is divided into ten main classes which together cover the entire world of knowledge. Each main class is further divided into ten divisions and each division into ten sections. c. The ten main classes are: 000 – Generalities 600 – Technology (Applied 100 – Philosophy, paranormal Sciences) phenomena, psychology 700 – The Arts Fine and 200 – Religion decorative arts 300 – Social Science 800 – Literature (Belles-lettres) 400 – Language and the rhetoric 500 – Natural Sciences and 900 – Geography, history and Mathematics auxiliary disciplines d. Arrangement of the DDC Volume 1: 1.) New Features in Edition 22: A brief explanation of the special features and changes in DDC 22 2.) Introduction: A description of the DDC and how to use it 3.) Glossary: Short definitions of terms used in the DDC 4.) Indexes to the Introduction and Glossary 5.) Manual: A guide to the use of the DDC that is made up primarily of extended discussions of problem areas in the application of the DDC. Information in the Manual is arranged by: the numbers in the tables and schedules. 6.) Tables: six numbered tables of notation that can be added to class numbers to provide greater specificity. 7.) Lists that compare Editions 21 and 22: Relocations and Discontinuations; Reused Numbers Volume 2: 8.) DDC Summaries: The Top three levels of the DDC 9.) Schedules: The Organization of knowledge from 000-599 Volume 3: 10.) Schedules: The Organization of knowledge from 600-999 Volume 4: 11.) Relative Index: An alphabetical list of subjects with the disciplines in which they are treated sub arranged alphabetically under each entry. e. Tables in DDC Table 1 Standard Subdivisions Table 2 Geographic areas, Historical periods, Persons Table 3 Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms Table 4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families Table 5 Racial, Ethnic and National Groups Table 6 Languages Table 7 Groups of Persons f. Notes 1.) Definition notes – indicate the meaning of the class. For example: 004.7 Peripherals

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Input, Output, storage devices that work with a computer but are not part of its central processing unit or internal storage 2.) Scope note – indicate whether the meaning of the number is narrower or broader than is apparent from the heading. For example: 700 The Arts Fine and decorative arts Descriptions, critical appraisal, techniques, procedures, apparatus, equipment, materials of the fine, decorative, literary, performing, recreational arts 3.) Former-heading notes – are given only when a heading has been altered to such a degree that the new heading bears little or no resemblance to the old. For example: 983.2 Quechuan (Kechuan) and Aymaran languages Former heading: Andean languages 4.) Variant-name notes – are used for synonyms and near synonyms. For example: 332.32 Savings and loan association Variant names: building and loan associations, home loan associations, mortgage institutions 5.) Class-here notes list major topics in a class which may be broader or narrower than the heading overlap it or define another way of looking at essentially the same material. For example: 371.192 Parent-school relations Class here parent participation in schools: comprehensive works on teacher-parent relations 6.) Including notes identify topics that have “standing room” in the number where the note is found. For example: 374.22 Groups in adult education Including discussion, reading self-help, special-interest, study groups 7.) Class-elsewhere notes lead the classifier to interrelated topics, or distinguish among number in the same notational hierarchy. For example: 791.43 Motion pictures Class photographic aspects of motion pictures in 778.53; class made-for-TV movies, videotapes of motion pictures in 791.45 8.) See references lead from a stated or implied comprehensive number for a concept to the component (subordinate) parts of that concept. For example: 577.7 Marine ecology Class here saltwater ecology. For salt lake ecology see 577.639; for saltwater wetland and seashore ecology see 577.69 9.) See-also references lead the classifier to related topics. For example: 584.3 Liliidae Class here Liliales. Lilies. For Orchidales, see 584.4; See also 583.29 for water lilies 10.) Discontinued notes indicate that all or part of the contents of a number have been moved to a more general number in the same hierarchy, or have been dropped entirely. For example: [516.361] Local and intrinsic differential geometry Number discontinued 11.) Relocation notes state that all or part of the contents have been moved to a different number. For example: [370.19] Sociology of education Sociology of education relocated to 306.43 12.) Do-not-use notes instruct the classifier not to use all or part of the regular standard subdivision notation or an add table provision in favor of a special, or standard subdivisions at a broader number. For example:

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[374.809]

