Speech and Oral Communication

November 14, 2018 | Author: Anne Octavio | Category: Speech, Communication, Semiotics, Linguistics, Cybernetics
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Pronounce words carefully – Give speech the care and attention it deserves.  Speak to be heard – Say, don’t slur.  Look alive – talk lively  Take your time – Slow down.  Learn to listen – Open your ears  Vary your approach – Talk should be appropriate.  Be concise – make it snappy.  Be specific- Don’t be vague.  Be original – Avoid clichés .  Have something to say – Think first. 

~ the process by which people seek to share meaning via the transmission of symbolic messages. Essential points: 

That communication involves people, and that understanding communication therefore involves trying to understand how people relate to each other. That communciation involves shared meaning,, which suggest that in order for people to communicate, they must agree on the definitions of terms they are using. That communication involves symbols – gestures, sounds, letters, numbers, and words can only representor approximate the ideas that they are meant to communicate.

The situation – often determines who the speaker will be.  The source – the person who makes the decision to communicate. 

Three intentions:  To inform  To entertain  To persuade

The channel – 1st, the channel is the means by which you transmit an oral message to a listener. 2nd, the channel is the type of speech communication you use. The receiver – Any person who perceives the message. Interference – occurrences in the channel of  communication. Barriers – may exist within listeners. Feedback – refers to the listeners’ reactions and responses that you perceive. The cultural context – elements of communcation may have different meanings depending upon the culture, or social understanding within which the communication is taking place.

Encoding – takes place when the sender translates the information to be transmitted into a series of symbols.  

Lack of mutuality Gestures

Decoding – the process by which the receiver interprets the message and translates it into meaningful information.  Noise – any factor that disturbs, confuses, or otherwise interferes with communication. 

Reduced long vowels



seat half fork search

seed halve four surge
















Long Vowels – Long e in their full reduced form 













/i/ and /I/ in contrast

Beat – bit

neat – knit

Sleep – slip

leap – lip

Seat – sit

cheap – chip

Peak – pick

reach – rich

Leak – lick

each – itch

Lead – lid

deed - did

Knit a neat dress

Look before you leap

Sit on seat

Seek for the goodness of the sick

Reach your dream to get rich.

/e/ and /ε/ in contrast

Taste – test

fade – fed

Gate – get

wage – wedge

Flake – fleck

sale – sell

Bacon – beckon

Main - men

mace – mess

raid – red

date – debt

Tell a tale

Stayed for ten days

Without fail

Meet halfway

During the day

/ε/ and /æ/ in contrast

Bet – bat

led- lad

men – man

Set – sat

beg – bag

bend – band

Head – had

less – lass

gem – jam

Mess – mass

flash – flesh shall – shell

Lag – leg

pan – pen

tan - ten

The apple of one’s eye

A cat out of the bag

A bag of sand

Ban Jen from joining

Bag and baggage

/o/ and /æ/ in contrast

Shock – shack block – black

Ton – tan

knob – nab

Hot – hat

mop – map

Clock – clack

spot – spat

Pot – pat

pot – pat

Bog – bag

rot – rat

Lock – lack

rock – rack

Ox – ax

odd - add

Beyond recall

An odd ball

A slip of the tongue

Nabbed by the cop

Ran around the block

When the English tongue we speak,  Why is break not rhymed with freak?  Will you tell me why it’s true  We say saw, but likewise few,  And the maker of the verse  Cannot cap his horse with worse?  Board sounds not the same as heard;  Cord is different from word;  Cow is cow, but low is low;  Shoe is never rhymed with foe. 

Think of hose, and dose and lose,  And of goose and yet of choose.  Think of comb and tomb and tomb,  Doll and roll, and home and some,  And since pay is rhymed with say  Why not paid with said, I pray?  We have blood and food and good;  Mould is not pronounced like could.  Therefore done, but gone and lone?  Is there any known?  And, in short, it seems to me  Sounds and letters disagree 

 \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \  \

\ as a in abut \ as u in abut \ as e in kitten r \ as ur/er in f urther a \ as a in ash \ as a in ace ä \ as o in mop a \ as ou in out b \ as in baby ch \ as ch in chin d \ as d in did e \ as e in bet \ as ea in easy \ as y in easy f \ as f in f if ty

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