Storage Tanks

May 9, 2018 | Author: mohamedyoussef1 | Category: Corrosion, Strength Of Materials, Wound, Tanks, Buckling
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Chevron U.S.A. Inc. Western Region EL & P

Chevron

STORAGE TANKS TANK SELECTION - (JAC) A, GENERAL B , BASIC DATA REQUIREDCAPACITY SEEVICEAND USE LIQUIDPROPERTIES SITE CONDITIONS FIREPROTECTIONREQUI~EMENTS GOYERNMENTAL REGULATIONS C, TANK DIMENSIONS CONE ROOF TANKS SHELL THICKNESSLIMITATIONS SEISMICDESIGNLIMITATIONS D, ROOF SELECTION GENERAL VAPOR EMIssI ON CONTROL (EVAPORATIONLOSSES) FIRE PROTECTION EXPLOSIONH A Z A ~ B VAPOR SPACE CORROSION E, GONE WOOFS F , BOTTOM GONFIGU2ATION 11,

TANK DESIGN - (JAC) A, GENERAL

BPI STANDARD 650 A$ I IBt4OGRkY

SPEC IFHCATIBNS E6-967 AND E6-968 AVAILABLE COMPUTER PROGWMS

BASIC DATA DESZGPJMETAL TEHPEXATURE M ~ x z i d u nFILLIHG AND EHPTYINGRATES DESIGN ~ H N VELQCISY D %ARTHQUAKE ZONE

ROOF

LOADING

OVERALL DESHGfl CONSIDERATIONS C ~ ~ R O S I ALLO~~ANCE ON BRITTLE FRACTURE AND QUALITY

OF

STEEL

SULFIDE CRACKINGAND TANKSSTEELS

BOWOPI DESIGN !~ATER~ALS

ANF~ULWRBOTTOMPLATES AND SKETCH PLATES

PERHISSHBLE SETVLEHENT CATHODIC PROTECTION

SHELL DESIGN

SELECTIO~I OF DESIGNBASIS W I N D S s a s r ~ ~ rOFv BANK SHELLS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE CONE ROOF DESIGN \ATE~IALS

FRANG 1BLE ROOF JOINT

OF

TANKS

K

MISCELLANEOUS

PREPRIMINGOF TANK STEEL 111,

SELECTION O f APPURTENANCES - (JRS) A,

B, C,

D, E, F, IV,

IrdTRODUCTHBa FORMS EF-33C3 AND EF-3SFR COMPA!iY DRAW IIGS API STWblDAWDS MAtiUFACTURERS' STANDARDS

ECOtiOMY

I M SELECTIOj

TAMK OPENINGS - (JRS) A. BPI SHELL 14AflWOLES

B, C,

LARGER ACCESSWAY SMELL NOZZLES

D,

SWELL CLEANOUTS FLUSH-TYPECLEANOUTS

3oow SWEETCLEANBUTS E, F,

ELBOW 6UTiEB SIPHOf4-TYPE WATER

G,

WATER DRAWOFF SUF4PS

H,

UtiDER-BO$TOH COliFiECTIOr4

DRAWOFF

HATER D ~ A H O F ELBOWS F COMB I ~ ~ A T I O M CLEANOUT AND WATER DRAW

LARGE BOTTOM? ~ Q Z Z L E S BQTTOWSUMP

I, ROOF MANHOLES FUNCTION STANDARDAPI ROOF ~YANHOLE

V,

J,

RECTANGULARWOOF WINDOW SHEETS

K, L,

GAGE FLOAT I N INSPECTION HATCH API ROOF NOZZLES

GAGING AND SAPIPLING DEVICES - (JRS)

A,

VI,

?!ANHOLE

8,

VAPOR-TIGHT GAGE HATCH FUMNEL-TYPE THIEF AND GAGE HATCH

C,

MULTIPLE USE HATCH

D,

GAGE WELLS FIXED RQOF TANKS

E,

TANK GAGING

OPERATING DEVICES - (JRS) A, SWING PIPES GENERAL

ELBOW SY IM G $0 INTS CABLES

W~~cts~s

B,

CABLE SHEAVESFOR COME ROOF TANKS TANK HEATERS AND HEAT LOSSES GENERAL

INTERNAL HEATERS

EXTERNAL HEATERS TANK MIXERS PROPELLERTYPE TANK 1 4 1 x 1 ~YOZZLES ~ THEUIAL CtOS i NG HANK VALVES GENE~AL

USES MA 1 NTENANCE TYPES OF VALVES

VII,

VAPOR RELIEF - FIXED ROOF - (JWSI A, GENERAL

B,

VEMTIYG CAPACITY At49 PRESSURES OPEN VEHTS

BREATHERVALYES EMERGENCYVENTS

VIII,

ACCESS - (JRS) A,

LADDERS

B,

STAIRS

C,

HANDRAILS SPEC IA t NALKYAY%

D, IX,

ORDERING DATA - (JWC)

A,

GENERAL

B,

TANK 8 APPURTENANCE SCHEDULE

C,

REFERENCE DRAidIdGS

D,

TANK SPECIFICATIBHS

En F,

PLANT REGULATIONS OTHER DOCUIENTS

G,

L I S T SHEETS

TANK LOCATIOM - (JAC) A,

CONSIDERATIONS OPERATING REQUIRE~IENTS TOPOGZAPHY FIRE PRBTECTHONREQUI UTILIZATION

B,

OF

REPENTS

PROPERTY

LOCAT IOf4 AdD SPAC IMG GENERAL DISTANCE

FWO:4 ~ % ? O P E ~ T LINES Y AND

PUBLIC

Ways SHELL-TO-SWELL SPACING SPACING C,

IMPOUNDING

FROM

OPERATING FACILITIES

AND D R A I ~ A G E

DRAINAGE TAMK YARD WALLS DIKE ENCLOSURE CAPACITY INTERMEDIATE CURBS OR DRAINAGE CHANNELS

TANK FOUNDATIONS - (JAC)

A, B, C,

SCOPE PURPOSE INTRODUCTIOII

D.

BACMGROUl\aT) SOIL PROPERTIES SETTLEMNT EDGE SETTLEWENT

E, F,

BES IGi4 GUIDELINES SITE COiiDITIO3IS SOIL

TYPE

6,

SMALL TANKS CORROSION

H,

ENVIRONMENTAL RISK

I, APPURTE?iANCES

J, XII,

ADDITIONAL IMFORl4ATION

CONNECTING LINES (JAC)

A,

PURPOSE AND SCOPE

B,

REQUIZEFIEflTS FOR FLEXIBILITY METHODS OF PROVIDING FLEXIBILITY PIPING BENDS VALVES AND FITTINGS FLEXIBLE JOINTS FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE FLEXIBLE RUBBER HOSE

C, D, E,

F, G, H,

XIII,

TANK MAINTEMANCE - (MWM) A,

SCOPE

B,

CLEAN I NG GENERAL ACCESS DOOR SHEETS

@,

AND

ROOF

~INDOWS

SHELL GENERAL RERATING

D,

AND

RETIRING

STRESSES

FREQUENCY OF INSPECTI ON INSPECTION OF SHELL LAMINATED PLATE REFERENCES BOT'TOPIS GENERAL STRESSES EVIDENCE OF FAILURE INSPECTION AFTER CLEANING SANPLES SHELL TO BOTTOM CONNECTION UPPER SURFACE CORROSION REPAIR OF DEFECTS BY WELDING NAJQRBOTTOM REPAIR HETHQBS REFERENCES FIBERGLASS WE INFORCED POLYESTER COATINGS UNREINFORCED PLASTIC COATINGS METAL-BEAR ING COAT INGS

CONCRETE FILL

GEL^ MUD FILLS CATHODIC PROTECTION ROOF GENERAL

FOUIiDAY ION PAD SETTLEHENT DUE

TO

CO~I!PRESSION

PROTECTIVE COATI iVGS

INTERNAL PROTECTION USE

OF

GUWITE

?LAST1c COAT1MG

AND

PATCH1NG

REFERENCES PAINTING

H,

REFERENCE APROMS ANII GUTTERS GENERAL

XIV

HOT TAPPING OF TAHKS

IN SERVICE - (JAC)

