# Skema Modul Projek SAVE (Esei K2) REPOST

August 11, 2017 | Author: Jup Jup | Category: Lens (Optics), Neutron, Waves, Radioactive Decay, Buoyancy

SPM 2016...

#### Description

1

1

SULIT

6

Question (e) (ii)

(f) (i)

(f) (ii)

(g)

92

4531 Sub Mark

Mark Scheme Correct substitution h1ρ1g = h2ρ2g / h1ρ1 = h2ρ2 / 760(13600) = h2(1000) / 0.76(13600) = h2(1000) State the answer 10.336 m / 10336 mm (accept w/o unit) (rejects wrong unit)

Total Mark

M1 M2

2

M1 M2

Low Doesn’t stick to the glass when contract

M1 M2

2

M1 M2

With Vernier scale Can show the smaller change reading

M1 M2

2

Q

1 Total A8

12

1

(a)

Gravitational force add on the object.

1

1

(b) (i)

M1 M2 M3

Original length in Diagram 9.2 is longer (than 9.1) / 9.2 > 9.1 / or vice versa The load is same / 9.2 = 9.1 The extension in Diagram 9.2 is more (than 9.1) / 9.2 > 9.1 / or vice versa

1 1 1

3

(c) (i)

M1

1

(c) (ii)

M2

Directly proportional / The longer the original length, the longer the extension of the spring / or vice versa Directly proportional / The longer the original length, the higher the elasticity of the spring / or vice versa

(d)

M1 M2 M3 M4 M5

Compress when have shock impulses Prolong the time of impact Reduce impulsive force Shock impulses will have bigger change of momentum. Lower the rate of change of momentum

1 1

(e)

M2 M4

M5

Suggestion Lower mass pointer Softer spring / higher elasticity spring Dial with smaller division scale

M7

Pinion gear with smaller teeth

M8

M9

Toothed rack with smaller teeth

M10

M11

Longer pointer

M12

M1 M3

M6

1

1 1

Reason Less inertia Easily extend / softer spring Able to show smaller change reading Increases rotation angle with smaller force Increases rotation angle with smaller force Bigger displacement with smaller change of rotation angle

2

Max 4

2 2 2 2 2 2

Max 10

Total B9

4531 © 2016 Hak cipta Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar

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20

SECTION B

3 9

(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

(i)

Potential energy / Tenaga keupayaan Rubber in Diagram (a) is thinner than rubber in Diagram (b) // Rubber in Diagram (b) is thicker than rubber in Diagram (a).

1 1

(ii)

D in Diagram 9.2(b) is longer than D in Diagram 9.2(a).

2

(iii)

Potential energy → kinetic energy Principle of conservation of energy

1 1

- Use a thicker rubber - to increase the elastic potential energy Stretch the rubber longer – to increase the elastic potential energy - Use a stone with smaller mass – to increase the acceleration of stone - Use a strong material for the handle of the catapult – do not break easily Note – choose any 2 points.

2

Suggestion Strong material

Explanation Do not break easily

Low density

Light

Streamline/ aerodynamic javelin The athlete has to increase his speed / accelerate - Throw at angle of 45 oC - Throw with a great force

To reduce air resistance To increase energy/ force

2 2 2

2 2 2 2 10 2

To get maximum horizontal distance of throwing

Any five suggestions and explanations 20

3

No.

Marking Criteria Kriteria Pemarkahan

4 9 (a)

(b)

Kadar perubahan halaju     

Marks Markah Sub Total Jumlah 1

Jarak dilalui oleh kereta mainan dalam Rajah 9.1 > 9.2 Halaju akhir bagi kereta mainan dalam Rajah 9.1 > 9.2 Perubahan momentum bagi kereta mainan dalam Rajah 9.1 > 9.2 Semakin bertambah halaju akhir, semakin bertambah daya ke hadapan yang bertindak ke atas kereta itu. Semakin bertambah halaju akhir, semakin bertambah kadar perubahan momentum.

1

1 1 1 5 1 1

 (c)

Apabila pemain bola lisut melakukan ‘ikut lajak’  Masa sentuhan antara bola dan kayu pemukul bertambah  Impuls (Ft) bertambah  Perubahan momentum bertambah  Halaju akhir bertambah

1 1 1 1

(d)

4

Penerangan

Jisim basikal : Rendah

Basikal lebih ringan // Menambahkan pecutan

2

2 Jenis bahan pada badan basikal: Titinium // Bahan yang ringan// Bahan yang kuat

Bahan yang ringan // Bahan yang kuat // Menambahkan pecutan Tidak mudah patah

Lebar tayar yang bersentuhan dengan permukaan: Kecil

Mengurangkan geseran

Jenis brek : Brek cakera

Lebih berkesan di kawasan tanah yang basah atau berlumpur.

