STAT People v Gatchalian

August 23, 2018 | Author: Jemuel Bayot | Category: Fair Labor Standards Act, Employment, Fine (Penalty), Crimes, Crime & Justice
Share Embed Donate

Short Description



PEOPLE v GATCHALIAN G.R. Nos. L-12011L-12011-14, 14, September 30, 1958 | BAUTISTA BA UTISTA ANGL!, ".#

1. A$%o&so G't()'$* G't()'$*'& '& +'s ()'re ()'re be%ore be%ore t)e o/rt o/rt o% *rst *rst I&st'&(e I&st'&(e o% 'mbo'&' 'mbo'&' +*t) ' *o$'t*o& *o$'t*o& o% Se(t*o& 3 o% Rep/b$*( A(t No. 02. 2. T)'t o& or or 'bo/t A//st A//st 4, 1951, 1951, /p to '& '& *&($/*& *&($/*& e(ember e(ember 31, 31, 1953 '& '& +*t)*& +*t)*& t)e  /r*s*(t*o& o% t)*s o/rt, *6, *& t)e t )e *t7 o% 'mbo'&', )*$*pp*&es, t)e 'boe &'me '((/se, o+&er or m'&'er o% t)e Ne+ L*%e r/ Store, ' b/s*&ess est'b$*s)me&t *& t)e *t7 o% 'mbo'&' '& )'*& /&er )*s emp$o7 o&e pe*to er&'&e6 's s'$esm'& *& t)e s'* est'b$*s)me&t, * t)e& '& t)ere +*$$%/$$7, '& %e$o&*o/s$7, p'7 '& ('/se to be p'* to s'* pe*to er&'&e6, ' mo&t)$7 s'$'r7 o% 0 to 90 %or t)e per*o 'boe-me&t*o&e +)*() *s $ess t)'& t)'t pro*e %or b7 $'+, t)ereb7 $e'*& ' *%%ere&(e o% '& /&p'* s'$'r7 to t)e $'tter *& t)e tot'$ 'mo/&t o% 1,01.4 %or t)e per*o 'boe-me&t*o&e. 3. )e p$e'e p$e'e  &ot &ot /*$t /*$t77 to to t)e t)e ()'r ()'re. e. 4. )*s (o/&se$, (o/&se$, %*$e %*$e ' +r*tte& +r*tte& mot*o& mot*o& to *sm*ss *sm*ss b'se b'se o& t+o ro/&s ro/&s +)*() *& s/bst'& s/bst'&(e (e mere$7 mere$7 (o&s*st *& t)'t t)e *o$'t*o& ()'re oes &ot (o&st*t/te ' (r*m*&'$ o%%e&se b/t ('rr*es o&$7 ' (**$ $*'b*$*t7, '& ee& *% *t oes, t)e se(t*o& o% t)e $'+ '$$ee to )'e bee& *o$'te oes &ot ('rr7 '&7 pe&'$t7 pe&'$*6*& *t. 5. t)e *t7 Attor&e7 Attor&e7 o% 'mbo'&' 'mbo'&' %*$e )*s )*s '&s+er to to t)e mot*o& to *sm*ss *sm*ss (o&te&* (o&te&*& & t)'t t)e $'+ +)*() +'s *o$'te b7 t)e '((/se carries with it both civil and criminal liability , t)e $'tter be*& (oere b7 Se(t*o& 15 +)*() pro*es %or t)e pe&'$t7 %or '$$ +*$$%/$ *o$'t*o&s o% '&7 o% t)e pro*s*o&s o% t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+. . !& e(ember e(ember 3, 195, 195, t)e o/rt o/rt *ss/e *ss/e '& orer orer *sm*ss *sm*ss*& *& t)e *&%orm't* *&%orm't*o& o& +*t) (osts (osts e o%*(*o o%*(*o '& ('&(e$$*& t)e b'*$ bo& %*$e b7 t)e '((/se. /*res eer7 o+&er o% '& est'b$*s)me&t $o('te o/ts*e o% :'&*$' or *ts e&*ro&s to p'7 e'() o% *ts emp$o7ees 3.00 ' '7 o& t)e e%%e(t*e 'te o% t)e A(t, '& o&e 7e'r t)ere'%ter 4.00 ' '7, Se(t*o& 15 *mposes bot) ' (r*m*&'$ pe&'$t7 %or ' +*$$%/$ *o$'t*o& o% '&7 o% t)e 'boe pro*s*o&s '& ' (**$ $*'b*$*t7 %or '&7 /&erp'7me&t o% +'es /e '& emp$o7ee. T)e *&te&t*o& o% t)e $'+ *s ($e'r# to s$'p &ot o&$7 ' (r*m*&'$ $*'b*$*t7 /po& '& err*& emp$o7er %or '&7 +*$$%/$ *o$'t*o& o% t)e '(ts so/)t to be e&o*&e b/t to 'tt'() (o&(/rre&t$7 ' (**$ $*'b*$*t7 %or '&7 /&erp'7me&t )e m'7 (omm*t 's ' res/$t t)ereo%. T)e $'+ spe'=s o% ' +*$$%/$ *o$'t*o& o% ?'&7 o% t)e pro*s*o&s o% t)*s A(t?, +)*() *s '$$-embr'(*&, '& t)e s'me m/st *&($/e +)'t *s e&o*&e *& Se(t*o& 3 t)ereo% +)*() embo*es t)e er7 %/&'me&t'$ p/rpose %or +)*() t)e $'+ )'s bee& 'opte. T)e pert*&e&t pro*s*o&s o% Rep/b$*( A(t 02 re'# S. 3. :*&*m/m +'e. @ ' er7 emp$o7er s)'$$ p'7 to e'() o% )*s emp$o7ees +)o *s emp$o7e b7 '& e&terpr*se ot)er t)'& *& 'r*(/$t/re +'es 't t)e r'te o% &ot $ess t)'& @ 