B,

GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTIBfiS

C,

EQUIPMENT

D E,

INSPECTIOf4 STAHDARDS

F8

PROCEDURE SMALL COMNECTIONS UP

A,

8

TO

2 INCHES

G,

PIPE CONNECTIONS OVER 2 INCHES FIRE PROTECTION

XV

DETERMINATION OF INSPECTION INTERVALS - (NWM) A, SCOPE B , OBJECTIVE C , DEFINITIONS B , INSPECTIONS E, I MSPECTIBN INTERVAL F, OTHER FACTORS G , CORROSION H, CORRECTIVE WORK I , REPORTS

XVI ,

PRODUCTION TANKS - (JRS) A, I NTRODUCTION B, CODE AND STAPdDARDS API STANDARES OSjA ~ E G U L A T I O M S

REGULATIONS DESI GM COiiSSDERATIOfiS SCOPE GENERAL COLD ~IEWTHER SERVICE W I N D STABILITY EARTHQUAKESTABILITY OTHER

C,

I, TANK SELECTIOM

A,

GENERAL THE

PURCHASE OF A TANK OR GROUP OF TANKS INVOLVES

PRIMARY

PHASES

COVERING

,

ROOF

E N G I N E E R I N G WORM

AND

FA3RICATION

THESE PHASES OF

OF

ARE:

SELECT

APPROPRIATE

LOCATION,

DESIGN

THE

FORMS, EF-33CR FLOATING-ROOF

AND

THIS

WORK

TRANSPARENC IES

EF-33CR

OF

CORPOWATIOPI ENGINEERING,

THE

INFORMATION VERTICAL

ATMOSPHERIC

AND

OF TANKS USED WITHIN

THE

FOLLOWING

DEPARTMENT MUST TANKS :

COMPLETED, AND TYPE

CONDITIONS

FINALLY,

SELECT

AND

THE

I S NECESSARY FOR THE

APPURTENANCE SCHEDULE TANKS AND EF-33FW FOR

THE

BIANUALS

EF-333

AND

GUIDANCE

SINCE

FULL

TANK,

A

ABOVE-GROUND

STORAGE

BE

CONTRACT

WHICH ARE THE B A S I C DOCUMENTS F O 2

FROM

TOWARD

AND

SPECIFYING

AND

SERVICE

CONE-ROOF

FOR

TANKS,

DESCRIBING

THE

TANK,

TANK

THE

OF

CAN

A

THE TANK DIMENSIONS

FOR

PROPER APPURTENANCES,

PREPARATION

ERECTION

BEFORE

THREE

ARE

PROVIDED

WELDED

THEY

REPRESENT

AVAILABLE

IS

STEEL

SIZE

DIRECTED TANKS

THE

FOR

MAJORITY

COMPANY, OF

THE

CORPORATION

ENGINEERING

BE CONSULTED I N S E L E C T I N G AND D E S I G N I N S

IN ADDITION, THE FOLLOWING DESIGN PRACTICES OF THE CORPORATIONENGINEERING DEPARTMENTPROVIDE USEFUL TOOLS ,.

AND INFORMATION:

1, 2, 3, "4.

B,

D-131-8 D-131-9 D-131-10 D-131-15

FIRE PROTECTIONFOR LARGE TANKS COHPUTEW PROGRAMS,WIND 1" AND WIND 2% COMPUTERPROGRAM,AP165" COMPUTERPROGRAN,TANKE

BASIC DATA

THE NOMINAL

CAPACITY IS THE TOTAL VOLUME TO THE TOP OF

THE

EXPRESSED

SHELL

IN

ROUND

NUHBERS;

THE

CAPACITY IS THE SAME VOLUME ACCURATE STATED,

OPERATING CAPACITY IS USABLE VOLUME,

THE

GROSS

THE

DIFFERENCE

REPRESENTS DEAD STORAGE WHICH IS UNAVAILABLE BECAUSE OF LIMITATIONS ON BOTH THE MAXIMUM FILLING HEIGHT AND THE

MI N IMUM HOLD

w ITHDRAWAL

TO

A

UNAVAILABLE

LEVEL.

MINIMUM

AND

SHOULD

NOT

INVENTORY SHOULD BE

OVERLOOKED

IN

S I Z I N G A TANK,

ROST

OPERATING O R G A N I Z A T I O N S HAVE

STANDARDS WHIC51

S P E C I F Y THE SAFE F I L L I N G H E I G H T FOR NEW TANKS,

AND

T H I S WILL F I X THE UNUSED STORAGE VOLUME AT THE TOP OF THE TANK,

FOR CONE ROOF TANKS, ,. BE 6" TO 12" OF SHELL

THIS

STOWAGE WILL GENERALLY

:5

FOR

TANKS

LOCATED

CONSIDERATION

HEIGHT,

IN

EARTHQUAKE

SHOULD

BE

GIVEN

ZONES

TO

3

4,

AND

INCREASING

THE

UNUSED VOLUME A T THE TOP OF THE TANK TO ALLOW FOR SLOSHING OF THE CONTENTS THAT MAY OCCUR D U R I N G Afd EARTHQUAKE

I M ORDER

TO

AVOID

STOCK

DANAGE TO THE ROOF AND UPPER SHELL. FREEBOARD

OF

2

FEET

WILL

BE

SPILLAGE

AND

GENERALLY,

A

IN

SUFFICIENT,

C O N S I D E R I N G WHETHER TO P R O V I D E T H I S FREEBOARD,

THE

P R O B A B I L I T Y OF OCCURRENCE OF AN EARTHQUAKE W I T H A F U L L TANK AND THE PROBABLE LOSS DUE TO SLOSHING I F FREEBOARD

IS

NOT

PROVIDED

SHOULD

BE

WEIGHED

A G A I N S T THE VALUE OF THE UNUSED STORAGE C A P A C I T Y ,

IN THE

FINAL

EVERY REASONABLE

DESIGNS

CONSIDERATION

SHOULD

BE

GIVEN

TO

AND ECONOMIC

MINIrUIIZIMG

THIS

INVENTORY,

THE MUST

MINIMUM

OPERATING

SATISFY

THE

FOR A CONE ROOF TANK

LEVEL

SUCTION

REQUIREMENTS

OF

THE

L I Q U I D WITHDRAWAL PUMPS,

THERE

ARE

SITUATIONS

IN

NHICH

AND USE CONDITIONS.

SERVICE

BOTH PRESENT AND FUTURE8 WILL D I C T A T E TANK S E L E C T I O N RATHER THAN

THE

LIQUID

PROPERTIES

AND

REQUIRED

F I R S T STOCK TO BE STBREE).

MOST

THE TYPE OF ROOF SELECTED,

FOR EXAMPLE,

JET

FUEL

INTERNAL

MAY

REQUIRE

FLOATING

A

OF

THE

OFTEN THESE WILL RELATE TO

CONE

WOOF

IN

ORDER

ROOF

CAPACITY

STORAGE OF FINISHED

TANK

EQUIPPED

TO

MAINTAIN

WITH

AM

PRODUCT

S P E C I F I C A T I O N S W I T H RESPECT 80 WATER CONTENT,

DATA

ON THE FOLLOWING

LIQUID

PROPERTIES

TANK S E L E C T I O N AND TANK D E S I G N :

IS

REQUIRED

FOR BOTH

1,

SPECIFIC

2,

TRUE VAPOR PRESSURE, CORROSIVITY FLASHPOINT

3,

4,

GRAVITY

KNOWLEDGE

OF

ALLOWABLE

SOIL

FACTOR

IN

THE

SITE

WILL

CONDITIONS

BEARING

SELECTING

PSIA

PRESSURE

THE

TANK

MAY

BE BE

HEIGHT,

THE

REQUI~ED, THE

CONTROLLING

SOME

DIFFERENTIAL

SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE TANK P E R I P H E R Y AND THE CENTER OF THE TANK

CAN

NORMALLY

OVER

THE

ENTIRE

BE

AREA

ACCOMMODATED, IS

SELDOM

A

AND

U N I F O R M SETTLEMENT

PROBLEM

EXCEPT

IN

THE

D E S I G N OF TANK L I N E S ,

IN SEISMICALLY

A C T I V E AREAS,

TO

THE

DETERMINE

THE S I T E SHOULD B E I N V E S T I G A T E D

POTENTIAL

FOR

LIQUEFACTION

MAY

AFFECT

DURING

AM

EARTHQUAKE,

OTHER

SITE

CONDITIONS

WHICH

TANK

DIMENSIONS

INCLUDE :

1,

SPACE

AVAILABLE

MAY

BE

RESTRICTED

REQUIRING

TANKS THAN M I G H T OTHERWISE TO ECONOMICAL,

HIGHER

2,

TOPOGRAPHYAND LIMIT

THE

REQUIRED

DIAMETER

EARTHWORK MAY BE

OF

THE

TANK

AND

SUCH

AS

TO

CORRESPONDINGLY

INCREASE THE H E I G H T ,

3,

PREVAILING

HEIGHT

IN

AN ESTABLISHED

TANK AREA MAY LIMIT

D E V I A T I O N THEREFROM I N ORDER TO M A I N T A I N l l N IFORM ACCESS BETWEEN TANKS,

GENERAL APPEARANCE OF THE GROUP,

OR FOR

OTHER REASONS,

THE FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL GOVERNMENTAL OF

TANK

DEFINES

THAT

REQUIREMENTS

D I M E N S I O N S AND THE

w ILL

COMPANY,

INDUSTR AND

AFFECT THE DETERHINAT ION

S E L E C T I O N OF

THE

TYPE OF ROOF,

THESE INCLUDE : 1.