Pakaian penunggang: Ketat//

Mengurangan rintangan udara

Jumlah

2

2

2

20

4

BAHAGIAN C Soalan

511(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

Cadangan Jawapan Rate of change of displacement AB : Velocity increases uniformly / Constant acceleration BC : Constant velocity // Zero / No acceleration CD : Velocity decreases uniformly / Constant deceleration Moving in opposite direction Larger diameter of tyre Wheelchair can move faster Narrow tyre Less contact with the ground / Less friction Low seat More stable / Lower centre of gravity Bigger angle of camber Increases stability Best choice: R Big diameter, narrow tyre, low seat and bigger angle of camber (i) EP = mgh = 95 x 10 x 10 = 9500 J (ii) EP = EK = ½ mv2 9500 = ½ (95) v2 v = 14.1 m s–1 (iii) No energy loss to the surrounding

Soalan 12(a) (b)

Cadangan Jawapan Sources which vibrate at the same frequency and in phase / * Accept: same wavelength (i)

λ=

𝑣 𝑓

=

300

(c)

(d)

1 1 1 20 Markah 1 1

1200

1 1

= 0.25 m (ii) x =

Markah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

λD 𝑎 (0.25)(5.0)

= 2.0 = 0.625 m At night, temperature of air decreases Density of air is higher Wavelength decreases // Velocity decreases x is directly proportional to λ Radio wave Longer wavelength // Easy to diffract Higher frequency Faster transmission // Travel further Greater number of antenna Transmit more signals at one time // Stronger signal transmitted Higher position Less obstacle // Less signal loss Best choice: Q Radio wave, higher frequency, greater number of antenna and placed at higher position

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20

5

5

11 6

(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

The total momentum is conserved provided that no external force acting on the system. 1. When the air is mix with the fuel in the combustion chamber, it produce exhaust gas at high temperature. Apabila udara bercampur dengan bahan api di ruang pembakaran, terhasil gas ekzos pada tekanan tinggi.

1

2. Gas is pushes out with a very high velocity through the nozzle. Gas dikeluarkan dengan halaju yang sangat tinggi melalui nozel ke belakang

1

3. It produces a big momentum backward. Wujud momentum gas yang besar ke belakang

1

4. Based on the Principle of conservation of momentum, when there is a momentum backward, the same magnitude of momentum is produces forward to push the plane. Berdasarkan Prinsip keabadian Momentum, apabila wujud satu momentum ke belakang, maka akan terhasil momentum ke hadapan dengan nilai yang sama untuk menggerakkan kapal terbang ke hadapan.

1

Aspect Aspek Diameter of the nozzle: Small Size of propeller: Big Type of fuel: Kerosine/Paraffin Size of combustion chamber: Big Choosen design of jet engine: L

Explanation Penerangan The gas moves out with high velocity Suck more air into the combustion chamber Mix with air in the combustion chamber More fuel can be burnt to produce bigger momentum Because it has small diameter of nozzle, big size of propeller, suitable type of fuel which is kerosene/paraffin and big size of combustion chamber.

1

1

4

1 +1 1 +1 1+1 1 +1

10

1+1

Rajah 11.3 (i) Direction of two forces correct Arah kedua-dua daya betul

1

(ii) Name of two forces correct Nama kedua-dua daya betul

1

(iii) Backward momentum (for every second), p = mv = (100)(200) = 20 000 kgms-1 (iv) Forward momentum = 20 000 kgms-1 Total

5 1 1 1 20

6

No 97

a b c i. ii. d

Answers Force per unit area Depth of air bubble in Diagram 9.1 > Diagram 9.2 Water pressure acting on Diagram 9.1 > Diagram 9.2 Volume of air bubble in Diagram 9.1 > Diagram 9.2 The higher the depth the higher the water pressure The higher the water pressure acting on the bubble, the lower the volume of air bubble. Place beaker A on the wooden block so it would be higher Immerse the end of the rubber tube in water of Beaker A Suck out the air in the rubber tube so the water can be flowed to Beaker B

Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

Modification Brake fluid - oil High density fluid/ high viscosity cross sectional area of output piston big cross sectional area of input piston is small The pipe must be strong/ Must be painted/ Leakage detector or sensor/

