SNI 03-1727-1989 (PEMBEBANAN)

September 7, 2017 | Author: Nugraha Bintang | Category: Structural Load, Framing (Construction), Crane (Machine), Force, Concrete
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SNI Pembebanan (PBI '89)...

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SNI 03-1727-1989

SABI 1362-1986 UDC: 389.6 698:8

LOADING DESIGN GUIDE FOR HOMES AND BUILDINGS

MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page Chapter 1.

Description ................................................................ 1

1.1

Intention and Objective ............................................. 1

1.2

Coverage .................................................................. 1

1.3

Definition ................................................................... 1

Chapter 2. 2.1

Requirements............................................................ 3 Rules about Loading ................................................. 3 2.1.1. Dead Load ..................................................... 4 2.1.2. Live Load ....................................................... 7 2.1.3. Wind Load ................................................... 16 2.1.4. Earthquake load .......................................... 24 2.1.5. Special Load................................................ 24

2.2.

Limit Load and Working Load ................................ 26

2.3.

Stability ................................................................... 27

CHAPTER I DESCRIPTION 1.1 INTENTION AND OBJECTIVE The intention and objective of this Loading Design Guide for Homes and Buildings are to provide guidance in planning permissible load for homes and building, including live load for sloping roof, multi-storey parking building and building roof helipad included practically all types of aircraft usually operated. Also included is reduction of live load for main beam design and portal and seismic review, which usage is optional, not compulsory, particularly if the reduction endangers reviewed construction or construction component. 1.2 COVERAGE In this guidance book, there are rules about loading, dead load, live load, wind load, earthquake load, special load, as also review of limit load and working load and safety factor in stability examination. 1.3 DEFINITION (1) DEAD LOAD is fixed weight of all parts of a building, including all supplementary

components,

finishing,

machines

and

fixed

equipment which are inseparable parts of the building. (2) LIVE LOAD is all loads occurring due to occupancy or usage of a building, including loads on floors from movable objects, machines and equipment which are not inseparable parts of the building, and are replaceable during the life of the building, thus causing a change in its floor and roof loading. Particularly for the roof, live load can include load from rain water, both by puddles or falling pressure (kinetic energy) of water drops. Live load does not include wind load, earthquake load, and special loads mentioned in paragraph (3), (4), and (5).

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(3) WIND LOAD is all loads working on the building or parts of the building caused by a difference in air pressure. (4) EARTHQUAKE LOAD is all equivalent static loads working on a building or parts of building simulating the effect of soil movement due to the earthquake. In case the effect of earthquake on a building structure is defined based on a dynamic analysis, the definition of earthquake here is forces in the structure occurring due to soil movement caused by the earthquake. (5) SPECIAL LOAD is all loads working on a building or parts of building occurring due to temperature difference, lifting, and installation, foundation sinking, shrinking, additional forces from live load such as brake force from crane, centrifugal and dynamic forces from machines, and other special effects.

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SNI 03 – 1727-1989

CHAPTER II REQUIREMENTS 2.1 RULES ABOUT LOADING (1) Building structure strength must be designed against loading by: Dead Load, expressed with symbol M Live Load, expressed with symbol H Wind Load, expressed with symbol A Earthquake load, expressed with symbol G Special Load, expressed with symbol K (2) Combination of loading which must be examined is as follows: Fixed Loading

:

Temporary Loading

:

m+H M+H+A M+H+G

Special Loading

:

M+H+K M+H+A+K M+H+G+K

(3) If live load, both the one loading a building or parts of a building fully or partly, separately or in combination with other loads, give a advantageous effect for the building structure or structure components, then the loading or loading combination may not be examined in structure or structure component design. (4) For certain conditions, dead load, live load, or wind load can be multiplied with a reduction coefficient. The load reduction must be done if it produces a more risky situation for the examined structure or structure component.