SPACING

OF

TANKS

AND

MINIMUM

DISTANCE

FROM

PROPERTY

LINES,

2,

THE

TYPE

EXAMPLE, FEET

OF

ROOF

FLOATING

DIANETER

REQUIRED

ROOFS ARE REQUIRED

THAT

ARE

SERVICES,

FOR

ON TANKS OVER

120

FOR CERTAIN

USED

FOR

THE

STOCK H A V I N G A F L A S H P O I N T LOWER THAN

STORAGE

100oF,

OF

ANY

ASIDE

THE

FROM

FIRE

THE

PROTECTION

MAIN

THRUST

OF

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATIONS RELATED TO TANK SELECTION I S I N THE AREA OF A I R Q U A L I T Y CONTROL,

FOR ANY

GIVEN

COMBINATIONS THAT

MAY

OF DIAMETER

AFFECT

TANK

OTHERS

DISCUSSED, AND,

THERE WILL BE SEVERAL PRACTICAL

CAPACITY

TO

A

MINIMIZING

MINOR

DEAD

SITE

AND HEIGHT,

DIMENSIONS

HAVE

ARE : LAND VALUE, EXTENT,

STORAGE

A

BEEN PREVIOUSLY

FOUNDATIONS

TANK

FAVORS

CONDITIONS

PAINTING

SMALLER

COSTS COSTSm

DIAMETER,

HIGHER TANK,

WITH 8

FEW EXCEPTIONS,

FEET,

PREFERRED

THE BY

TANK HEIGHTS

LATTER

TANK

COURSE

FABRICATORS

ARE MULTIPLES HEIGHT SINCE

NUMBER OF F I E L D CIRCUMFERENTIAL WELDS,

IS IT

OF

6

OR

GENERALLY

REDUCES

THE

THE

CAPACITY

RANGE

HEIGHT

ECONOMIC

C A P A C I T Y TANKS,

WILL GENERALLY

25,000

OF

WILL GENERALLY

200,000

OVER

DROP TO

40

lOO,OOO

TO

48

BE

BBLS

THE

FOR LARGE

FEET,

B B L S t THE ECONOMIC H E I G H T

THIS

FEET,

IS

DUE

TO

THE

E X C E S S I V E COST OF P R O V I D I N G ADEQUATE ROOF SUPPORTS FOR H I G H E R TANKS,

THE.

LIMITATION

IN

API-650

MAXIMUM

ON

SHELL

THICKNESS

MAY ALSO L I M I T THE H E I G H T OF LARGE TANKS,

IN SEISMICALLY

A C T I V E AREAS,

EARTHQUAKE D E S I G N C R I T E R I A

MAY L I M I T TANKS TO H E I G H T S BELOW WHAT

BE ECONOMIC, LIMITED

TO A

FOR SMALL

ON FIRM

CAPACITY)

TANKS IN

TANKS ON SOFT SOILS

SOILS.

ZONE

TO DIAMETER

HEIGHT

FOR SMALL

TO

4

WILL GENERALLY BE

0,5:1

RATIO

OF ABOUT

0.6: 1

FOR LARGE TANKS

TAIVKS (UNDER ABOUT

3000

BBL,

GREATER H E I G H T TO D I A M E T E R R A T I O S CAN B E USED

B Y ANCHOR IFIG THE T,1NK NOT

SEISMIC

WOULD OTHERWISE

PRACTICAL

FOR

HOWEVER,

LARGER

TANKS

ANCHOR ING I S GENERALLY AND

NOT

RECOMMENDED

BECAUSE OF THE LARGE L O C A L L O A D I N G IMPOSED ON THE TANK S H E L L B Y THE ANCHORS,

D.

ROOF SELECTIOPJ

THE

3)

FLOATING, AND

4)

COME

A CONE ROOF TANK ROOF

TANKS

FLOATING

ROOFS

PONTOONS,

AND DOUBLE DECK,

CONE

ROOF

TANKS

CAN

WITH

BE

WITH VAPOR

FURTHER

FILLING

AN

INTERNAL

RECOVERY

CLASSIFIED

ROOF,

SYSTEMS,

AS

PROPORTIONAL

LOSSES

2)

1) CONE,

TYPES OF ROOFS TO BE CONSIDERED AIIE:

PAN,

TO

THE

THROUGHPUT AND BREATHING LOSSES ROUGHLY PROPORTIONAL TO

THE VOLUME

OF THE VAPOR SPACE

TANKS W I T H A T I G H T - F I T T I N G

IN

THE

FLOATING

TANK.

PRIWAliY AND SECONDARY SEALS

V I R T U A L L Y E L I M I N A T E THESE EVAPORATION LOOSES,

FIRE

PROTECTIONS

IS

NOT A

BASIC

SELECTION OF A ROOF EXCEPT FOR TANKS OVER DIAMETER,

FOR

THESE

LARGE

IN

CONSIDERATION

TANKS

FLOATING

120

FEET

ROOFS

THE IN

ARE

REQUIRED FOR ANY STOCK HAYING A FLASH LOWER THAN lOOOF AND,

2OoF

FOR HEAVIER OF THEIR

STOCKS

FLASH POINT,

STORED AT

TEMPERATURES W I T H I N

A

MORE

DETAILED

CONS IDERATIONS

MANUAL

DISCUSSION

CONTAINED

IS

OF

FIRE

FIRE PROTECTION

THE

IN

PROTECTIOiV

ENGINEERING DEPARTPENT'S DESIGN PRACTICE

AND THE

D-131-8,

ALL

CONE ROOF TANKS C O N T A I N I N G V O L A T I L E STOCKS C O N T A I N

FLAMMABLE M I X T U R E S AT

EVERY

. SPACE,

STOCKS

IN

SOMETIMES EVEN

PRECAUTION

CONE PUT

THOUGH

TIMES

ROOF ON

THEY

TAKEN IN

TANKAGE,

SUCH MAY

IS

I N A PORTION OF THE VAPQZ

TANKS

NOT

BE

BUT AS

DEALING

FLOATING

A

SAFETY

WARRANTED

WITH

SUCY

ROOFS

ARE

PRECAUTION,

BY

EVAPORATION

SAVINGS

SHELL

IN

CORROSION

USED FOR HAVING

PROBLEM,

STORAGE SIMILAR

THE

THE VAPOR SPACE OF A CONE ROOF TANK OF

SOUR

CRUDE O I L S

CHARACTERISTICS

USE OF A FLOATING

CAN

AND

OTHER

BE

ROOF WHICH

A

SERIOUS

ELIMINATES

MOST OF THE VAPOR SPACE SHOULD B E CONSIDERED CIRCUMSTANCES,

STOCKS

I N THESE

E,

CONE ROOFS

A

COME

ROOF

IS

THE

LEAST

EXPENSIVE

AND

MOST

THEY DO

MAINTENANCE-FREE METHOD FOR COVERING A TANK,

HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR INCURRING EVAPORATION LOSSES.

