Speech Comm Made Simple 2

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Paulette Dale, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus james c. wolf, m.A., professor miami dade college

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606 Staff credits: The people who made up the Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual team—representing editorial, production, design, marketing, and manufacturing services—are Tracey Cataldo, Dave Dickey, Nancy Flaggman, Amy McCormick, Lise Minovitz, Liza Pleva, and Jane Townsend. Text composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Text font: 11.5/13 pt Times LT Std ISBN–10: 0-13-286172-0 ISBN–13: 978-0-13-286172-4

CONTENTS Introduction......................................................................................... 1 General Teaching Suggestions............................................................ 1 Chapter-by-Chapter Teaching Suggestions ....................................... 8 Chapter 1

Developing Self-Confidence.......................................................... 9

Chapter 2

Delivering Your Message............................................................... 9

Chapter 3

Putting Your Speech Together.................................................... 11

Chapter 4

Powerful Presentation Aids........................................................ 11

Chapter 5

Speaking to Inform...................................................................... 12

Chapter 6

Understanding Interpersonal Communication.......................... 14

Chapter 7

Listen to Learn............................................................................. 14

Chapter 8

Problem-Solving Group Discussions............................................ 16

Chapter 9

Speaking to Persuade.................................................................. 16

Chapter 10 Dare to Debate............................................................................ 19

End-of-Chapter Quizzes..................................................................... 21 Chapter Quiz Answer Key................................................................. 41 Answers to Activities in Student Text.............................................. 43

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INTRODUCTION Students will not learn about speech communication by reading or hearing about it; they will learn by doing it! Therefore, instead of theoretical discussions and lengthy explanations, Speech Communication Made Simple 2 (SCMS 2) includes a wide variety of classroom activities, discussions, and presentation assignments to help your students improve their public speaking skills. Some of you are experienced English as a second language/English as a foreign language (ESL/EFL) speech instructors, and you may already employ a variety of effective techniques for teaching public speaking. In contrast, many of you might be newer to this arena. By following the suggestions in both the student book and this teacher’s guide, you will never again be faced with dilemmas such as “What shall I tell my students to speak about?” or “How shall I get everyone to participate in the discussion?” SCMS 2 eliminates the need for you to spend hours preparing assignments, setting grading criteria, or designing evaluation rubrics. The student book teaches your students the basics of speech communication while providing them with meaningful speaking experiences and practice throughout your course.

General Teaching Suggestions Chapter Sequence Speech Communication Made Simple 2 is flexible. While we recommend assigning the speeches in Chapter 1 first, any sequence of assignments may be chosen. Your personal teaching philosophy and your students’ specific needs should dictate what you teach. Available time might not allow you to assign every activity in the student book. In that event, select the activities and presentations best suited for your students. Helping Students Feel Comfortable Students are frequently apprehensive about speaking in front of a group, especially in the beginning. The following suggestions may help your students to feel more comfortable in the speech communication classroom. 1. Begin some classes by giving students time to meet in small groups in order to list questions or comments they have about the chapter or assignment. Then ask each group to share a question or concern with the class. As students are often reluctant to ask questions in front of the entire class, the chance to rehearse their ideas in small groups helps them summon the confidence needed to participate in class. 2. Assure students that they are already prepared to speak about many different topics and that you will help them choose appropriate ones when it is time to prepare a speech. Pair and Group Work Many of the activities in SCMS 2 are designed for pairs or small groups of three to four students. 1. Students should not work with classmates who are family members, boyfriends/ girlfriends, or best friends. 2. Students should not always work with the same classmates. Encourage them to change their groups or partners when collaborating on the different activities. This Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  1

will help them develop a variety of perspectives and an appreciation for different personalities. 3. You might decide to put students randomly in pairs or small groups.

Varying Assignments The following are suggestions for achieving variety during student presentations. 1. Require outside sources for the preparation of some speeches. This is especially relevant for the presentations in Chapter 5 (Speaking to Inform), Chapter 8 (Problem-Solving Group Discussions), Chapter 9 (Speaking to Persuade), and Chapter 10 (Dare to Debate). You might want to have speakers complete the form on pages 3 and 4 in this teacher’s manual. 2. Require presentation aids for some presentations and not for others. 3. Teach students to conduct question-and-answer sessions following their presentations. 4. Allow students to ask questions of the speaker anytime during a presentation. 5. Allow students to present their speeches in small groups before presenting to the entire class.

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Outside Sources Consulted Newspapers or Magazines Title: ______________________________________________________________________________ Name of article: ____________________________________________________________________ Date of publication: ________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Title: ______________________________________________________________________________ Name of article: ____________________________________________________________________ Date of publication: ________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Books Title: ______________________________________________________________________________ Author: ___________________________________________________________________________ Publisher and year: _________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Title: ______________________________________________________________________________ Author: ___________________________________________________________________________ Publisher and year: _________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

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Personal Interview Name of person: ___________________________________________________________________ Person’s occupation: ________________________________________________________________ Date of interview: __________________________________________________________________ Interviewee’s qualifications: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Websites Title: ______________________________________________________________________________ URL: ______________________________________________________________________________ Author of information: ______________________________________________________________ Date of information: ________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Title: ______________________________________________________________________________ URL: ______________________________________________________________________________ Author of information: ______________________________________________________________ Date of information: ________________________________________________________________ Summary of information used in presentation: _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use. Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  4

Playing with Sayings This section of SCMS 2 helps students understand and learn popular sayings used by native English-speakers. Follow these suggestions to encourage students to learn the sayings and use them in their speeches. 1. Refer students to the Playing with Sayings section in each chapter for definitions of the italicized sayings used in the model presentations. 2. Ask students to think of sayings in their native languages that correspond to those in this section of the student book. Have students translate their sayings into English. In Playing with Sayings, for example, a Spanish saying meaning “Don’t put the cart before the horse” translates as “Don’t build the house starting with the roof.” 3. Encourage students to listen for and use the sayings while having conversations outside of class. Spend a few minutes at the beginning of a class session asking them to describe the contexts in which they either heard or used the sayings. 4. If you feel students are able, require them to incorporate one or more of the five sayings from each chapter into their presentations. Pronunciation Practice This section is designed to teach a variety of American English pronunciation patterns. The pronunciation skills selected are those with which most nonnative speakers of English have difficulty. We recommend devoting a portion of a class session each week to practicing these pronunciation patterns. Students are then able to apply their new pronunciation skills during the assigned speaking project. Presentation Project Suggestions for Assigning Presentations Ideally, you should provide your students with the instructions for a specific speaking assignment at least one week prior to the speech date. Consider speeches as oral exams and set specific due dates for them. Adhere strictly to the dates and require students to be prepared as scheduled. Suggest students view actual speeches online for examples of effective delivery, presentation aids, use of voice, introductions, conclusions, transitions, organization, source citation, and so on. An excellent site with hundreds of live speeches organized by genre and topic area is www.TED.com. Suggestions for Grading Presentations You might decide to base your grade on a combination of content and delivery. 1. You could partly or completely base your grade upon students’ outlines, note cards, or bibliographies of sources. Spelling, neatness, and proper format should be considered. 2. After the first speech, you should be particularly rigid about requiring speeches to adhere to time limits. Gaining a respect for time helps students plan and prepare speeches carefully. It develops their ability to convey points succinctly and completely without rambling. Adhering to the minimum time limit is just as important as observing the maximum limit. Speeches shorter than the minimum time tend to be superficial and lack sufficient details or examples.

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Evaluating Presentations Suggestions for Evaluating Student Presentations 1. Students should be permitted to present at least one speech before being formally critiqued about vocal aspects such as volume, intelligibility, rate of speech, or pronunciation of vowels or consonants. At this early stage, it is discouraging for nervous students to hear that they spoke too quickly, too softly, or unintelligibly. Students need to know that they CAN speak in English before a group. Instead of critiquing students’ first speech, consider following these suggestions. a. If you didn’t understand something a student said in the speech, ask a simple question after the speech; make it clear you want to know more about the student as a person. b. If you observe that many students have difficulty with specific vocal aspects, address those problems with the entire class after all students have delivered their speeches. 2. There are two basic ways to provide constructive feedback to students following their speeches. a. Written evaluations: Write your comments on the evaluation rubrics. • Give the student your written evaluation after you have had time to review it and record the grade. • Encourage peer evaluations for some of the presentations. Ask listeners to complete the evaluation rubric for each speaker. Collect the rubrics and allow the speakers to read their classmates’ feedback during the last ten minutes of class. b. Oral evaluations: Oral feedback may be offered after each speech, after every second or third speech, or during the final fifteen minutes of a class period in front of the entire class. You might encourage the audience to offer comments about the speeches before offering your own oral feedback of the speaker’s strengths and weaknesses relative to delivery, content, or organization. Using the Evaluation Rubrics The evaluation rubrics included in the student book list criteria for evaluating each presentation. They are not “one size fits all.” Rather, they are specifically designed for each Presentation Project, and they correspond to the Speech Checklist in each chapter. The rubrics allow you flexibility in grading. While you circle a rating of 1, 2, or 3 for each competency, you may still assign a letter grade, number grade, or a Pass/Fail grade as you prefer. Follow these suggestions for making the best use of the rubrics. 1. Review the rubrics with the students before each presentation so they know how you will evaluate them. 2. Make students responsible for photocopying a class set of evaluation forms to hand you immediately before they deliver their speech. This will save you from having to photocopy forms for entire classes. Post-Presentation Activities Effective post-presentation activities include question-and-answer sessions after each speech or upon completion of all speeches. Several suggestions for conducting a question-and-answer session after students’ presentations include: 1. Ask speakers follow-up questions upon completion of each speech.

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2. Encourage audience members to ask questions after each speech. For example: a. Have every listener write one question following each speech. • Collect all the questions. Put them in a paper bag, hat, or other container. • Have different students close their eyes and draw questions from the “bag.” • Have them read the questions they drew. The speaker must answer them! b. Conduct a traditional question-and-answer session in which students raise their hands and are called upon by the speaker to ask questions. 3. Ask speakers to prepare one question about their speeches that the class should be able to answer at the end. (If no one can answer the question, speakers learn that their information may not have been presented clearly.) 4. Check how well the audience listened by asking the class questions after each speech. 5. Quiz the class after students are all finished on the final day of speeches. Create a list of five to ten general questions related to the content of all speeches. Students respond in writing to your oral questions. Offer extra credit to the best listeners!