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2.1.1. DEAD LOAD a. Own load (1) Own load from significant building materials and from several building components which must be examined in determining dead load of a building, must be taken according to Table 1. (2) If with local building materials, own weight differs more than 10 percent of values in Table 1, then the own weight must be determined separately by considering local humidity, and these defined values must be considered as replacements of values in the Table 1. This difference could occur particularly on sand (among else on iron sand), coral (among else is quartz coral), split stone, natural stone, bricks, roof tile, and some types of wood. (3) Own load from materials and from building components not included in Table 1, must be determined separately. b. Reduction of dead load (1) If dead load gives beneficial effect on strength capacity of structure building or building components, the dead load must be taken according to Table 1 by multiplying it by a reduction coefficient of 0.9. (2) If the dead load partly or fully gives a beneficial effect on stability of a structure or structure components of a building, then in examining the stability, according to Article 2.2, the dead load must be multiplied with a reduction factor of 0.9.

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Table 1 Own load and building materials and building components BUILDING MATERIALS Steel

7,850 kg/m3

Natural stone

2,600 kg/m3

Split stone, full stone, mountain stone (stack load)

1,500 kg/m3

Rock (stack load)

700 kg/m3 3

Crushed stone

1,450 kg/m

Forged iron

7,250 kg/m3

1

2,200 kg/m3

Concrete ( ) 2 Reinforcement concrete ( ) 3

2,400 kg/m3

Wood (class 1)( )

1,000 kg/m3

Gravel, coral (air dry to damp, not sieved)

1,650 kg/m3

Red brick installation

1,700 kg/m

Split stone, full stone, mountain stone installation

2,200 kg/m3

Cast stone installation

2,200 kg/m3

Rock installation

1,450 kg/m

Sand (air dry to damp)

1,600 kg/m3

Sand (water saturated)

1,800 kg/m3

Gravel, coral (air dry to damp)

1,850 kg/m

Soil, clay and silt (air dry to damp)

1,700 kg/m3

Soil, clay and silt (wet)

2,000 kg/m3

Lead

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3

3

3

11,400 kg/m3

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Mix, per cm thickness -

from cement

21 kg/m3

-

from lime, red cement or trace

17 kg/m3

Asphalt, including additional mineral materials, per cm

14 kg/m3

thickness Walls of red brick installation -

one stone

200 kg/m3

-

half stone

120 kg/m3

Brick wall Hollow -

20 cm wall thickness (HB 20)

300 kg/m3

-

10 cm wall thickness (HB 10)

200 kg/m3

Ceiling and walls (including the ribs, without suspended ceiling or brace), consisting of -

asbestos cement (plasterboard or other similar

-

glass, 3 – 4 mm thickness

11 kg/m3

materials) with maximum thickness of 4 cm 10 kg/m3

Simple wood floor with wood beam, without ceiling with

40 kg/m3

maximum span of 5 m and for maximum live load of 200 kg/m2 Suspended ceiling (from wood), with maximum span of

3

7 kg/m

5 m and minimum side-to-side distance of 0.80 m 3 Tile roof with frames /per m of roof aera

50 kg/m3

Wavy steel roof (BWG 24) without gordeng

40 kg/m3

Portland cement floor tile, marble, and concrete, without

10 kg/m3

mix, per cm thickness Wavy asbestos cement (5 mm thickness)

24 kg/m3 11 kg/m3

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Notes: (1)

These values do not apply to filling concrete.

(2)

For vibration concrete, shock concrete, compression concrete, and other similar solid concrete, the weight must be determined separately.

(3)

These values are average; for certain wood types, see Wood Construction Design Guide.

2.1.2 a.

LIVE LOAD LIVE LOAD ON BUILDING FLOOR

(1) Live load on building floor must be taken according to Table 2. The live load includes room equipment according to the corresponding room floor usage: and also light separation walls with weight not exceeding 100 kg /m2. Heavy loads, such as those caused by archive cabinets and library, machines and other equipment must be determined separately. (2) Live load determined in this article is not necessarily be multiplied with a shock factor. (3) Building floors expected to be used for various objectives, must be designed against the heaviest possible live load. b.