Explanation Transfer pressure uniformly / prevent from rusting Not easily evaporate/ not easily to form bubble Produce bigger pressure on output piston Produce bigger force on input piston

10 marks

Not easily broken/ Not easily become rust/ Prevent less efficiency Total

20 marks

7

NO

8 9(a)

9(b)(i)

9(b)(ii)

(c)

(d)

MARKING SCHEME The image which can be seen or projected on a screen Imej yang boleh dilihat atau terbentuk di atas skrin. 1st : Lens in Diagram 9.1 is thicker Kanta dalam Rajah 9.1 lebih tebal 2nd : Focal length in Diagram 9.1 is shorter Panjang focus dalam Rajah 9.1 lebih pendek 3rd : Power of lens in Diagram 9.1 is higher. Kuasa kanta dalam Rajah 9.1 lebih tinggi 1st : The thicker the lens the shorter the focal length Semakin tebal kanta, semakin pendek panjang focus. 2nd : The thicker the lens the higher the power of lens Semakin tebal kanta, semakin tinggi kuasa kanta st 1 : Light from the sky travels from a cold / denser air to a hot / lense dense air. Cahaya daripada langit bergerak daripada udara sejuk / lebih tumpat ke udara panas / kurang tumpat 2nd: Light refracts away from normal line. Cahaya terbias menjauhi garis normal rd 3 : At certain point, the incident angle is greater than the critical angle Pada satu tahap, sudut tuju lebih besar daripada sudut genting 4th : Total internal reflection occurs Pantulan dalam penuh berlaku

CHARACTERISTICS 1. Type of the Projection lens: convex lens Kanta cembung 3. Surface of the reflector: black Permukaan pemantul berwarna hitam 5. High power of the bulb Kuasa mentol yang tinggi 7. Distance between LCD to the screen is far Jarak antara LCD dengan skrin adalah jauh 9. Body material: Lower Density / plastic

3

2

4

REASON 2. Can produce real image Boleh hasilkan imej nyata 4. Can absorb heat Boleh menyerap haba 6. Can produce bright light Menghasilkan cahaya yang cerah / terang 8. Can produce large image. Boleh hasilkan imej yang besar 10. Easy to carry / lighter Mudah dibawa / ringan

[ Lihat

4531/3 © 2015 PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM

TOTAL MARK 1

10

halaman sebelah SULIT

8

4

Mark Scheme

9 9 (a)

(b)

Sub Mark

Total Mark

Wavelength is the distance between 2 consecutive crests or trough.

1

1

1. The speed of red light is higher. 2. The frequencies of both light are the same. 3. The angle of refraction of red light is bigger than green light. 4. The higher the speed the bigger the refracted angle. 5. Light phenomena is refraction.

1 1 1 1 1

5

(c)

1. Ray from bird is refracted towards normal

4

2. Image of bird is higher 3. Ray from fish is reflected//// total internal reflection 4. Image of fish above water (d)

Suggestion Use 2 convex lenses Short Focal length of both lenses and fo < fe Object, u is placed: f< u < 2f Microscope equip with mirror or light bulb More than one objective lenses with different power of lenses

Explanation / Reason The lenses are objective lens and eyepiece To get a more magnified image To get a real and magnified image. To illuminate the object Max Tissues can be observed with more than 1 magnifications

10

9

109. (a) (i) A virtual image is an image that cannot be formed on a screen Imej maya adalah imej yang tidak dapat terbentuk pada skrin

(1m)

(ii) -Lens J is thicker than lens K/Kanta J lebih tebal daripada kanta K -The focal length of lens K is longer than lens J /Panjang focus kanta K adalah lebih panjang daripada panjang focus kanta J - The size of the image produced by lens J is bigger than that produced by lens K / Saiz imej yang dihasilkan oleh kanta J adalah lebih besar daripada imej yang dihasilkan oleh kanta K. - When the focal length increases,the size of the image decreases /Apabila panjang focus bertambah,saiz imej berkurang - When the power of a lens increases,its focal length decreases /Apabila kuasa kanta bertambah,panjang focus berkurang (5m) (b) (i) At u < f (ii)

(4m) (c) Characteristics 1. Type of the Projection lens : convex 3. Surface of the reflector : black 5. Power of the bulb :high 7. Distance between LCD to the screen : far 9. Body material : lower density

Reason 2. Can produce real image 4. Can absorb heat 6. Can produce bright light 8. Can produce large image 10. Easy to carry (10m)

10

cikgusazali.blogspot.my

11

11

cikgusazali.blogspot.my

12

12

cikgusazali.blogspot.my

13

13

(a)

The incident angle when the refraction angle is 90°.