End-of-Chapter Quizzes End-of-chapter quizzes are designed to encourage students to thoroughly read the material in the chapter. Knowing they will be quizzed on the contents of a chapter often motivates them to read more carefully, pay attention more closely, and ask more questions in class. Some suggestions for using the end-of-chapter quizzes include: 1. Have students take the quizzes in class under traditional “test taking” conditions. Collect and grade the quizzes as you would any exam. 2. Allow students to take quizzes in class under “open book” testing conditions. 3. Allow students to take quizzes while collaborating in small groups or teams. The first group to finish with all correct answers wins! 4. Assign quizzes as homework. Allow students to discuss their responses in small groups upon returning to class.

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Developing Self-Confidence This may well be the most important chapter in the book. With the “right” start, your students will progress further than they ever imagined. By experiencing early success in the speech course, they will develop confidence and poise. Your students will soon become desensitized to the often-frightening thought of having to speak in public.

Suggestions The following ideas will help you get off to a positive start and provide your class with positive speaking experiences during the first few class meetings. 1. Encourage students to present from a lectern in front of the room. 2. Allow students to deliver their speeches from their seats. (In this event, arrange all chairs in a large circle so that the speaker can be easily seen by all listeners.) 3. Assign either of the two suggested formats (Method A: “Picture Story” or Method B: “The Old Bag”) or allow students to choose the one they prefer. • Students using the Picture Story method may or may not be required to show their pictures to the audience. Some instructors prefer to have students use the pictures purely as “notes” to remind themselves of what to say. • You might decide not to grade this first speech. It is less intimidating for students to become accustomed to public speaking without the added stress of being graded. 4. Regarding Page 7, Activity 1: Practice Words: Explain to students that homophones are words that sound the same but that may be spelled differently. Give examples of the words from the activity that have homophones (for example, week/weak; rode/road; rap/wrap; wrote/rote; weed/we’d; weave/we’ve; roll/role; Sue’s/sues). Post-Presentation Activities 1. Ask the speaker follow-up questions after each speech. Encourage listeners to do the same. Examples: • Inska, how old were you when you wore the communion dress? Who made it? • Tony, what requirements do you need to complete before becoming an accountant? 2. Ask questions to check the audience’s comprehension of their classmates’ speeches: • Who remembers where [Juan] is from? Where does he work? • What does [Ivana] hope to do in the future? CHAPTER 2

Delivering Your Message This chapter is rich in activities that build students’ awareness of effective eye contact, posture, gestures, and voice use.

Suggestions The following suggestions will help you expand and enhance many of the activities in the chapter. The exercises may be adapted for use with large classes as well as smaller groups. Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  9

Tips for Teaching Facial Expressions and Gestures 1. Page 19, Activity: Practice Facial Expressions a. Have students stand in a circle and toss a ball to each other. The student holding the ball makes an expression while the others guess the intended meaning. b. The student then throws the ball to another classmate. 2. Page 22, Activity 2: Practice Meaningful Gestures a. Demonstrate how each gesture might be expressed in the United States. b. Expand to a role-play activity in which students must combine gestures with words. For example: After having lunch together, you and a friend are walking to your car. When you reach it, you realize you locked the keys inside. (You might close your eyes and clench your fists in frustration, or gently hit your forehead with the palm of your hand.) c. Have students choose a gesture and devise their own mini role-play. Tips for Teaching Vocal Projection and Speech Rate 1. Page 23, Activity 2: Project Your Voice a. Distribute four cards to each student. Have them write the numbers 1, 2, 3, or 4 on them to match the levels of volume in Activity 1: Vary Your Volume. b. As each student stands before the class and speaks, listeners hold up their cards to indicate the speaker’s volume. Speakers should strive for level 3. 2. Page 23, Activity: Speak 150 Words per Minute a. Encourage students to come to class with a simple 150-word piece of prose they chose themselves. b. Have them practice reading their selections to each other in small groups while another group member times the reader.

Post-Presentation Activities 1. If you allow students to practice their speeches in small groups before presenting to the entire class, lead a discussion after all the groups have finished presenting to each other. Ask the following questions: a. How did you feel speaking to your group? Nervous? Relaxed? b. Did you look directly at your group members as you were speaking? c. Were your group members good listeners? d. Did they make you feel comfortable or uncomfortable? How? e. What did they do that you liked or disliked? f. How do you expect to feel when you present your speech in front of the entire class? 2. Encourage listeners to ask speakers questions after each presentation. Examples: • [Francisco], have you ever taken another ride in a helicopter? Would you like to? • [Leila], how do you feel about eating honey? 3. Instruct speakers to ask the audience questions about their own speeches. Examples: • Who remembers how I felt when _____? • Where was I? Who was I with?

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Putting Your Speech Together The activities in this chapter reinforce outlining and organization skills. Once students have a good understanding of these processes, they are generally more confident about their ability to successfully prepare a speech for presentation.

Suggestions The following suggestions may help your students plan and prepare more effective outlines: 1. After students complete the various outlining activities with their partners or small groups, have three or four students write their examples on the board. Discuss them as a class. 2. When discussing previews and summaries, clarify the differences between repetition and restatement. For example, some summaries repeat the preview statements verbatim; others restate or paraphrase them. Post-Presentation Activities 1. Instruct listeners to ask questions after each speech. Examples: • What would cause you to change your opinion? • How do your friends feel about your opinion? Why? 2. Lead a brief discussion after each opinion speech. Ask the class the following questions: • Who agrees with the speaker’s opinion? Why? • Who disagrees with the speaker? Why? • Which sayings from the chapter did [Hunra] use in her speech? • What other reasons can you think of to support the speaker’s opinion? CHAPTER 4

Powerful Presentation Aids This chapter aims to get students thinking about how to use visual and auditory aids to enhance a presentation.

Suggestions The following suggestions may help your students plan and prepare effective presentation aids. 1. Allow students to form small groups during a class period prior to their scheduled presentations and explain their speech aids. Group members can provide feedback on what is effective about their classmates’ aids and how to improve them. They might suggest other aids a speaker could use. 2. Regarding the poster presentation: Explain that note cards are superfluous. The actual visual display will help students remember their information and present it in a logical, organized fashion.

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3. Encourage students to observe a large advertisement designed to catch their attention in a very short period of time, such as billboards along the highway, ads on bus benches, or ads on the sides of buildings. a. Suggest they take a picture of it. b. Have them discuss the following questions in small groups. • What does the advertisement look like? Include specific details. • What is the specific purpose of the advertisement? • How does it get your attention? • What makes it effective and memorable? For example: “I saw a large billboard showing a photo of a famous athlete drinking a glass of milk. In the photo he had a silly-looking milk moustache. Under his picture were two words, GOT MILK! The purpose of the ad was to encourage people to drink milk. It got my attention because it only had two words, which were very easy to read as I was driving along the highway. Everyone knows the athlete in the ad and wants to look more closely at his face. The billboard was very effective because it convinced me that drinking milk was a popular thing to do. It made me want to drink milk. It makes people think that if they drink milk they might become famous also.”

Post-Presentation Activities 1. Organize a poster display session for your students. You might arrange to have your students display their posters in a large public space on campus or in another spacious location. 2. Lead a class discussion upon completion of the poster display session(s). Ask the following questions: • Which was your favorite poster display? • What were the main concepts it presented? • What made it visually appealing? • What techniques did the presenter use to keep your attention during the presentation? • How will this activity help you with your future goals and plans? CHAPTER 5

Speaking to Inform This chapter teaches students how to prepare a speech to inform.

Suggestions The following are suggestions you may find helpful when teaching students how to choose, research, outline, and organize a speech to inform. 1. Page 87, Activity 1: Survey Your Classmates Allow students to form new small groups as many times as necessary for them to survey all class members. 2. Approve speech topics before students begin preparation. Confirm their topics are appropriate and achievable in the time allowed, as described on pages 88 to 90. 3. Allow students who are working on reports for other classes to use the same topics for their informative speeches as long as the material is adapted to conform with the guidelines for the informative speaking project.

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4. Conduct guest speaker introductions. a. Teach students to prepare guest speaker introductions of a minute or less. Each student introduces another student. b. Allow them at least one-half hour of class time to interview each other and gather appropriate information for speeches of introduction. c. Students should follow these guidelines for guest speaker introductions: • Topic: Announce the speaker’s topic/title of speech. • Importance of Topic: Explain why the topic is important to the audience and why they will be particularly interested in it. • Speaker: Explain why the speaker is qualified to talk about this topic. Include the speaker’s education, special honors, training, experience, club memberships, and so forth.

Sample Guest-Speaker Introduction Topic Our speaker today, Patel Samir, is going to speak to us about lightning. In fact, the title of his speech is “Look Out for Lightning.” Importance As you all live in Florida, you are at risk for being hit by lightning. Each year, more people are hurt or killed by lightning in Florida than anywhere else in the United States. Therefore, it is very important for you to learn more about this natural phenomenon and ways to stay safe in a lightning storm. I’m sure you will find Patel’s information very valuable. Speaker Patel’s sister was hit by lightning while getting out of a swimming pool when she was five. Fortunately, she recovered completely. This subject fascinated Patel and he decided he wanted to study weather patterns and how to predict different types of storms. His father works for the National Weather Service, and he has helped Patel understand a lot about lightning. Patel won first place in a Science Fair for his project “All About Lightning.” He hopes to major in environmental science at the university. He has read many books and National Geographic magazine articles about lightning. He currently belongs to the club “Future Scientists of America.” Clearly he has studied extensively and knows quite a lot about the subject. We are very lucky to have our speaker share his knowledge with us. It is with great pleasure that I present our guest speaker, Patel Samir!

Post-Presentation Activities 1. Instruct students to prepare one question to ask the class after their own presentations. Questions should be designed to review information they presented. Examples: • What are the three most important steps in performing CPR? • What is the population of Pennsylvania Dutch people in the United States? 2. Evaluate how well the class listened by asking questions after each speech. Examples: • How many subtopics were in the body of [Pilar’s] speech? • What were the subtopics in the body of [Leticia’s] speech? • How many Internet sources did [Manny] cite? Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  13


Understanding Interpersonal Communication This chapter teaches students how to avoid misunderstandings and prepare for a job-interview role-play.