LIVE LOAD ON BUILDING ROOF

(1) Live load on the roof /parts of roof and on building structure (canopy) which are reachable or loaded by people, must be taken at a minimum o f100 kg/m2 of a horizontal surface. (2) Live load on roof and /or parts of roof which are not reachable by people must be taken as the most determinative of the following loads: a. Evenly distributed load per m2 horizontal surface from rain water load of (40 – 0.8 α ) kg/m2,

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where α is the roof inclination in degrees, on the terms that the load is not necessarily be larger than 20 kg/m2 and does not need to be examined if the roof inclination is larger than 50 °. b. Centralized load from a worker or a fireman with his equipment at a minimum of 100 kg. (3) On side beam or side gordeng of roof not supported sufficiently or by other supports and on cantilever, the possibility of centralized live load of 200 kg at minimum must be reviewed. (4) Live load of high building roof equipped with a helipad must be taken at 200 kg/m2 on areas outside the pad, while on the pad, load must be picked from helicopter landing and taking off with rules as follows: a. General The pad and its support must be designed against from the most determining helicopter load, which is if hard landing happens due to engine quitting during hovering. The helicopter loads work on pad through landing gears. Small to medium sized helicopters generally have skid type landing gears, or float type, while the large ones have wheel type landing gears. The landing gears can consist of two main gears and one rear gear or a front gear. Parameters of helicopters commonly used is in Table 3, with note that the given components can change on new models. For helicopter types not written in Table 3, the parameters must be taken according to manufacturer’s definition. b. Load distribution Each landing gear passes the certain type of helicopter gross weight, depending on helicopter type and landing gear type.

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On helicopters with main landing gears, each landing gear usually passes 40 to 45 percent of helicopter gross weight. For several helicopter types in Table 3, percentage of helicopter gross weight passed by each landing gear is given. Helicopter gross weight means the helicopter’s total weight with full load as allowable by international regulation (FAA). In helipad structure and its supporting structure design it is assumed that 2 landing gears hit the pad simultaneously. c. Design load To calculate shock load on hard landing due to engine quitting, as a design load passed by the landing gear, load must be taken as b above and multiplied by a shock coefficient of 1.5. d. Contact area To design the pad floor, design load according to c above in form of centralized load can be assumed to be distributed evenly on the contact area of landing gears. Size of this contact area depends on helicopter type and landing gear type, and for several helicopter types, is found in Table 3. For wheel type landing gear, where each consists of several wheels, contact area sizes given are total contact areas of each wheel, while for skid type landing gear, the contact area size is skid area size directly around the support rods. In general, pad floor can be considered strong if designed for a centralized load of 50 percent of helicopter gross weight which is evenly distributed on a contact area of 600 cm2.

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c. LIVE LOAD FROM CRANE (1) Chart form and magnitude of design load and other properties of crane must be determined according to respective crane type based on terms from its manufacturer and required by the related authorities. (2) This guide only gives the terms about road crane, consisting of main crane (crane carriage) and hoist crane running on the main at perpendicular direction. The terms must be considered as minimum requirements. If due to certain matters in overall crane design and building structure, loading conditions different from these rules occur, the design load must be determined separately by the related authorities. (3) If crane loading its own support structure consists of its own weight plus weight of load it lifts, in the most determinative main crane and hoist crane positions for the examined structure. As the design load, the crane load must be used by multiplying It with a shock coefficient determined using the following formula: ψ = ( 1 + k1 + k2 v) ≥ 1.15 where: ψ = shock coefficient which value cannot be taken less than 1.15. v = maximum lifting speed in m/s at maximum load lifting at the most determinative main crane and hoist crane positions for the examined structure, and the value does not need to be more than 1.00 m/s. k1 = coefficient depending on man crane structure rigidity and for main crane with frame structure, general value taken can be 0.6 k2 = a coefficient depending on properties of its lifting machine and hoist crane, and can be taken as follows: - on common electric machine or other machines with similar properties: k2 = 1.0. - on asynchronous cage machine and thermal machine with coupling, k2 = 1.3.