2 T)ree pesos ' '7 o& t)e e%%e(t*e 'te o% t)*s A(t '& %or o&e 7e'r '%ter t)e e%%e(t*e 'te, '& t)ere'%ter 4 ' '7, %or emp$o7ees o% est'b$*s)me&ts $o('te o/ts*e o% :'&*$' or *ts

e&*ro&s# ro*e, T)'t t)*s A(t s)'$$ &ot 'pp$7 to '&7 ret'*$ or ser*(e e&terpr*se t)'t re/$'r$7 emp$o7s &ot more t)'& %*e emp$o7ees. S. 15. e&'$t*es '& re(oer7 o% +'e /e /&er t)*s A(t. @ ' A&7 perso& +)o +*$$%/$$7 *o$'tes '&7 o% t)e pro*s*o&s o% t)*s A(t s)'$$ /po& (o&*(t*o& t)ereo% be s/be(t to ' %*&e o% &ot more t)'& t+o t)o/s'& pesos, or, /po& se(o& (o&*(t*o&, to *mpr*so&me&t o% &ot more t)'& o&e 7e'r, or to bot) %*&e '& *mpr*so&me&t, *& t)e *s(ret*o& o% t)e (o/rt. 



e A&7 emp$o7er +)o /&erp'7s '& emp$o7ee *& *o$'t*o& o% t)*s A(t s)'$$ be $*'b$e to t)e emp$o7ee '%%e(te *& t)e 'mo/&t o% t)e /&p'* +'es +*t) $e'$ *&terest. A(t*o& to re(oer s/() $*'b*$*t7 m'7 be m'*&t'*&e *& '&7 (ompete&t (o/rt b7 '&7o&e or emp$o7ees o& be)'$% o% )*mse$% or t)emse$es. T)e (o/rt *& s/() '(t*o& s)'$$, *& '*t*o& to '&7 /me&t '+'re to t)e p$'*&t*%% or p$'*&t*%%s, '$$o+ ' re'so&'b$e 'ttor&e7Cs %ee +)*() s)'$$ &ot e(ee te& per (e&t o% t)e 'mo/&t '+'re to t)e p$'*&t*%%s, /&$ess t)e 'mo/&t '+'re *s $ess t)'& o&e )/&re pesos, *& +)*() ee&t t)e %ee m'7 be te& pesos, b/t &ot *& e(ess o% t)'t 'mo/&t. '7me&t o% t)e 'mo/&t %o/& /e to t)e p$'*&t*%%s s)'$$ be m'e *re(t$7 to t)e p$'*&t*%%s, *& t)e prese&(e o% ' represe&t't*e o% t)e Se(ret'r7 or o% t)e o/rt. I& t)e ee&t p'7me&t *s +*t&esse b7 t)e (o/rt or *ts represe&t't*e, t)e Se(ret'r7 s)'$$ be &ot*%*e +*t)*& te& '7s o% p'7me&t t)'t t)e p'7me&t )'s bee& m'e.  A& e'm*&'t*o& o% t)e 'boe->/ote pro*s*o&s o% t)e t+o A(ts +*$$ s)o+ t)'t +)*$e *& s/bst'&(e t)e 7 're s*m*$'r, t)e7 )o+eer (o&t'*& some *%%ere&(es *& t)e*r p)r'seo$o7 '& *& t)e 'pport*o&me&t o% t)e*r pro*s*o&s. T)/s, +)*$e Se(t*o& 15 ', p'r'r'p) 2, o% t)e '*r L'bor St'&'rs A(t m'=es *t /&$'+%/$ %or '& emp$o7er &ot to p'7 t)e m*&*m/m +'e pres(r*be t)ere*&, o/r :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ oes &ot (o&t'*& ' s*m*$'r pro*s*o&. A'*&, t)e '*r L'bor St'&'rs A(t e&/mer'tes *& o&e s*&$e se(t*o& '$$ t)ose '(ts +)*() 're e($'re /&$'+%/$ '& 're &ot spre' o/t *& *%%ere&t se(t*o&s 's o&e *& o/r $'+. T)/s, t)e '(ts t)'t 're e($'re /&$'+%/$ b7 t)e %ormer $'+ 's e&/mer'te *& Se(t*o& 15' 're# 1 to tr'&sport or e$*er '&7 oos *& t)e pro/(t*o& o% +)*() '&7 emp$o7ee +'s emp$o7e *& *o$'t*o& o% Se(t*o&  or Se(t*o& /*re b7 $'+ or to m'=e ' %'$se re(or or report. !& t)e ot)er )'&, o/r $'+ e($'res /&$'+%/$ t)e %o$$o+*& '(ts, to +*t# 1 to p'7 +'es *& t)e %orm o% prom*ssor7 &otes, o/()ers, (o/po&s, to=e&s or '&7 ot)er %orm '$$ee to represe&t $e'$ te&er ESe(t*o& 10 ' 1FD 2 to m'=e '&7 e/(t*o& or +*t))o$ '&7 'mo/&t %rom t)e +'es o% '& emp$o7ee, or *&/(e '&7 emp$o7ee to *e p'rt o% )*s +'es b7 %or(e or *&t*m*'t*o& E Se(t*o& 10 FD 3 to (omm*t '&7 '(t o% *s(r*m*&'t*o& ''*&st '& emp$o7ee be('/se o% (ert'*& (omp$'*&t )e )'s %*$e or ('/se to be %*$e ''*&st t)e emp$o7er Se(t*o& 13D '& 4 to m'=e '&7 %'$se st'teme&t, report or re(or to s/bert t)e p/rpose o% t)e A(t Se(t*o& 14, +)*() '(ts 're (o&t'*&e *& sep'r'te se(t*o&s me&t*o&e t)ere*&. T)e %'*$/re to p'7 t)e pres(r*be m*&*m/m +'e *s &ot e($'re /&$'+%/$ *& o/r $'+. It s)o/$ '$so be &ote t)'t +)*$e Se(t*o& 1 o% t)e '*r L'bor St'&'rs A(t +)*() pro*es %or t)e pe&'$t*es to be *mpose %or '&7 +*$$%/$ *o$'t*o& o% t)e pro*s*o&s o% t)e A(t spe(*%*('$$7 st'tes t)'t t)ose penalties refer to acts declared unlawful under Section 15 of te sa!e Act , o/r $'+ oes &ot (o&t'*& s/() spe(*%*('t*o&. It merely provides in Section 15 (a) that "Any person who willully violates any o the provisions o this Act shall upon conviction" be sub!ect to the penalty therein prescribed