Suggestions The following suggestions will help your students in their efforts to improve interpersonal communication skills and prepare for job interviews. 1. Page 117, Activity 2: Test Your Ability to Evaluate Evidence Explain the rationale for the activity. Tell students that it will help them learn the difference between statements that are clearly true based on provided information and statements that are clearly false. Moreover, it will demonstrate to students how people jump to conclusions and assume information is true when there is insufficient information to make such a judgment. 2. Page 126, Activity 4: Categorize the Dos and Don’ts Do the following after students complete this activity: a. Bring in a variety of props in a shopping bag. Suggestions: a gaudy dress, garish costume jewelry, towels, soap, chewing gum, a cell phone, a tie, a T-shirt, deodorant, a brush or comb, a baseball cap, dirty and wrinkled clothes, flip flops, a pack of cigarettes, men’s dress shoes, worn-out sneakers, perfume. b. Have students pull out an item and explain how it relates to a job interview. For example, the student who pulls out a pack of chewing gum might explain that it is not acceptable to chew gum during a job interview. Post-Presentation Activities 1. After the interview role-plays, have each student write a thank-you note to his or her “interviewer.” 2. Lead a class discussion after each interview. Ask the following questions: • Would you have offered the applicant the job? Why or why not? • Was the applicant an impressive candidate? Why or why not? • How could the applicant have been more prepared for the interview? CHAPTER 7

Listen to Learn This chapter includes both suggestions and exercises to help students evaluate and improve their listening skills.

Suggestions The following suggestions will help you to develop and enhance the listening activities and impromptu speaking assignment described in the chapter. 1. Page 140, Activity 4: Play Telephone Here are some useful sayings with which to start the telephone chain: •  “It’s better to fail than to not even try.” Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  14

•  “The clothes don’t make the man.” •  “The habit doesn’t make the priest.” •  “A journey of 1,000 miles begins with one step.” •  “Today is the first day of the rest of your life.”

2. Page 141, Activity 5: Retell the Story a.  Here are two stories you could use for this activity. A young man of 21 sat down next to an elderly woman on a bench at a bus stop. He was wearing a blue jacket and carrying a green umbrella. The woman started up a conversation with the young man. “I feel like I’m 75 years old today,” said the elderly woman. “I’m so sorry; that’s too bad,” answered the young man. “No, it isn’t; it’s wonderful,” said the woman. “You see, today is my eighty-fifth birthday!” A businessman went into a coffee shop one afternoon for lunch. He had a very bad cold and kept sneezing. The waiter, who had known the businessman for twelve years, told him, “You look and sound awful.” “Yes, I have a very bad cold,” the businessman said. The waiter shook his head sadly and replied, “It’s too bad that you don’t have pneumonia. They know what to do for that!”

b. After students have retold the stories, discuss these questions as a class: • What lines made the story funny? Why? • What information did you need to know in order to understand why the stories were funny? (Students need to have certain background knowledge to make sense of what they hear. For example, in order to find the second story funny, students need to know that while pneumonia has a cure, it is a serious illness. In contrast, the cold has no cure, but it is still better to have a cold than pneumonia.) Suggestions for the Impromptu Speaking Assignment

1. Provide students with a complete list of topics that will be used prior to the “impromptu-speech days” in class. Several possible topics are presented on page 154. Although students won’t know their specific topic until the day of the speech, they will have an idea of the scope and nature of possible topics. 2. Number the topics. Have students roll dice to determine the number of the topic they will speak about. 3. Alternately, write the topics on note cards and place the cards in a bag. Ask the students to pick a topic card from the bag. They can use the note card to jot down some ideas. 4. Begin the round of impromptu speeches by having one student “draw” or “roll” for a topic. Allow each student two minutes to organize his or her thoughts before speaking. After the post-presentation activity described in the following text, have another student draw a topic and spend two minutes preparing. Continue in this way until all students have had a turn to speak.

Post-Presentation Activities 1. Ask the audience questions after each presentation. Examples: • What organization pattern did the speaker use? • What other organization patterns would have worked for the topic? • What subtopics could be used for the organization patterns? 2. Alternately, use the two-minute period after a speech to complete the evaluation form for that speaker. Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  15


Problem-Solving Group Discussions This chapter aims to help students plan, prepare, and lead an organized group discussion focusing on possible solutions to a problem.

Suggestions The following suggestions will help your students learn to brainstorm ideas, select the best ones, and lead and participate in a problem-solving group discussion. 1. Randomly assign students to groups of four or five students. Allow them part of a class period to initially meet and brainstorm possible topics for the Presentation Project described on pages 174 to 175. a. Allow groups time during the next class period to meet in order to finalize their topics. Circulate from group to group and provide guidance. b. Caution students against simply reading from their note cards (page 176) during the actual discussion. Encourage them to be conversational. 2. You might decide to give a group grade and/or individual grades. Consider giving extra credit to the group leader. The evaluation rubrics on pages 237 and 238 provide criteria for evaluating both individual students and group leaders. 3. Use the “fishbowl” formation for the group discussions. That is, have the discussion group sit at a circular table (or in a circle) in the center of the room while the rest of the class sits in a large circle around the group. Post-Presentation Activities After each group’s presentation, lead a class discussion about it. Focus on (1) the content of the discussion and (2) group-member participation and dynamics. 1. Ask the following questions related to the content of the discussion. • Was the discussion well organized? Why or why not? • How do you feel about the topic of the discussion? • Have you had any experience with the problem discussed? Describe it. • What is your opinion about the proposed solutions? • Which option do you think is the best solution to the problem? • Can you think of any other solutions to the problem? Explain. 2. Ask the following questions related to group-member participation and dynamics. • Were all group members equally prepared? How do you know? • Did all members participate equally? Why or why not? • Did members interact well with one another? Why? • Were members attentive to one another? How do you know? • Was the group leader effective? Why or why not? 3. Ask group leaders how they felt about the experience. CHAPTER 9

Speaking to Persuade This chapter aims to guide students through the process of planning and preparing a persuasive speech.

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Suggestions The following suggestions will help your students to identify persuasive topics appropriate for their audience and to analyze their purpose for speaking. 1. In the class period after you assign the Presentation Project on page 199 of the student book, have students survey their class members and complete the Audience Analysis Form on page 199. 2. Provide model language for the students to use when surveying their peers. For example: My topic is ________. How do you feel about it? Do you agree, disagree, or are you undecided? Why? 3. To enable students to survey the largest number of classmates, have them do one of the following: • mingle and circulate in class; • meet in groups, changing groups as necessary in order to survey the largest number of classmates; • interview classmates before or after class. 4. Circulate as students are surveying one another to confirm that their topics are controversial and meet guidelines for the assignment. 5. Additional general topics to supplement those presented in Activity 2, page 182, might include issues related to the sale and use of marijuana, alcohol, or other drugs; legalization of prostitution; abortion (“pro-life” versus “pro-choice”); pornography; sex education; homosexual marriages; punishment for drunken drivers. Post-Presentation Activities 1. After each speech, give audience members a copy of the Change of Opinion Form on page 18 of this teacher’s manual. Collect the forms and give them to the speakers so that they can assess how successful they were in convincing their audience.1


Explain that a change of opinion from “disagree” to “undecided” shows success, as does a change from “undecided” to “agree.” Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  17

Change of Opinion Form Speaker: __________________________________________________________________________ Topic:


Before the Speech __________ I agreed with the speaker. __________ I was undecided. __________ I disagreed with the speaker. After the Speech __________ I agree with the speaker. __________ I am undecided. __________ I still disagree with the speaker. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

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2. After each speech, ask the speaker “debate-like” questions like these: • [Linda], you want the legal drinking age to be 21. However, one is legally an adult at age 18. Isn’t this hypocritical? • [Ramon], you want all children in public schools to wear uniforms. What if parents can’t afford to buy them? • [Pierre], where did you get the information that legalizing casino gambling would create 3,000 new jobs in the city? 3. Lead a lively discussion about each speech. Some possible questions to ask the listeners include: • Did the speaker convince you? Why or why not? • What was the speaker’s most persuasive argument? • What other arguments support the speaker’s persuasive claim? • What are the main reasons people have for disagreeing with the claim? • How could the speaker be more persuasive? 4. Administer a listening quiz after the day’s speeches. Example questions include: • What was the most important reason [Monique] gave for legalizing marijuana? • What were two reasons [Helmut] gave for supporting capital punishment? • What was [Raisa’s] persuasive claim?


Dare to Debate Suggestions 1. Page 216, Activity 1: Listen to a Model Debate a. Have four students “role-play” the model debate. Each student takes one of the parts and reads it aloud in front of the class. b. Divide the entire class into groups of four. Have each group role-play the model debate. 2. Page 221, Activity 2: Complete a Flow Sheet for the Model Debate Assign this activity either for homework or as an open-book quiz. Collect the completed flow sheets and evaluate them for accuracy. Compare them to the suggested responses on pages 56 to 57 of this teacher’s manual. 3. Approve all propositions of policy before teams begin their debate preparation. (See Presentation Project, page 225.) 4. Play the role of debate moderator as modeled on pages 216 to 220 in the student book. Post-Presentation Activities 1. Distribute a copy of the Debate Ballot on page 20 to all students. After they vote for the winning team, collect the ballots and share them with the debaters. 2. Lead a discussion after each debate. Ask the following questions: • What were the affirmative team’s main arguments? • Do you agree with them? Why? • What were the negative team’s main arguments? • Did you agree with them? Why? • What other arguments could the affirmative team have made? The negative team?

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  19


Debate Topic: ____________________________________________________________________ I Vote for Team _______________ A

_______________ B

Team A

Team B

Team A Rating: 1 2 3 4 5

Team B Rating: 1 2 3 4 5

1st Debater: 1 2 3 4 5

1st Debater: 1 2 3 4 5

2nd Debater: 1 2 3 4 5

2nd Debater: 1 2 3 4 5

Reasons for Decision: ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ RATING KEY 1 5 Poor

2 5 Fair

3 5 Acceptable

4 5 Good

5 5 Excellent

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  20





Developing Self-Confidence Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. Shaky hands are a symptom of presentation anxiety.


2. Presentation anxiety causes the body to produce less adrenaline.


3. It is possible for speakers to talk themselves out of negative thoughts.


4. Practicing your speech in front of friends is not recommended because it can make you more nervous.


5. If you are breathing correctly, your lower stomach should pull in as you inhale and push out as you exhale.


6. To help speakers relax, supportive listeners avoid asking questions after a speech.


7. One of the best ways to overcome presentation anxiety is to speak about a very familiar topic—yourself.


8. You can use simple hand-drawn pictures instead of notes to prepare and present your speech.


9. Personal experience speeches don’t need to be rehearsed or practiced.


10. Most English words do not end in consonant sounds.


Circle the best answer.

