Standard Operating Procedures 2
Download Standard Operating Procedures 2...
Standard Operating Procedures for Manufacturing units
1. Order Cycle
Finishe d Goods Embroider y
Technical & Production Planning
Sewing Cutting Stores
2. Production Flow Chart
Stores Technical Package of style handed By the Merchandising Department Along with the T & A Plan.
Stores issue G.R.N Within 24 working hrs.
Fabric & Trims In house as per T & A.
10% Inspection by Q/A department. Report to be submitted within 48 hrs.
Shade Band 100%
Merchandising will issue Cutting Plan & Cut Sheet.
Fabric issued to Cutting as per cut Sheet quantity.
10% Fabric,4 Point system
Fit / Proto Sample.
All Samples should be Approved.. Width
Contract Seal Sample.
Shading. Pilot Run of 100 Units.
Size Set/Rack Sample
Lay Sheet to be circulated Daily.
Bulk Fabric Laying & Cutting.
Production Status Circulated at 10.00 A.M
Fusing & Assorting. Loading Plan by Production Manager.
In Line Check.
Final Line Checking.
Out Put Final Inspection 24 hrs prior to delivery Date.
Finished Goods. Fabric.
Reconciliation Within 24 hrs.
Exportation of Garments.
3. Sampling 3.1 Objective: • The throughput time for sample making should be 3 days from cut date. •
To manufacture shirts 100% as per customer requirements.
Storage and presentation of patterns , samples , trims & fabric wirh proper identification status for easy retreival.
To ensure that for all wash codes shrinkages are analysed roll wise either on a sample lot or 100% roll based on customer requirement and multiple shrinkage patterns are drawn where required.
To ensure that the samples are produced keeping in mind the responsibility of the same in bulk and highlighting to customer if their specification cannot be met in bulk.
3.2 Process flow chart Process Flow Sampling
The sample Room is the “Heart” of any Apparel Manufacturing Organization. Hence it is utmost important to the Sample room in charge to ensure high quality Samples within a very short lead-time is submitted & approved by Buyer. Ensure your work force is adequate to meet the ever-growing demand of samples. After receiving the Tech pack, Study carefully & revert back within 8 hours for queries. As soon as a new tech pack is received, sampling dept. should submit the Mini markers to the Marketing division & if any changes occur during the process, the revised Mini marker should be presented immediately if the reason for revision is valid. Further as a norm, once the mini marker is submitted to a certain styling, The same yield or less should be maintained for the bulk production as well. As Intimated above, No Sample is to be cut without the patterns had been checked against the spec sheet along with the Pattern maker. All non-wash Garments should be submitted within 3 days Maximum & wash Garments should be submitted within 4 days. No Sample is to be undertaken without the sample requisition form (Annexure-1).
Samples to be made in the sample room •
Pre production samples
The sample room is not to make any T.O.P Sample or Shipment sample. These samples should be submitted by the Q/A department & produced in the Production floor. The sample room should always maintain a Mini Stores, which should include Fabric yardage, Zippers, Buttons Thread, buttons, Labels & Tags pertaining to all styles. Once the Pre Production sample is approved, the size set should be submitted for all styles & the final Graded pattern would be made. Strictly no pattern revision is to be made after approval of size set without the approval of Sample room In-charge & the concerned Merchandiser. The Approved Pre production sample should be handed over to the R & D Department during the P.P. meeting. The Sample room should always cross check all the Shrinkages (Thermal, Cut, Steam, Washing, Fusing) of the fabric before making samples & adjust patterns accordingly. All reports / tech pack / manuals etc, should be documented & maintained. A reference sample should always be kept in house as a representative of any sample, which is submitted, to Buyers. This is utmost important & should be kept in the sample room.
3.3 Sample Stages:
3.3.1 Development/ Proto 1. The purpose of making a development sample for a buyer is to check for the look of the style. 2. Receive sampling Indent and fabric 3. Develop pattern for the style. 4. Sample Cutting should be done as per the required numbers with the available fabric and pattern. 5. Sample sewing: The samples are stitched with available fabric and trims. 6. Checking 7. Finishing and Packing 8. Sending for approval 9. Receive the comments a. If passed then proceed to next stage with comments if any (new indent to be issued) b. If rejected then redo the sample as per comments (new indent to be issued).
