seminar report

May 7, 2018 | Author: Minty Mathews | Category: Nanotechnology, Monitoring (Medicine), Technology, Science, Medicine
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  Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of  nanometers(10-9 meters)more specifically, nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering descipline of designing and building of nanorobots(nanobots, nanoids or nanites) would be typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. Another definition sometimes used is a robot which allows precision interaction with nanoscale objects or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution.Following this definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation.Also, macroscale robots or microrobots which can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.



  Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase,but some primitive devices have been tested.An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample.The first useful application of  nanomachines might be in medical technology,where they might be used to identify cancer cells and destroy them.another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations ,in the environment.Recently ,Rice university has demonstrated a single-molecule car which is developed by a chemical process and includes   buckyballs for wheels.It is actuated by controlling the environmental temperature and by   positioning a scanning tunneling microscope tip. And nano bioelectronics is an emerging field today. These enable molecular machine manufacturing. It includes the embedded and integrated devices. So using this technology there is an alternative to the metal oxide semi conductor. The line width of the original Pentium chip is 350 nm. Current optical lithography techniques have obvious resolution limitations because of the wavelength of visible light, which is in the order of  500 nm



  Nanotechnology, the manipulation and assembly of tiny devices often not much larger than a group of molecules, is a perfect application for industrial robotics. Due to the fact the objects   being handled are so small, a few billionths of a meter, it is impossible for a human to see or  successfully fabricate anything from them, robotics are the pr imary means of working with them. Since nanorobots would be microscopic in size ,it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform macroscopic tasks.These nanorobot swarms ,both those which are incapable of replication and those which are capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment are found in many science fiction stories.the T-1000 in Terminator-2:Judgement Day may be an example of a nanorobot swarm.The word ³nanobot´( also ³nanite´ or ³nanogene´ )is often used to indicate this fictional context and is an informal term to refer to the engineering concepts of nanorobots.The word nanorobot is the correct technical term in the non fictional context of serious engineering studies. Inspired by molecular biology, studies of advanced nanotechnologies have focused on bottom-up construction, in which molecular machines assemble molecular building blocks to form products, including new molecular machines. Biology shows us that molecular machine systems and their   products can be made cheaply and in vast quantities. Stepping beyond the biological analogy, it would be a natural goal to be able to put every atom in a selected place (where it would serve as part of some active or structural component) with no extra molecules on the loose to jam the works. Such a system would not be a liquid or gas, as no molecules would move randomly, nor would it be a solid, in which molecules are fixed in place. Instead this new machine-phase matter would exhibit the molecular movement seen today only in liquids and gases as well as the mechanical strength typically associated with solids. Its volume would be filled with active machinery. Future medical nanotechnology has been posited to employ nanorobots injected into the patient to perform treatment on a cellular level.Such nanorobots intended for use in medicine are posited to be non-replicating,as replication would needlessly increase device complexity ,reduce 3

reliability, and interfere with the medical mission.Instead ,madical nanorobots are posited to be manufactured in hypothetical,carefully controlled nanofactories in which nanoscale machines would be solidly integrated into a supposed desktop-scale machine that would build macroscopic  products. A new approach within advanced graphics simulations is presented for the problem of nanoassembly automation and its application for medicine. The problem under study concentrates its main focus on nanorobot control design for assembly manipulation and the use of evolutionary agents as a suitable way to enable the robustness on the proposed model. Thereby the presented works summarize as well distinct aspects of some techniques required to achieve a successful nano-planning system design and its 3D simulation visualization in real time Initial uses of nanorobots to health care are likely to emerge within the next ten years with   potentially broad biomedical applications. The ongoing developments of molecular-scale electronics, sensors and motors are expected to enable microscopic robots with dimensions comparable to bacteria. Recent developments on the field of biomolecular computing has demonstrated positively the feasibility of processing logic tasks by bio-computers, which is a  promising first step to enable future nanoprocessors with increasingly complexity. Studies in the sense of building biosensors and nano-kinetic devices, which is required to enable nanorobots operation and locomotion, has been advanced recently too. Moreover, classical objections related to the real feasibility of nanotechnology, such as quantum mechanics, thermal motions and friction, has been considered and resolved and discussions about the manufacturing of  nanodevises is growing up. Developing nanoscale robots presents difficult fabrication and control challenges. The control design and the development of complex nanosystems with high  performance can be well analysed and addressed via simulation to help pave the way for future use of nanorobots in biomedical engineering problems As a secondary meaning ³nanorobotics ³is sometimes used to refer to attempts to miniaturize robots or machines to any size, including the development of robots the size o f insects.   Nanorobotics research has proceeded along two lines. The first is devoted to the design and computational simulation of robots with nanoscale dimensions for the design of robots that resemble their macroscopic counterparts.



