# Statistik Intro

December 12, 2017 | Author: NSBMR | Category: Mean, Variance, Statistics, Standard Deviation, Descriptive Statistics

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1.0)

INTRODUCTION

What is Statistics? Statistics is the science that deals with the collection, classification, analysis and interpretation of information/data in order to make decisions. Statistics is divided into 2 parts: 1. Descriptive statistics 2. Inferential statistics

Descriptive statistics

Inferential statistics

Process of data gathering, presentation and

Concerns with making conclusions or

summary

inferences from samples about the populations from which they have been drawn.

Example: A researcher collects on the amount students spent on food, leisure and academic requirements from their study loan. He then summarizes the data by finding the mean and standard deviation of the data. He also did

Example: A researcher did an analysis to find out if it is true students spend less than 10% of their study loan text books.

some graphs and charts to present his findings.

Measure of Central Tendency 1 | Page

A ) Mean is the sum of the values, divided by the total number of values.

B ) Median is the most centrally located (middle) value.

M= C ) Mode is the value that occurs most often in the data set. It is said to be the most typical case.

=L+C

Variance and Standard deviation -Variance is the average of the squares of the distance each value from the mean. The symbol for the population variance is

, “sigma square”. Whereas for sample variance is

.

=

-Standard deviation measure the distance of each value from the mean. It is the square root of the variance. The symbol for the population variance is , “sigma” and s for sample standard deviation.

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1.1) No.

Variable Name

Last two digits of I.C number

l

950107145031

2

Ainur Anisha Binti Amijan

950619145692

3

Edriz Syahzrel Bin Zimi Hakiem

950213035135

4

Farrah Nuramanina Binti Mohd Anuar

950830145452

5

Juliza Binti Abu Bakar

950921675010

6

Khairul Fahmie Bin Nazree

950324015815

7

Mah Muddin Bin Amin

950609126543

8

950909016071

9

Mohamad Syazwi Akram Bin Ab Razak

950203075571

10

950806016511

11

950721015085

12

950729015055

13

Mohammad Shahrul Fahmy Bin Mohd azmi

950914016869

14

Mohd Haziq Bin Mazlan

960121015751

15

950501055173

16

950831016169

17

910419015483

18

951208145107

19

891015235155

20

950201145003

21

950405015593

22

950420105351

23

951105015561

24

950805145813

25

950924016117 3 | Page

26

Norliyana Afiqah Binti Lakman

950108015124

27

Norliza Binti Sutrisman

950921115670

28

Nur Akiela Fathonah Binti Mohd Salleh

950217115538

29

Nur Amalin Binti Hishamuddin

950831035570

30

Nur Anis Natasha Binti Che Rahim

950415145500

31

Nur Shairah Binti Mohd Noah

950921146074

32

Nur Syahira Binti Zakaria

951220115170

33

950813055156

34

950602015840

35

Nurazmina Zafira Binti Abd Aziz

950330015942

36

Nurul Fattiha Binti Ishak

950729065220

37

Nurul Hayati Binti Mat Rozi

951115145888

38

Nurul Nabiha Nadia Binti Abd. Aziz

950312015316

39

Siti Khadijah Binti Md. Ali Shifudin

951104015762

40

Siti Khalidah Binti Abd Aziz

950203025064

41

Siti Maziah Binti Mokhtar

951021016698

42

950203115182

43

Siti Norazzah Azwa Binti Misman

950213106194

44

Syazwi Hakimi Bin Saaidin

950707086469

45

Syed Abd Hamid Bin Sd. Hassan

950527016033

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1.2)

FILA Table.

Facts

Ideas

Learning issues

Action

1) What is the class 1) List of names of students in

1.

2) What is the class

2DAA_GA

midpoint? 2. M =

variables 3.

4.

module 3) Library books

3) How to calculate the

2) I.C number of each students

1) Internet 2) Statistics

limit?

=L+C

from

the

formulae given?

=

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1.3)

Minutes of meeting

Minutes of meeting 1 DATE: 19 March 2015 TIME: 10p.m-12p.m PLACE : Taman Universiti ATTENDANCE: 1) 2) 3) 4)

ACTIVITIES 1) Discuss on the variables. 2) Divide the job scopes: Fattiha : Variables, minutes of meetings Syuhadah: FILA Table, solutions Farrah: Result and discussion, references Azzah: Introduction, problem background

Verified by,

........................................... ( Nurul Fattiha Binti Ishak)

Date:

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Minutes of Meeting 2

DATE: 24 March 2015 TIME: 10p.m-12p.m PLACE : Taman Universiti

ATTENDANCE: 1) Fattiha 2) Syuhadah 3) Farrah 4) Azzah ACTIVITIES 1) Discuss on the problem arises. 2) Collect parts of the report from every member and combine them. 3) Preparation for the presentation. Verified by,

........................................... ( Nurul Fattiha Binti Ishak)

Date:

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2.0)

PROBLEM BACKGROUND

We have chosen the I.C number of each students of 2DAA as we choose to collect a numeric data for the tasks. A numerical data is also known as quantitative data which consists of numbers that can be used for calculations. A quantitative data can be divided by two parts, Continuous Data and Discrete Data. I.C number is considered as discrete data because the data is whole number. Based on the data that we have collected, all of I.C number of each students in the class appear to be in whole number.