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-

a. b. c. d. e. f.

g. h. i. j. k.

l.

m.

on machines with automatic speed limiter: + with k2 claw k2 = 0.75 + with hook k2 = 0.50

Notes: Special effect of the crane is determined in Article 2.1.5. Table 2 Live load on building floor 2 Residential home floor and stair, except stated in b 200 kg/m Simple house floor and stairs and non-important 125 kg/m2 buildings not used for stores, factory, or workshop Floor of schools, lecture room, shops, supermarket, 250 kg/m2 restaurant, hotel, dormitory, and hospital Sport room floor 400 kg/m2 Dance room floor 500 kg/m2 2 Floor and inner balcony of meeting rooms other than 400 kg/m those mentioned in point a to e, such as masjid, church, show room, meeting room, cinema, and tribune with fixed seats Spectator tribune with non fixed seats or for standing 500 kg/m2 spectators Stairs, stair railing and alleys mentioned in c 300 kg/m2 2 Stairs, stair railing and alleys other than mentioned in 500 kg/m d, e, f, g. Floor of supplementary rooms other than those 250 kg/m2 mentioned in c, d, e, f, and g. 2 Floor for : factory, workshop, warehouse, library, 400 kg/m archive room, bookshop, material shop, equipment room and machine room, must be designed for live load determined separately with a minimum. Floor of multi-storey parking building 2 - for ground floor 800 kg/m 400 kg/m2 - for other floors Balconies hanging out freely must be designed for 300 kg/m2 live load from the adjacent floor room, with a minimum

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Table 3 Helicopter parameters Helicopter

Landing gear Percentage Distance Distance Prop. Contact Gross Total of gross between between dia- Total area (cm2) weight Manufacturer front and left and weight meter length Type Nickname rear right (kg) /Model (m) Front Rear Front Rear gears Front Rear gears (m) (m) (m) Aerospatiale 315 – B Lame 1,950 11.0 12.9 Skid 2.4 318 – C Alouette I 1,656 12.1 12.1 Skid 2.3 319 – B Alouette III 2,250 11.0 12.8 Wheel 1 2 2.6 330 – B Puma 7,393 15.0 18.2 Wheel 1 2 339 678 15 43 4.1 2.4 341 – G Gazette 1,800 10.5 12.0 Skid 2.0 360 Dauphin 2,799 11.5 13.4 Wheel 2 1 2.0 Augusta /Atlantic A-109