THIS

CHARACTERISTIC GENERALLY

LIMITS THEIR USE

TO

RELATIVELY LOW VAPOR PRESSURE STOCKS WHERE THE SAVI3iG

IN EVAPORATION LOSS IS NOT ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY THE HIGHER INVESTMENT OF A FLOATING WOOF,

CONE

ROOFS

CAN

EASILY

BE

DESIGNED

ANTICIPATED SNOW AND ICE LOADINGS, IS MOT THE OPERATING CONCERN THAT FLOATING ROOF,

ROOF

TO

SUPPORT

THUS SNOW 16 COULD BE

REHOVAL

WITH A

SUPPORT IS PROVIDED BY INTERIaR

COLUMNS AND ROOF RAFTERS,

THE

HIGH POTENTIAL FOR EVAPORATION LOSS FROM A CONE

ROOF DOES NOT NECESSARILY PRECLUDE THEIR USE WHERE GROUP OF TANKS IS INVOLVED,

IT

A

MAY BE MORE ECONOMICAL

TO INTERCONNECT THE VAPOR

SPACES TO A COMMON VAPOR

RECOVERY

PROVIDE

ROOFS,

SYSTEM

THAN

TO

SEPARATE

FLOATING

F,

BOTTOM CONFIGURATION

DRAWI NG

GB-12474 1,

ATTACHED,

CONFIGURATIONS FO3 TANK PlPING

AND

DISADVANTAGES

CHOICE

DRAIN OF

BOTTOMS AND ARRANGEMENTS

COMNECTIOMSm

THE

BASIC

SUMMARIZES

DIFFERENT

ADVANTAGES DESIGNS

ARE

FQQ AND

LISTED,

OF DESIGN BEST SUITED FOR A PARTICULAR S E R V I C E

(1)

OPERATING REQUIREHENTS FOR THE

PRODUCT TO BE STORED:

( 2 ) MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS:

IS INFLUENCED BY:

AND

(3)

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SUPPORTING SOIL,

TANK MANUAL

TANK SELECTON

II, TANK DESIGN A,

GENERAL ONCE

AMD TYPE OF ROOF HAVE BEEN SELECTED

THE DIHENSIOHS

FOR A

TANK,

THE

ENGINEER

HUST

VARIOUS ELEMENTS OF THE TANK

DESSGId AND/OR

SPECIFY

I N ORDER TO CQHPLETE THE

FORMSEF-33CR OR EF-33FR, TANK AND APPURTENANCE SCHEDULE, REFERENCE COPIES OF THESE FORMS ARE I N SECTION I X OF T H I S MANUAL, "TANK DATA"

THE

PORTION

CO:~PANY ' S THAT

967

THE

STANDARDS,

EXPERIENCE

A P I STANDARDS

AREAS ARE

AND

DETAILS

AND

REQUI~EMENTS

REPRESENT MINIHUM

QF

AND

BE

COVERED

THERE ARE

TECHNICAL

MODIFIED

OR

SET FORTH IN

SPECIFICALLY

API-050

BY

AREAS WHERE THE 2EQUIRES

JUDGMENT

EXCEEDED,

THESE

SPECIFICATION

EG-

€6-968,

INFORMATIQN

IN

THIS

SECTION

AND

THE

FOLLOWING

SECTION ON TANK APPURTENANCES WILL PERMIT THE ENGINEER TO SPECIFY

THE TANK ON

FORMEF-33CR on EF-33FR m I o n

TO

REQUESTING QUOTATIONS,

B,

API STANDARD 550

I S THE RECOGNIZED INDUSTZY STANDARD USED THROUGHOUT THE

COMPANY,

A

COPY OF THE LATEST E D I T I O N AND 'SUP?LE#ENT

I S MAINTAINED I N

SECTION 300

OF THE

TANK MANUAL,

C

A Q I MONOGRAM

I

THE A Q I

ITWAS

MANUFACTFJRER BEEN

2

REVISION

WITHDRAWN WITH STANDARDS,

API-650

FOR

MONOGRAM

A

IN

API-628

TANKS

SIXTH EDITION

OF THE

REPLACED B Y A

SUBMIT

FURNISHED

AND

OF BOT#

REQUIREMENT THAT THE

C E R T I F I C A T I O N THAT ACCORDANCE

WAS

WITH

THE

THE

TANK

HAS

APPLICASLE

STANDARD,

D,

.

SPECIFICATIONS EG-967 AND EG-968 SPECIFICATION AND FABRICATED

EG-967 IN

COVERS

CONE

ACCORDANCE WITH

ROOF

TANKS

API-650

DESIGNED

AND HAS BEEN

PREPARED TO ALLOW THE E N S I N E E R OR FABRICATOR TO SELECT THE D E S I G N B A S I S AND S H E L L M A T E R I A L BASED UPON ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS,

WHERE MINI OF

THESE

MUPI

IT HAS BEEN PREPARED TO CLEARLY COMPANY STANDARDS EXCEED API -650,

ADDED

REQUIREMENTS

PROVIDE

FOR

DEFINE

MOST

INCREASED

P R O T E C T I O N A G A I N S T B R I T T L E FRACTURE AND REQUIRE THE USE OF

HIGHER Q U A L I T Y

M A T E R I A L S AND WELDING PROCEDURES

AS

WELL AS MORE E X T E N S I V E R A D I O G R A P H I C E X A M I N A T I O N ,

E,

AVAILABLE COMPUTER PROGRAMS

THE

FOLLOWING

VARIOUS

DESIGN

TIMESHARE

COMPUTER

CALCULATIONS

CORPORATION ENGINEERING

ARE

PROGRAMS AVAILABLE

DEPARTMENT,

TO

PERFORM

TH40UGY

?YE

API-65 - A

COHPUTER

PROGRAM

FOR

CALCULATING SHELL

THICKNESS SEQUIRED FOR HYDROSTATIC LOADS IN ACCORDANCE

API-658 REQUIREMENTS, DESIGNPRACTICED-131-18,

WITH

WIND1

WIND2

AND

THESE ARE

-

TWO COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR

DETERMINING THE RESISTANCE OF STORAGE TANKS TO BUCKLING FOR WIND LOADING,

DESIGN PRACTICED-131-9,

BOTH PROGRAMS USE

THE CRITERIA OF

FOR

API-650, SECTION3,gc

CHECKING TANK SHELL FOR STABILITY AGAINST WIND

DESIGN PRACTICED-831-9,

LOADING.