(b)

(i)

n=

(ii)

Critical angle of glass, c = 41.81° Critical angle of diamonds, c = 24.62°

sin i sin r

Critical angle of diamonds less than glass. Total internal reflection easy to occur. (c)

(d)

(i)

n = 1.34

(ii)

Apparent depth = 0.746 m High refractive index Thicker glass Low thermal conductivity Small angle θ

Low critical angle Slow rate transfer of heat Bad heat conductor Total internal reflection can occur

Choose Q

14

1,3,5,7,9 Give ffte cowect s{rgge\$frons l0 Give the correcf reasons \$uosestion Loudspeakers are so that the distanffi positioned at quite a between consecutive distance away. constructive / destructive interference is smaller. The two main To prevent multiple Ioudspeakers are reflections not positioned opposite to each other bsards/ Reflection effects can materials which are be reduced sound absorbers Use (tic) carpes Reduce unne\$essary reflection of the floor. Assemble a higher To produce a power speaker louder/clearer

Fix soft

Assemble ihe speaker at a high s,10

Wide coverage // the wade is not blocked

{1 QUESTION 14 Quesfi on 14 11 Paft Mark (a) (b)

1

Alote

Reflection

tr& &rcs offu

@

= disnmr sf

Refer the rnarks on the diagram

ha\$r

Accept any object drawn Exp. candle l{1-&alr}&imlhonthr

n&tutu }t

-

rrg1rsff

d

=qhafr

1J3- muapalatr

(c)

Characteristics

Explanation

I 15

1,2

3,4 5,6

f,oncave

Focus the light

\$ize is big

I Reflect more light

Alurninium

I Can reflect

\$ame as focal length I Produce parallel light

7,8

Choose : S. s.10

{dxi}

1 1

(ii)

1 1

8+5 = 13 rn 8+4 =12

*ft\s t *}. l.'I !-rT? f s)-*+

-,r"

1

,s"t

Total

.

20

16

Bahan dari jenis ketumpatan rendah / plastik TOTAL NO

1510(a)

10(b)(i)

10(b)(ii)

10(c)(i)

10(c)(ii)

MARKING SCHEME

234 90𝑇ℎ

+ 42𝐻𝑒

1.

Type of nuclear reaction is nuclear fission. Jenis tindakbalas nuclear ialah pembelahan nucleus.

3. Material for the moderator is graphite. Bahan untuk moderator ialah grafit. 5. Material for the control rod is Boron or cadmium

3

2

2

REASON 2. Can produce neutrons to spark chain reaction Boleh hasilkan neutron yang boleh cetuskan tindakbalas berantai. 4. Can slow down the fast neutrons Boleh memperlahankan neutron yang laju 6. Can absorb some of the neutrons, so reduced [ Lihat

4531/3 © 2015 PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM

1

2

1 : correct notation for Th 2nd : correct notation for alpha particle 1st : proton number decreases by 2 Nombor proton berkurang sebanyak 2 2nd : neutron number decreases by 2 Nombor neutron berkurang sebanyak 2

CHARACTERISTICS

10(d)

TOTAL MARK

238 92𝑈 st

20

10

halaman sebelah SULIT

17

Bahan untuk rod pengawal ialah boron atau cadmium

7. Material of the coolant is water Bahan untuk penyejuk ialah air

9. Thick concrete shield Perisai konkrit yang tebal

the rate of the fission reaction Boleh menyerap neutron, oleh itu mengurangkan kadar tindakblas pembelahan nukleus 8. Water has high specific heat capacity so it can absorb more heat Air mempunyai muatan haba tentu yang tinggi, oleh itu dapat menyerap haba dengan banyak. 10. Prevent leakage of radiation from the reactor core Mengelakkan kebocoran sinaran daripada reactor.