2,450

11.0

13.1 Wheel

1

2

129

129

1,338 4,309 1,452 1,814 5,080 7,258

11.3 14.7 10.1 11.3 14.7 15.2

13.1 17.4 11.8 12.9 17.5 18.3

2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2

39 52 39

39 52 39

51 40 34

52

52

40

2,300 22,680 10,030 8,482

9.8 18.3 15.2 14.9

11.8 Skid 30.2 Wheel 25.3 Wheel 18.1 Wheel

2 1 1

2 1007 2 323 2 1058

500 323 529

Fairchild FH-110C

1,247

10.8

12.7

Hiller UH-12-L-4 UH-12E/E-4

1,408 1,270

10.8 10.8

12.4 12.4

Skid Skid

2.3 2.3

758 930 1,158 1,362

7.7 8.2 8.0 8.1

8.8 9.4 9.2 9.3

Skid Skid Skid Skid

2.0 2.0 2.1

3,265 5,897 8,708 3,583

16.2 17.1 18.9 16.2

19.0 20.1 22.3 19.0

Wheel Wheel Wheel Wheel

2 2 2 2

2 1 1 1

19,050

22.0

27.0 Wheel

1

2

19,050 4,400 9,072

22.0 13.4 16.4

26.9 Wheel 17.5 Wheel 19.8 Wheel

1 1 2

2 2 1

Bell Helicopter 47G 205A-1 206-B 206-L 212 214-B

Nirando

Jet Ranger

Long Ranger

Twin Big Lifter

Boeing Vertol BO-105C CH-47, 234 107-11 179

Hughes 269 A/B 269 C 369 HS (Std) 369 D

Hughes 300 Hughes 300C Hughes 500C Hughes 500D

Sikorsky S-56T S-58T S-61 N/L S-62 Skycrane/ S-64 S-65C S-76 S-78C

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Skid Skid Skid Skid Skid Skid

258 723 697 348

994 135 471

258 226 348 348

994 135 471

3.5

2.3

50 25 28

1.6 2.3 1.4

34

2.3

2.3 2.7 1.9 2.3 2.7 2.8

6.9 7.5 4.7

44 43

12 15

2.8 3.4 3.9 2.7

3.2 8.6 7.2 5.4

3.4 4.3 4.3 3.7

7.4

6.0

8.2 5.6 8.8

4.0 2.4 2.7

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d.

HORIZONTAL LIVE LOAD Horizontal live load which can occur by movement of a lot of people in certain buildings must be examined working on its supporting structure in two perpendicular directions, as a percentage of vertical live load according to Article 2.1.2. This guide depends of type of structure and building usage (for example: spectator tribunes), the percentage used is 5 to 10 percent.

e. REDUCTION OF LIVE LOAD (1) The opportunity to reach a particular percentage of live load–working on a supporting structure of a building during the life span of the building–depends the examined building component or structure component and what the live load is examined for. Considering that the chance for the occurrence of full live load working on all components and all supporting structures simultaneously during the life of the building is very small, then for the subjects mentioned in paragraph (2), (3), and (4) of this article, the live load can be considered to be not fully effective, so the live load is distributed evenly defined by Article 2.1.2a and 2.1.2b. This guide can be multiplied with a reduction factor. (2) On main beam and portal design of load supporting structure of a building, then to calculate the opportunity of occurrence of changing live load as mentioned in paragraph (1), live load is distributed evenly as defined in Article 1.2a and b. This guide can be multiplied with a reduction coefficient which value depends on usage of examined building and written in Table 4. (3) On horizontal load supporting structure system of a building, the live load on the building also determines the magnitude of earthquake load to support by the structure system. In this case, to calculate the possibilities of occurrence of changing live load as mentioned in paragraph (1), to find earthquake load according to Article 2.1.4 of this guidance, live load is distributed evenly as defined in Article 2.1.2. This guide can be multiplied with a reduction coefficient which value depends on usage of examined building and the value is written in Table 4.

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(4) On the design of vertical structure components such as columns and walls and their foundations supporting several floors, live load working on each floor has a significant role in determining strength. In this case, to calculate the opportunity of occurrence of changing live load as mentioned in paragraph (1), then for calculation of normal force (axial force) inside vertical components such as columns and walls and loads on the foundation, the evenly distributed cumulative live load total determine din Article 2.1.2. This guidance, working on floor of the storey supported, can be multiplied with a reduction coefficient which value depends on total floors to support and is included in Table 5. (5) On the design of vertical structure components such as columns and walls and their foundations supporting floors as written in paragraph (4), full live load without multiplication with reduction coefficient must still be examined at: floors of warehouse, archive room, library, and other similar store rooms. floors of rooms supporting particular fixed heavy objects such as equipment and machines. (6) On foundation design, the effect of live load on floor standing above ground must be examined too. In this case, live load on the floor, related to the value defined in paragraph (4) must be used as is without multiplication with at reduction coefficient.

