Scotch Yoke Mechanism Ppt

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Aim of the Project  To design and manufacture a working model of Scotch

yoke mechanism.  To get a practical exposure of machine tools and other manufacturing equipments.

Problem Statement  To convert rotary motion into Reciprocatory motion in

a simple harmonic manner.  To build a working model which can be fabricated easily using the available tools and machinery.

Scotch yoke mechanism


The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into rotational motion or vice-versa.

Simple Harmonic Motion

Scotch yoke mechanism converts rotary motion into translatory motion which is simple harmonic in nature. MATHEMATICAL EXPLAINATION

Suppose crankshaft is rotating at an angular velocity ‘Ω’. u If r is the radius of the crank then, tangential velocity, v= ‘rΩ’ .

From the mechanism we have the following relation; Component of tangential velocity in Y-direction is given by;

U = Reciprocating velocity of U-Slot.



If α is the angle made by the tangential velocity with X-Axis at any point of time, Component of tangential velocity in Y direction is u = rΩsinα.

U = v.sinα So, velocity of U-Slot= rΩsinα. As a result , Velocity of U-Slot is a sine function of α. Now as we know, α is directly proportional to time. this implies velocity of U-Slot is a sine function of time. Hence, the motion of U-Slot is a simple harmonic motion. Advantage of SHM The sinusoidal motion, cosinusoidal velocity, and sinusoidal acceleration (assuming constant angular velocity) results in smoother operation of the mechanism.

Resources Used Materials


Mild steel plates

1. 50 mm x 5 mm 2. 50 mm x 2.5 mm

Mild Steel Rod

1. φ20 mm 2. φ25 mm

Mild steel hollow pipe

φ30 mm (internal) φ34 mm (external)

Mild steel square pipe

25 mm x 25 mm (external) Thickness-2 mm

Equipment Used 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Lathe Machine Drilling machine Shaper machine Grinding machine Power tools Power Hacksaw Electric arc welding machine

Manufacturing Procedure

Crank and Handle  Lathe Machine


•Obtained Cylindrical Rods Of Required Dimension •Operations: Plain Turning And Parting

 Electric arc welding

•Welded Handle And Crank With Crank-shaft

Crankshaft Crank

Crank and Handle

U-Slot  Power Hacksaw

• Obtained square pipe of required length

 Power tools

• Used surface grinding machine to obtain smooth surface • Used power cutter to remove one face of the square pipe


Yoke (Slider Block)  Lathe Machine

• Obtained a cylindrical block of required length

 Shaping machine • Converted the cylindrical block into a cuboid of required dimensions

 Drilling machine • Hole is drilled in the middle of block to accommodate the crank

Yoke (Slider Block)

Foundation  Power hacksaw

• Obtained metallic Strips Of Required Lengths

 Drilling • Drilled holes to mount the crankshaft

 Electric arc welding • Welded the metallic strips to get a rigid foundation


Guides  Power hacksaw • Obtained metallic strips of required lengths

 Power cutter

• Obtained slots in the metallic strips


Piston and piston rod  Lathe machine

• Obtained cylindrical rods of required diameters and lengths using plain turning and parting

 Welding

• Welded piston to piston rod • Welded the above assembly to U-slot

Hollow Cylinder  Power Hacksaw

• Cut the pipe of required length

Piston and piston rod

Hollow Cylinder

Step-by-step procedure

Foundation And Crank Shaft  The crank shaft is made to pass

through the holes drilled in the foundation  Constrained the linear motion and rotation in two axes by above step  Welded washers to constrain linear motion along the crank shaft axis  Now, we can rotate the crank by rotating the handle

Guides and Foundation  Guides are welded to the

foundation  Welding is done carefully so that the guides are perfectly vertical and are parallel.

Foundation and hollow cylinder  Hollow cylinder is

welded to the foundation using metallic strips  Now the hollow cylinder is completely constrained

U-slot and Guides  In scotch yoke mechanism,

the linear reciprocating motion of U-slot is constrained by the guides.  Bolts (with metallic washers) passing through the slot of the guide are welded to the U-slot  Now the U-slot is constrained to move along the guide.

Yoke, crank and U-slot  Pin Joint between crank and


o Crank is made to pass through

the hole drilled in the yoke o This forms a pin joint i.e.; crank can freely rotate in the hole of the yoke  Slider joint between yoke and


o Yoke is placed inside the U-slot,

so that it can freely slides inside it, forming a slider joint.

Piston and Cylinder  The hollow cylinder is already constrained (welded)

with the foundation.  Piston is made to slide inside the hollow cylinder.  This completes the assembly providing each component only one degree of freedom (except foundation and guides)

Assembled Model

Final Assembly

Challenges and difficulties faced • Incorrect Selection of Crank Length 1. The length of the crank was taken too large.

2. As a result , the radius of revolution of crank was too large which eventually required a longer U-Slot to facilitate reciprocatory motion. 3. Longer guides were subjected to unbalanced dynamic forces and moments which restricted the free translatory motion..

Unbalanced moment

• Using Wood-based Foundation 1. The size of foundation required to keep the system in equilibrium had to be bigger, bulkier and complex(because of bigger crank). This problem was tackled using big logs of wood. 2. The wood blocks were cut and joined accordingly using nails . This led to formation of weaker joints. 3. While operation , the wooden guides were subjected to large vibrations which made the reciprocatory motion of U-slot unsatisfactory. 4. Relatively larger force was required to rotate the crank manually .

Rejected wooden model

Applications • This setup is most commonly used in control valve actuators in high pressure oil and gas pipelines. • Shaper uses a Scotch yoke which has been adjusted to provide a slow speed forward stroke and a faster return. • It has been used in various internal combustion engines, such as the Bourke engine, SyTech engine, and many hot air engines and steam engines.

Bibliography •

• ring-Science/RE300/M6.aspx • Theory of Machines by R. S. Khurmi.

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