3.3.2 Fit sample 1. Receive sampling Indent 2. Fabric treatment 3. Pattern making/ correction Rest all stages same as Development except that during checking it is now checked for measurements and fit.
3.3.3 Pre production Sample/ Sealer/ Gold Seal The purpose of making a pre production Sample is to check for the actual fabric and trims and style. Input: Comments on Fit sample, shrinkage report. The process remains same as the previous stage.
This is like a sealer for the production, so whatever changes if need to be done, should be made before this stage. So, the sample should be looked for production feasibility before this.
3.3.4 Size Set The purpose is to check all sizes for measurements based on the graded spec. The process remains same as the previous stage except that the graded spec is required and checked in each stage.
4. Research & Development 4.1 Objective:
- The purpose of R&D department is to research on the style in all
aspects like construction details, methods, production feasibility and identifying potential problems.
4.2 Interfacing Departments
Sending the samples for SMV and Thread consumption calculation
Pilot loading plan and priorities (Annexure- 2)
4.2.2 Merchandising: •
Merchandiser issues the work order to stores to open the bales and send for shrinkage testing.
Sends the PP sample and comments to pattern master.
Giving the requirement for pilot if needed and how many samples are required.
4.2.3 IED •
4.3 Process Flow Pilot Run Receipt of file and PP sample Receipt of shrinkage report Pattern amendment and grading for base pattern Making hard pattern Pattern checking and Issue to pilot run Getting fabric issued for required number of pcs Cutting (manual) Checking cut panels
Cutting one size (manual) Checking cutsetpanels
Cutting 100/ 200 pcs (straight knife/ autocutter)
Checking cut panels
Loading and sewing
Loading and sewing
Loading and sewing Pieces ready
Pieces ready Checking before wash measurements
Pieces ready Checking before wash measurements Washing
Washing Checking after wash measurements
Washing Checking after wash measurements Report given to master
Report given to master Pattern amendment and grading
Checking before wash measurements
Proceed for bulk cutting
Checking after wash measurements Report given to master Pilot offered Receive comments
4.4 Purpose: The purpose of making pilot is to see how the fabric will behave when constructed in a garment during bulk production. It is the representation of the bulk. It has to be done in actual fabric and actual sewing trims. A Pilot lot is a small cut across all sizes and colors, which will identify any potential problem in manufacturing prior to the factory cutting bulk. Pilot runs covering all colors & sizes are applied on all styles (even repeat style with different fabrication) except for test orders. Pilot run garments are carefully assessed on construction, making up method, machines used, measurement, washing & pressing effect etc., & report is kept for reference. Necessary adjustment is made on pattern, machinery setting, seam allowance, sewing, washing & pressing methods etc., prior to bulk cutting / production.
The sample size differs from buyer to buyer as follows: •
Express: 3 samples per size covering all sizes in a color i.e. if there are 4 sizes in one color then it accounts for 12 samples per color.
S. Oliver: 2 samples per size covering all the sizes in a color i.e. if there are four colors and five sizes then it accounts for 40 pcs a pilot.
Armani Exchange/ Arrow/ Izod (Triburg): 5 samples per size covering all the sizes in a color i.e. if there are four colors and five sizes then it accounts for 100 pcs a pilot.
M & S/ Esprit: 2 pc per size in all colors i.e. total 12 – 15 pcs in all colors.
Tommy Hilfieger: 4 pcs in M size for all colors and doing jumping sizes in all colors. The requirement is minimum 25 pcs per pilot.
Marc O’ Polo: 2 pcs per size in jumping colors.
Monoprix: 2 pcs per size.
Levis Dockers/ Levis Signature: 3 pcs per size in all jumping colors.
This ultimately will ensure that bulk production will not be affected and that mistakes if any will be made and corrected during the Pilot.