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Reduction coefficient of live load Building usage

For design of

For seismic

main beam and

examination

portal

HOUSE/RESIDENTIAL: Homes, dormitory, hotel, hospital EDUCATION: School, lecture room PUBLIC CONGREGATION: Mosque, church, cinema, restaurant, dance room, showroom OFFICE: Office, bank TRADE: Shops, supermarket, market STORAGE: Warehouse, library, archive room INDUSTRY: Factory, warehouse VEHICLE STORAGE: Garage, parking building ALLEY AND STAIRS: - homes /residential - education , office - public congregation, storage, trade, industry, vehicle storage

SNI 03 – 1727-1989

0.75

0.30

0.90

0.50

0.90

0.50

0.60

0.30

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

1.00

0.90

0.90

0.50

0.75 0.75

0.30 0.50

0.90

0.50

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Table 5 Reduction coefficient of cumulative live load Reduction coefficient multiplied on cumulative live load 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

Total supported floors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 and over

2.1.3. WIND LOAD a. DETERMINATION OF WIND LOAD Wind load is determined by assuming the existence of positive pressure and negative pressure (suction), working perpendicular to examined surfaces. The magnitude of these positive and negative pressures are 2 stated in kg/m , defined by multiplication of defined blow pressure defined in Article 2.1.3a with wind coefficient defined in b. b. BLOW PRESSURE 2 (1) Minimum blow pressure used must be 25 kg/m , except for the values defined in paragraph (2), (3), and (4). (2) Blow pressure at the sea and on the beach up to 5 km from the beach 2 must be taken at a minimum of 40 kg/m , except for the values determined in paragraph (3) and (4). (3) For areas near the sea and other particular areas, where there are wind speeds which may produce blow pressure larger the value defined in paragraph (1) and (2), the blow pressure (p) must be calculated using the formula:

p=

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V2 (kg / m2 ) 16

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where V is wind speed in m/s, which must be determined by the authorities. 2 (4) On chimneys, blow pressure in kg/m must be defined with the formula (42.5 + 0.6 h), where h is total chimney height, measured from the adjacent field.

(5) If it can be guaranteed that a building is effectively protected against wind of a certain direction by other buildings, forests or other shields , the blow pressure of the direction according to paragraph (1) to (4) can be multiplied with a reduction factor of 1.5. c. WIND COEFFICIENT (for wind coefficient chart, see Figure 1). (1) Closed building For external surfaces, wind coefficients (+ means pressure and – means suction), are as follows: a.

b.

c.

Vertical wall at wind side behind the wind parallel to the wind Triangular roof with inclination angle α at wind side: α < 65 ° (0.02 α 65 ° 30° α=0 0° < α < 20°α α = 30° α > 30°

Roof surface at wind side - 1.2 - 0.8

Other roof surfaces

+ 1.2 + 0.8 + 0.8 + 0.5

+ 0.4 0.0 - 0.4

- 0.4 - 0.8

( −0.4 −

α ) 300

For reversed saddle roof (V-roof) without walls, for lower surface of the roof, similar wind coefficient of conventional saddle roof upper surface applies. b. For one sided inclined roof without wall, for the upper surface, wind coefficient applies as follows (- or + depends on wind direction): Table 7 Wind coefficient for one sided inclined roof without wall Roof inclination I.

0° < α < 10° α = 40°

Roof surface at wind side + or - 1.2 + or - 1.8

Other roof surfaces + or - 0.4 + or - 1.0

For inclination angles in between, a linier interpolation is required. (4) Free standing walls For free standing walls, wind coefficient for surface at wind side is + 0.9 and for surfaces behind the wind is – 0.4 (totaling 1.3).