T)*s *st*&(t*o& *s er7 ree'$*&. It ($e'r$7 *&*('tes t)'t +)*$e t)e '*r L'bor St'&'rs A(t *&te&s to s/be(t to (r*m*&'$ '(t*o& o&$7 '(ts t)'t 're e($'re /&$'+%/$, o/r $'+ b7 $e*s$'t*e %*'t *&te&s to p/&*s) &ot o&$7 t)ose epress$7 e($'re /&$'+%/$ b/t ee& t)ose &ot so e($'re b/t 're ($e'r$7 e&o*&e to be obsere to ('rr7 o/t t)e %/&'me&t'$ p/rpose o% t)e $'+. !&e s/() pro*s*o& *s /&o/bte$7 t)'t +)*() re%ers to t)e p'7me&t o% t)e m*&*m/m +'e embo*e *& Se(t*o& 3. T)*s *s t)e o&$7 r't*o&'$ *&terpret't*o&

t)'t ('& be r'+& %rom t)e 'tt*t/e o% o/r o&ress *& %r'm*& o/r $'+ *& ' m'&&er *%%ere&t %rom t)'t 'ppe'r*& *& t)e mot)er $'+. I&ee, t)e m'*& obe(t*e o% t)e $'+ *s to pro*e %or ' ro(=-bottom +'e to be obsere '& b7 '& emp$o7ers o% '& 'r*(/$t/r'$ '& *&/str*'$ est'b$*s)me&t. T)*s obe(t*e +o/$ be e%e'te +ere +e to 'opt ' restr*(t*e *&terpret't*o& o% t)e 'boe pe&'$ ($'/se, %or '& emp$o7er +)o =&o+s t)'t )e ('&&ot be 'me&'b$e to ' (r*m*&'$ '(t*o& +o/$ be pro&e to s/bert t)e $'+ be('/se *% )e *s ete(te *t +o/$ be e's7 %or )*m to p'7 t)e /&erp'7me&t '& t)e (orrespo&*& *&terest 's +o/$ be t)e ('se +ere )e to 'ss/me mere$7 ' (**$ $*'b*$*t7. o/&se$ %or 'ppe$$ee )o+eer e&tert'*&s ' *%%ere&t *&terpret't*o&. e (o&te&s t)'t *% Se(t*o& 15' s)o/$ be *&terprete *& ' m'&&er t)'t +o/$ embr'(e ' +*$$%/$ *o$'t*o& o% '&7 o% t)e pro*s*o&s o% t)e $'+ +e +o/$ )'e ' s*t/'t*o& +)ere ee& t)e o%%*(*'$s e&tr/ste +*t) *ts e&%or(eme&t m'7 be )e$ (r*m*&'$$7 $*'b$e +)*() *s &ot (o&temp$'te *& t)e $'+. Tus" e contends" te Secretar# of La$or !a# $e cri!inall# prosecuted for willfull# not usin% all availa$le devices for investi%ation &Section ' ( c)*" for not presentin% to te +a%e ,oard all te evidence in is possession relatin% to te wa%es in te industries for wic te +a%e ,oard is appointed and oter infor!ation relevant to te esta$lis!ent of te !ini!u! wa%e &Section 5 ( p)*" and for not doin% all oter acts wic te law re-uires i! to do under Section ./ Tis" e e!pasi0es" is a$surd and sould not $e entertained/

To be*& +*t), t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ *s ' so(*'$ $e*s$'t*o& +)*() )'s bee& 'opte %or t)e be&e%*t o% $'bor '& 's s/() *t (o&t'*&s pro*s*o&s t)'t 're e&o*&e to be obsere b7 t)e emp$o7er. T)ese pro*s*o&s 're s/bst'&t*e *& &'t/re '& )' bee& 'opte %or (ommo& obser'&(e b7 t)e perso&s '%%e(te. T)e7 ('&&ot be e$/e &or s/berte $est t)e err*& emp$o7er r/&s *&to t)e s'&(t*o& o% t)e $'+. !& t)e ot)er )'&, t)e pro*s*o&s 'erte to b7 (o/&se$ 're mere$7 'm*&*str't*e *& ()'r'(ter +)*() )' bee& 'opte to set t)e m'()*&er7 b7 +)*() t)e $'+ *s to be e&%or(e. T)e7 're pro*s*o&s est'b$*s)e %or obser'&(e b7 t)e o%%*(*'$s e&tr/ste +*t) *ts e&%or(eme&t. ailure to co!pl# wit te! would terefore su$2ect te! !erel# to ad!inistrative sanction/ Te# do not co!e under te penal clause e!$odied in Section 15(a)/ Tis is clearl# inferred fro! Section 13(c)" of 4epu$lic Act No/ .6" wic provides7 8An# official of te Govern!ent to wo! responsi$ilit# in ad!inistration and enforce!ent as $een dele%ated under tis Act sall $e re!ova$le on te sustainin% of car%es of !alfeasance or non9feasance in office/8 Tis specific provision sould $e interpreted as -ualif#in% te penal clause provided for in Section 15( a)/