Pilot lots are cut for the following reasons: • It might be that factory is working on a new fabric type that it has not handled before, therefore handling and machine settings must be looked at and set accordingly. • New construction methods. • New machinery, or new settings • Ensure that shrinkage allowances built into patterns are correct for steam shrinkage, washing shrinkage or any other after treatment standard. • Early T.O.P. approval. If there are no issues with the first Pilot cutting then the factory will automatically have garments to send for approval. This must be looked at as opportunity to find and iron out problems before bulk rather than just another procedure. To standardize this process all sizes and colors have to cut across a specified quantity. The assessment form must be filled in and counter signed by a management, to ensure that all areas have been analyzed with a specified course of action needed for bulk. This must be filed in the Master style file.
4.5 The working of the pilot department is as follows: Receiving the PP sample and File: After the PP sample is approved with some comments, it is handed over to pattern section for making the patterns. The patterns are amended and graded. The required shrinkage is added lengthwise and width wise and then issued for subsequent processes. Style file contains all the critical details about a particular style. The file build depends on the buyer. But primarily file includes following details. Manual Work Order PO Sheet Bill Of Materials Tech Pack Buyer Comments Pre production meeting comments Fabric swatch(shade band, wash standards & hand feel) Approved Trim card Fabric/accessories/garment test report Standard procedure The pilot is cut and made in the required rolls of decided shrinkage. Pattern Amendment According to the fabric shrinkage report, the required shrinkage is added to already graded patterns. The hard pattern for base size is then prepared and issued to pilot section for cutting. Pattern review The pattern is reviewed. On the basis of shrinkage, before and after wash measurements are prepared. Fabric Issues The required fabric rolls are issued in each color.
Making the base size The base size “M” is then cut in each color and loaded in line for sewing. As soon as the pieces are ready, they are reviewed for before wash measurements and construction and sent for wash if required and after required ironing/ pressing, the samples are reviewed for after wash shrinkage. Pattern amendment and issues If the actual after wash measurements are not tallying with the required measurements, the pattern needs to be amended. The report is given to the master and accordingly after correcting the patterns, the hard patterns are prepared. Making the size set The extreme sizes (i.e. S and XXL for sizes S to XXL) in all colors are cut and stitched. After washing (if needed) and ironing the size sets are reviewed. If any discrepancy is there the report is given again for pattern amendment. Based on these two steps, the patterns are finalized and then issued for cutting pilot. Pilot Cutting The marker for approximately 200 pcs across all the colors is then issued for cutting. Depending upon the requirement, the full cut parts are taken from these cut lay and loaded in the pilot line. The balance cut parts are taken for loading in and setting the decided production line. (Annexure –3) Outsourced process As per the requirement for embroidery/ printing or in case of any outsourced process, the panels are cut and sent outside with markings and other instructions. Pilot Sewing The actual trims and threads are used for making the pilot. The operation breakdown for a style is done by the I.E. dept. along with the machinery requirement and layout. The stitching is done by experienced operators under the supervision of trainers. The whole stitching process is monitored by the technical manager so as to get a fair idea of how to set the process for the bulk. Each operation is critically analyzed and assessed so as to get maximum productivity from the assembly lines in the bulk production maintaining the desired quality standards. The trainers after analyzing the 16
operations help the operators in the sewing lines for critical operations and thus minimize the area under learning curve (reduces learning time). Taking before wash measurements The master gives the before wash and after wash measurement sheet. The before wash measurements are reviewed by the QC and in case of any discrepancy, it is immediately brought in notice of the master. At this time the pieces are also checked for any quality defects. Outsourced process If the embroidery/ print has to be done after garment is made, it is sent for embroidery/ print with all the markings as per specifications. Taking After wash measurements After the pieces are received from washing, it is ironed as per the specification i.e. clean press/ flat press/ only steam or no steam, no iron. These are then reviewed for measurements and quality. The reports are handed over to master for immediate pattern correction for bulk.
4.6. Reports given by pilot department Giving comments and amendments. The QA gives the following reports: 1. Measurement report (Annexure 4) 2. Pilot comment sheet (Annexure 5) 3. Amendment sheet (Annexure- 6) 4.7. Pilot decision and Offer The decision has to be taken by the section head and the QA as to if the pilot is passed and can be offered to the buyer. If the pilot needs to be redone, immediately action needs to be taken for pattern amendment, cutting, stitching and sending for wash. The pieces are offered to the buyer along with all the following: •
Before and afterwash measurement report.