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(5) Chimney with circular cross section For chimney with circular cross section, wind coefficient for positive pressure and negative pressure (suction) jointly are 0.7. This wind coefficient applies for chimney surface projected on a vertical surface through the chimney axis. (6) Frame structure (lattice structure) Wind coefficients for the following frame structures ( a to e ) apply for frame surface. Frame surfaces are frames of trusses projected on a surface through truss axis. a. For surface frame structure, total wind coefficient for positive pressure and negative pressure (suction) is 1.6. b. For space frame structure with rectangular cross section with wind direction perpendicular on one frame surface, wind coefficient for the first frame at wind side is + 1.6, and for the second frame behind the wind is + 1.2. c. Form space frame structure with square cross section with wind direction 45 ° of frame surfaces, wind coefficient for both frame surfaces at wind site are respectively + 0.65 and for both frames behind the wind, each is + 0.5. As an addition, each frame must be calculated against wind load working at each surface with wind coefficient equals to wind load working perpendicular on it. d. For space frame structure with equilateral triangular cross section with wind speed perpendicular to the frame surface at wind side, wind coefficient for the frame is + 1.6 and for both frames behind the wind, each is + 0.3. Furthermore, each frame behind the wind must be calculated against wind load working at each surface with a wind coefficient of 0.5 for each.

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e. For space frames structure with isosceles triangle with wind direction perpendicular the frame surface behind the wind, wind coefficient for both frames at wind side is + 1.2. Furthermore, each frame at wind side must be calculated against wind load working in each surface with each wind coefficient of 0.7. (7) Building and other structures Wind coefficient values for building and other structures with cross section other than defined in this Article can use values from nearly similar shapes, except if the wind coefficient is defined from wind tunnel test. d. EXCEPTION FROM WIND LOAD EXAMINATION (1) On closed building and homes with height not exceeding 16 m, with floors and walls giving sufficient rigidity, its main structure does not need to be calculated against wind load, except if comparison between height and width of the building requires wind load examination. (2) If the comparison between building height and width and the building structure is such a way that it does not require wind load examination, then building over 16 m tall can also be freed from or requires wind load examination.

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Figure 1 Wind coefficient according to Article 2.1.3c Par BUILDING TYPE (1) CLOSED BUILDING

WIND LOAD CHART VALUES /FORMULAS SHOW WIND COEFFICIENT

(2) Building with one side open

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(3)

Conventional saddle roof without wall (a)

Inverse saddle roof without wall (a)

I

II

For α between the given values, linier interpolation is required I II

For α between the given values, linier interpolation is required

For α between the given values, linier interpolation is required (4)

Free standing chimney

(5)

Chimney with circular cross section

(6)

Frame structure

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2.1.4 EARTHQUAKE LOAD a. EARTHQUAKE LOAD AND EARTHQUAKE PROOF DESIGN By considering loading combination to examine in structure design according to Article 2.1, live load reduction for seismic examination according to Article 2.1.2c and modulus of elasticity of the structure experience short change of shape by soil movement due to earthquake according to Article 2.15b, the effect of earthquake and earthquake proof design for building structures in Indonesia must observe the Guidance of Earthquake Resistance for Homes and Buildings. 2.1.5 SPECIAL LOAD a. RULES ABOUT SPECIAL LOAD (1) Each structure and /or structure component of a building must be checked against special forces caused by a difference of temperature, installation, foundation sinking, shrink, creep, brake force, centrifugal force, dynamic forces, and other special effects. (2) On building addition /modification, the building must be checked against forces occurring due to elimination of supports, braces, and other similar structures. In this case, there must be actions to prevent bad consequences of the special effects, which must be examined specially for each condition. b.

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE AND DYNAMIC FORCES (1) Special effects on building structure /structure components caused by temperature difference of ambient air, must be calculated by including the possibility of temperature change of 10°C. (2) For the purpose of special effect due to temperature variation, if not stated otherwise, the following values of modulus of elasticity E and linier expansion coefficient λ can be used.