It *s tr/e t)'t Se(t*o& 3 /&er +)*() 'ppe$$ee +'s ()'re oes &ot st'te t)'t *t s)'$$ be /&$'+%/$$ %or '& emp$o7er to p'7 )*s emp$o7ees +'es be$o+ t)e m*&*m/m +'e b/t mere$7 re>/*res t)'t t)e emp$o7er s)'$$ p'7 +'es &ot be$o+ t)e m*&*m/m +'e. B/t %'*$/re o% s/() e($'r't*o& oes &ot m'=e t)e &o&obser'&(e o% t)e pro*s*o&s $ess /&$'+%/$ t)'& ot)er+*se, %or s/() pro*s*o& embo*es pre(*se$7 t)e r'*so& Cetre o% t)e $'+ *tse$%. I&ee, Section : is te ver# provision on wic all te oter provisions of te law are $uilt/ T)/s, t)e pro)*b*t*o& ''*&st *s(r*m*&'t*& ''*&st '&7 emp$o7ee be('/se )e )'s %*$e ' (omp$'*&t or ('/se to be *&st*t/te o&e ''*&st t)e emp$o7er *s /st ' me'&s to *&s/re t)e e%%e(t*e e&%or(eme&t o% t)'t pro*s*o& Se(t*o& 13D '& so t)e pro)*b*t*o& ''*&st t)e m'=*& o% ' %'$se st'teme&t, report or re(or re>/*re to be %*$e or =ept b7 t)e $'+ Se(t*o& 13D t)e pro)*b*t*o& ''*&st t)e p'7me&t o% +'es *& t)e %orm o% prom*ssor7 &otes, o/()ers, (o/po&s, to=e&s, or '&7 ot)er %orm to represe&t $e'$ te&er Se(t*o& 10, p'r. ', s/b-p'r'r'p) 1D '& t)e pro)*b*t*o& ''*&st m'=*& e/(t*o&s or +*t))o$*& '&7 'mo/&t %rom t)e +'es o% '& emp$o7ee Se(t*o& 10, p'r. . Tese are acts wic were declared unlawful $ecause te# !a# $e resorted to $# unscrupulous e!plo#ers wit te evident purpose of su$vertin% or defeatin% te pa#!ent of te !ini!u! wa%e/ I% t)ese s/pp$eme&t'r7 pro*s*o&s 're mere s'%e/'rs

est'b$*s)e b7 t)e $'+m'=er to ($ose eer7 'e&/e to tr*(=er7 or s/bers*o& o& t)e p'rt o% t)e emp$o7er, te# cannot $e !ore i!portant and i!perative as te central provision fi;in% te !ini!u! wa%e witout wic te law will ave no reason to e;ist . ;e ('&&ot t)ere%ore e&tert'*& t)e ($'*m t)'t

be('/se s'* pro*s*o& +'s &ot e($'re /&$'+%/$ *t ('&&ot be s/be(t to t)e pe&'$ s'&(t*o& embo*e *& Se(t*o& 15.

It *s $*=e+*se tr/e t)'t t)e *&%orm't*o&s /&er +)*() t)e '((/se +'s ()'re o&$7 me&t*o& Section : of te law as te one violated and tis section does not contain a penal clause" $ut tis does not !a/*r*& )*m to s't*s%7 t)e *%%ere&(e, p$/s 'ttor&e7Cs %ees. I be$*ee s/bse(t*o& e p/&*s)es t)e p'rt*(/$'r ?*o$'t*o&? o% p'7*& $ess t)'& t)e m*&*m/m +'e. It *s ' spe(*'$ pro*s*o&, +)*() /&er +e$$-=&o+& r/$es o% (o&str/(t*o&, s)o/$ pre'*$ oer t)e e&er'$ pro*s*o& *& s/bse(t*o& '. I& ot)er +ors, '$t)o/) t)e A(t oes &ot epress$7 s'7 so, s/bse(t*o& e *s '& e(ept*o&1 to s/bse(t*o& '. I thin# it is a mista#e to suppose that this interpretation ails to punish the employer who disre$ards the Act% because the liability imposed by subsection (e) is un&uestionably a sanction'  penal in nature' which ecept or the law' would not be demandable I% "/'& e $' r/6, b7 (o&tr'(t,

emp$o7s ero 't 3.00 per '7 *& :'&*$' +)ere t)e $'+ %*es ' m*&*m/m '*$7 +'e o% 4.00, ero (o/$ &ot re(oer 4.00 *&ste' o% 3.00 e(ept %or t)*s $'+ be('/se ero 'ree to t)e 3-peso +'e. Neert)e$ess, t)*s s/bse(t*o& e s'7s, esp*te s/() 'reeme&t +*t) ero, "/'& m/st p'7 )*m 't t)e r'te o% 4.00 ' '7, p$/s 'ttor&e7Cs %ees. e *s re>/*re to p'7 +)'t )e * &ot (o&tr'(t to p'7, or (o/$ &ot '%%or to p'7. Is &ot t)*s ' p/&*s)me&t *mpose o& "/'& emember that ine' which is also a  punishment consists in the disbursement o money

B/t s/() p'7me&t *s *&s/%%*(*e&t pe&'$t7, I )e'r ot)ers 'r/e. T)*s ('se +*$$ e's*$7 *sproe s/() 'r/me&t# U&er s/bse(t*o& e t)*s 'ppe$$ee +o/$ )'e to p'7 &e(ess'r*$7 1,01.00, p$/s 'ttor&e7Cs %eesD +)ere's /&er s/bse(t*o& ' )e m*)t be %*&e 200.00 o&$7.2 o+eer, t)e m'or*t7 +*$$ (o/&ter, we hold that the employer' is liable under subsection (e) in addition to his liability under subsection (a)

T)ere*& $*es t)e tro/b$eD t)e +ors ?*& '*t*o&? or +ors o% s*m*$'r *mport, +ere &ot *&serte *& s/bse(t*o& e, 's t)e7 (o/$ )'e bee& *&serte.  A*t*o&'$ $*'b*$*t7, *s t)e*r pre'*$*& *e'. A& 7et, +)7 s)o/$ t)e $'+ *mpose o& t)e emp$o7er +)o p'7s *& '((or'&(e +*t) ' (o&tr'(t %ree$7 e&tere *&to, '*t*o&'$ b/re&s &ot *mpose o& t)e ot)er emp$o7ers +*$$%/$$7 *o$'t*& ot)er %/&'me&t'$ pro*s*o&s o% t)e A(t.

