Spanish Civil War
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Spanish civil war 1936-1939
In July 1936, a right-wing nationalist revolt by the army against the left-wing Republican government led to civil war. The conflict became an ideological battleground for individuals and governments beyond Spain, and introduced a new and brutal form of warfare that would come to define the 20th century.
Government, led by Socialist premiers Largo Caballero and Juan Negrin, and liberal president Manuel Azana. Supported by urban workers, majority of educated middle class, and militant communists and anarchists.
Due to arms embargo by France and Britain, government could receive aid and purchase arms only from Soviet Union. Aid included planes, trained pilots, tanks and crew.
During the war, a beleaguered Spanish Government put out a call for help from international volunteers. 40,000 volunteers from 53 countries came forward to form International Brigades.
Led by rebel army and supported by conservative clergy and landowners as well as fascist Falange.
Both Fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini and Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler (shown) sent troops, tanks, and planes, using Spain as testing ground for new methods of warfare.
Dec., 1937: Teruel
Number of volunteers sent, by country
Switzerland Holland Scandinavia Hungary Latin America Yugoslavia Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Britain U.S. Italy Poland Germany France
July 28: Italian and German planes airlift Franco’s army from Spanish Morocco to mainland in first significant military airlift in history
Apr.: Jan. to Guernica Mar., 1937: Despite support destroyed from Italian May: Infighting troops, Franco among fails to capture Republican Madrid in two groups in separate Barcelona offensives weakens city
Aug. 1936-Oct. 1937
Main Nationalist offensives
Main bombings of civilians
June: Bilbao falls to Nationalists July: Nationalists repulse Republican counteroffensive at Brunete Oct.: Gijon falls – war in North ends
LAN RIC IS July 1936
SPANISH MOROCCO (1912-1956)
Nov.: Republican forces withstand major Nationalist offensive on Madrid following arrival of aid from Soviet Union and International Brigades
July 17-18: Army uprising — rebels gain control over about one third of Spain
400 600 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,200 1,200 1,500 1,700 2,500 2,500 3,500 4,000 5,000
In April 1937 the Canadian government had passed the Foreign Enlistment Act, outlawing participation by Canadians in foreign wars. The Mac-Paps were considered an official embarrassment, and were left in obscurity until the ’70s when a number of books, films and plays documented their history.
July, 1938: Ebro
Feb., 1936: Left-wing party coalition regains power from right in elections
Oct., 1937: Fuentes de Ebro; 60 killed, 200 wounded.
1931: Second Spanish Republic proclaimed. Alfonso XIII abdicates
Soviet T-26 Tank
1,200 volunteers came from Canada. They formed the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion (the Mac-Paps).
By the end of the Spanish Civil War almost half of the Canadian volunteers had been killed.
German Junker 52/3
Feb.to Apr., 1938: After battle for Teruel, Nationalists reach Mediterranean, cutting Republican zone in two
July to Nov.: Battle of Ebro –Republican forces launch all-out, but unsuccessful, campaign to reconnect territory
Jan. to Feb., 1939: Nationalists conquer Catalonia in whirlwind campaign Mar. 27: Madrid falls to Nationalists Apr. 1: Nationalist victory proclaimed