 Nanorobots are mainly made up of carbon and may be given a coating of diamond. Carbon should be in the form fullerene or diamond. This is because of the chemical inertness and strength. So we can avoid reactions with environment. The diamond coating is because it is the most inert and tough material ever known. The nanorobots are made smaller than the blood vessels as it can travel. Femoral artery in the leg is considered to be a largest artery in our body. So the nanorobot is injected in this artery. Glucose and oxygen-propulsion source is used to metabolise the nano robots.if it is in a human body, these are plentiful. Other sources in o ur body such as kinetic energy of the blood and blood pressure can also be used. If it is in a clinical environment, energy can supply externally such as lithium polymer batteries. Nanorobots are connected to computer outside. Recently communication with nano robots using RF ID, mobile  phones and satellites are explored. To take nanorobots from the body we use two methods one is retrace our path upstream another is making small surgery to remove.



Virtual reality (VR) is a technology, which allows a user to interact with a computersimulated environment, be it a real, or imagined one. Most current virtual reality environment are   primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications. Users can interact with a virtual environment or a virtual artifact (VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove,









The simulated environment can be similar to the real world, for example, simulations for pilot or  combat













In practice, it is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelity virtual reality experience, due largely to technical limitations on processing power, image resolution and communication   bandwidth. However, those limitations are expected to eventually be overcome as processor, imaging and data communication technologies become more powerful and cost-effective over  time. Virtual Reality was used for the nanorobot design where the use of macro- and micro robotic concepts is considered a practical approach once the theoretical and practical assumptions here have focused on its domain of application. The design should be robust enough to










 Nanoscale object manipulation systems have been applied with the use of computer graphics for  teleportation. The robot design adopted concepts provided from underwater robotics keeping in mind however the kinetics assumptions that the nanorobot lives in a world of viscosity, where friction, adhesion, and viscous forces are paramount and gravitational forces are of little or no importance.




Propeller : Like that in nanorobots it is used to drive forward against the blood stream

Fins: Fitted along with the pro pellers used to propel the device.

Sensors: Fitted externally and internally with the nanoro bots to receive the signal for  correct guidance



T h e n a n o r o b o t s r e q u i r e: -






 Nano-scale sensors are not yet developed. But sensors made of nanotubes are used for this.

Both chemical and biochemical sensors are used to make sensors for nanobots. Biochemical sensors are made by adding biological substances along with chemical substances.




It has a mobile member that moves linearly as a result of a biomolecular interaction between  biologically-based components within the actuator 

It can be utilized in nanoscale mechanical devices to pump fluids, open and close valves, or to  provide translational movement


It is a system for tracking an object in space to control nanorobot position.

The transponder device has one or several transponder antennas through which a transponder  circuit can receive an RF signal.

The transponder device adds a known delay to the RF signal

The nanorobot uses a RFID CMOS transponder 



The use of nanorobots may advance biomedical intervention with minimally invasive surgeries , help patients who need constant body function monitoring, and improve treatment efficiency through early diagnosis of possibly serious diseases . Implantable devices in medicine have been used for continuous patient data acquisition. Patient monitoring can help in preparing for  neurosurgery , early stage diagnostic reports to fight cancer , and blood pressure control for  cardiology problems . The same approach is quite useful in monitoring patients with diabetes. To visualize how stages of the actual technologies can be used to medicine, based on current discoveries, publications, and patents, we implemented a system simulation of nanorobots monitoring blood glucose levels . Actual advances in wireless technologies, nanoelectronics devices, and their use in the implementation of nanorobots applied to diabetes can illustrate what upcoming technologies can enable in terms of medicine applications. As an example, patients with diabetes must take small blood samples many times a day to control glucose levels. Such   procedures are uncomfortable and extremely inconvenient. Serious problems may affect the  blood vessels if the correct target levels of glucose in the blood are not controlled appropriately. Improper glucose control may result in a large range of consequences for the nervous system, kidney, eyes, exacerbate heart problems, and can even lead to stroke .The level of sugar in the   body can be observed via constant glucose monitoring using medical nanorobotics. This important data may help doctors and specialists to supervise and improve the patient medication and diary diet. The glycemic levels and parameters for an adult with diabetes stay inside the desired ranges, the patients must try to keep their glucose between 90-130 mg/dl (5.0-7.2 mmol/l) before refection, and
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