20

Total Marks

NO

MARKING SCHEME

11(a)

Heat is a form of energy Haba ialah sejenis bentuk tenaga 1st : more volume or quantity of water Lebih banyak isipadi atau kuantiti air 2nd :needs more heat Perlu lebih banyak haba 3rd : Q = mCθ , Q = pt 4th : Heat directly proportional to mass and directly proportional to time.// Q α m α t haba berkadar terus dengan jisim dan berkadar terus dengan masa /

11(b)

11(c)

CHARACTERISTICS 1. Low density Ketumpatan rendah. 3. Bakelite

REASON 2. Easy to carry // lighter Mudah dibawa / ringan 4. Good insulator / not hot Penebat yang baik / tidak panas

[ Lihat

4531/3 © 2015 PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM

TOTAL MARK 1

4

10

halaman sebelah SULIT

18

SULIT

8

Question 11 (a) 16 (b) (i) (b) (ii)

(c) (ii)

4531

Mark Scheme Mass per volume M1 M2 M3 M4

Angle 60o is greater than critical angle Total internal reflection occurs Enter less density air Refracted away normal / speed of light increases in air

Total Mark

1

1

1 1 1 1

4

Correct substitution 1.50 =

1 sin 𝑐

M1

State the answer 41.8o ~ 42.1o (c) (iii)

Sub Mark

M2

2

Correct substitution 1.50 =

sin 𝑖 sin 15

/ 1.50 =

sin(90−𝑖) sin 15

M1

i = 22.95 // 23.0 // x = 90 – i // x = 90 – 22.95 // 90 - 23 State the answer 67.0o ~ 67.05o (c) M1

Suitability Higher flexibility

M2

M3

More / two

M4

M5

Longer focal length (reject 4.0 or 5.0 mm) With air/water nozzle

M6

M7 M9

M10

M8

M3

Reason Easily change direction / easily bend Brighter image (reject clear image) Bigger image / higher magnification Clean the lens

State the most suitable endoscope R Combination of [(M1/M2) + (M3/M4) + (M5/M6) + (M7/M8)] E.g.: M1,M3,M6 & M7 / M1,M2,M3,M4,M5,M7 / …… (NO SCORE IF: M1,M3,M5,M6 / M1,M2,M3,M4,M5,M6 / ……

4531 © 2016 Hak cipta Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar

M2 3

2 2 2 2

1

1

10

Total C11

20

[Lihat halaman sebelah 19 SULIT

1712(a)

(i)

The time taken for half of nucleus radioactive material to decay.

1

(ii)

Fast moving electron / electron

1

(b)

- 800 ---------> 400 ---------> 14 days

200 ----------> 100

14 days

----------> 50 //

14 days

14 days

1

No. of T 1/2 = 4 - 4 x 14 days / 56 days

1

(c) Characteristic State of matter -liquid

Reasons Easily absorbed by plants

Half-life -14 days

Can be detected in a suitable period

Types of ray -Beta ray

Less dangerous

Type of detector -G-M tube

Can detect rays easily

2 2 2 2

(d)

Choose Y because state of matter is liquid, half-life 14 days, types of ray Beta ray and the type of detector is G-M tube

2

(i)

-

1 1 1 1

(ii)

E = mc2 2.9 x 10 -11 = m x (3.0 x 108)2

Neutron bombarded a uranium nucleus // Diagram Three neutrons produced // Diagram The new neutron bombarded a new uranium nucleus // Diagram For every reaction, the neutrons produced will generate a chain reaction // Diagram

m = 3.22 x 10-28 kg Total

1

1 20

20

18

(a)

(b)

(i)

238 92

(ii)

Nombor of proton reduced by two. Nombor of neutron reduced by two.

(iii)

3 alpha, 2 beta

(iv)

1g

(i)

Radioisotope dissolved in the water. A rate meter//detector used to detected the reading of radiation emitted. The highest reading of rate meter shows the spot of water leakage.

(c)

U→

Th + 24 He

234 90

(ii) Moderate penetrating power Beta radiation Few hours of half life

Liquid matter

Able to penetrate pipe and soil Able to penetrate pipe and soil Enough time for the leakage to be detected // not stay too longer in the water Easy to dissolve in water

Choose R

21

19

(a)

(i)

A high speed electron

(ii)

Solid state High ionising power Long half-life

(iii)

Easy to conduct To ionize air molecules surrounding Long lasting // no need to replace regularly

Choose P: Solid state, high ionising power, and long half-life.

(b)

Low ionising power: Not damage healthy cell Moderate // low half-life: enough time for to be detected // not stay longer in the body High penetrating power: able to penetrate the bone Produce low energy gamma ray: not damage healthy tissue // cells Liquid state: easy dissolved in the blood stream

(c)

(i) (ii)

15 minutes 0.625 g

22

20

23

21 QUESTION 10 Pafi (a)

Ma* 1

Sfafe the correct meaning One colour

{b)

1

1

fifofe

ll ane wavelength

Sfafe the *arrect comparfson hetureen the disfance between tarc con\$ecutive fringes The distance between two consecutive fringes in \$a.2 ) > (10.1) Sfafe tha carreet comparssn between the slifs separatian Same

1

1

Stafe the carrect comparison befireen the oisfance befween ffte scrBsn and double slit Same Sfafe the correct carnparfson between the wavatength of the blue light and tfie red light, The wavelength

1

of the blue light < the red light.