It m'7 be 'r/e t)'t s/bse(t*o& e *s &ot re'$$7 ' s'&(t*o& *&epe&e&t o% s/bse(t*o& ', or '*t*o&'$ t)ereto, be('/se *t mere$7 repe'ts t)e +e$$-=&o+& pr*&(*p$e t)'t ?eer7 perso& (r*m*&'$$7 $*'b$e *s '$so (**$$7 $*'b$e.? :7 '&s+er *s t+o%o$# %*rst, 'ttor&e7Cs %ees 're &ot /s/'$$7 *&($/e *& s/() pr*&(*p$e @ ' robber *s &ot re>/*re to p'7 'ttor&e7Cs %eesD se(o&, t)e emp$o7ee *s &ot re'$$7 t)e *&/re p'rt7 be('/se )e '((epte t)e emp$o7me&t /&er ' (o&tr'(t# ?S(*e&t* et o$e&t* &/$$' %*t *&/r*'.? T)ere *s &o *o$'t*o& o% '&7 r*)t o% t)e emp$o7ee %or +)*() rep'r't*o& *s /e. I& t)e e'mp$e *e&, ero )' &o r*)t to re>/*re "/'& to emp$o7 )*m 't 4.00. T)ere *s o&$7 ' bre'() o% t)e st't/te, %or +)*() t)e Goer&me&t ('& ()oose, '& * ()oose t)e proper s'&(t*o&, &'me$7, p'7me&t o% t)e s'$'r7 *%%ere&t*'$ /&er s/bse(t*o& e. T)e o&ress * &ot ()oose more t)'& t)'tD (o&tr'r7 to +)'t *t * *& '&'$oo/s s*t/'t*o&s. T'=e t)e Us/r7 L'+, %or *&st'&(eD *t pro*es ?+*t)o/t pre/*(e to t)e proper (**$ '(t*o& %or t)e re(oer7 o% /s/r*o/s *&terest p'*, *o$'t*o&s o% t)*s A(t s)'$$ be s/be(t to (r*m*&'$ prose(/t*o& '& t)e /*$t7 perso&, et(.? Se(. 10. I& t)e 'bse&(e o% ' ($e'r, /&m*st'='b$e st't/te, +e s)o/$ &ot 'pproe t+o p/&*s)me&ts %or o&e '& t)e s'me m*s(o&/(t.

:!NT:AH!R, "., *sse&t*&# To m7 =&o+$ee, t)*s *s t)e %*rst t*me t)'t t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ *s be*& *&terprete b7 t)*s Tr*b/&'$, 's re'rs t)e (omp'ss '& s(ope o% t)e pe&'$t7 pro*e *& Se(t*o& 15 o% s'* $'+, so t)'t o& t)*s s/be(t m'tter, t)*s +*$$ be t)e %*rst ('se '& ' $e'*& o&e. T)e tr*'$ (o/rt *& *ts orer *sm*ss*& t)e *&%orm't*o& s'* t)'t *t )' ('re%/$$7 (o&s*ere *ts r/$*& or orer be('/se ?*t be$*ees t)'t '&7 reso$/t*o&, o&e +'7 or '&ot)er, +o/$ be pre(ee&t-sett*&, be('/se /&t*$ &o+, t)e S/preme o/rt )'s &ot *re(t$7 r/$e /po& t)e po*&t.? U&er t)e *&terpret't*o& *e& b7 t)e m'or*t7, '&7 emp$o7er +)o /&erp'7s )*s emp$o7ees *& *o$'t*o& o% t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ Se(t*o& 3 +o/$ be s/be(t to (r*m*&'$ prose(/t*o&. I 'm '%r'* t)'t *% t)'t *s t)e $'+, t)e prose(/t*& 'ttor&e7s '& %*s('$s +o/$ )'e o& t)e*r )'&s &ot o&$7 t)e prose(/t*o& o% t)o/s'&s o% pr*'te emp$o7ers +)o m'7 be p'7*& t)e*r emp$o7ees '& $'borers 'mo/&ts $ess t)'& t)e m*&*m/m +'e, )o+eer sm'$$ t)e e%*(*e&(7, b/t '$so )/&res '& t)o/s'&s o% pro*&(*'$ '& m/&*(*p'$ o%%*(*'$s, p'rt*(/$'r$7 t)e $'tter, +)o 're p'7*& t)e*r emp$o7ees, &ot e($/*& pe'(e o%%*(ers $*=e m/&*(*p'$ po$*(eme& '& p'tro$me&, s'$'r*es +)*() 're +'7 be$o+ t)e m*&*m/m +'e o% 4.00 ' '7. It *s ' +e$$ =&o+& %'(t t)'t *& t)*s respe(t, t)e Goer&me&t *s t)e %*rst '& +orst o%%e&er. e& %*rst ($'ss m/&*(*p'$*t*es ('&&ot '%%or '& &'t/r'$$7 o &ot p'7 t)e*r emp$o7ees '& pe'(e o%%*(ers t)e m*&*m/m +'eD +*t) more re'so& ('&&ot se(o& ($'ss '& t)*r ($'ss m/&*(*p'$*t*es o so. T)e m'or*t7 op*&*o& +*$$ )'e s/() %'r-re'()*& '& to me, /&%oresee& (o&se>/e&(es, 't o&(e b'&e%/$, /&es*r'b$e, '& )/rt%/$ to *&/str7, '& *s'stro/s to $o('$ oer&me&t o%%*(*'$s +)o, str*(t$7 spe'=*&, 're &ot to b$'me, t)'t I 'm (o&str'*&e to o*(e m7 *sse&t '& ep$'*& t)e re'so&s t)ere%or. or ' better /&erst'&*& o% t)e 'opt*o& o% t)e m*&*m/m +'e *& t)*s /r*s*(t*o&, *t *s +e$$ to remember t)'t *t +'s &ot o% t)e *&*t*'t*e, *e' or o$*t*o& o% t)*s (o/&tr7. It +'s re(omme&e b7 t)e Be$$ :*ss*o& +)*() m'e '& e(o&om*( s/re7 )ere '& *& *ts report, re(omme&e *ts est'b$*s)me&t. Not o&$7 t)*s, b/t *t +o/$ 'ppe'r t)'t t)e e&'(tme&t o% t)*s :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ +'s m'e ' (o&*t*o& pre(ee&t to e(o&om*( '* to be *e& to /s b7 t)e U&*te St'tes o% Amer*('.1 I& (o&&e(t*o& +*t) t)e *s(/ss*o& '& e&'(tme&t o% t)*s p*e(e o% $e*s$'t*o&, &ot o&$7 o/r e(o&om*sts b/t '$so o/r $e*s$'tors epresse t)e*r %e'rs, o/bts '& m*s**&s, %/$$7 re'$*6*& t)'t t)e (o/&tr7 +'s &ot per)'ps prep're e(o&om*('$$7 %or *ts 'opt*o& '& oper't*o&. B/t be('/se o% o/r (omm*tme&t +*t)  Amer*(',2 '& poss*b$7 re'$*6*& '$so t)e &e(ess*t7 o% est'b$*s)*& ' %'*r m*&*m/m st'&'r o% +'es %or $'borers '& emp$o7ees, t)e Le*s$'t/re e&'(te t)*s $'+ *& t)e &'t/re o% '& eper*me&t, ('re%/$$7 +'t()*& '& obser*& *& *ts oper't*o&, ee(/t*o& '& obser'&(e, *ts oo po*&ts '& *ts s)ort(om*&s