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Table 8 Modulus of Elasticity and expansion coefficient 2 Structural material E (kg/cm ) 6 Profile steel 2.1 x 10 Concrete 2.1 x 105 Reinforced concrete and per-stressed concrete 5 1 x 10 Parallel fiber wood 1 x 105 Perpendicular fiber wood 0.2 x 106 Brick installation

λ 12 x 10-6 10 x 10 -6 10 x 10 -6 4 x 10 -6 10 x 10 -6

(3) To determine the effect of dynamic forces on the building structure, like those from machines, including soil movement from earthquake, which causes brief changes of structure shape, specially for reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete, its modulus of elasticity must be 1.5 of the values in Table 8. c.

SPECIAL EFFECT FROM CRANE

(1) Special effect from crane mentoined in Article 2.1.2c consists of brake force, centrifugal force, and the effect from wheel clenching. (2) Brake force consists of: a. Brake force longitudinal to main crane: working horizontally on the track at each braked main crane wheel; the magnitude to take must be 1/7 of maximum reaction occurring at each wheel. Longitudinal brake force can be taken smaller than the above, if calculation of an expert can prove it. b. Transversal brake force of hoist crane; working transversely horizontal on the main crane rack; this brake force is distributed to main crane wheels at each track; the magnitude to take at each track must be 1/15 of the hoist crane along its working load. Transversal brake force to take can be smaller than the defined above, if an expert’s calculation can prove it.

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Longitudinal and transversal brake forces are assumed to work separately. (3) Centrifugal force due to swing motion, working transversely horizontal on the track of each main crane wheel, is determined by multiplying the maximum reaction occurring at each wheel with centrifugal acceleration due to the swing. For cranes with maximum work load up to 10 t, 2 minimum centrifugal force to use is 0.10 m/s . For other cranes with swing speed up to 120 m/s, the acceleration picked must be 0.50 m2 /s, and with swing speed of over 120 m /s, the speed picked must be 2 0.60 m/s . (4) The effect of possibility of clutching of main crane wheels must be examined by assuming the existence of a pair of transversal force on the opposite direction, each working on the track where each main crane wheel is located, which magnitude must be taken 1/10 of maximum reaction of each wheel. This force is considered not to work simultaneously with transversal work force defined in paragraph (2) or with centrifugal force defined in paragraph (3). 2.2. LOAD LIMIT AND WORKING LOAD (1) If the strength of structural components of a building is designed based on limit strength, the limit strength examined in its structure analysis comes from multiplication of design load according to this rule with a corresponding factor (coefficient). If the strength of the building structure components is planned based on permissible stress, the work loads examined in its structure analysis are design loads based on this rule. In this case, structure design must be done based on applicable rule for the structure of the type observed, such as reinforced concrete structure based on Reinforced Concrete Design Guide Chapter II: Wood construction and structure based on Wood Construction Design Guide.

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SNI 03 – 1727-1989

(2) On examination of working load on foundation soil, on the temporary loading defined in Article 2.1 paragraph (2), permissible soil bearing capacity can be increased as in Table 9. On examination of working load on pile foundation and bored pile, on the Temporary Loading defined in Article 2.1 paragraph (2), as long as the permissible stress in the column satisfies the applicable requirements for the corresponding column material, permissible column support capacity can be increased up to 50 percent. (3) If on special loading according to Article 2.1 paragraph (2), dynamic forces from machines are examined, which are alternating with or without change of sign, then to calculate the fatigue effect of material, a decrease of limit strength or permissible stress is required, which depends on type of respective material structure. Table 9 Soil bearing capacity of the foundation Foundation soil type

Hard Medium Soft Very soft

Permanent loading. Permissible bearing capacity 2 (kg/cm )

Temporary Loading Increase of Permissible Bearing Capacity (%)

≥5 2–5 0.5 – 2 0 - 0.5

50 30 0 – 30 0

2.3 STABILITY Each building and its components must be examined for stability for each loading combination according to Article 2.1 paragraph (2). Safety factor of the stability, such as against roll, slide, and others must be at least 1.5.

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