Sfafe the correct relationship betwean the wavelength and the dl'sfarce befreen *sa eonsecuffye Directly propoftional // As the wavelength increases , the distance between two consecutive increase\$

(c)

1

1

1

1

Exptain the correct type of sou nd wave is ssed ultrasound

Explain how the ultrasoand is fransmftted Ultrassund is transmitted to the sea bed Explain haw the ultrasound is recefved

a receiyer will then detect the refleCed the reflected pulses

1

Explain how the time is taken the time taken by the pulse to travel

seabed and return

TUIAX

4

to

the being

recorded, t Explain hour the depffi is calculated the depth of the sea can be calculated using the formula,

.vt 0--

2

24

1,3,5,7,9 Give ffte cowect s{rgge\$frons l0 Give the correcf reasons \$uosestion Loudspeakers are so that the distanffi positioned at quite a between consecutive distance away. constructive / destructive interference is smaller. The two main To prevent multiple Ioudspeakers are reflections not positioned opposite to each other bsards/ Reflection effects can materials which are be reduced sound absorbers Use (tic) carpes Reduce unne\$essary reflection of the floor. Assemble a higher To produce a power speaker louder/clearer

Fix soft

Assemble ihe speaker at a high s,10

Wide coverage // the wade is not blocked

QUESTION {1 Quesfi on 11 Paft Mark (a) (b)

1

Alote

Reflection

tr& &rcs offu

@

= disnmr sf

Refer the rnarks on the diagram

ha\$r

Accept any object drawn Exp. candle l{1-&alr}&imlhonthr

n&tutu }t

-

rrg1rsff

d

=qhafr

1J3- muapalatr

(c)

Characteristics

Explanation

I 25

Answer (a) Gelombang electromagnet adalah satu kumpulan gelombang yang dihasilkan oleh cas-cas elektrik yang dipecutkan dalam medan elektrik dan medan magnet yang berserenjang antara satu sama lain.

Marks 1

(b) – gelombang J dan gelombang K mempunyai laju yang sama - Panjang gelombang K kurang daripada J - Frekuensi K lebih tinggi daripada J

1 1 1

(c) 1. Kesemuanya adalah gelombang melintang 2. boleh merambat melalui vakum/ tidak dipesongkan oleh medan magnet dan elektrik

1 1

(d) – gelombang radio ialah gelombang electromagnet - Halaju gelombang radio lebih tinggi daripada gelombang bunyi - Gelombang radio tidak memerlukan medium untuk merambat tetapi gelombang bunyi memerlukan medium - Frekuensi gelombang radio lebih tinggi dan boleh membawa lebih banyak maklumat - Gelombang radio memindahkan lebih banyak tenaga dan boleh bergerak lebih jauh (e) pengubahsuaian sebab Lokasi pemancar di tempat yang Tidak terhalang dan boleh lebih tinggi menangkap lebih banyak isyarat Bilangan pemancar ditambah Menambah kekuatan isyarat/ menambah tenaga isyarat/ megurangkan kehilangan tenaga semasa pemancaran Jarak antara dua pemancar Menambah kekuatan isyarat/ harus lebih dekat menambah tenaga isyarat Frekuensi isyarat televisyen Mempunyai panjang gelombang harus lebih rendah yang lebih tinggi/ lebih mudah dibelaukan Kekuatan isyarat televisyen Mempunyai tenaga lebih tinggi/ harus lebih besar boleh bergerak dalam jarak yang lebih jauh Jumlah markah

4 (pilih manamana 4)

1+1 1+1 1+1 1+1

1+1 20 markah

26

Q 10 / S 10 23 (a)

(i)

(a)

(ii)

(b)

mark - Distance between two consecutive creasts/trough

1

- Region P longer/vice versa - Region P higher/vice versa - Region P is deeper/vice versa - Region P smaller/vice versa - The smaller the change in speed, the smaller the angle of deviation / vice versa

1 1 1 1 1

At night ground cools quickly // ground has low specific heat capacity //air layer near the ground colder // low temperature. Cold air denser than warm air // Diagram Sound faster in warm air // sound slower in cold air Sound bends towards observer / ground // Refractionoccurs.