's +e$$, +*t) t)e *e' o% $'ter m'=*& t)e &e(ess'r7 ()'&es '& 'me&me&t. T)e Le*s$'t/re +'s, 's *t +ere, e&t/r*& o/t o& '& /&()'rte se'D so *t )' to be (o&ser't*e '& moe +*t) me's/re steps. S*&(e t)e $'+ +'s mere$7 be*& tr*e o/t 's '& eper*me&t, *ts pro*s*o&s (o/$ &ot )'e bee& m'e '& *&te&e to be str*(t '& seere, *& t)e se&se t)'t be('/se o% t)e*r seer*t7 '& str*(t&ess, (omp$*'&(e t)ere+*t) +o/$ be *%%*(/$t, *% &ot *mposs*b$e, '& +o/$ res/$t *& t)e*r &o& obser'&(e, '& t)e (o&se>/e&t p/&*s)me&t b7 %*&e '& pr*so& se&te&(e o% t)ose e%*&e 's emp$o7ers +)o 're /&'b$e to (omp$7 +*t) s'* pro*s*o&s. T)e &et res/$t +o/$ be t)e /&/st p/&*s)me&t o% *&&o(e&t oer&me&t o%%*(*'$s '& t)e *s(o/r'eme&t '& estr/(t*o& o% *&%'&t '& sm'$$ *&/str*es.. rom t)e ep$'&'tor7 &ote o% Se&'te B*$$ No. 202, +e m'7 )'e '& *e' o% t)e 'tt*t/e o% t)e Le*s$'t/re o& t)*s p'rt*(/$'r po*&t# !&e t)*& to be remembere *s t)'t t)e (o/&tr7 )'s &ot 7et 'tt'*&e t)'t eree o% *&/str*'$*6't*o& +)ere +'es ('& be set 't %/$$7 s't*s%'(tor7 $ee$s %rom t)e *e+po*&ts o% )/m'& '$/es. omprom*ses m/st st*$$ be m'e /&t*$ t)*s %/$$ *&/str*'$ st't/s *s 'tt'*&e. A&ot)er t)*& *s t)'t )'st7 '& /&/*(*o/s '(t*o& *& p'ss*& m*&*m/m +'e $'+s m'7 be eterre&t to pr*'te ('p*t'$ +)*(), o& t)e (o&tr'r7 &ees to be e&(o/r'e to *&est *& $o('$ *&/str*es *% t)e *&/str*'$*6't*o& o% o/r (o/&tr7 m/st some'7 be ' %'(t. mp)'s*s s/pp$*e.  As t)e m'or*t7 op*&*o& (orre(t$7 obseres, o/r :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ *s p'tter&e '%ter t)'t o% t)e U&* te St'tes '*r L'bor St'&'rs A(t .L.S.A. o% 1938, 's 'me&e. As I )'e '$re'7 st'te, t)e est'b$*s)me&t o% t)*s m*&*m/m +'e *& t)*s (o/&tr7 be*& ' sort o% eper*me&t, *t be*& t)e %*rst t*me t)'t *t +'s be*& tr*e o/t, '& &ot =&o+*& +)et)er or &ot *t +o/$ be ' s/((ess, *t *s to be pres/me t)'t t)e Le*s$'t/re '(te ('/t*o/s$7 '& +'r*$7, '& ee& +)*$e 'opt*& 's ' p'tter& t)e U&*te St'tes .L.S.A., *t * &ot +*s) or I&te& to m'=e o/r $'+ more ster& '& str*(t *& *ts e&%or(eme&t '& 'pp$*('t*o&, p'rt*(/$'r$7 's re'rs *ts pe&'$t*es. B/t t)e m'or*t7 op*&*o& +o/$ m'=e o/r $'+ more r*oro/s '& seere, more (ompre)e&s*e '& more e'st't*& *& t)e 'pp$*('t*o& o% *ts pe&'$ pro*s*o&s. or *&st'&(e, +)*$e t)e .L.S.A. *& Se(t*o& 1' pe&'$*6es o&$7 spe(*%*( *o$'t*o&s o% *ts pro*s*o&s epress$7 e&/mer'te, o/r $'+ 's *&terprete b7 t)e m'or*t7 op*&*o&, +o/$ p/&*s) '&7 *o$'t*o& +)'tsoeer, +)et)er e&/mer'te spe(*%*('$$7 or &ot. :oreoer, +)*$e Se(t*o& 15' o% t)e . L. S. A. m'=es *t /&$'+%/$ %or '& emp$o7er &ot to p'7 t)e m*&*m/m +'e pres(r*be b7 *t, o/r :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ oes &ot (o&t'*& ' s*m*$'r pro*s*o&. ;)'t o/r $'+ e($'res /&$'+%/$ 're (ert'*& pos*t*e '& '%%*rm't*e '(ts, s/() 's, p'7*& +'es *& t)e %orm o% prom*ssor7 &otes, o/()ers, et(.D m'=*& e/(t*o&s or +*t))o$*& '&7 'mo/&t %rom t)e +'es o% '& emp$o7ee, or *&/(*& '&7 emp$o7ee to *e p'rt o% )*s +'es b7 %or(e or *&t*m*'t*o&D (omm*tt*& '&7 '(t o% *s(r*m*&'t*o& ''*&st '& emp$o7ee be('/se o% ' (ert'*& (omp$'*&t )e )' %*$e ''*&st t)e emp$o7er, or m'=*& '&7 %'$se st'teme&t *& '&7 report or re(or to s/bert t)e p/rposes o% t)e A(t. T)ese '(ts m/st )'e bee& re're b7 t)e Le*s$'t/re 's ser*o/s '& so epress$7 e($'re t)em /&$'+%/$. o+eer, t)e mere %'*$/re to p'7 t)e pres(r*be m*&*m/m +'e *s &ot, *& o/r $'+, e($'re /&$'+%/$. I be$*ee t)'t +)'t t)e Le*s$'t/re *&te&e to pe&'$*6e +*t) %*&e '& pr*so& se&te&(e +ere o&$7 t)ose '(ts +)*() *t e&/mer'te '& e($'re /&$'+%/$, &ot t)e mere %'*$/re to %o$$o+ '& (omp$7 +*t) t)e ob$*'t*o&s *mpose /po& '& emp$o7er, s/() 's, t)e &o&p'7me&t o% t)e m*&*m/m +'e. It +*$$ be &ot*(e t)'t o/r $'+ epress$7 pro*es t)'t '&7 emp$o7er /&erp'7*& '& emp$o7ee *& *o$'t*o& o% t)e A(t s)'$$ be $*'b$e to s'* emp$o7ee *& t)e 'mo/&t o% t)e /&erp'7me&t, +*t) $e'$ *&terest, p$/s ' re'so&'b$e 'mo/&t %or 'ttor&e7Cs %ees. T)*s 'mo/&t m'7 be re(oere &ot o&$7 b7 t)e emp$o7ee )*mse$%, b/t b7 t)e Se(ret'r7 o% L'bor o& )*s be)'$%. I& m7 op*&*o&, t)*s (**$ respo&s*b*$*t7 to be e&%or(e +*t) t)e '* o% t)e ep'rtme&t o% L'bor, +'s re're 's s/%%*(*e&t p/&*s)me&t '&  eterre&t o& t)e emp$o7er. Be*& ' (**$ '(t*o&, t)e emp$o7ee o&$7 &ees prepo&er'&(e o% e*e&(e to +*& )*s s/*t. T)e Le*s$'t/re m'7 )'e bee& o% t)e be$*e% t)'t 'pp$*('t*o& o% t)e pe&'$ s'&(t*o& *& t)e %orm o% %*&e '& pr*so& se&te&(e +o/$ be too r'*('$ ' me's/re, +o/$ s('re '& *s(o/r'e &e+ '& *&%'&t *&/str*es, bes*es *&/(*& *o$'tors to resort to /&er)'&e b/t e%%e(t*e me's/res to )*e '& (o&(e'$ *&%r*&eme&t o% t)e $'+, to s'7 &ot)*& o% t)e 'e *%%*(/$t7 *& se(/r*& (o&*(t*o&, +)*() re>/*res &ot o&$7 prepo&er'&(e o% e*e&(e, b/t proo% o% /*$t be7o& re'so&'b$e o/bt.