THE PROGRAM WIND1

DETERMINES THE MAXIP~UM WIND VELOCITY

AN UNSTIFFEMED TANK CAN WITHSTAND WITHOUT BUCKLING AS THE SHELL THICKNESS IS REDUCED BY CORROSION1

THE

PROGRAM

VELOCITY

AN

BUCKLING,

WIND2

ALSO DETERMINES THE

UNSTIFFENED TANK

IF

MAXIMUM WIMa

CAN WITHSTAND WITHOUT

THE CALCULATED VALUE IS BELOW THE DESIGN

WIND VELOCITY THE SHELL THICKNESS IS INCREASED SO IT CAN WITHSTAND THE DESIGN WIND VELOCITY,

TANKE TANKS

-

A

FOR

COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR CHECK I NG NON-ANCHORED SEISMIC LOADING COMPLIANCE WITH

APPENDIX E, DESIGN PRACTICED-831-15,

API-650

F,

BASIC DATA

THE

DESIGN

AMBIENT TO BE

METAL TEMPERATURE IS

TEMPERATURE

INSTALLED,

USED A S

FIGURE 1

OF

PLUS

THIS

TEMPERATURE FOR AND SOUTHERN

I N THE L O C A L I T Y WHERE

COMPANY

MAJOR

THE LOWEST ONE-DAY

15F,

INSTALLATIONS

SECTION,

OTHER

CANADA

DESIGN

THE

LOCATIONS

TABULATED

LOWEST

CAN BE OBTAINED

TANK

IS

METAL TE~YPERATURES ARE

IN

THE

MEAN

ONE-DAY

OH

MEAR

THE

UNITED

FROM

FIGURE 2-1

STATES IN

AP 1-658, THE THE

DESIGN

METAL TEMPERATURE IS

SPECIFICATION

STANDARD MATERIAL ~ P E C I F I C A T ~ ~ NNO,

OF

AN IWPORTAMT

MATERIAL,

FACTOR IN

DRAWING GD-D1047,

REQUIREMENTS FOR TANKS CONSTRUCTED TO EG-967, D E F I N E S ~ O M P A N Y REQUIREMENTS

I N T H I S REGARD,

THE

MAXIMUM

SPECIFIED,

FILLING

FOR

COME

AND ROOF

EMPTYING TANKS

RATES

THESE

MUST RATES

DETERMINE THE NUMBER AND S I Z E OF BREATHER V A L V E S ,

BE

WILL

THE

DESIGN

WIND

INSTALLATIONS

FOR OTHER

OF THIS

MEAN

COHPANY SECTION,

VELOCITY

WIND

EXTREME M I L E VELOCITY

50-YEAR

GROUND,

FIGURE 1

THE USE OF A DESIGN

LOCATIOHS

EQUAL TO THE ANNUAL ABOVE

MAJOR

USED

TABULATED ON

IS

AT

VELOCITY

RECURRENCE

AT

30

FEET

4S

INTERVAL

RECOMMENDED UNDER MOST CIRCUMSTANCES,

CHARTS

OF

FIGURE 2

EXTREME MILE

THE

TANKS

SHOULD

API-658

MAJOR THIS

THE IS

UNITED STATES,

EARTHQUAKE ZONE BE

DETERMINED

SHOW EARTHQUAKE

ALSO, PRACTICE NO. 11. THE UNITED

FOR THE

FOR

FOR

THE SEISMIC ZONE MAPS

LOCATION, OF

VELOCITIES

APPROPRIATE

50-YEAR AND 108-YEARANNUAL

SHOW THE

STATES,

COMPANY

SEE

THE

APPENDIX V I IS

IN

DESIGNATIONS

DESIGNATION

DESIGN

SPECIFIC

INCLUDED

ZONE

ZONE

INSTALLATIONS

SEISMIC

OF

OF

TANK

APPENDIX E FOR

THE

RECOMMENDED

APPLICABLE

TABULATED ON

AT

FIG, 1

OF

SECTION,

BASIC

25

PSF,

DESIGN

CRITERIA

IN ADDITION,

FOR THE LIVE

LOAD ON THE ROOF

P R O V I S I O N S MUST BE MADE

OTHER LOADS THAT MAY BE IMPOSED ON THE ROOF,

FO2

G,

OVERALL DESIGN CONSIDERATION C O ~ R OISO N ALLOWANCE

THE

ALLOWANCE

CORROSION

USED FOR NEW TANKAGE SHOULD BE

BASED ON THE S E R V I C E AND L O C A T I O N FOR WHICH THE TANKAGE

REFERENCE CORROSION PREVENTION MANUAL, IS

BUILT,

BEING

SHOULD ALSO

BE MADE TO THE

TANKAGE SECTION 240, #

FOR

A C O M P I L A T I O N AND D I S C U S S I O N OF CORROSION RATE DATA FOR

- TANKAGE I N T Y P I C A L S E R V I C E S ,

DIVISION DESIGN FOR

GUIDANCE I S

ENGINEERING'S

MATERIALS

CORPORATION

THE

REQUIRED,

IF ADDITIOIVAL

SHOULD BE CONSULTED,

OF TANKAGE

MOST

IN

SERVICES

A

VALUES FIGURES3 AND 4 , ALLOWANCE,

RECOMMENDED REQUIREMENTS

ACCORDANCE WITH BUILT-IN,

FOR TYPICAL

PRACTICE

20

FOR PREVENTING

DESIGNS,

IT ALSO

MECHANICS

AND

INCLUDES

SUGGESTS

OR

API-650

INHERENT,

CORROSION

TANKS ARE PRESENTED IN

DEFINES BRITTLE

THE

TECHNIQUES

MATERIAL

FRACTURE IN

A SUMMARY OF BASIC

SAFE D E S I G N S CAN BE DEVELOPED,

PROVIDES

BY

WHICH

COMPANY FRACTURE

FRACTURE-

GENERALLY,

THE

CONCERNING

PROTECTION

HOWEVER,

1954.

WHICH

IN

650)

TANK

MORE

AS

COMPANY

SPECIFICATION APPROXIMATELY FOR

ALL

TANKS,

STANDARDS

THIS

UNDER

API OF

API

PROVI

s IONS

MANY

HIGHER

DESIGNS,

CONSIDERATION

QUALITY

MATERIALS

IT

INHERENT

WILL

M A T E R I A L S OW

BY IMPACT

IN

BE TO

TO

PROVIDE

GIVEN

TO

MATERIAL,

I N PROBABLE TANK

NECESSARY

SIZE,

GROUPINGS

TO

ON

PURCHASE

QUALIFY

LOWER Q U A L I T Y

APPROXIMATE FIGURES5 AND 6.

COSTS OF TANK

TESTING,

STEELS ARE PRESENTED IN

STANDARDS

BRITTLE FAILURE

MATERIALS HAVE BEEN SORTEQ INTO QUALITY DRAWING GD-Dl047 (REFER TO SEC, 1x1. FOR

FRACTURE,

1955,

INCLUDES

D E S I G N B A S I S AND R I S K

WINTER

COLD

BRITTLE

EXCEEDING

API-

TO

SURVEY AND OTHER

EQUAL PROTECTION A G A I N S T WITH

eooD

FRACTURE,

(PREDECESSOR

OCCURRED

INVESTIGATIONS

EG-967

BRITTLE

API 12C

WHICH

AREA WERE ADOPTED IN

BEEN

HAS

COHMITTEE COMPLETED A SURVEY

A RESULT OF

FUNDAHENTAL

MINIMUM

WELDED

FAILURES

CONDITIONS,

THIS

28

RECORDED

TANKS

AGAINST

API

AN

API

OF

HISTORY

ITIS

CONCLUDED

SHOULD

GENERALLY

STORAGE OF INCENTIVE

SOUR TO

DO

THAT

GROUPS I V .

NOT

BE

USED

IVA, V FOR

THE

F L U I D S SIlVCE THERE SO,

AND

BECAUSE

AND

VI

STEEL

INTERMEDIATE

I S L I T T L E ECONBWIC A

RISK

OF

SULFIDE

C R A C K I N G E X I S T S I N SOME SERVICESw

H,

BOTTOM DESIGN

REFER

TO

DRAWING GD-Dl047

FOR THE BOTTOM PLATES

SPECIFICATIONS

MATERIAL

ACCEPTABLE

FOR

ASTM A-283 GRADE C

I S THE MOST COMMONLY USED M A T E R I A L ,

ANNULAR BOTTOMPLATES AND SKETCH PLATES TANK

BOTTOMS

ARE

FABRICATED

WHEN THE BOTTOM SHELL

BUTT-WELDED IS

TO

COURSE IS

T H E S E T A N KBOTTOMS

MATERIAL,

OUTER C I R C L E OF

I/~-INCH P L A T E EXCEPT

OF

GROUPS IV, IVA, V ARE

REQUIRED

TO

VI

OR

HAVE

A

P L A T E S TO WHICH THE S H E L L

ATTACHED (ANNULAR BOTTOM PLATES),

PROVIDE

PROVISIONS BARRELS

EARTHQUAKE

OF MAY

STABILITY

APPENDIX E, REQUIRE

TANKS

ANNULAR

UNDER

SMALLEQ

BOTTOM

THE

DESIGW

THAN

100,000

PLATES

AND

THE

ANNULAR P L A T E S FOR LARGER TANKS MAY NEED TO BE T H I C K E 9 THAN R E Q U I R E D OTHERWISE,

THE

BOTTOM PLATE

WHICH

WHICH THE WATER DRAW-OFF SKETCH PLATE,

NOZZLE I S ATTACHED

SPECIFICATION

EG-967

P L A T E HAVE A MINIPIUM T H I C K N E S S OF

TANK

CATCH BASIS

COVERS THE

BOTTOC~SCAN TOLERATE

INCLUDED

THE

USE

REFER

TO

IN

OF

THAT THIS

INCH,

SETTLEMENT,

APPRECIABLE

A N A L Y S I S OF MAXIMUM P E R M I S S I B L E TANK IS

I S CALLED A

REQUIRES

1/2

AND TO

AN

BOTTOM SETTLEMENT

SECTION X I , FOUNDATIONS,

PROTECTION

CATHODIC

MAY

BE

CONSIDERED.

SECTION X I FOUNDATIONS,

I, SHELL DESIGN

IN THE OF

K,

~ T HEDITION

OF

API-650 APPENDICES

OF THE ~ T HEDITION

OF

API-650,

D,

G,

AND PART

HAVE BEEN D E L E T E D

AND T H E I R A P P L I C A B L E REQUIREMENTS ARE INCORPORATED I N T O THE B A S I C STANDARD,

OF

API 650

IS

THE

B A S I C TANK OF THE ~ T HEDITION

NOW COVERED BY

APPENDIX A,

D E S I G N NOW P E R M I T S A D E S I G N BASED ON PRODUCT

GRAVITY

AND A HIGHER

STRESS DURING

THE

BASIC

SPECIFIC

THE HYDROTEST.