1 1 1 1

(c) .Modification/ Suggestion /Design/Way

Explanation / Reason

1. Ultrasound

2. Safer / no side effect to the foetus // can differentiate between layers of different soft tissues

1 1

3. high frequency

4. can penetrate into mother’s womb to scan the foetus / does not diffract easily

5.- small amplitude - high amplitude

6. - does not harm the foetus clearer image

7. gel layer

8. Allow the transducer to move easily on the skin // Reduce frictional force //produce better sound contact between probe and foetus

- to produce

1 1 1 1 1 1

(ii)

Reflection of sound wave

1

(iii)

determine the depth of the sea // determine the position of a shoal of fish

1

Total marks

20

27

BAHAGIAN C Soalan 11(a) (b)

(c)

(d)

Cadangan Jawapan Rate of change of displacement AB : Velocity increases uniformly / Constant acceleration BC : Constant velocity // Zero / No acceleration CD : Velocity decreases uniformly / Constant deceleration Moving in opposite direction Larger diameter of tyre Wheelchair can move faster Narrow tyre Less contact with the ground / Less friction Low seat More stable / Lower centre of gravity Bigger angle of camber Increases stability Best choice: R Big diameter, narrow tyre, low seat and bigger angle of camber (i) EP = mgh = 95 x 10 x 10 = 9500 J (ii) EP = EK = ½ mv2 9500 = ½ (95) v2 v = 14.1 m s–1 (iii) No energy loss to the surrounding

Soalan 2412(a) (b)

Cadangan Jawapan Sources which vibrate at the same frequency and in phase / * Accept: same wavelength (i)

λ=

𝑣 𝑓

=

300

(c)

(d)

1 1 1 20 Markah 1 1

1200

1 1

= 0.25 m (ii) x =

Markah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

λD 𝑎 (0.25)(5.0)

= 2.0 = 0.625 m At night, temperature of air decreases Density of air is higher Wavelength decreases // Velocity decreases x is directly proportional to λ Radio wave Longer wavelength // Easy to diffract Higher frequency Faster transmission // Travel further Greater number of antenna Transmit more signals at one time // Stronger signal transmitted Higher position Less obstacle // Less signal loss Best choice: Q Radio wave, higher frequency, greater number of antenna and placed at higher position

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20

5

28

SULIT

9

Sub Mark

Total Mark

Distance per time

1

1

M1 M2 M1 M2

1 1 1 1

4

Question 12 (a) 25 (b) (i) (b) (ii)

(c) (i)

(c) (ii)

4531

Mark Scheme

Sound travels through vibration between particles of air. Compressions and rarefactions between particles of air. Travel longer distance. Damping occurs / energy loss to surrounding

Correct substitution5 5 cm x 1.0 ms cm-1

1

State the answer 5 ms (accept w/o unit) (rejects wrong unit)

1

Correct conversion of unit: 5 x 10-3 // 0.005 Correct substitution 5 x 287.86 // 0.005 x 287.86 // 5 x 10 -3 x 287.86 // ecf (c)(i) x 287.86 State the answer 1.4393 m // 1.439 m // 1.44 m (accept w/o unit) (rejects wrong unit)

(d) M1

Suitability Active sonar

M2

M3

Shallow water

M4

M5

Ultrasound sound

M6

M7

With plimsoll line

M8

M9

M10

Reason Can send / emitting pulses at different location Diagram show a big group of fish at shallow water Higher frequency / more energy / can travel deeper water To avoid over loaded

2

1 1

1

3

2 2 2 2

State the boat Y

1

Combination of [(M1/M2) + (M3/M4) + (M5/M6) + (M7/M8)] E.g.: M1,M3,M6 & M7 / M1,M2,M3,M4,M5,M7 / …… (NO SCORE IF: M1,M3,M5,M6 / M1,M2,M3,M4,M5,M6 / ……

1

10

Total C12

20

4531 © 2016 Hak cipta Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar

29

SULIT

Sub

Total Jumlah

1

1

26

12 (a)

(b)

Gelombang ultrasonic ialah gelombang bunyi yang mempunyai frekuensi > 20 000Hz.    

(c)

Gelombang ultrasonic dipancarkan oleh pemancar gelombang dari kapal ke lantai lautan. Gelombang ultrasonic mempunyai frekuensi dan tenaga yang tinggi. Gelombang ultrasonic tiba ke lantai lautan dan dipantulkan semula ke arah kapal. Gelombang pantulan diterima oleh penerima isyarat.