Pilot Comment sheet
4.8. Receiving comments from buyer The pilot is offered to the buyer and the comments given are incorporated into the bulk. The comments regarding workmanship is explained and discussed in the handover meeting. 4.9. Proceed for bulk The bulk is proceeded on the basis of the internal and buyer pilot review report.
5. Industrial Engineering Procedures 5.1 Process Flow The general process flow is as follows: Samples from the planning department Operation bulletin SMV calculation and setting the targets Thread consumption Line balancing and operator allocation Line layout plan Process plan
5.2 Work Measurement. Work Measurement ( Time Study ) is an Integral part in the Manufacture of Garments. It is utmost necessary for any Manufacturing unit to have this department in house at full function, As it lends a supportive hand on many aspects as follows, The provision of standard times for separate operations & complete process allows better planning for the manufacture of Garment, by encouraging a conscious numerical analysis before designing operations & process. This will enable to maintain an improved level of productivity which would enable to meet Buyers dead lines on a regular manner. This system would enable the management to segregate its work force in a productive manner which would be an effect on the CM ( Cut & Making of the Garment ), Where excess & non productive workers could be utilized for other operations. This system enables the management for a proper comparison between operations & workers,& the worker productivity. Time study supplies an essential item of information for making Investment decisions as well. By working out this system, The management could Invest on Hi-tech Machinery which would analyze the cost of labor. Work study provides a sounder basis for Incentive payment schemes to workers, because it allows comparisons to be made between individual operators on the same task entrusted. 5.3 Time study procedures. Time study procedure may conveniently be analyzed under four headings.. •
Defining the operation to be timed.
Timing each element using a stop watch.
Allowances or ex gratia
Pre Production work Instructions for Work study Officers.
5.4. Receive sample from Merchandising Dept. • Analyze the sample & prepare “ Operational Break down”. •
Assign required M/C, Folders, Work Aids, SMV & Target within 8 working hours.
Check available work aids & confirm the availability.
Refer “Data Base” to assign SMV.
Use “CMA” package to calculate SMV for new operations which is not in the data base.
Calculate the total SMV for the garment & submit to the merchandising dept within 8 working hrs.
Draw garments tree diagram according to critical path by using the PC.
Participate with the sample room during making of samples to analyze the styling in detail.
Check the practicalities of all operations & ways to minimize operations & M/C.
Prepare “ Critical Operation Analysis” report.
Prepare operational lay out plan for sewing section.
Discuss production schedule & manning allocations with Production Manager.
Lay out systems & special technical points.
Prepare lay out as per critical path.
Use M/C requirement list for manning, basic pitch time & target calculation.
Check complete lay out with production assistance & discuss with relevant depts.
Submit M/C lay out Mechanic.
Participate in “Pre production meeting”.
Analyze workers performance records.
Ensure the submitted SMV is achieved always during production & ways of reducing SMV.
The request is received from the planning department along with the PP sample. The garment is studied and broken down into individual operations and time is allocated to each operation, based on which the following are calculated.
5.4.1. SMV Calculation SMV (Standard Minute Value) calculations are done based on pre-determined standard motion studies. The Style is being broken in to individual operations and the time for each operation is determined. The machines used for completing the style is also determined. The SMVs calculated are listed in a operation Bulletin and the total target is determined based on the total work-stations required. Encl: Operation Bulletion-Annexure 7 5.4.2. Thread Consumption The thread consumption for the garment is calculated based on the operation breakdown. The factor is multiplied with the length of seam for each operation. S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Type of M/c SNLS DNLS OL(3T) OL(5T) F.O.A B.H BUTTON BARTACK PINTUCK(PER Stitch) PICOATING KANSAI FLAT-LOCK BLIND STITCH KEY-HOLE
Thread factor/cm 3 6 19 24 14 60 25 30 7 35 14 33 50
Thread Wastage 2 2 3 3 3 NW NW NW 3 3 3 3 2" NW
Details of Thread Needle Bobbin 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1
Total 2 4 3 5 4 2 2 2 3 6 4 3 2 7
2 3 2
2 4 2 1 1 6
5.4.3. Line Lay-Out (Annexure 8 ) The total floor-layout is drawn to have a proper process flow for each department from cutting to Finishing. 5.4.4. Technical Lay-Out (Annexure 9) The technical Lay-out is drawn based on the operation bulletin and the flow of work process. The allocation of the work-stations is based on the SMVs and capacity of the operators. The total process flow is drawn and the targets are set based on the total available work-stations. The technical layout also contains the type of folders and attachments to be used. Layout for all styles should be standard.