11. An autobiographical speech should include information about ____________. A. your hobbies B. a social problem C. your political opinions 12. In the “Old Bag” speech, you should choose objects ____________. A. that symbolize the future B. that are meaningful to you C. from your childhood 13. You should summarize the topic areas of your speech in your ____________. A. introduction B. body C. conclusion 14. Which words sound alike if a student doesn’t pronounce final consonants clearly? A. week and weed B. set and pet C. wrote and rat

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  22

15. Which saying means “To do things in the wrong sequence”? A. Strike while the iron is hot. B. Cry over spilled milk. C. Put the cart before the horse. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  23




Delivering Your Message Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. Listeners pay more attention to words than to a speaker’s vocal qualities or visual characteristics. 2. Body language can tell your audience how you feel about yourself. 3. You will appear more confident if you clasp your hands in front of you during your speech. 4. A gesture can have different meanings in different cultures. 5. If you are nervous, it’s all right to put your hands in your pockets so the audience won’t see them shaking. 6. In spoken language, sentences are divided into phrases through the use of pauses. 7. In extemporaneous delivery, a speech is not written out word for word. 8. A good rate of speech is 100 words per minute. 9. You should write out your entire speech on note cards. 10. “Um,” “Uh,” and “You know” are examples of vocal fillers.


Circle the best answer.

11. The “walk of the matador” shows that ____________. A. you respect your listeners B. you are confident C. you have been in Spain D. you have not practiced your speech 12. With respect to volume, speakers should aim to ____________. A. speak at the same volume all the time B. avoid raising their voices C. vary their volume to keep listeners’ attention D. learn how to speak very loudly 13. Maintaining eye contact with your listeners ____________. A. is a bad idea because it makes them feel uncomfortable B. is the least important aspect of good body language C. is an essential part of effective communication in the United States D. is not customary or important when speaking to people in the United States

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  24

14. In the word crossed, the -ed ending sounds like ____________. A. [t] B. [d] C. [əd]

D. [dəd]

15. Which saying means “To wish for good luck”? A. Keep your fingers crossed. B. Look before you leap. C. Leave no stone unturned. D. A penny saved is a penny earned.

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  25




Putting Your Speech Together Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. Every speech has two main parts, the body and the conclusion. 2. The conclusion of a speech should be prepared first. 3. A good speech begins with a preview of the main points. 4. In your conclusion, you should deliver memorable final remarks after the summary. 5. A speech does not need an attention-getting introduction if it has fewer than four subtopics. 6. An effective way to begin a speech is by asking a question to arouse curiosity. 7. Outlines help you to memorize your speech. 8. An outline can help you do tasks in a logical order. 9. Contractions are a kind of slang. 10. A “point of view” speech does not need to follow a step-by-step outline.


Circle the best answer.

11. Which part of a speech should be prepared first? A. the introduction B. the body    C.  the conclusion    D.  the preview 12. One of the requirements of a good outline is ____________. A. each outline point contains at least two ideas B. each outline point relates to the main point C. supporting points are repeated D. supporting points have various levels of importance 13. Which saying means that either of two options or choices is equal or acceptable? A. That’s the way the ball bounces. B. Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. C. Can’t believe one’s ears (eyes). D. (It’s) six of one, half a dozen of another. 14. You might use the saying “That’s the way the ball bounces” when ____________. A.  something bad happens B.  you receive good news unexpectedly C.  you are surprised D.  you are playing a game

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  26

15. In spoken English, contractions ____________. A. are grammatically incorrect B. make you harder to understand C. help you to sound smooth and natural D. sound unnatural and strange

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  27




Powerful Presentation Aids Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. Most people learn best when information is presented using just one sense (e.g., seeing or hearing). 2. You should distribute objects and papers during your presentation. 3. Visual aids should be large enough for everyone to see clearly from the back of the room. 4. A mistake some speakers make is that they look at their visual aids instead of the audience. 5. “Hi-tech” presentation aids are more effective than “no-tech” or “low-tech” aids. 6. Low-tech aids do not require the use of a computer. 7. It is legal to download any image you find on the Internet without paying a fee. 8. Fancy or decorative writing fonts are easy to read and make presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint®) interesting. 9. It’s best to choose a twenty-four-point font or smaller for your presentation slides. 10. In a poster display session, many presentations take place at the same time.


Circle the best answer.

11. An example of a “no-tech” presentation aid is ____________. A. a flip chart B. a PowerPoint® presentation C. an audio clip downloaded from the Internet D. an overhead transparency projected on a white screen 12. One of the requirements of a good presentation slide is using ____________. A. many colors B. a variety of font types and sizes C. simple images D. a light background color 13. All of the following are examples of “low-tech” presentation aids except ____________. A. overhead transparencies B. films or audio recordings C. a CD of a musical composition D. an mp3 sound clip

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  28

14. Which saying means that people can’t change their character or the way they are? A. Go from rags to riches. B. Actions speak louder than words. C. A leopard can’t change its spots. D. A picture is worth a thousand words. 15. In the word roses, the -es ending is pronounced as ____________. A. [s] B. [əs] C. [əz] D. [z] Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  29




Speaking to Inform Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. The first step in preparing an informative speech is to choose a topic.


2. An audience analysis may include information about your listeners’ economic level.


3. A good informative speech is limited to one particular aspect of a topic.


4. A good way to gather information for your informative speech is to interview people who know something about your topic.


5. For most speech topics, Wikipedia is the only Internet source you need to consult. T F

6. Information you find on the Internet is almost always reliable.


7. “Hurricanes” is a good topic for an informative speech.


8. A “signpost” is a transition signaling that a part of a speech is about to begin or end.


9. Presentation aids are not necessary in informative speeches.


10. One use of pausing when you speak is to emphasize meaning.


Circle the best answer.

11. An example of an achievable informative speech topic is ____________. A. How to Weave a Persian Rug B. How to Fly an Airplane C. How to Build a Personal Computer D. How to Use a Computer to Improve Your English Pronunciation 12. An example of an open-ended interview question is ____________. A. “Have you ever been scuba diving?” B. “How do you feel about the governor’s proposal to raise taxes?” C. “Do you think the new mayor should be removed from office?” D. “Has an airline ever lost your luggage?” 13. Which organizational pattern divides a topic into different geographical areas? A. Past-Present-Future B. Location C. Related Subtopics D. Advantage-Disadvantage 14. Which of the following topics uses a “time” organizational pattern? A. Advantages of Stem-Cell Research B. Effects of Air Pollution C. Steps to Take When Applying for a Car Loan D. Causes of Global Warming

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  30

15. Which saying means it’s easier to take steps to prevent a problem than to fix it later? A. Where there’s a will, there’s a way. B. What will be, will be. C. It’s better to be safe than sorry. D. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  31




Understanding Interpersonal Communication Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. Misunderstandings can be a matter of life or death.


2. The tendency to jump to conclusions is a barrier to good interpersonal communication.


3. People who use an aggressive style of communication are generally respected and well liked.


4. Assertive communicators tend to be passive and lacking in confidence.


5. People who are submissive often don’t get what they want because they don’t stand up for themselves.


6. Falling intonation at the end of a statement means that you have not finished speaking.


7. “Excuse me. I ordered regular coffee, not decaf. Could you please bring me some regular coffee?” is an example of assertive communication.


8 In most job interviews, both the interviewer and the interviewee ask questions.


9. In a job interview, it is common for the interviewer to ask about the sick-leave policy.


10. Role-playing job interviews is ineffective because it’s difficult to predict what questions an interviewer may ask.


Circle the best answer.

11. Which of the following questions might an employer ask? A. What languages do you speak? B. What do you consider to be your greatest strength? C. How much salary do you expect to get if you go to work for us? D. Both A and B. 12. Which of the following is a good job interview behavior? A. Wearing revealing clothes B. Maintaining good eye contact C. Wearing lots of jewelry D. Complaining about a previous coworker or boss 13. Which of the following is an important “Don’t” in a job interview? A. Don’t ask about the salary the company is offering. B. Don’t speak to the secretary or receptionist. C. Don’t give the impression that you are desperate for employment. D. Don’t dress conservatively.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  32

14. Intonation refers to ____________. A. the use of sentences that contain two or more word clusters B. lowering the volume of your voice to emphasize important information C. the rise and fall of the voice when speaking D. the way questions are answered in a job interview 15. Which saying means “Good deeds bring good things; bad deeds bring bad things”? A. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. B. When the cat’s away, the mice will play. C. A stitch in time saves nine. D. What goes around, comes around.

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  33




Listen to Learn Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. College students spend close to 90 percent of their time listening. 2. You can train yourself to focus on main ideas instead of concentrating on unimportant details. 3. Good listeners fake attention when they are bored with what a speaker is saying. 4. “Trigger” words can provoke both positive and negative reactions. 5. Concentrating on a speaker’s appearance and delivery style can help you pay better attention to what the speaker is saying. 6. A fact is something known to be true. 7. An opinion is an assumption made without direct observation. 8. An inference is an assumption made when we lack complete information. 9. An impromptu speech is made with little or no advance preparation. 10. In the phrase “John is funny,” all three words are linked.


Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Circle the best answer.

11. Faking attention in class ____________. A. is a technique that helps college students keep awake during boring lectures B. gives students an opportunity to daydream and think about things they need to accomplish C. is a useful technique because most people don’t listen anyway D. is a bad listening habit that needs to be overcome 12. Which of the following is not a bad listening habit? A. being distracted by surroundings B. sitting in the last row of seats in a classroom C. reacting emotionally to trigger words D. deciding the topic is boring 13. The game of “Telephone” teaches students ____________. A. the importance of improving their listening skills B. that listening skills cannot be significantly improved C. that listening is difficult to practice in a classroom situation D. that speaking skills are more reliable than listening skills 14. Which of the following organizational patterns would work for an impromptu speech? A. Chronological Order B. Past-Present-Future C. Problem-Solution D. All of the above 15. Which saying means “To be lucky or successful, often after having difficulty”? A. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks. B. It’s a drop in the bucket. C. Bark up the wrong tree. D. Land on one’s feet. Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  34




Problem-Solving Group Discussions Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. It is not important to prepare for a group discussion because all participants should feel free to talk about anything.


2. Brainstorming can help group members produce many ideas for the group to consider.


3. Since brainstorming can be time-consuming, it is important to limit the number of ideas each group member may contribute.


4 The first step in the path to successful problem solving is proving the problem exists.


5. A solution that is not perfect may still be the best solution to a problem.


6. Shy group members who don’t contribute to the discussion should be ignored.


7. It is not necessary to designate a group leader if all participants are well-prepared for the discussion.


8. An effective group leader monopolizes the discussion because someone needs to be in charge.


9. The proposed solution to a problem must eliminate one or more causes of the problem.


10. In English words of more than one syllable, it is always possible to predict where the stress will fall.


Circle the best answer.