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3.0)

Solution of variable

Class Limit

Lower Class Boundary

Class Midpoint,

Frequency,

0-9

0

4.5

3

13.5

20.25

60.75

3

10-19

9.5

14.5

6

87.0

210.25

1261.5

9

20-29

19.5

24.5

2

49.0

600.25

1200.5

11

30-39

29.5

34.5

4

138.0

1190.25

4761.0

15

40-49

39.5

44.5

3

133.5

1980.25

5940.75

18

50-59

49.5

54.5

6

327.0

2970.25

17821.5

24

60-69

59.5

64.5

6

387.0

4160.25

24961.5

30

70-79

69.5

74.5

7

521.5

5550.25

38851.75

37

80-89

79.5

84.5

4

338.0

7140.25

28561.0

41

90-99

89.5

94.5

4

378.0

8930.25

35721.0

45

∑ = 45

Cumulative Frequency, F

= 2372.5

=159141.25

Table 1.0 Frequency distribution of 46 students’ last two digits of I.C number in 2DAA_GA

a) Mean,

=

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b) Median, M

M=

= 49.5 + 10 = 57.0

c) Mode,

=L+C

= 69.5 + 10 = 72.0

d) Standard Deviation, s

=

= = 774.04

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s= = 27.82

4.0)

Result and discussion

The population that we used in this process of data gathering, presentation and summary is UTHM students. As for the sample for our research, we use the students in 2DAA_GA . The variable measures are the last two digits of IC number in 2DAA_GA. Our quantitative data is discrete data which it is a whole number. After that we organize the data as our data is ungrouped data. The size of class is 9. After that, we build a table of frequency distribution with the size class of 5. So for our frequency, for class limit between 0-9 there is 3 frequency of students, 10-19 there is 6 frequency of students, 20-29 there is 2 frequency of students, 30-39 there is 4 frequency of students, 40-49 there is 3 frequency of students, 50-59 there is 6 frequency of students, 60-69 there is 6 frequency of students, 70-79 there is 7 frequency of students, 80-89 there is 4 frequency of students, 90-99 there is 4 frequency of students . For the sum of frequency, we got 45. Firstly, we need to search for the class midpoint , x i for the class limit between , 0-9 , we calculate like this , 0+9 and divide by 2 , so we get 4.5 . so for the other class limit , the value is , 14.5 , 24.5, 34.5 , 44.5, 54.5 , 64.5 , 74.5 , 84.5, 94.5 . So for the lower class boundary , how to calculate it , example for the class limit of 0-9 , the lower class boundary is 0 , but for the class limit of 1019 , how to calculate it , 10 add with 9 and divide by 2 , so we get 9.5 . So for lower boundary of class limit , we get 0 , 9.5 , 19.5, 29.5, 39.5 , 49.5, 59.5 ,69.5 , 79.5 and 89.5.

For the cumulative frequency, we just add the frequency of class limit before and the class limit of the data that you calculate. For example, for cumulative frequency of class 0-9 , the cumulative 11 | P a g e

frequency is just 3 . Because, there is no value before 3 so we just add 3 plus 0 so we get 3 . For the next class limit, that is 10-19, the frequency that is 6 is added with frequency before that is 3 , so 6 plus 3 we got 9 .It is the same way to calculate the other cumulative frequency of class limit . So from the class limit 0 to 9 , 9 to 19 and after that , the value is 3,9,11,15,18,24,30,37,41 and 45 . To measure of central tendency that is mean, mode and median, we need to gather all the information. In the nutshell , we get the class midpoint , it is 2372.5 . As we have shown, we the value of mean is 52.72 , median is 57.0 , mode is 72.0 . The variance is 774.04 and the standard deviation ,s is 27.82 . So mean for this case study of the last two digits of IC number in 2DAA_GA is 52.72≈52 which show for the girls and the median is 57.0 which is show the guy . So as the conclusion , we can conclude that the numbers of boys and the girls in the class is approximately .

5.0)

References

Books

[email protected] Md. Kamaruddin el. Al. (2015). Statistics (DAS 20502) . Pusat Pengajian Diploma, UTHM Publisher . Wadpole –Mayer . Probability And Statistics For Engineers And Scientists. Prentice Hall .1993.

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Attachment

a) Probability and Statistics For Engineers And Scientist

b) Statistics DAS 20502

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