THE

APPENDIX A A JOINT

DESIGN

USES A MAXIMUM

,85,

E F F I C I E N C Y OF

1.0,

L E S S THAN

OTHER WORDS,

A

STRESS OF

SPECIFIC

21,000

GRAVITY

PSI,

OF

NOT

IN

AND THE ONE FOOT T H I C K N E S S METHOD.

HYDROSTATIC STRESSES CANNOT EXCEED DESSGlhd

STRESSES,

THE

GOAL

IN

THE TANK SHELL

DESIGNING

THIS

LOWEST ERECTED COST. MINIMIZING

. HIGHER

THE

QUALITY

FOLLOWING

TONNAGE

STEELS

GUIDELINES

NOT ALWAYS

IS

OF

TO ACHIEVE

IS

STEEL

A

COMMAND

THE BY

ACHIEVED

REQUIRED

SINCE

THE

THE

PRICE,

PREMIUM

ARE BASED ON EXPERIENCE

1975

AS OF

AND MAY NOT BE V A L I D FOR A L L S I T U A T I O N S ,

1,

TANKS

OF

LESS

~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ - B A RC AwPE A CLI T Y

THAN

APPENDIX

GENERALLY

BY

THICKNESS

ALLOWED

A

APPENDIX A

IN

L I M I T S THE MAXIMUM S I Z E TO ABOUT

2,

TANKS FROM 30,000

BARRELS TO

GENERALLY

BE

ALLOWABLE

STRESS LESS

WAXIMUM

DESIGN,

CONSTRUCTED

30,000

150,000

WITH

THAN

1/2

IS

PLATE

INCH

WHICH

BARRELS,

C A P A C I T Y WILL

MATERIAL

21,000

WILE-

PSI.

WITH

AN

(FORMERLY

APPENDIX D DESIGN), 3,

HIGHER WILL TANKS

STRENGTH MATERIAL GENERALLY OF

RE

2000000

USED

GROUPS IV, ON

BARRELS

(FORMERLYAPPENDIX G DESIGN),

THE OW

Iva, v

LOWER MORE

AND

COURSES

VI OF

CAPACITY,

4,

THE

HIGHER

STRENGTH

WILL

STEELS

ALMOST

NEVER BE

USED ON A L L COURSES OF THE TANK,

5,

THE

THICKNESS

OF

"VARIABLE

DESIGN POINT lOO,OOO

WILL GENERALLY BE USED ON TANKS OF OR

MORE

CAPACITY,

AVAILABLE

IS

BARRELS

K DES 1 ~ ~ 4 )

(FORMERLYAPPENDIX

COMPUTER PROGRAM API-65

~ETHOD"

TO

CHECK

UNDER

WIND

S H E L L T H I C K N E S S E S QUOTED B Y S U P P L I E R S .

TANK

MAY

SHELLS

PRESSURE,

BE

SUBJECT

TO

APH-650 SECTION 3.9

BUCKLING

A FORMULA FOR

PROVIDES

D E T E R M I N I N G THE MAXIMUM H E I G H T OF U N S T I F F E N E D S H E L L FOR

A WIND VELOCITY

OF

BACKGROUND ON

THE

MAY

BE

FOUND

SHELLS, R, V. OF

REFINING,

WIND1

AND

CALCULATIONS,

IN

1QQ MPH, DEVELOPMENT OF

A

PAPER,

API-658

"STABILITY

OF

WIND2

43 (111) (1963). ARE

AVAILABLE

API-650 TANK

A P I DIVISION COMPUTER PROGRAMS

MCGRATH: PROCEEDI~GSOF

VOL.

REQUIREMENTS

TO

THE

PERFORM

THESE

TANKS

EVALUATE

TANK

GENERALIZED A,

BY

MADE

WAS

CORPORATION

DESIGNS

THE API-658

EQUATIONS

APPROPRIATE

BASIS

THAT

PROVIDED

FOR

WIND

OF THIS

COWCLUSIOMS

THE

ENGINEERING

TO

STABILITY,

STUDY WERE:

APPEAR FOR

TO

WIND

RESISTANCE

wIDTH~

"TRANSPOSED

AN

PROVIDE

METHOD

I S USED,

B,

USE

OF A

DESIGN

ANNUAL EXTREME-MILE

EQUAL

30

AT

VELOCITY

50-YEAR MEAN

GROUND)

VELOCITY

WIND

RECUISRENCE

THE

TO

FT,

ABOVE

INTERVAL

IS

RECOMMENDED UNDER MOST CIRCUMSTANCES,

C8

AS

EXPECTED)

LEVEL

LEAST

FILLED

HALF

SIGNIFICANT

INCREASE

COHPARED

TANKS

TO

GENERALLY

A

RESISTANCE

WILL

LIQUID

OTHER

(AT

TANKS

FULL) IN

FILLED

SIGNIFICANT NOT

TO

BE

A

SUBSTANTIAL

DEMONSTRATED WIND

TO

RESISTANCE

LOWER

INCREASE OBTAINED

A

LEVELS, IN

UNTIL

WIND THE

LEVEL REACHES ABOUT HALF HEIGHT,

FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED

IN

R E S I S T A N C E OF TANKS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

DESIGN

FOR WIND

A,

11'4

GENERAL*

DAMAGE

TO

MODEST

B U C K L I N G DUE

THE TO

TANK

THAT

DAMAGE

TO WIND CAN

RESULTS

VARY

IN

FROM VERY EXTENS % V E

REQUIRING

R E B U I L D I N G O R t R A R E L Y * SCRAPPING,

£3,

HOW

TO

HANDLE

CORROSION

ALLOWANCE

IS

A

DIFFERENT QUESTION SINCE:

1)

THE

CORROSION

OCCUR

IS

RATE

WILL

THAT

DIFFICULT

TO

ACTUALLY

PREDICT

AND

IT

WOULD B E U N D E S I R A B L E TO FURTHER I N C R E A S E THE I N I T I A L COST B Y R E Q U I R I N G D E S I G N FOR FULL

WIND

RESISTANCE

IN

THE

CORRODED

CONDITION,

2)

NON-UNIFORM

CORROSION

P I T T I N G WILL

NOT

SUCH

APPRECIABLY

LOCAL

AS

REDUCE THE

W I N D R E S I S T A N C E STRENGTH OF S H E L L S ,

3)

THE API TO THE

RULES FOR WIND

PROVIDE

SOME

DESIGN

PARTIALLY

MARGIN

WIND

OF

VELOCITY

COMPENSATE

DUE TO CORROSION,

RESISTANCE

FOR

APPEAR

SAFETY WHICH

LOSS

OF

ABOVE MAY METAL

4)

ALTHOUGH CAN B E

AT A HIGHER

ADDED

IN

COST,

THE

GIRDERS

WIND

FUTURE

WHEN

THEIR

NEED I S KNOWN FROM T H I C K N E S S SURVEYS,

IN SUMMARY, RECOMHENDED

THE AS

A

FOLLOWING MINIMUM

IN

PRACTICES

ARE

CONSIDERING

WIND

S T A B I L I T Y OF TANKS,

A,

NEWTANKS

2)

CHECK

MAXIMUM

WIND

DESIGN

VELOCITY

IN

THE CORRODED C O N D I T I O N ,

3)

CORROSION

ALLOWANCE

ACCORDANCE

CONSIDERED

IN

w ITH "OTHER RELATED FACTORS"

S E C T I O N ABOVE,

4)

USE 50-YEAR EXTREME EXCEPT RESULT

WHERE IN

MILE

BUCKLING A

OF

CRITICAL

WIND A LOSS

VELOCITY

TANK

WOULD

SUCH

AS

S H U T T I N G DOWN A R E F I N E R Y OR P I P E L I N E WHICH

CASE

USE

OF

SHOULD B E CONSIDERED,

THE

100-YEAR

IN

WIND

5)

USE

"TRANSPOSED

WIDTH"

METHOD

FOR

CALCULATING TANK SHELL STABILITY,

1)

ESTABLISH

WIND RESISTANCE CRITERIA AS A

PART OF TANK INSPECTION RECORDS,

2) .

.