11. Responsible group members ____________. A. should not bring visual aids with them to the discussion B. interrupt other group members if they disagree with them C. do not take notes while other group members are speaking D. refer to all participants by name 12. Which of the following is not a responsibility of the group leader? A. introduce the participants B. prepare colorful visual aids illustrating each step in the discussion C. encourage all group members to participate D. provide transitions between each part of the discussion 13. Many group discussions are not effective because ____________. A. the discussion does not have an organizational plan B. the group leader allows all members to participate C. participants are open-minded to new ideas D. group members generate too many topic ideas

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  35

14. When describing the future effects or consequences of a problem, group members ____________. A. discuss the quality of their evidence and research B. brainstorm solutions to the problem C. predict what is likely to happen if the problem is not solved D. consider what will happen if new evidence is found proving that the problem is not serious 15. Which saying means “When you really need to solve a problem, you will figure out a way to do it”? A. Necessity is the mother of invention. B. The handwriting is on the wall. C. Birds of a feather flock together. D. Leave well enough alone.

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  36




Speaking to Persuade Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. Trying to persuade your teacher to change a grade is a good example of persuasive speech.


2. The basic purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince others to change their feelings, beliefs, or behaviors.


3. A good topic for a persuasive speech is one that most people already agree with.


4. Audience analysis is especially important in persuasive speaking.


5. If your potential audience members are indifferent to your topic, you should choose another topic.


6. In order to persuade hostile listeners, you need to convince them that their reasons for disagreeing are not valid.


7. “Building on common areas of agreement” is a technique used in the conclusion of a persuasive speech to build credibility with an audience.


8. A preview statement is not necessary in a persuasive speech because your main arguments will be clearly stated in the body of your speech.


9. The most effective way to begin a persuasive speech is by stating evidence that supports your persuasive claim.


10. Function words are words that convey meaning—for example, nouns, verbs, and adjectives.


Circle the best answer.

11. After you prepare presentation aids for your persuasive speech you should ____________. A. determine your specific purpose B. organize your speech C. gather information D. analyze your audience 12. A good persuasive speech ____________. A. avoids all controversy B. suggests a change that isn’t too large C. is organized to persuade a variety of audiences D. should have nothing to do with the speaker’s interests or personal beliefs 13. Which of the following claims is the best topic for a persuasive speech? A. Consider signing up to become a bone marrow donor. B. Marijuana should be legalized. C. Everyone should go skydiving this weekend. D. It is unhealthy for babies to drink alcohol.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  37

14. Which words have contrastive stress in the saying “His bark is worse than his bite”? A. his and than B. bark and bite C. worse and than D. bark, worse, and bite 15. Which saying means “To solve two problems with one action”? A. Half a loaf is better than none. B. Haste makes waste. C. Kill two birds with one stone. D. His bark is worse than his bite.

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  38




Dare to Debate Circle T if a statement is true and F if it is false.

1. A debate is the same thing as a persuasive speech.


2. A proposition is a statement suggesting that a specific action or procedure should be adopted.


3. In a formal debate, the affirmative team speaks against the proposition.


4. The negative team always speaks first in a debate.


5. Constructive speeches present the debaters’ basic arguments for or against the proposition being debated.


6. The purpose of cross-examination is to present evidence that refutes the other team’s arguments.


7. Cross-examination questions must be submitted to the other side before the start of a debate.


8. It is against the rules to present new evidence in a rebuttal.


9. Rebuttals are shorter than constructive speeches.


10. To pronounce [l], curl your tongue upward and don’t let it touch the roof of your mouth.


Circle the best answer.

11. A flow sheet ____________. A. helps debaters remember what has been said B. is an efficient means of recording what is said in a debate C. keeps debaters from becoming bored during a debate D. both A and B 12. Which of these occurs last in a formal debate? A. constructive speeches B. cross examination C. rebuttals D. introductions of speakers 13. Which of these does not happen in an affirmative constructive speech? A. statement of the proposition B. definition of terms C. demonstration of harm if the proposition is adopted D. explanation of a need for change

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  39

14. Which of the following is a well-composed proposition for debate? A. Something should be done about UFOs. B. It’s wrong to rob Peter to pay Paul. C. The school should convert the soccer field into a parking lot. D. This school is the best school in the world. 15. Which saying means “To succeed in the end when others expected you to fail”? A. Let sleeping dogs lie. B. Last but not least. C. Rob Peter to pay Paul. D. Have the last laugh.

Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. Permission granted to duplicate for classroom use.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  40




1. T 2. F 3. T 4. F 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. T

1. T 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. T

9. F 10. F 11. A 12. B 13. C 14. A 15. C

9. F 10. F 11. D 12. B 13. C 14. C 15. D



1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. T 8. F

1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. T

9. F 10. T 11. B 12. C 13. C 14. A 15. A

9. T 10. F 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. D 15. D



1. F 2. F 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. T

1. F 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. F

9. F 10. F 11. B 12. B 13. D 14. A 15. C

9. T 10. F 11. D 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. A



1. F 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. F

1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. F 8. F

9. F 10. T 11. A 12. C 13. D 14. C 15. C

9. F 10. F 11. B 12. B 13. A 14. B 15. C



1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. F 8. T

1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. F

9. F 10. T 11. D 12. B 13. B 14. C 15. D

9. T 10. F 11. D 12. C 13. C 14. C 15. D

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  42



Delivering Your Message Activity 4 (page 32) Francisco’s Speech [t] escaped pushed photographed crossed splashed picked

[d] rescued notified

[ d] wanted comforted contacted decided

BODY I. Types of devices used in electronic spying II. Advantages of electronic espionage III. Disadvantages of electronic espionage CONCLUSION

Leila’s Speech [t] looked searched pushed leaped touched approached crossed

II. My presentation will cover three aspects of electronic spying in the computer industry. A. Types of devices used in electronic spying B. Advantages of using electronic espionage C. Disadvantages of using electronic espionage

[d] happened studied learned planned hurried carried stayed

[ d] reminded handed

I. My investigation of electronic spying in the computer industry is complete. You are now aware of three issues related to this topic. A. Types of devices used in electronic spying B. Advantages of electronic espionage C. Disadvantages of electronic espionage II. So, if you have a business, beware! You never know if a competitor is looking over your shoulder or listening to your conversations from a mile away!

Activity 2 (page 33) a. keep them posted b. a penny saved is a penny earned c. leave no stone unturned d. looked before I leaped e. keeping my fingers crossed


Putting Your Speech Together Activity 1 (page 42) 1. b 2. a 3. c 4. c

5. e 6. c 7. d

Activity 2 (page 42) INTRODUCTION I. In my hand I have a tiny microphone that can hear the sound of a fly walking on a pane of glass a block away! Sounds incredible, doesn’t it! But it’s true!

Activity 1 (page 45) 1. D (B is not equal to the other points. “Toasters” is a specific kitchen appliance. It is not a general category of products as are the other outline points.) 2. A (C does not relate to the main point as it is not an advantage of freeze-drying.) 3. Correct 4. B (B contains more than one idea.) 5. C (B and C overlap each other; they state the same idea.) 6. D (B is not equal to the other supporting points. “New York” is a specific state. It is not a general region of the country.) 7. A (B does not relate to the main point. The fact that cats were worshipped in ancient Egypt does not relate to whether or not they make wonderful pets.) 8. A (C does not relate to the main point. It is a solution to the problem, not a reason for it.) 9. Correct 10. A (C does not relate to the main point. It is a statistic, not a way to fight inflation.)

Activity 2 (page 46) (These are possible responses. Students might think of other supporting points.) Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  44

1. I. Safety tips for traveling with pets. A. Harness your pet and connect to seat belt. B. Never leave your pet alone in a parked car. C. Have proper documentation in case your pet gets lost. D. Microchip your pet with your contact information. E. Don’t allow pets to stick their heads out the window. F. Never allow pets to ride in the back of a pick-up truck. 2. I. Countries receiving U.S. exports. A. Asia 1. Japan 2. China 3. Korea B. Europe 1. Germany 2. Spain 3. France C. South America 1. Brazil 2. Peru 3. Chile

Activity 3 (page 47) INTRODUCTION I. Are you wondering what to do for your next vacation? I have the perfect solution for all of you. Why not take a cruise? II. I’m going to tell you about five highlights you can expect on a Fabulous Fantasia Cruise. A. Luxurious cabins B. Excellent shipboard facilities C. Exotic ports of call D. Interesting shore-visit activities E. Fun shipboard activities BODY I. Guest accommodations A. Fully air-conditioned cabins B. Widescreen TV in every cabin C. Every cabin has a balcony D. King-size beds in every cabin II. Ship’s facilities A. Casino open twenty-four hours a day B. Swinging disco open all night C. Olympic-size swimming pool D. Three elegant restaurants III. Visits to four exotic places A. Georgetown, Grand Cayman B. Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic C. Cartagena, Colombia D. Cozumel, Mexico

IV. Shore-visit activities A. Guided tours of each port B. Activities for sports lovers 1. Water sports a. Waterskiing b. Sailing c. Fishing 2. Land sports a. Hiking b. Horseback riding V. Shipboard activities A. Bingo in captain’s lounge B. Costume party C. Competitive games 1. Ping-pong tournaments 2. Poolside shuffleboard tournaments D. Nightly entertainment in ship’s nightclub E. Passenger talent show CONCLUSION I. I’m sure you will now agree that a Fantasia Cruise would be the perfect vacation. A. The guest rooms are fabulous. B. The ship has wonderful facilities for you to enjoy. C. You’ll visit four unforgettable places. D. There are many shore-visit activities. E. There are many things to do while aboard the ship. II. Your dream vacation awaits you. Make your reservation soon and cruise to paradise with Fantasia!

Activity 1 (page 51) 1. doesn’t 6. I’ll 2. I’m 7. can’t 3. shouldn’t 8. we’ve 4. won’t 9. you’re 5. he’s 10. isn’t Activity 3 (page 52) CONTRACTION 1. don’t 2. can’t 3. couldn’t 4. wouldn’t 5. isn’t 6. aren’t 7. they’re 8. I’d 9. didn’t 10. it’s 11. won’t 12. I’m 13. that’s

FULL FORM do not cannot could not would not is not are not they are I would did not it is will not I am that is

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  45

Activity 2 (page 53) a. Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. b. That’s the way the ball bounces. c. You can’t fight city hall. d. It’s six of one, half a dozen of another. e. Can’t believe one’s ears CHAPTER 4

Powerful Presentation Aids Activity 2 (page 69) a. Lo b. No c. No d. Hi

e. Hi f. Lo g. Hi h. Hi

[z] means animals words dog’s expressions conveys listeners how’s situations legs others shows emotions tells here’s questions

[ z] encourages

Activity 2 (page 79) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

From rags to riches. A leopard can’t change its spots. Actions speak louder than words. Hit the books. A picture paints a thousand words.


