Science and Technology in the Philippines

September 2, 2017 | Author: Alan Sobrevilla | Category: Science, Association Of Southeast Asian Nations, Technology, Engineering, Economic Growth
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Science and Technology in the Philippines: Prsent Condition and Future Options Narrative/ Reflection The reporters presented their report about this topic in a concise manner wherein important views and topics were highlighted in the discussion. As what I learned , the Philippines still belongs to the third world country or the undeveloped country it is based on the underdevelopment theory. Major factors that affect the low level development of Science and Technology in our country is the lackluster performance of low Research and Development System and the lack of funding system by the government. We might thinking that by having those technological tools, we have now, we can easily consider our country as advanced in terms of technology ,but the truth is, we are still striving to become known in the field of Science. We cannot deny the fact that we are still dependent on the technology of the other countries and supporting there tools makes them more developed country. If our government has enough funding system in supporting our own technological invention and provide plans for the successive process of Research and Development we might have greater ideas for improving our Science and Technology here in our country. We have many option but we don't have actions for making it possible. Therefore, Science is a body of knowledge and ideas and technology is just product of it. Science and Technology

had been changed our society through ages. We can see visibly the hierarchical process of the development in science through the products, machines and tools from the past 'til the present. As a simple advice, use Science and Technology as a beneficial tool and not as a destructive tool that will affect our moral values and will degrade our environment.

Questions: As a student, what are the benefits of science and technology in your life?  As a student, what are your actions for the improvement of Science and Technology in our country? Thank you and God Bless. 

Science and Technology in the Philippines: Prsent Condition and Future Options Topics: Philippine Technological Dependence and Backwardness, History of Science and Technology in the Philippines, Development in science and Technology Preview: History of Science and Technology in the Philippines Precolonial Science and Technology There is a very little reliable written information about Philippine society, culture and technology before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1521. (8) As such, one has to reconstruct a picture of this past using contemporary archaeological findings, accounts by early traders and foreign travelers, and the narrativesabout conditions in the archipelago which were written by the first Spanish missionaries and colonial officials. According to these sources, there were numerous, scattered, thriving, relatively selfsufficient and autonomous communities long before the Spaniards arrived. The early Filipinos had attained a generally simple level of technological development, compared

with those of the Chinese and Japanese, but this was sufficient for their needs at that period of time. With the advent of minicomputers in the early 80’s and LCD projector in the 90’s, these two objects have permeated practically all aspects of human activities and life has never been the same again. The best way for us to anticipate the future is to understand the present. As we all know, quality education is the only means for upward mobility of the underprivileged groups, an excellent means for retraining the work force and a key for developing scientifically and technologically literate citizenry. To cope with the rapid and complex changes in technology, this paper undertook an in-depth description and long-term exploration on how academic curriculum programs in science education were modified and transformed as a result of these changes. Technological Leapfrogging as a Strategic Option for the Philippines These weaknesses refer to our country’s scientific and technological backwardness, dependence on foreign technologies and capital, and its subordination to foreign dominance, exploitation and control. Locked in the international division of labor, the Philippines has played the role of the exporter of primary commodities and importer of production technologies. Accordingly, based on the nation’s economic history, it is the acceptance of the international division of labor that has perpetuated and worsened the underdevelopment of our economy. Assessing our cycle of backwardness and dependence, the nature of science and technology, technological innovations and technological potentials as nuanced in the Philippine context, the paper maps our country’s stages of technological capabilities. Despite achievements in agriculture, industry and health during the past few years, the problem remains that we do not yet have genuine endogenous industries in chemicals, metals, pharmaceuticals, automotives and electronics. The Philippines, once at par with other countries in Southeast Asia and East Asia in scientific and technological development, is now lagging behind most of its neighbors. The inadequate government support and the lack of an effective economic demand for local innovations are seen as reasons for the slow development. The national strategy the paper proposes is technological leapfrogging. As a strategy, it attempts to liberate the country from dependence and backwardness by importing selected high technologies in order to acquire adaptive, replicative, and innovative mastery of these advanced technologies. More importantly, the paper argues that it is this strategy, geared towards national technological mastery, which provides a long-range vision for designing, building and insuring of the nation’s future in the 21st century. The Present state of STS in the Philippines:  Shortage of research funds  Lack of coordination of RND systems in this country  Lack of science consciousness  Sources: Leapfrogging the Scientific and Technological Gap: An Alternative National Strategy for Mastering the Future