To s)o+ t)'t t)e Le*s$'t/re * &ot *&te& to be too seere '& ster& *& t)e 'pp$*('t*o& o% t)*s &e+ $'+ +)*() +'s mere$7 be*& tr*e o/t, +)*$e o/se B*$$ No. 1/'te. T)*s Tr*b/&'$ +o/$, $*=e o&e /&$*(e&se to pr'(t*(e me*(*&e, pres(r*be ' (/re %or ' s/ppose $e*s$'t*o&'$ m'$'7. I 'm '%r'* t)'t *s &ot '& )'s &eer bee& t)e pro*&(e, m/() $ess, t)e prero't*e o% t)e "/*(*'r7. !t)er+*se, t)e (o/rts +o/$ be *&/$*& *& /*(*'$ $e*s$'t*o&. I% t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ *s %o/& to be *&'e>/'te '& *&e%%e(t*e, $et t)e Le*s$'t/re m'=e t)e &e(ess'r7 ()'&es '& 'me&me&ts. I& %'(t, t)'t +'s t)e $e*s$'t*e p$'& %rom t)e be*&&*& @ obsere t)e oper't*o& '& +or=*& o% t)e $'+ '& t)e& m'=e ()'&es, *% eeme &e(ess'r7. B/t e*e&t$7, t)e Le*s$'t/re *s s't*s%*e +*t) t)e oper't*o& '& moe o% 'pp$*('t*o& o% t)e $'+, be('/se '$t)o/) 'pproe o& Apr*$ , 1951, '& m'e e%%e(t*e 120 '7s t)ere'%ter, *& ot)er +ors, '%ter ' see&-7e'r oper't*o&, *t Le*s$'t/re )'s &ot see& %*t to *&tro/(e '&7 m'or ()'&es,4 spe(*'$$7 *& t)e 'pp$*('t*o& o% t)e pe&'$t7.  A&7+'7, '%ter '$$ *s s'* '& o&e, t)e $e'st t)'t (o/$ be s'* 'bo/t t)e 'pp$*('b*$*t7 o% Se(t*o& 15' o% t)e :*&*m/m ;'e $'+ to *o$'t*o&s o% Se(t*o& 3 *s o/bt%/$. e& br/s)*& 's*e '& &ot (o&s*er*& t)e r'e o/bts e&tert'*&e b7 t)e /&ers*&e 's to t)e 'pp$*('b*$*t7 o% s'* Se(t*o& 15' to *o$'t*o&s o% Se(t*o& 3, +e )'e *& e*e&(e t)e op*&*o& o% t)e o/rt o% *rst I&st'&(e o% 'mbo'&' '& '((or*& to *t, t)e op*&*o& o% t)e m'or se(tor o% t)e 'mbo'&' b'r, s/st'*&*& t)e *e+ t)'t Se(t*o& 15' *s &ot 'pp$*('b$e to *o$'t*o&s o% Se(t*o&s 3 o% t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+. ;e )'e t)e +e$$ sett$e pr*&(*p$e *& t)e *&terpret't*o& o% pe&'$ $'+s t)'t *& ('se o% o/bt, t)e *&terpret't*o& %'or'b$e to t)e '((/se s)o/$ be 'opte. A/t)or*t*es *& s/pport o% t)*s pr*&(*p$e 're &ot +'&t*&. L'+s (re't*&, e%*&*&, or p/&*s)*& (r*mes, '& t)ose *mpos*& pe&'$t*es '& %or%e*t/res, 're to be (o&str/e str*(t$7 ''*&st t)e st'te or t)e p'rt7 see=*& to e&%or(e t)em, '& $*ber'$$7 *& %'or o% t)e p'rt7 so/)t to be ()'re. T)e7 're &ot to be e&$'re b7 *mp$*('t*o&s, &or ete&e to perso&s or ('ses &ot p$'*&$7 +*t)*& t)e me'&*& o% t)e $'&/'e emp$o7e. B$'(= o& I&terpret't*o& o% L'+s, p. 451.