Speaking to Inform Activity 1 (page 89) 1. b 6. ✓ 2. a 7. b 3. c 8. ✓ 4. ✓ 9. ✓ 5. a 10. c

Activity 1 (page 98) 1. b 2. d 3. a 4. c 5. b

II. Today, I’m going to talk about three aspects of lightning. A. Reasons people get struck by lightning B. How to avoid being struck by lightning while outdoors C. Safety tips to follow indoors during a storm TRANSITION: So to begin, let’s look at why people get killed or hurt by lightning. BODY

Activity 4 (page 78) [s] it’s aspects wants let’s that’s paints comments

the United States and causes brain damage in hundreds of others. What do you think I am talking about? I am talking about lightning.

6. g 7. h 8. g 9. f 10. g

Activity 3 (page 104) INTRODUCTION I. It might be beautiful to watch, but it will kill you! Every year it kills at least sixty people in

I. Why people are injured or killed by lightning A. Outdoors 1. They can’t get to a safe place. 2. They wait too long before getting to a safe place. 3. They don’t wait until it’s safe to leave their shelters. B. Indoors 1. Lightning directly strikes the house. 2. Lightning strikes exterior wires or pipes and is transmitted inside. TRANSITION: Now you understand how people get hit by lightning. So how can you avoid being a victim of a lightning attack? First, let’s talk about what to do if you’re outside. II. Outdoor safety tips during a lightning storm A. Have a lightning safety plan. B. Monitor the weather. 1. Look for signs of a storm before planning an outdoor activity. 2. If you see lightning flashes, don’t go out. C. Get to a safe shelter as soon as you hear thunder. 1. Fully enclosed building 2. Car or truck with hard top 3. Show NOAA poster D. Stay inside for at least thirty minutes after the thunder stops. TRANSITION: You now know how to avoid being hit by lightning if caught outside in a storm. Let’s continue by learning safety tips to follow if you’re indoors during a lightning storm. III. Indoor Safety Tips During a Lightning Storm A. Don’t use any electrical appliances. 1. Don’t use oven. 2. Turn off your computer. 3. Don’t talk on a phone with a cord. a. Cordless phones are safe. b. Cell phones are safe. B. Unplug electrical appliances before the storm arrives. 1. Lamps Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  46

2. Televisions 3. Toasters 4. Stereos C. Don’t touch any electrical cords during the storm. D. Avoid running water/plumbing. 1. No showers or baths 2. No hand washing 3. No dishwashing TRANSITION: Now that you know how to stay safe indoors during a lightning storm, our investigation into lightning safety is complete. CONCLUSION I. You should now understand three important facts about lightning safety. A. Why people get struck by lightning B. How to avoid being struck by lightning outdoors C. Safety tips to follow indoors during a thunder storm II. Keep in mind, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. You’ll live a long and happy life if you follow the experts’ advice: When thunder roars, stay indoors!

Activity 2 (page 106) 1. a.  It might be beautiful to watch // but it will kill you! b. So to begin // let’s look at why people get hurt by lightning. c. They get caught in a storm// and can’t get to a safe place. d. They don’t wait until it’s safe // to leave their shelters. e. First// let’s talk about what to do// if you’re outside. f. Decide in advance where you’ll go// if you get caught in a storm. g. Believe it or not//people can also get struck by lightning//inside their homes. h. It’s safe to use a cordless phone// or cell phone. i. It’s better to be safe// than sorry. j. You’ll live a long and happy life// if you follow the experts’ advice! Activity 2 (page 107) a. All that glitters   is not gold.


Understanding Interpersonal Communication Activity 2 (pages 117–118) Statements About Story: 1. T (This is definitely true because it is directly verified by the story.) 2. ? (This might or might not be true. We don’t know that there was a murder. The killing could have been an accident.) 3. ? (This might or might not be true. We know definitely that Slinky Sam has been cleared of guilt, but maybe some of the others have also been cleared.) 4. T (This is definitely true because it is directly verified by the story.) 5. ? (This might or might not be true. The story doesn’t tell us what the police know or don’t know.) 6. ? (This might or might not be true. We don’t know if there was a foul deed. The killing could have been an accident.) 7. ? (This might or might not be true. We don’t know that Smith has been murdered. He could have been killed in an accident.) 8. F (This is definitely false because the story clearly contradicts it.) 9. ? (This might or might not be true. The killing could have been an accident, not an assassination.)

Activity 1 (page 120) 1. a. A 2. a. B 3. a. C

b. C b. A b. A

c. B c. C c. B

Activity 1 (page 124) 1. E 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. E 6. E 7. E 8. A 9. E 10. E

11. E 12. E 13. E 14. E 15. A 16. E 17. A 18. E 19. E 20. A

b. What will be   will be. c. Where there’s a will   there’s a way. d. An ounce of prevention  is worth a pound of cure. e. It’s better to be safe   than sorry.

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Activity 4 (page 126) Dos Know the exact location of the interview. Be thorough in your responses. Arrive a bit early. Ask when a decision about the job will be made. Accept a cup of coffee if offered. Be prepared for typical interview questions. Maintain good eye contact. Answer questions honestly. Treat everyone you meet with courtesy and respect. Show enthusiasm.

Dress conservatively. Be prepared to ask intelligent questions. Pay attention to personal grooming. Turn off your cell phone. Offer a firm handshake.

Activity 1 (page 142) Don’ts Wear revealing clothes. Use informal language such as yeah and hey. Complain about your previous boss. Chew gum.

Smoke if you like and are invited to do so. Give the impression salary is the most important issue. Ignore the secretary and receptionist. Wear lots of jewelry. Slouch in your seat.

Act as though you are desperate for employment. Make negative comments about a previous job. Criticize a previous coworker. Use the interviewer’s first name.

Activity 2 (page 131) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

When the cat’s away, the mice will play. When it rains, it pours. A stitch in time saves nine. What goes around, comes around. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.


Listen to Learn Activity 1 (page 139) 1. a 2. c 3. f 4. d 5. f

6. b 7. a 8. e 9. a 10. e

Passage to be read aloud by the teacher:

“Lying well is a special talent which is not easily acquired,” says a University of California psychologist who has studied lying for twenty years. Good liars must be natural actors, have charming manners, and be able to manage their expressions. Experts report that even with standard polygraph tests, it can be very difficult to detect particularly good liars. Polygraph, or lie-detector, tests are used about one million times a year by private companies, police departments, and federal agencies, including the military and the CIA. There is much controversy over the accuracy of polygraph tests. Over four thousand articles and books have been published which insist that polygraph tests are reliable. However, many experts are convinced that the lie detectors can be fooled by biting one’s tongue, or using drugs, hypnosis, and biofeedback. Throughout history, people have tried to detect lies. In ancient India, a favorite method was the “donkey tail” system. People suspected of lying were sent into a dark hut to pull the tail of a donkey inside. They were told the donkey would bray if the person pulling the tail were guilty. The suspected liars didn’t know that the donkey’s tail had been covered with soot. The guilty parties would be the ones without soot on their hands. Answers 2. a. T b. F c. T d. F e. F

4. a. 3 b. 1 c. 1, 2, 3 d. 1 e. 2, 3

Activity 2 (page 142) Passage to be read aloud by the teacher:

Almost all people daydream during a normal day. They tend to daydream the most during those quiet times when they are alone in their cars, sitting in waiting rooms, or preparing for bed. Daydreaming or fantasizing is not abnormal; it is a basic human characteristic. Most people report that Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  48

they enjoy their daydreams. Some people have very probable and realistic daydreams, while others have unrealistic fantasies such as inheriting a million dollars. Psychologists report that men daydream as much as women, but the subject of their daydreams or fantasies is different. Men daydream more about being heroes and good athletes, while women tend to daydream about fashion and beauty. As people grow older, they tend to fantasize less, although it is still evident in old age. Older people tend to daydream a lot about the past. Daydreaming or fantasizing enters into the games of children. Psychologists believe that it is very important for children to participate in fantasy play. It is a normal part of their development that helps them develop their imaginations. Daydreaming has advantages and disadvantages. In some situations, it can reduce people’s fear or anxiety. It can also keep them entertained or awake under dull or boring conditions. Unfortunately, to engage in a daydream or fantasy, people must divert part of their attention from their environment. When it is important for people to remain alert and pay attention to what is going on around them, daydreaming can cause problems. Answers 2. a. T b. T c. F d. T 4. a.  F (Men daydream as much as women.) b. T c. F (Daydreaming helps children develop their imaginations.) d. F (Daydreaming keeps people awake when they are bored.) e. T f. F (Most daydreaming occurs when people are alone.)

