Scientific Trivia (Chemical Engineering)
Scientific Trivia / General Knowledge --- Review Material for Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination...
Trivia 1. There is 83-85 percent of water in the blood 2. The mass ratio of moon to the earth is 0.0123 Mass of moon = 0.07349x10^24 kg Mass of earth = 5.9736x10^24 kg 3. The volume ratio of moon to the earth is 0.0203 Volume of moon = 2.1958x10^10 km^3 Volume of earth = 108.321x10^10 km^3 4. pH of blood = 7.35 to 7.45 5. pH gastric juice = 1.5 (Gastric juice is a thin, acidic digestive fluid secreted by glands in the mucous membrane that lines the stomach. It contains, among other substances, hydrochloric acid. 6. solid ammonium nitrate = cold packs 7. 0.99% argon sa air 8. Helium and Hydrogen (lightest element) were the first elements formed in the early stages of cosmic evolution. 9. The heavier elements, like carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, are thought to have originated later via nuclear reactions involving hydrogen and helium in the center of stars. 10. Nitrogen fertilizers contain nitrate (NO23) salts, ammonium (NH4+) salts, and other compounds. 11. In addition to carbon dioxide and water, plants need at least six elements satisfactory growth. They are N, P, K, Ca, S, and Mg.
12. Breathalyzer is used to test drivers suspected of being drunk. The chemical basis of this device is a redox reaction. A sample of the driver’s breath is drawn into the breathalyzer, where it is treated with an acidic solution of potassium dichromate. The alcohol (ethanol) in the breath is converted to acetic acid 13. Magnesium forms the second most abundant cation in the sea (after sodium); there are about 1.3 g of magnesium in a kilogram of seawater. 14. high level of arsenic killed Napoleon 15. Elemental arsenic is not that harmful. The commonly used poison is actually arsenic (III) oxide, As2O3, a white compound that dissolves in water, is tasteless, and if administered over a period of time, is hard to detect. 16. Marsh test is a procedure that detects arsenic. 17. seawater has a slightly higher density than fresh water—about 1.03 g/mL, compared with 1.00 g/mL 18. Laser - light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.
19. Wood’s metal is an alloy of bismuth, lead, tin, and cadmium that has a low melting point of 71°C. 20. radiocarbon dating technique - can detect the age of the artifact from archaeological excavation. 21. amalgam is a substance made by combining mercury with another metal or metals. 22. Higgs boson - god particle 23. Tabletop "volcanoes" can be created using "Vesuvian Fire" compound Ammonium dichromate 24. Graphene - miracle material. A better conductor of electricity and heat than any material 25. Bose-Einstein Condensate (superfluid) - coldest state of matter. It defies gravity and instead of flowing down, it flows upward. 26. Californium - the most expensive substance in the world (as much as $68 million for one gram) 27. Harold C. Urey - he discovered Deuterium 28. 60-70 percent of human body is water 29. Talc is the softest substance 30. About 1000 Earths would fit inside Jupiter - and the Sun could hold about 1000 Jupiters. 31. The eight 'Noble metals' — ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum and gold — do not rust. 32. Aluminium is the most common metal in the Earth's crust (8 percent of its weight.) 33. The noble gas Xenon lasers can cut through materials that are so tough even diamond tipped blades will not cut. 34. The burning sensation we get from chilli peppers is because of a chemical called Capsaicin. 35. The lighter was invented before the match (in 1816 by J.W. Dobereiner). 36. Each time lightning strikes, some Ozone gas is produced, thus strengthening the Ozone Layer in the Earth's atmosphere. 37. An average adult body contains around 250g (1/2lb) of salt. 38. Air becomes liquid at about minus 190 degrees Celsius. 39. The metal with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3410 degrees Celsius (6170F). 40. Mercury is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature. 41. The only letter not appearing on the Periodic Table is the letter J. 42. A bee sting is acidic and a wasp sting is alkali. To treat a sting by one of these you should use the opposite type of chemical. 43. The amount of carbon in the human body is enough to fill about 9,000 'lead' pencils.
44. Xenon hexaflouroplatinate (XePtF6) is the first compound with a noble gas in it. It was first produced by Neil Bartlett in 1962. 45. Rubber like you see on wheels of vehicles is actually one giant molecule. 46. lightning is 3 times hotter than the sun. 47. Van't Hoff is the first person to receive nobel prize in chemistry 48. Linus Pauling - recipient for both Nobel peace prize and nobel prize in chemistry 49. Marie Curie - first woman to receive Nobel prize in chemistry 50. Synthesis of VALIUM - Chlorination of Aromatic Rings in the presence of FeCl3 51. Mass ratio of Sun to Earth - 333000 52. Two New Elements - Flerovium (Fl - 114) and Livermorium (Lv - 116) 53. Flerovium and Livermorium - Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Created by smashing calcium ions (20 protons) into curium targets (96 protons) combining to form Livermorium. This element decayed almost immediately into Flerovium. Flerovum was chosen for Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Russia (lab is named after Georgy N. Flyrov). Livermorium honors Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The lab was named after Lawrence Livermore. 54. Carl Anderson is the one who discovered positron 55. Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) - Caustic Potash. It is used to absorb CO2 in the orsat analyzer 56. Pyrogallol - used to absorb free O2 in the orsat analyzer 57. Ammoniacal Cuprous Chloride - used to absorb CO in the orsat analyzer 58. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers. Dopamine also helps regulate movement and emotional responses, and it enables us not only to see rewards, but to take action to move toward them. 59. Lactic acid bacteria - bacteria use in the production of pickles. 60. Robert Lefkowitz (Howard University) and Brian Kobilka (Stanford University) - 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for the study of G-protein coupled receptors’ (GPCRs). 61. G-protein-coupled receptors are ubiquitous in the function of cells in the body and help us to sense light, flavour and odour. They are also responsible for the human body’s reactions to chemicals such as adrenaline, histamine, dopamine and serotonin – which are associated with medical conditions such as allergies, depression and Parkinson’s disease. 62. Dynamite contains peanuts as an ingredient. 63. Gallium is a metal which melts on palm of the hand, due to its low melting point (29.76 °C). 64. Hot water freezes faster than cold water (the Mpemba effect.) 65. Unlike any other element,helium does not solidify.
66. Astatine is the rarest element on Earth (approx 28g in the Earth's entire crust.) 67. The six states of matter are: Plasmas, Gases,Liquids, Solids, Bose-Einstein Condensatesand Fermionic Condensates. 68. An average adult body contains around 250g (1/2lb) of salt.
69. Water expands by about 10% as it freezes.