ESTABLISH

OPERATING PROCEDURES TO

FOLLOWED UPON

RECEIPT

OF

WARNINGS

BE

OF

HIGH (HURRICANE VELOCITY) WINDS, WHICH SHOULD INCLUDE:

A)

CONSIDERATION OF

FILLING OF TANKS

IN CRITICAL SERVICE AND TANKS WITH

LOW SHELL STABILITY,

B)

SECURING OF

MATERIAL WHICH COULD

BECOME AIRBORNE,

C)

TURNINGOFF

UNESSENTIAL POWER TO

TANKFIELD LIGHTING, TANK MIXERS AND SIMILAR

EQUI PMENT

POTENTIAL SOURCES OF CASE OF

LEAKAGE

SPLIT TANK SHELLS,

FROM

TO

REDUCE

IGNITION

IN

BUCKLED

OR

EXPERIENCE STORAGE

PAST

IN

TANKS

ARE

SUSCEPTIBLE

SHELL BUCKLING AND, IN

EA9THQUAKE

APPENDIX PROVI

TANKS SOME BE

NEW

GROUND

TANKS

NOT

TO

AND

THE

CRITERIA

REDUCE

CRITICAL THE

EXISTING

FOR

NEW TANKS,

FOR

SERVICE,

RISK

WITH

SUPPLEMENTAL

INTENDED TO UPGRADE

I N EXTREMELY

JUSTIFIED

OF

I T MAY

EARTHQUAKE

RP-111,

APPENDIX E CONNECTING LINES, SEE

FITTINGS,

ACCORDANCE

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE NO, 11,

TO MEET THE

TANK

IN

OF

GENERALLY

COURSE

TANKS SHALL BE DESIGNEE

MOTION

API-650

THAT

TO BUCKLING

OF

DAMAGE (SEE

IN

LOWER

E

s IONS

IT IS

TO

SHOWN

I N RARE OCCASIONS,

THE UPPER COURSES,

FOR

HAS

EARTHQUAKES

LINES

OF

API-650

FOR REQUIREMENTS

AND

DETAILS

SECTION

AND

OF

OF

FLEXIBILITY

TANK

VALVES

XI1 AND

TANK ROOF

SUPPORTS COLUMNS I N SEI SMICALLY ACTIVE

AREAS PREFERABLY SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED OF PIPE AND SHOULD BE DESIGNED FOR EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH

THERE ARE

APPENDIX VI

OF

RP-11,

OTHER KINDS OF DAMAGE TO TANK DETAILS

WHICH HAVE BEEN SUSTAINED IN PAST EARTHQUAKES,

MODIFICATIONS EITHER

I N DETAILS TO AVOID THESE

INTERFERE

WITH

NORMAL

OPERATHHG

RISKS

TANK

FUNCTIO#S OR ARE MORE CCISTLY THAN REPAIRING OF CONVENTIONAL DETAILS,

J,

CONE ROOF DESIGN

ROOF

PLATES ARE NORMALLY

GD-Dl047

3/16

FOR ACCEPTABLE MATERIAL

REFER

ORAWING SPECIFICATIONS, ASTM

INCH,

TO

CONE

ROOF TANKS WHICH DO NOT HAVE A

ROOF-TO-SHELL.

CONNECTION THAT FAILS PREFERENTIALLY TO THE SHELL-TOSHELL AND SHELL-TO-BOTTOM CONNECTIONS SHALL BE EQUIPFEE

WITH ADEQUATE EMERGENCY VENTING,

(REFER

TO SECTION

VII), K,

MISCELLANEOUS

PREPRIMINGOF

THE STEEL PLATES I N THE FABRICATOR'S SHOP

PRIOR TO SHIPMENT TO THE

JOB SITE

IS RECOMMENDED,

APPLICATION OF THE FINISH PAINT COATS BY A CONTRACTOROTHER THAN THE TANK

IS GENERALLY DONE

THE TANK IS TESTED AND PUT IN SERVICE,

FABRICATOR AFTER

TANK MANUAL

T.4NK 9ESIGN

FIGURE 1 TYPICAL TANK DESIGN CRITERIA FOR VARIOUS COMPANY LOCATIONS Design Metal Temperature F

*

Design Wind Velocity (MPH)

Seismic Zane Desig narion

Richmond

El Segundo Pascaqou la P e n h Amboy Salt Lake

5

Alaska ( K e m i Area)

-25

Burnaby (Vancouver)

25

Baltimore

10

Note:

This d a t a for other localities can frequently be ascertained by referring to t h e Basic Design Data Sheets f o r t h e particular project.

T A N K DESIGN

T A N K MANUAL

EXTREME WIND VELOCITIES

Charts from lVew Disnibulion of Exrrerne Winds in the U.S. by H.C.S. Thorn. Copyright Arnencan Society of Civil Engineers 1968. Reproduced by special permiss~on.

4/8 1

100- 17

FIGURE 3 APPENDIX A T.WiS INHERENT CORROSION ALLCJWANCX

CALCULATIONS DEC.

1970

r

1

/

j

EZZ-0 660.0 ZS!'O nOZ-0 LSZ'O OLE-0

'

i E9E.O

/ OOL'O i iiiZ'0 1 680'0 LEL-0 1 tr8L'O / LEZ.0 6LZ'O

/

' 1

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TANK MANUAL

TANK DESISN FIGURE 5

A U,S. P r o d u c e s r s 2an.

7975 P r i c e s f o r St.?el P l a t e s by Q u a l i t y G r ~ u p i n q

AS%M S p e c i f i c a t i o n

Thickness

Rimmed

43/4" 1-1/2" Max 1/2" i%x 1-1/2" Max

Semi-Kill &

3/4" t o 1-1/2" 1 'I Fax i

FuUy-Killed,

~

C o s t , $ / t o n (Note 1 ) j

n

1-l/ZR Max

FGP

41

1-1/ZW Max Normalized

* ** 0

*

** 1.

2,

AM-DH AES-EH

Pressure vessel quality s t e e L

Normany not used f o r tankage e x c e p t where

required f o r toughness. k g e n e r a l , b , e r e b ~ t l e n e e d f o r u s e o f Amerriran B u s e a u o f S h i p p i n q S t e e l s . They are not readily aMilable in t h e U.S. Price includes mandatory i m p a c t testing to C v = 50 R-lb a t 14F. Except as noted below, t h e s e costa are base pr5ces. They do not include many e m s , such as odd thickness, tonnage, e t c . C osts do include an e x t r a f o r width and thickness of 1d/ #. Actual e x t r a varies fYu m 0.55d to 2,70d/#.

Comparison o f U.S.

and J a p a n e s e S t e e l P r i c e s

r

U.S. S t e e l Base P r i c e Semi-Killed P l a t e Fine g r a i n practice, f u l l y k i l l e d N o r n a l i z e d , impact t e s t on h e a t l o s t b a s i s Normalized, Three impact t e s t s p e r p l a t e 3. 4.

Normalizing c o s t s v a r y w i t h t h . i c k n e s s . By s p e c i a l r e q u e s t .

- $/ton 271. 336 35 1

Japanese

-

S / ton

225. 237. 247. 257. (Note 4 )

1

~

iI

1

TANK MANUAL

?.WK 3ESISN

Cost o f Impact T e s t i n g ( $ / T e s t )

I

I

I.

Heat l o t b a s i s (If a v a i l a b l e

I

-

- s e e Note

Longitudinal

Transverse

j

30th

1)

St r u c t u s a l S t e e l s Temperature t o be agreed upon

II. P l a t e - a s - r o l l e d b a s i s 2

i /

Structural Steels T e s t +40 F o r above T e s t below +40 F Pressure Vessel S t e e l s T e s t +40 F o r above T e s t below +40 F

NOTE 1: It appears t h a t obtaining guaranteed impacts on e i t h e r a h e a t l o t basis cr f o r steels which are not h e a t t r e a t e d is diffScult o r i m p k b l e in t h e U .S. Discusdons with two U.S. steel suppliem indicates they w i l l conduct guaranteed i m p a c t tests only on h e a t t r e a t e d material3 and only on a plate-srolled basis. On individual cases they may conduct t e s t s on non-heat t m a t e d plate, cr on a h e a t Pot basis, f o r information only. NOTE 2: Costs do not include an e x t r a f a - normallzing. When normalizing is not included in t h e applicable materiala specification an additional $35 per %n must be added to t h e above costs.

,

I I

,

I

I

I I I, SELECT1ON OF APPURTENANCES A,

INTRODUCTION

THIS

SECTION

HAS

BEEN

DIVIDED

INTO

THE

FOLLOW5NG

CATEGORIES OF APPURTENANCES:

B,

B,

GAGING

SAMPLING DEVICES

AND

FORMS EF-33 CR 8 EF-33 FR

THESE FORMS, A LIST

SECTION V I ,

WHICH ARE INCLUDED I N

OF ALL COMMONLY

CONTAINS

USED TANK APPURTENANCES.