Activity 3 (page 143) Passage to be read aloud by the teacher:

The heart is a powerful organ. It is located in the chest directly under the breastbone. The human heart, and that of other mammals such as bears, monkeys,

and horses, is divided into four chambers. A bird’s heart is also divided into the same four chambers. These chambers are the left and right auricles and the left and right ventricles. The functions of the auricles are to receive blood from the veins and to push it into the ventricles. The functions of the ventricles are to pump the blood out of the heart and then to pump it around the body. Answers  I. Two general facts about the heart A. It’s a powerful organ. B. It’s located in the chest under the breastbone.  II. Living beings with four-chambered hearts A. Human beings B. Other mammals 1. Bears 2. Monkeys 3. Horses C. Birds III. Four chambers of the heart A. Left auricle B. Right auricle C. Left ventricle D. Right ventricle IV. Heart functions A. Functions of auricles 1. Receive blood from veins 2. Push blood into ventricles B. Functions of ventricles 1. Pump blood out of heart 2. Pump blood around body

Activity 4 (page 144) Passage to be read aloud by the teacher:

Umbrella is a Latin word. It comes from umbra, which means “shade.” The first person to use an umbrella was the cave dweller, who tied several palm leaves together to provide shade from the hot sun. In the early 1900s, umbrellas were very large and heavy. They had forty ribs that were made of whalebone and covered with a heavy canvas. Today, umbrellas are lightweight and compact. The ribs are made of aluminum and covered with plastic or other waterproof material. But they still haven’t made an umbrella you won’t leave behind! Bus, train, and cab companies say they find more umbrellas than anything else. Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  49

Answers I. Umbrella A. Latin word B. Comes from umbra C. Means “shade” II. Cave dweller A. First person to use an umbrella B. Tied palm leaves together for shade III. Umbrellas of the past A. Large B. Heavy C. Ribs made of whalebone D. Canvas-covered ribs IV. Today’s umbrellas A. Lightweight B. Compact C. Ribs made of aluminum D. Waterproof material covers ribs V. Companies that find umbrellas A. Bus B. Train C. Cab

Activity 5 (page 145) Passage to be read aloud by the teacher:

People who work at night between 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. are often affected by lack of sleep. This is a very serious disorder that causes 50 percent of all accidents at work. There are several symptoms of sleep deprivation. These include extreme drowsiness and difficulty concentrating. People who don’t get enough sleep often complain of headaches. They also suffer from insomnia when they do try to sleep during the day. Night-shift workers have a greater risk for developing health problems associated with a lack of sleep. They often develop gastrointestinal disorders and digestive problems, as well as heart attacks. Night-shift workers avoid sleeping during the day for many reasons. They use the day as an opportunity to do other things like take a second job. They often run errands such as grocery shopping and driving their children to school. They also set appointments with doctors and auto or home repair people. They even use the day to visit with friends. Experts offer some tips for helping night-shift workers sleep more easily dur-

ing the day. They stress the importance of making sleep a priority and state the body needs eight hours of sleep daily. They suggest that night workers split daytime sleeping periods in two and sleep from 7:00 to 11:00 a.m. and again from 4:00 to 8:00 p.m. The experts also offer suggestions for overcoming insomnia when night-shift workers try to sleep during the day. They recommend creating a quiet and dark environment to sleep in. Further, they should avoid doing household activities in bed, like balancing the checkbook or making grocery lists. Dr. Gary Richardson, a researcher at the Sleep Disorders Center of Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, says to stop drinking caffeinated drinks or alcohol several hours before bedtime. He also states that daily exercise will have an effect on your quality of sleep. Answers 2.    I.  Symptoms of sleep deprivation A. Extreme drowsiness B. Difficulty concentrating C. Headaches D. Insomnia II. Effects of sleep deprivation A. Gastrointestinal disorders B. Digestive disorders C. Heart attacks III. Causes of sleep deprivation A. Take a second job B. Run errands 1. Grocery shop 2. Drive children around C. Set appointments 1. Doctors 2. Auto repair 3. Home repair D. Visit with friends IV. Solutions A. Make sleeping a priority 1. Get eight hours of sleep daily 2. Split sleeping periods in two a. 7:00–11:00 a.m. b. 4:00–8:00 p.m. B. Overcome insomnia 1. Create an environment conducive to sleeping a. Quiet b. Dark 2. Avoid household chores in bed a. Balancing checkbook b. Making grocery lists Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  50

3. Avoid caffeine 4. Avoid alcohol 5. Get daily exercise

Activity (page 147)

Short passages to be read aloud by the teacher: 1. Mr. Hemmi plays poker several times every day. He hasn’t missed a game in five years. Last week he won three thousand dollars. a. Mr. Hemmi plays poker seven days a week. b. Mr. Hemmi plays poker too often. c. Mr. Hemmi is an excellent poker player. 2. The man spoke for one hour and fifty-five minutes. He talked about the use of computers in education. More than half the people left before he finished. a. The man’s speech was too long. b. Many people left because the speech was boring. c. Computers in education is a boring topic for a speech. 3. Amir was in a car accident yesterday. It was his fourth automobile accident in a year. Fortunately, no one was hurt. a. Amir is a bad driver. b. Amir was not injured. c. Amir has been in previous accidents. 4. My two classmates Milo and Pia were holding hands in the cafeteria. Both have black hair and dark eyes. They are both tall and slender. a. Milo and Pia are dating. b. Milo and Pia make a nice looking couple. c. Milo and Pia have similar physical characteristics. 5. Soccer is played all over the world. It is especially popular in Central America, South America, Australia, and Europe. Outside the United States, it is called “football,” although it is not the same as “American football.” a. Soccer is more exciting than American football. b. Soccer is a popular sport on several continents. c. Soccer and American football are different sports. 6. According to the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, over 19 million tourists visit the United States each year. The largest number, approximately four million, comes from Japan. Three million come from the United Kingdom, two million come from Germany, and one million come from Mexico. a. The United States allows too many tourists to visit each year. b. More Japanese tourists than German tourists visit the United States.

c. Millions of tourists visit the United States each year. 7. Lorna just started college. She plays tennis, ice hockey, water polo, and softball. Last term she got D’s in two classes and failed chemistry. a. Lorna participates in too many sports. b. Lorna is in her first year of college. c. Lorna plays various sports. 8. A large black German Shepherd was a guard dog at a gas station. The dog weighed over 10 pounds. He was barking at children on the other side of a fence. a. German Shepherds are too big. b. German Shepherds are mean-looking dogs. c. The children were annoying the dog. 9. Professor Evans gave his geography students a final exam. Twenty-eight out of thirty students failed the test. a. Geography is an interesting subject. b. The majority of students failed the test. c. The final exam was unfair. 10. According to the U.S. State Department, Americans adopt thousands of orphans from many countries each year. China is the most popular country for Americans to adopt children. The second-largest number of orphans comes from Russia, and the third-largest number comes from Guatemala. a. Americans adopt children from different continents. b. Americans prefer adopting children from countries other than the United States. c. Most orphans adopted by Americans come from China.

Answers 1. a. Fact (It is clearly stated in the passage that Mr. Hemmi plays every day.) b. Opinion (Mr. Hemmi’s wife might feel that several times a day is too much. Mr. Hemmi might feel it’s too little and would like to play even more if he could!) c. Inference (This is an inference based on the information that he won three thousand dollars last week. Maybe he lost four thousand dollars the week before and just got lucky last week. We don’t know from the passage whether or not he’s a good player.) 2. a. Opinion (Who is to say what is too long? Some listeners might have wanted the speech to be longer.) b. Inference (We don’t know why people left. We are assuming it is because they were bored, but maybe they had other appointments. The passage states that more than half the people left; it doesn’t state why.)

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  51

c. Opinion (Some people might find the topic fascinating. This is an individual judgment.) 3. a. Inference (The passage does not say Amir was driving. The passage has insufficient information for the reader to draw the conclusion that Amir is a bad driver.) b. Fact (The passage clearly states that no one was injured.) c. Fact (The passage specifically states that Amir has been in four automobile accidents in a year.) 4. a. Inference (The passage doesn’t state this directly. It is an assumption based on the observation that they were holding hands.) b. Opinion (“Nice looking” is a matter of opinion; some people might not agree.) c. Fact (This is clearly described in the passage.) 5. a. Opinion (This is a matter of personal opinion. Many might agree or disagree with this statement.) b. Fact (The passage clearly states that soccer is popular on several continents.) c. Fact (The passage clearly states that the two sports are not the same.) 6. a. Opinion (Who is to say how many is too many? This is a matter of personal opinion.) b. Fact (This is clearly stated in the passage.) c. Fact (This is clearly stated in the passage.) 7. a. Opinion (Who is to say how many is too many?) b. Fact (The story states she just started college.) c. Fact (The story specifically states the names of four sports that Lorna plays.) 8. a. Opinion (This statement can’t be proven. Some people like the size of German Shepherds and don’t feel they are too big.) b. Opinion (People have different views about which dog breeds look mean.) c. Inference (This statement assumes the dog was barking because the children were annoying him. We don’t know why the dog was barking. We can’t know from the passage.) 9. a. Opinion (Some people might find geography to be boring. This statement cannot be proven either way.) b. Fact (This is clearly stated in the story.) c. Inference (This statement assumes the test was unfair because so many students failed it. Maybe the students didn’t study enough. We can’t know from the passage.) 10. a. Fact (This is clearly stated in the passage.) b. Inference (This statement assumes that foreign adoptions are the preference due to the large number of foreign adoptions.

Maybe adoption laws simply make it easier to adopt foreign babies.) c. Fact (This is clearly stated in the passage.)

Activity (page 148) Questions to be read aloud by the teacher: a. If Mrs. King’s rooster lays an egg in Mrs. Smith’s yard, who should keep the egg? b. If you take three marbles from eight marbles, how many will you have? c. Do they have the Fourth of July in France? d. A plane full of English tourists crashes on the border between Spain and Portugal. Where should the survivors be buried? e. If you drive a bus with fifty people on board from New York City to Miami, Florida, and drop off five people in Washington, DC, five people in North Carolina, and five people in Georgia, when you arrive in Miami thirty-six hours later, what is the driver’s name? f. How many times can you take two from twelve? g. What do you sleep in, sit on, and drink from? h. If you had a match and entered a dark room with a fireplace, a candle, and an oil lamp, what would you light first? i. Which statement is correct: Seven plus five IS eleven, or Seven plus five ARE eleven? j. A rancher had twenty-seven horses. All but seven died. How many did he have left?

Answers 1. Neither. Roosters do not lay eggs. 2. Three. 3. Yes. It’s a date there but not a holiday. 4. Nowhere. The survivors are alive. 5. (Student’s name). 6. Only once. After that, you take it from ten. 7. A bed, a chair, and a glass. 8. The match. 9. Neither. Seven plus five equals twelve. 10. Seven.

Activity (page 149) Directions to be read aloud by the teacher: a. Put a checkmark to the right of all the odd numbers and circle all the even numbers. b. Underline the names of colors and cross out the names of furniture. c. Draw circles around the letters that are in the first half of the alphabet and underline the others. d. Draw three circles. Write the first letter of your first name in the center circle. e. Put the number 7 in the square and the letter R in the triangle.

Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  52

f. Circle the names of fruits and underline the names of vegetables. g. A boy had a dozen eggs. He broke six and gave one away. Write the number of eggs he had left. h. Draw a circle in a square and draw a circle around a triangle. i. Put the number 1 in the middle section, the number 2 in the smallest section, and the number 3 in the first section. j. Write the names of seven different parts of the body. Three should be parts of the face.