Historical, geographic, person treatment Do not use: class in 374.9 2. Library of Congress Classification a. Characteristics 1.) Designed by J. C. M. Hanson and Charles Martel using Cutter’s Expansive Classification as basis 2.) For notation, it uses a three-element pattern: first single capital letters for main classes (e.g. H for Social Science) with one or two capital letters for their subclasses (e.g. HA for Statistics0, second, Arabic integers from 1 to 9999 for subdivisions; and third, Cutter numbers for individual books. Decimal integers and the use of Cutter umbers were allowed to accommodate expansion. 3.) Consists of twenty-one classes displayed in over forty separately published schedules 4.) Organization of divisions within a class, subclass, or subject originally followed a general pattern known as Martel’s seven points: (1) General form divisions, (2) theory/philosophy, (3) history, (4) treatises or general works, (5) law/regulation/state relations, (6) study and teaching, and (7) special subjects and subdivisions of subjects. b. Basic Principles and Structure 1.) Main classes – consist of single capital letters as indicated below a.) A – General works j.) K – Law b.) B – Philosophy, k.) L – Education Psychology, Religion l.) M – Music and Books on c.) C – Auxiliary Sciences of Music History m.) N – Fine Arts d.) D – History (General) and n.) P – Language and History of Europe Literature e.) E – History: America o.) Q – Science f.) F – History: America p.) R – Medicine g.) G – Geography, q.) S – Agriculture Anthropology, Recreation r.) T – Technology h.) H – Social Sciences s.) U – Military Science i.) J – Political Science t.) V – Naval Science 2.) Subclasses – each of the main classes, with the exception of E, F, and Z is divided into subclasses that represent disciplines or major branches of the main class. For example: Class G is divided into the following subclasses: a.) G – General Geography, f.) GF – Human Geography Atlases, Maps g.) GN – Anthropology b.) GA – Cartography, h.) GR – Folklore Mathematical Geography i.) GT – Manners and c.) GB – Physical Geography Customs d.) GC – Oceanography j.) GV – Recreation, Leisure e.) GE – Environmental Sciences 3.) Divisions – each subclass is further divided into divisions hat represent components of the subclass. For example: the subclass human geography has the following divisions: GF 1 – 900 Human Geography 53 – 71 Environmental influences on Man 75 Man’s Influence on the Environment 101 – 127 Settlements 125 Urban Geography 127 Rural Geography 500 – 900 By Region or Country

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Each of the divisions, in turn, has subdivisions specifying different aspects of the subject, such as form, time, place, and more detailed subject subdivisions. c. Notation 1.) LCC uses a mixed notation of letters and Arabic numerals to construct call numbers. In many schedules, the single letter stands for the class as a whole as well as for its subclass, e.g. Class N: Fine Arts: Subclass N: Visual arts (General) 2.) Divisions within subclasses were represented by Arabic numbers form 1 to 9999 (as integers) with possible decimal extensions and/or, with further subdivision indicated by Cutter numbers. For example: Z One capital letter 8587 Integer 1 to 9999 .8 Decimal extension .A46 Book number 1991 d. Tables 1.) Tables of General Applications a.) Tables for geographic division by means of Cutter numbers. The table “Regions and Countries in One Alphabet” provides alphabetical arrangement of countries by means of cutter numbers. It is used whenever the schedule gives the instruction “by country, A-Z” or “By region or country A-Z”) b.) Biography table – is used for works about a person, including autobiography, letters, speeches, and biography 2.) Tables of Limited Application a.) Tables applicable to an individual class or subclass. Author tables used throughout the schedules for class P. Language and Literature Form tables used in the schedules of class K – Law Geographic tables in class H, Social Sciences and in class S, Agriculture b.) Tables for internal subarrangement – designed for use with specific spans of numbers that are scattered throughout the schedules e. Notes 1.) Scope notes – explain the type of works to be classified at the subject, may refer the classifier to related topics elsewhere in the schedule or in another schedule. For example: QH Ecology Class here works on general ecology and general animal ecology 2.) Including notes – list topics which are included within a subject. For example: SF 101 Animal culture Brands and branding, and other means of identifying including cattle marks and earmarks 3.) See notes – refer the classifier to a number elsewhere in the schedules, often as a result of reclassification decision. For example: QH 540 Ecology For ecology of particular topographic area, See GF 101 + 4.) A number in parentheses indicates that the number is no longer in use and a see reference is given. For example: TH 6518 Plumbing and pipefitting (6525) Rural water domestic supply see TD 927 5.) Confer (Cf.) notes – indicate that related topics are classified elsewhere in the schedules. For example: QH 540 Ecology Cf. HX550 E25 Communism and ecology

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Cf. QH546 Ecological genetics 6.) Apply at table notes – refer the classifier to a table with subdivision instructions, so that the same instruction is not repeated on the same page or several times over a couple of pages. For example: NK 3650.5 A-Z By region or country, A-Z Apply table at NK 3649.35 A-Z

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