Settlement Geography

May 27, 2016 | Author: Shine You | Category: Topics, Art & Design
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Preliminary explanations...


Settlement Geography Geography – deals with the features on the surface of the earth and hence includes human built forms like towns/villages.

Settlement geography – • More relevant to human life • Moulds the environment Study overlaps – Sociology, Economics & Architecture Mainly deals with Urban Geography - Each village is unique, but dynamic urban centres displayed common features and common processes of growth and decay.

Various facets Settlement as an Unit – study of plan, morphology, architecture and relationship of settlement with the physical, economical and social environment. Settlement as part of a system - interrelatedness of various units – ranking, hierarchy & classification Settlement as part of the landscape – impact of the settlement on the nature of land beyond the settlement

Humanistic Vs Structuralist method of Geography • Subjectivity of both the observer and the observed come into play • Settlements are regarded no longer as merely physical entities affected by the laws of growth or morphological change. • Seen to exist more as ‘ideas’ in the minds of their inhabitants to be perceived through their cultural spectrum.

Settlement A human settlement – • place inhabited by more or less permanently by men and women. • The area of interaction of a given group of people and includes areas of residential, social and economic activity. • Ideas of permanence, habitation and interaction. Two identities – social - generates a feeling of belonging which gives social identity & Administrative – more concrete & specific - revenue village, panchayat etc.

Settlement…………. Perception of settlement is different from village to city • In village, the components of the environment are not too varied and hence impressions wont vary much from people to people. • Every villager is aware of the layout of the fields and distances. Urban dweller • Very different images • Distance is thought in terms of money, time etc. • Safety factor Site • All settlements need some site advantage initially. • Flood prone areas have dry point settlements, mountainous region have spur line settlements where slope is less etc. • Cities are less dependent as site factors are manipulated artificially.

Settlement…………. Situation Does not affect as much as site does For village settlements important situations are – nearness to urban centres, degree of connectivity etc. Cities flourish only if there are situational advantages – economy of hinterland, close location of other cities and good transport routes. Settlement size • refers more to its population than to areal extent. • Population density of a village is proportional to the carrying capacity of the land. • Minimum size for a settlement to be urban – approx. 5000

Settlement History of Kerala

Before 1500BC - Dravidians driven south by the Aryan settlers from Central Europe are believed to be the first migrant settlers in Kerala.

Settlement History of Kerala……

6th -7th century BC - Vedic period – Vedic rishi Agasthya introduced Brahmanism. 4th century BC - Post vedic period –Jainism & Buddhism penetrated the region. Chera Kings maintained trade links with Arabs, Chinese, Jews, Greeks and Romans. Main port of Muziris. Christianity – Apostle Thomas – 52 AD. Islam – through Arabs 7th – 10th century – Aryanisation – a large group of Brahmins believed to have moved to Kerala from Kolhapur.

Settlement History of Kerala…..

Implementation of Caste system 12th century – Kerala disintegrated into smaller principalities. 1498 AD – Portugese, followed by Dutch, French and English established colonies. Colonial rule – privilaged christian missionaries and brought about education to the masses.

1956 – State of Kerala formed by merger of Travancore, Cochin and Malabar. Land reform bills effected a break down of feudal system of land ownership. Social structure into a democratic one.

Settlement History of Kerala……

Construction Techniques Mingling of cultures and religions over the centuries – profound influences in the development of construction practices in Kerala

Dravidians – ingenious architectural form using bamboo and wood rafters and thatch for cover. Jain & Buddhist periods – composite construction techniques using stone & wood. Christians & Muslims - built adapting to the existing prevalent styles. Numerous egs of cross influence – wooden wheels used in irrigating, Chinese fishing nets, sewn boats of Kerala etc.

Settlement History of Kerala……

Construction Techniques Traditional Hindu architecture firmly grounded in Vedic principles. Treatises on Architecture - Manushyalayachandrika, Thantrasamuchaya and Shilparathna. Colonial architecture – marriage of traditional visual elements and European spatial planning. New building types such as schools and colleges, administrative buildings, libraries, museums etc.

Settlement History of Kerala……

Settlement Pattern Tribal settlements – dispersed as well as semi permanent settlements

Caste system practiced by Brahmins – shaped the social structure of Kerala. Scattered village pattern – developed through grama concept. Gramam classified according to the scale & wealth of Brahmin houses located in each of them. Single Brahmin family surrounded by the settlements of the servant community – Eka kutumba gramam. As per Herman Gundert, 32 gramams were established by 4th or 5th century AD, earliest of them were Payyannur, Alattur, Panniyur, Sukapuram etc.

Settlement History of Kerala……

Centre of the gramam had a grama kshetra. Each gramam consisted of upagramams. Nagaram – 1000x2000 sq dhand area.

Pattanam – Nagaram with a port Puram - political and commercial capital Special social institutions like caste-class hierarchy, joint family system, matrilineal kinship and high religious affiliations formed the basis for the layout and texture of the traditional settlement pattern of Kerala.

Settlement History of Kerala……

Caste- class community structure Brahmins Traditional dweling –Illom Eldest son required by law to marry a Brahmin woman. All others maintained relations with Nayar women – Sambandham Issues of such relations had no right over the property of the father. Nambuthiri women not allowed to marry lower caste men. Nayars Traditional dwelling - Tharavadu Several branches – Thavazhi – common possession of properties Issues of the male members belonged to the tharavad of their mothers. Matrilineal – marumakathayam system

Settlement History of Kerala……

Caste- class community structure Mappilahs Ancestors were descendants of the Arab traders Consisted of converts from Hindus also. Followed worship of spirits and heroes, against Islamic principles. Many followed matriliny as a custom. Christianity Natives converted in large numbers. During colonialism, privileges given to the community in their settlements. Domination of Vedic thought in Architecture influenced the assimilation of other cultures in the evolution of the Architecture of the settlement.

Settlement History of Kerala……

Modular assemblage Standardization through Thachushastram resulted in a modular geometry, dimensions and proportions ascertaining uniformity and physical wholeness to the buildings.

View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.