Answers a. 2  5✓ 17✓    20   24   100  59 b. red  blue chair green desk  table black seven twenty c. W B X E  Z C U d.        (Write the first letter of your first name in the center circle.) e.    R    7 f. apple   pear  corn  carrot banana paper squash g. 5 h.     1 2 i. 3 j. Possible Answers Parts of the face: cheek, chin, eyes, lips, mouth, nose, forehead, eyebrows Other parts of body: ankle, arm, back, calf, finger, foot, hand, heel, knee, leg, stomach, toe, ears (part of head rather than face)

Activity 2 (page 151) I. Bad addictions A. Alcohol B. Eating C. Shopping II. Good addictions A. Exercise B. Hobbies C. Reading Activity 3 (page 152) a. Alcoholism is a dangerous addiction. b. They wake up early each morning before work or school and work out. c. Their hobbies take their minds off the stress of work and school. d. I can never be bored if I am reading a good book. e. Tell people with pride, “I am an addict!” Activity 2 (page 153) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Land on your feet. Give him an inch and he’ll take a mile. A drop in the bucket. Barking up the wrong tree. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.


Problem-Solving Group Discussions Activity 3 (page 173)

Words Stressed on First Syllable national institutes everyone visual serious anything overweight anyone services possible

Words Stressed on Second Syllable obesity according discussing department united reported affecting proportions American September

Words Stressed on Third Syllable introduce epidemic information overcome economic education

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Activity 1 (page 173) . 1.  Necessity is the mother of invention. A 2. Leave well enough alone. 3. The handwriting is on the wall. 4. All that glitters is not gold. 5. Birds of a feather flock together.

Activity 2 (page 174) B. Words Stressed on the First Syllable eyeglass paper glasses after mother recipe constantly having probably

study handwriting going beautiful shiny problems glitters feather

Words Stressed on the Second Syllable together necessity invention enough alone dislikes complains because together


Speaking to Persuade Activity 1 (page 181) 1. ✓ 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. b

6. ✓ 7. b 8. ✓ 9. ✓ 10. a

Activity 2 (page 184) 1. c  2. a  3. b  4. b   5. a 6. b  7. b  8. c  9. b  10. b

Activity 3 (page 195) INTRODUCTION I. Opener building on areas of agreement We all know someone who has been sick or in pain. Maybe you or someone you know has had painful surgery or suffers from depression. Often, prescription medicines have side effects and make the patient feel even worse. When we don’t feel well, we’d all like to feel better as quickly as possible. Acupuncture might be the solution. II. Statement of persuasive claim So today, I would like to persuade you to consider acupuncture when you are sick or in pain.

III. Preview There are many reasons to consider acupuncture instead of traditional western medicine. A. Acupuncture is a medically proven treatment. B. Acupuncture is safe. C. Acupuncture effectively treats many conditions. TRANSITION: Many of you might be skeptical about acupuncture because you believe it is a new and unproven treatment. You will be amazed to learn that acupuncture has been used effectively for thousands of years and is medically respected worldwide. BODY I. Acupuncture is a proven medical treatment. A. Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese technique. 1. Relieves pain 2. Cures disease 3. Used in Asian cultures for 2,500 years B. Acupuncture is endorsed by national and international health organizations. 1. National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2. World Health Organization TRANSITION: Another reason you might avoid acupuncture is that you worry it is not safe. You will be very pleased to learn that acupuncture is in fact very safe II. Acupuncture is safe. A. There are no side effects. B. Acupuncture is nonaddictive. C. There is no risk of contracting a disease. 1. Needles are sterilized and individually packaged. 2. Needles are disposable. TRANSITION: Next, some of you might think that acupuncture is helpful for only a few minor problems. I’ll now prove to you that acupuncture treats a wide variety of problems and diseases. III. Acupuncture treats a variety of conditions. A. Chronic pain 1. Migraines 2. Arthritis 3. Surgery B. Medical conditions 1. Allergies 2. Asthma 3. Heart problems 4. Reduces nausea a. Anesthesia b. Chemotherapy C. Helps the immune system function better 1. Helps avoid respiratory infections 2. Effective form of preventive medicine Speech Communication Made Simple 2 Teacher’s Manual  54

D. Emotional problems 1. Anxiety disorders 2. Stress 3. Clinical depression CONCLUSION  I. I hope I have convinced you to consider acupuncture when you are sick or in pain. A. Acupuncture is a clinically proven and respected medical treatment. B. Acupuncture is perfectly safe. C. Acupuncture treats a wide variety of physical and emotional problems. II. Now you can throw away those medicines that bother your stomach or make you sleepy. Remember, there is an alternative. The next time you aren’t feeling well physically or emotionally, why not kill two birds with one stone? Acupuncture can help you with both!

Activity 2 (page 198) 1. a.   Haste makes waste. b. Kill two birds with one stone. c. His bark is worse than his bite. d. You catch more flies with honey than vinegar. e. Half a loaf is better than none.


Dare to Debate Activity 1 (page 206) Possible answers a. • Volunteers should patrol the streets of

their neighborhood to prevent car thefts. • The neighborhood should impose a mandatory curfew of 10:00 p.m. for anyone under the age of 18. • Neighborhood residents should share the cost of hiring security guards to patrol the streets twenty-four hours per day.

• Car thieves should be given a mandatory five-year prison sentence. b. •  The city should build a new metro rail system to alleviate traffic congestion. • The city should impose a 2 percent tax on residents to improve mass transit. • The city should adopt a weekly even/ odd license plate numbering strategy to reduce the number of cars on the road. • The city should designate mandatory carpool lanes on main roads. c. •  Students caught using research papers purchased on the Internet should be expelled. •  Internet sites selling research papers should be shut down by the government. d. •  The Federal government should enact mandatory motorcycle helmet laws. •  Motorcycle riders should be required to attend yearly motorcycle safety classes. e. • There should be a cap of twenty-five students per class in the public schools. •  Taxes should be raised to enable schools to hire more teachers in overcrowded districts. •  Students in overcrowded public schools should be bused to schools with lower enrollments. Activity (pages 210–211) (Possible Responses) a. What proof do you have that junk food hurts students’ ability to learn? b. How does junk food contribute to students’ inability to learn? c. What proof do you have that junk food causes many health problems? d. What kinds of health problems does junk food cause?

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Activity (pages 214–216) (Possible Responses) Affirmative Constructive Argument 1: School uniforms enhance learning in public schools. Argument 2: School uniforms reduce crime on campus. Argument 3: Requiring uniforms will save students money.

Negative Constructive Response 1: School uniforms inhibit original thinking in students. Response 2: School uniforms increase bullying and fighting between students from different schools. Response 3: School uniforms are expensive; many parents can’t afford to buy them. Disadvantages of Uniforms Argument 1: School uniforms don’t allow students to express their individuality. Argument 2: Uniforms reduce students’ motivation to learn.

Affirmative Constructive 1. Abolishing cash would reduce violent crime. – FBI: 800 people a yr. murdered in robbs for cash

Negative Constructive Abolishing cash would not reduce violent crime. People would still be murdered.

– Abolish cash = eliminate reason for robbs, save 100’s of lives

Criminals would still rob for jewelry, art, etc. Still have violent crime.

Robbs would still take place. Gold, art. etc. will replace cash.

2. Abolishing cash would reduce prison overcrowding, save taxpayer money – 80% of prisoners in jail = crime involving cash – Eliminate cash = elim reason why people are in jail so jails less crowded 3. Abolishing cash would stop people from cheating on taxes.

Not true. Prison overcrowding won’t be reduced because crims. will steal things besides cash. X (Internet is not a real source)

Thieves will still steal, get caught, go to jail

Yes, but aff. plan would help to reduce problem

Unnamed Internet source = their only evidence We will still have prison overcrowding!


Dishonest people will find other ways to cheat e.g., trade, no record, gov can’t tax, will lose billions of $

– Money cards = record of transacts, force people to pay tax, save gov. money – Neg team could not explain trading system

Argument not proven — thieves will still be jailed for stealing other things. People will find new ways to avoid paying taxes.

Negative Rebuttal X

Aff. plan would not stop robbery or violent crime.

Affirmative Rebuttal We used FBI evidence. Proves that abol. cash = reduce robbs FBI evidence proves use of cash = violence (neg. team did not respond) Lives could be saved w/ aff. plan Neg team could not prove otherwise

Not true. We will have fewer people in prison.

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Affirmative Constructive – Many people don’t report cash income to gov, don’t pay taxes, costs gov > $300 billion a yr. –E  lectronic money cards will prevent tax evasion

Negative Constructive People will trade instead of paying cash > won’t pay taxes


Negative Rebuttal X

Money cards allow gov. to keep track of everything you buy and sell = invasion of privacy New prob 1: Increase computer fraud New prob 2: Take away people’s privacy – citizens will not agree

Affirmative Rebuttal Abolish cash – eliminate tax evasion

No evidence

X – No evidence – People more worried about crime than privacy.

Negative Team Questions for Cross Examination 1. School uniforms are expensive. How will requiring students to wear them save money? 2. Many uniforms are uncomfortable. Don’t you think that children in uncomfortable outfits are not going to learn as much? 3. What proof do you have that school uniforms cost less than the latest fashions students wear?

Affirmative Team Questions for Cross Examination 1. Where did you get your information that mandatory school uniforms ignore the cultural and religious beliefs of some students? 2. Students are often distracted by what their peers are wearing. Don’t you think that uniforms will reduce that distraction and help them learn better? 3. Students pay hundreds of dollars for designer clothing to impress their peers. How can you argue that school uniforms are more expensive than that?

Negative Rebuttal 1. School uniforms don’t allow students to express their individuality. 2. Many students can’t afford school uniforms. 3. Wearing school uniforms doesn’t prevent crime or violence on campus.

Affirmative Rebuttal 1. Students can express their individuality in many ways other than dress. 2. Students with financial problems can get help with the cost of uniforms or buy them secondhand. 3. School uniforms make schools safer as they make intruders more noticeable.

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Activity 2 (page 221) Sample answers: Negative Team Questions for Cross Examination 1. Where did you get the information that tax evasion costs the government $300 billion? 2. If cash is replaced by money cards, won’t people worry about loss of privacy? 3. Don’t you think people will find other ways to cheat on taxes? 4. Isn’t it possible they will find ways to avoid using money cards? 5. Where did you get the statistic that 80 percent of prisoners are in jail for cash crimes? Affirmative Team Questions for Cross Examination 1. Is it true that most robberies involve cash? 2. If we eliminate cash, don’t we eliminate an important reason for robberies? 3. What is your evidence that abolishing cash will stop tax cheats? 4. How would trading work? Would it be inconvenient or complicated?

Activity 2 (page 225) (Sample answers) a. Don’t nag your son to clean up his room after he just failed a test. Let sleeping dogs lie. b. His sister rubs him the wrong way when she borrows his iPod without asking for permission.

c. It’s foolish to rob Peter to pay Paul by using one credit card to pay the balance on another one. d. The announcer said last but not least when he introduced the final news story of the program.

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