1 1 4 1 1

Ciri-ciri

Penerangan

Mudah dibelaukan // Tidak mudah terhalang

Jarak kunci dari kereta : Jauh

Pintu kereta mudah dibuka dari jauh.

Tidak memudaratkan pengguna

2

Sumber gelombang: Gelombang electromagnet

Mempunyai julat yang besar

2

2

2

10

(d)(i)

5 × 103 =

(3 × 108 )𝑡 2

1

𝑡 = 3.33 × 10−5 𝑠 3.33 × 10−5 ∴ 𝑡 for 1𝑐𝑚 = 5 𝑡 = 6.67 × 10−6 𝑠

(d)(ii)

1

1

5cm = 5km 1cm = 1km - see anywhere, give 1 mark Kapal terbang ke dua: 𝑡 = (7)(6.67 × 10−6 ) 𝑡 = 4.67 × 10−5 𝑠 Jumlah

5 1 1 20

~Selamat Menanda~ 30

27

NO

MARKING CRITERIA

MARKS

QUESTION 9 (a)(i) (ii)

(b)

(c)

Rate of change of momentum.

1

1. Egg in diagram 9.2 break/ egg in diagram 9.1 does not break. 2. Force (act on the egg) on surface A is less than on surface B // vice versa. 3. Time of impact on surface A is less than on surface B//vice versa. 4. The egg breaks when the force is big because the time of impact on the egg is small. 5. The smaller the time if impact the bigger the force acting on the egg. 1 Soft material/ thick material 2. reduce impulsive force act on the egg 3. increase the time of impact 4. the shorter the time impact, the higher the impulsive force Modification Explanation Shape of the shuttle – conical Allow for better / fast air shape /oval /diagram flow//produce more lift force //

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1

reduce air resistance Material used for shuttle – feather / small mass/ low density Material used for base of the shuttle – cork/ small mass/ low density

1

Light// high velocity/ acceleration //further distance travelled//reduce inertia // smaller mass Light// high velocity/ acceleration //further distance travelled//reduce inertia // smaller mass

Material used for the string of the racquet – strong/ low elasticity

Not easily broken //withstand high force

High tension

Short time impact// high impulsive force

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 TOTAL

20

31

28

QUESTION 10

(a)

diffraction

1

wavelength 10.1 > 10.2 size of slit are same circular wave for 9.1 or plane wave for 9.2 (ii) 10.2 size of slit > wavelength, plane wave bending at the edge/slightly bend plane wave is produced // 10.1 size of slit < wavelength, circular wave is produced The smaller the size of the slit compared to the wavelength, the diffraction effect more obvious. (c)Radi Radio wave is electromagnetic wave Radio wave have higher velocity than sound wave Radio wave can travel without medium but sound wave need the medium has high frequency / carry more information carry more energy/ can move further (d) Modification Reason Frequency of Longer wavelength/ diffraction easier signal is low The location of no blocking / capture more signal transmitter higher the number of increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal / transmitter is reduce energy lost during transmission more / many The strength of have more energy / can move further signal is higher The distance increase the strength of signal/ increase energy of signal between two transmitter is closer TOTAL

1 1 1 1

(b) (i)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

20

32

29

NO (a) (b)

(c)(i)

MARKING CRITERIA QUESTION 11 Buoyant force equal to the weight of water displaced Rod A float because weight of rod equal to the buoyant force Buoyant force equal to weight of water displaced Rod A sink deeper in olive oil because olive oil less dense than water When the density decrease, volume of water displaced increase ρ= ,

(d)

1

= 3.75 x 10 -3 m3 WL + WB = Wwater displaced WL + 3 x 10 = ρw V g WL + 30 = 37.5 WL = 7.5 N . mL = = 0.75 kg Characteristics Volume of the balloon is bigger Material used for balloon is nylon Material used for basket is rattan Temperature of air inside the balloon is higher

1 1 1 1 Reason Produced bigger buoyant force / displaced more volume of air Stronger / does not break easily Lighter / low mass / increase the time impact / reduce impulsive force Reduce the density of air / reduce the mass of air in the balloon / increase upward resultant force / can carry more load

The best chosen is K because volume of the balloon is bigger, material used for balloon is nylon, material used for basket is rattan and temperature of air inside the balloon is higher TOTAL

1 1 1 1 1

V=

=

(ii)

MARKS

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

20

33