5.5. Technical spec detail sheet (Annexure 10) The R & D department should give the technical spec detail sheet, which contains all the details regarding the style. It includes the following: •
5.6. Risk Analysis There are risks associated with manufacturing processes which can result in failure of the product, either in production or in use by the customer. Understanding and militating against these risks at the design stage is fundamental to the success of the product. By assessing the risks sufficiently early in the design process, delays in production and right first time products can be achieved. The factory must carry out some kind of Risk Analysis process (e.g. a meeting which includes members of the key production departments) The factory must be able to demonstrate that the procedure is understood and can identify potential risks with raw materials, process methods, equipment, storage, end user safety. 5.6.1 Risk Analysis procedure Quality and safety must be designed, planned and built into the product. It is sometimes difficult to foresee all the possible modes of failure allowing for all the conditions of use or indeed misuse. Without a systematic approach, it is likely that some element will be missed resulting in a failure and possible injury to the wearer. This risk analysis procedure is designed to provide that opportunity to identify and forestall those potential hazards. By examining each design or process in detail and identifying the effects of failure, together with possible causes, it is possible to propose actions to introduce controls to reduce the failure rate and/or minimise the impact of a failure. When considering potential failure it is important to have access to data relating to failures which occurred on similar components/ assemblies in the past. Risk analysis should be a team activity relying on input from experienced personnel; a typical team would consist of design, development, industrial engineer, production manager and quality manager. The completed risk analysis should then be circulated to relevant departments with a request for comments. It is important to obtain feedback from all departments so they may, from their own unique experience, have
the opportunity to suggest other potential failure modes which the team carrying out the analysis may not have considered. 5.6.2 Analysis The analysis will consider all areas of potential failure and establish preventative actions, which may include special test requirements, inspection recommendations, preventative maintenance or operational constraints. The analysis starts with the most basic component and works progressively through the complete system. It is essential to ensure that every selected component, sub-assembly and design feature within the product is adequately covered by the analysis. The person responsible for the Risk Analysis, ideally senior production managers, should ensure that all recommendations resulting from the analysis are carried out. The Risk analysis is documented using a standards form, attached, which is designed to guide the team to ask the correct questions and effectiveness of the analysis will depend of their accurate completion of this form. The procedure (Annexure 11) 1. Clearly identify every component being studied, including assemblies and subassemblies. 2. Describe the purpose of the component or assembly. This is very helpful in identifying the possible models of failure. 3. Anticipate and describe the possible way the part could fail. Consider how the failure could be observed. A safety failure must always be considered more serious than a quality failure. 4. Assume the failure mode has occurred and then describe what the effect would be in terms of what would be noticed. The effects noticed both locally and on the whole should be listed. E.g. the colour bleeds off the product and contaminates accessory. There could be more than one effect and the same effect could apply to a number of failures. 5. List every potential cause of failure for each of the failure modes as the design currently stands. There is a low risk if potential failure is certain to be detected before the product reached the customer, and high risk of it would be impossible to detect the potential failure before the product reaches the customer. In order to improve detection it may be necessary to specify 25
additional controls at an earlier stage so that a potential failure is more easily detectable. 6. Recommend corrective action. The action required to correct a possible failure should be clearly stated. If an action has already been taken it is helpful to record the current status. 7. Identify the most appropriate person for implementing the recommended action. 8. Document the action taken. In every case where recommended action is required state what action has been taken to eliminate the cause of failure, reduce the degree of severity; reduce the probability of its occurrence.
6. Fabric & Trim Stores 6.1 Objectives: •
GIR to GRN through put time