S'* t)*s o/rt *& U. S. s. Ab' S'&tos, 35 )*$. 243# r*m*&'$ st't/tes 're to be (o&str/e str*(t$7D &o perso& s)o/$ be bro/)t +*t)*& t)em, &or s)o/$ '&7 '(t be pro&o/&(e (r*m*&'$ +)*() *s &ot m'e ($e'r$7 so. I& *e+ o% t)e %oreo*&, I )o$ t)'t t)e pe&'$ s'&(t*o& o% t)e :*&*m/m ;'e L'+ 'pp$*es o&$7 to (ert'*& *o$'t*o&s o% *ts pro*s*o&s, t)'t *s to s'7, t)ose '(ts +)*() 're epress$7 e($'re b7 t)e $'+ *tse$% 's /&$'+%/$D '& t)'t mere &o&p'7me&t o% t)e m*&*m/m +'e *s &ot *&($/e *& t)e s'* pe&'$ s'&(t*o&, t)e Le*s$'t/re e*e&t$7 be$*e*& t)'t t)e (**$ respo&s*b*$*t7 o% t)e emp$o7er %or t)e 'mo/&t o% t)e /&erp'7me&t +*t) $e'$ *&terest '& 'ttor&e7Cs %ees to be e&%or(e +*t) t)e '* o% t)e ep'rtme&t o% L'bor, *s e&o/) p/&*s)me&t '& eterre&t o& emp$o7ers.

RHS A., "., *sse&t*&#  As t)e m'or*t7 op*&*o& *tse$% s'7s, ?%'*$/re to p'7 t)e pres(r*be m*&*m/m +'e *s &ot e($'re /&$'+%/$ *& o/r $'+? Rep. A(t No. 02. !& t)e ot)er )'&, *t *s o/bt%/$ *% t)e pe&'$ s'&(t*o& pres(r*be *& se(t*o& 15' o% t)'t A(t @ pres/m'b$7 %or t)e '(ts '& pr'(t*(es t)ere*& e($'re /&$'+%/$ @ (o/$ be r*)t%/$$7 'pp$*e to t)e '(t o% /&erp'7*& '& emp$o7ee, s*&(e p'r'r'p) e o% t)'t s'me se(t*o& '$re'7 pro*es ' spe(*%*( reme7 t)ere%or. o&s*er*& t)'t pe&'$ st't/tes 're str*(t$7 (o&str/e ''*&st t)e st'te '& *& 'se o% o/bt (o/rts m/st 'opt t)e (o&str/(t*o& %'or'b$e to t)e '((/se, I ote %or t)e '%%*rm'&(e o% t)e orer be$o+ '& '$so s'7 t)'t (o/rts s)o/$ &ot pres/me to $e*s$'te b7 p/tt*& *&to t)e $'+ more teet) t)'& t)e Le*s$'t/re )'s '$re'7 p/t *&to *t.

View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.