THEY

SERVE BOTH AS A CHECK L I S T WHEN SELECTING APPURTENANCES AND AS A SCHEDULE BY WHICH THESE APPURTENANCES CAN BE S P E C I F I E D I N A TANK PURCHASE CONTACT,

C,

COMPANY DRAWINGS

ALTHOUGH

THE DISCUSSION

COHMONLY

USED

INCLUDED

ONLY

OF APPURTENANCES WILL COVER ALL

APPURTENANCES FOR

FOR

TANKS,

APPURTENANCES

NHICH

DRAWINGS

ARE

HAVE

BEEN

DEVELOPED

BY

COMPANIES AS A

MANUFACTURER'

API

AUGWENT

s

CORPORATE

DEPARTMENTS

AND

OPERATIPIG

RESULT OF NOT HAVING SUITABLE STANDARDS

A V W ILABLE,

MANUFACTURER'S

OR

THESE

API

DRAW1NGS TO

STANDARDS

OR

SUIT

PART1 CULAR REQUIi?EMENTS,

D,

APH STANDARDS

THE API

HAS STANDARDS FOR APPURTENANCES IN

SHELL

MANHOLES

SWELL NOZZLES

NOZZLE

OF

(3,7,5>

AND FLANGES

(3,7,6>

FLUSHTYPE CLEANOUT FITTINGS (3,7.7> FLUSHTYPE SHELL CONNECTIONS (3,7,8> ROOF MANHOLES (3,8,4> ROOF NOZZLES (FLANGED AND SCREWED), ROOF

SECTION 3

IS

NOT

SATISFACTORY

THE FOR

FLANGE3 VENTING

(3,8,5> DRAW-OFF SUMP ( 3 8 6 a

SCAFFOLD CABLE UNDER-BOTTOM

(3,8,7> CONNECTIONS (APPENDIX SUPPORT

RECOMHENDED PRACTICES ONLY, )

0-CONTAINS

E,

MNUFACTURERS' STANDARDS

MANUFACTURERS

HAVE DEVELOPED AP$UETENANCES

CATEGORIES

THAT

INDUSTRY.

EXAHPLES OF (GAGE

DEVICES

GAGING),

AXE

ACCEPTED

HATCHES

BEATHER

I N CERTAIN

" S T W M D A R D S ~ BY

AS

THE

THESE APPURTENANCES ARE GAGING OF

VALVES,

VARIOUS

AND

TYPES,

AUTOF~ATIC

FLOATING

ROOFS

AND

SELECTION

OF

FITTINGS#

F,

ECONOMY I N SELECTION

THREE

GOOD

FQR ECONOMY

RULES

IN

THE

APPURTENANCES ARE:

A,

USE

AN

APPURTENANCE

ONLY

IF

THERE

IS

A

KNOWN

REQUIREMENT,

B,

DOUBLE

UP OW THE USE OF AN APPURTENANCE WHEZEVER

POSSIBLE ( Ia E . GAGE INSPECTION

C,

SPECIFY

,

A ROOF MANHOLE MAY ALSO SERVE AS A

HATCH OR AM EMERGENCY VENT HATCH)

HANUFACTURER'S

S T A N D A ~ D DESIGN,

USABLE, RATHEi? THAN OUR OWN DESIGN,

I

WHEREVER

A

I

I

6

I

C

I

D

-E

CONSTRUCTION NOTES 1-7"

Tan& s h e / / -

-

2 3

4 5

-

3'-0'1

a ' . ~ "5'. 0" --

31-b" 6'.9"

/4' /&.,I

---

4,. 0"

/B" 4'.6* ---20" 5 "

6'.0"

5'. 3' 5'. 9 ' --

sK vS2'-4"

/I.

To" 5'.6** 7'3''

/!

d' 2'.

~.

/'- 7.

2' 7~4.

2'-q;/i

. /'. 8.. ---

-

/I-

9'' 2 , . , / q

7:6"

6'.0'

8'0"

6'.6" / ' . / / "

C-I)

M A T E R I A L S AND F A B R I C A I I O N SUALL LOHFORH TO 5 P E L I F I C A T I O N E G - 9 6 7 AN0 TO A P I STAHDARD 6 5 0 . LATEST E O I T I O N .

(-1)

THE s u n p AHO NOZIIE

/" /(I

/y+"-

3'.3v/g

n t IHERMLLY

ASSERULY SIIALL

R E L I E V E D A T A T E W E M T U R E OF 1.100'F

/y4* - -.....

1 0 I.100.f

STRESLfOR A

PERIOD OF ONE HOUR PER INCH OF r H I c m E s S OF THE B o T T o n P L A r E , U l T H A n l H l n W PERIOD OF ONE HOUR FOR U1) T H I C U I E L S . L-3)

GASKET SUHFALE OH M l S L D FACE F L h l l C t TO UE C O M L K I A L L Y smorn ( 5 0 0 RHS MXIRW R O U G ~ N E S S ) .

C-4)

FLAHCE BOLT I l O L L S SHALL L T M U D L L C i N T E h L l n E .

(-5)

THE EXTERNAL SUHFACtS OF THC S M P , ' N U I I L f ASSEMBLY ANU TAHK BOTTOR R E l N i D R C l H G PLATE SHALL B t SANOBLASTED TO A COnnERC l A L NEAR-WHITE F I N I S H (SSPC S P - 1 0 ) AND P A I H T E O WITH 3 H I L S (DRY T H I C U E S S ) OF IHOHLAHIC Z I H C R I C H COATING; HAPKO 51 ( 1 1 3 7 8 ) . AHEROR D l n f T c o T E D-6. CAHBOLINE CARBOZIHC II OR N O B l L C H t H l C A L H O B I L - Z I N C I. THE W T A L LOGES TO BE F I E L D Y E L L 0 SHALL BE THOROUGHLY CLEANED OF COATIHG BEFORE U E L D I Y C TO PREVENT Z l H C CONTPAINATION OF UELO RETAL,

(-6)

THE suw TO u u T r d n R ~ I N F O R C I N C PLAIE F I ~ L Ou t ~ uSIIALL BE COHPLETELY O I L C H E C U O AFTER TrlE R3OT PASS A l l 0 AFTER THE COVER PASS.

(-7)

T l l l C U l E S S E S OF S U W UALL, SunP BOTTOH P L A T E PdlU RElNFORCllIG P L A T E INCLUDE 1 / 1 6 " CORROLIOH ALLOUAIICE.

'-8)

THE TRnK SUPPORT U t M 5 dUST bE PI.ACEU AND CHOUIEO BEFORE F I E L D u E ~ O l l r GTHE SUI1P TO TllE d D l T O H REINFORCIIIG PLATE. SEE STANDARD UKAUlNG GC-QIOIS.

PLAN

o f t a n k she// fo SU/?

rejoforr/oy p/aCe.

REFERENCE D R A W I N G S

.

~

- . .. .... .. . . . .

- -

~

. ... ...... ~.

~~

-.

. .. . . ..-. .-.. ...

. -.

\

Field n o t e : W h e n A i s less t h a n t qrind c o r n e r s r o u n d , all around, after weldinq

h o l e s for i . 9 bolts, equally spaced - s t r a d d l e flanqe 4

40 -

Sqmrnetrical about Permissable ~ l t e r n a t e

-

--.

7

Cover plaie - min. thick. u e r T a b l e 3 - I API 5td

AND

CONSTRUCTION

f o r 2 0 " c i r c u l a r s h e l l rnanlnolr d r s i q r l a n d c o n b t l - u r t i o n

,

to

suit

curvature

-

2. N o t e s g i v e n ill API L t a r ~ d a r d6 5 0 c u r r e n t e d i t i o n ,

650

slbrll b e applicable t o t h i s

KwJ

NOTES

p~

I. L e l t e r d i r n e n s i o r ~ s~ r e f e rt o v a l u e s g i v e n i n Table 3-2 2 0 " s h e l l m a n h o l e , a n d a r e ttre same a s tlrose s h o w n in Fig.3.6 of API S t a n d a r d 6 5 0 c u l - r e n t e d i t i o n .

square cut

X-I

DESIGN

I

drawinq.

-

5 . E d g e o f cower t o be f i n i s h e d bnrooth and outside corner o f piale l o L e slightly rounded.

of thnkJ

COVER --R EMO -V.E- D

SHOWING COVER -

ELEVATION p

,

-

.

1159

-

I

DETAIL OF GASKET

v 0

Chtulan

REVISIONS

I A?C-,'c/
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