The National Science and Technology Systems and Strategies of Aseas Countries Topics: Singapore's Technology Strategy, Building a Workable Infrastructure in Malaysia, Technology Upgrading in Thailand , and System in Indonesia Preview: Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly abbreviated ASEAN, is a geopolitical and economic organization of ten countries located in Southeast Asia. ASEAN member countries see the promotion of green industry in the region as necessary for creating a sustainable economic community and increasing competitiveness in the future. Singapore's Technological Strategy:  Innovation System- focuses on entrepreneurship and integrate it to technology  Innovation Growth Strategy- Development in infrastructure and the capabilities of government institutions in facing industrialization issues  Green Buildings-another term is Zero Energy Building, it is a plan for building using solar panels, as a source of energy, that will provide the electricity for every buildings. Technological Strategy of Thailand :  Creation of Awareness of Science and Technology- It was supported by their government to let their constituents know the issues regarding science and technology so that they can contribute better solutions regarding the issue  Research and Development System- Thai government focused on RND system to become more productive country  Scholarship Grants- Thai government select 1, 200 person to avail the scholarship to study in the other industrialized countries so that they can gain ideas from other countries regarding industrialization development Indonesia As many other developing countries, Indonesia is not considered as world's leading parties in science and technology developments. However, throughout its history, there have been notable achievements and contributions made by Indonesian for science and technology. Currently, the republic's Ministry of Research and Technology is the official body in charge of science and technology development in the nation. In 2010, the Indonesian government has allocated Rp 1.9 trillion (approximately US$205 million) or less than 1 percent of the total state expenditure for research and development Malaysia Malaysia is an emerging Asian economy aspiring to move towards a technology-driven and high-tech production-based pattern of development and thus

replicate the experience of the newly industrializing economies (NIEs) of Asia. In fact, Malaysia has been categorized in the group of countries that have the potential to create new technologies on their own (Mani, 2000). The prospects remain promising despite the 1997 Asian financial crisis, although no country in the region was spared.In view of that, Malaysia has a strong basis to consider formulating its own technological development strategy based on those in the NIEs with appropriate adaptations to accommodate the economy’s uniqueness.

Narrative/ Things I learned: These topics were reported clearly by the reporter because the ideas we learned from this might be beneficial and serve as guidelines in the improvement of Science and Technology in our country. There are plans for ASEAN nations, "ASEAN countries are currently enhancing their cooperation toward the establishment of the AEC in 2015. To remain competitive over the long run, ASEAN countries should expand green industry in their production processes, "Pushpanathan said. If this plan would be exhibited well , there will be a great change in our country ,as a part of ASEAN nation. Most ASEAN nations are considered as "tiger countries" because of the vast industrialixzation they had been through and our country is still left behind by this improvement. Source/s: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ASEAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN MALAYSIA AND THE NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZING ECONOMIES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Mun-Chow Lai* and Su-Fei Yap**

Ethical Aspects of Science and Technology Topics: Ethics and Science, Science,Technology and Ethics, Introduction to Engineering Ethics and On Becoming a Responsible Engineer Preview: Science is a discipline of knowledge which involves many aspects of human thought and endeavour. Ethics is concerned with human character and conduct. CAN SCIENCE EVER BE SEPARATED FROM THE QUESTION OF ETHICS? Science is a branch of study concerned with facts, principles, and methods. However, ethics is the moral science that governs what we do with it. It is the branch of philosophy that studies the principles of right and wrong in human conduct. The question of their individuality has been in existence for quite some time. I would argue that in theory they can exist separately but in practice they cannot. In Aristotle's structure of the soul, one can see that science takes precedence over ethics.

Engineering Ethics is the field of applied ethics which examines and sets standards for engineers' obligations to the public, their clients, employers and the profession. This article addresses the subject for both professional engineers and other engineers. Engineering does not have a single uniform system, or standard, of ethical conduct across the entire profession. Ethical approaches vary somewhat by discipline and jurisdiction, but are most influenced by whether the engineers are independently providing professional services to clients, or the public if employed in government service; or if they are employees of an enterprise creating products for sale. Responsible Engineer Ways to Remeber: 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public and shall strive to comply with the principles of sustainable development in the performance of their professional duties. 2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their competence. 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. Narrative/ Things I learned: The reporter reported it in a concise manner and she highlighted only those important topic of her report. Science cannot be separated from ethics especially where the issues of genetic manipulation are considered. Science is a collection of the results of a search for facts about our physical reality. Ethics is an arbitrary set of rules for behaving in a way that is acceptable to the culture setting forth those rules. If science pursues knowledge, maybe we should first discuss the morality of knowing things. In the field of engineering, there is a specific ethics to be followed in order to become a responsible engineer. It should be followed to become a productive engineer in the society. Source/s: Copyright 1988, Harlan B. Miller. Commercial use prohibited. This paper has appeared inEtica & animali I/2 (1988) in Italian translation, and in Between the Species 10/1 (1994)in English.

Impacts of Science and Technology on War Topics: Science, Technology and Military Policy, First Wave, Second Wave War and Third Wave War and Futuristic Wars Preview: Progression in weapons also has an extensive effect on the environment. New technology means more invention and more utilization. Military policy

The outbreak of World War II was in many ways an unprecedented crisis for Socialistorganizations. Democratic Socialists had traditionally been anti-war to the point ofpacifism, while revolutionary Socialists had opposed wars waged by openly capitalistic regimes on the basis that the only violence worth pursuing was rooted in the class struggle, not between opposing groups of capitalists. Each wave, or civilization phase, develops its own "super- ideology," or Zeitgeist, with which it explains reality and justifies its own existence. This ideology impacts all the spheres which make up a civilization phase:  The first wave of transformation began when some prescient person about 10,000 years ago, probably a woman, planted and nurtured a seed. The age of agriculture began; its significance was that people moved from nomadic wandering and hunting and began to cluster into villages and develop culture. 

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Narrative/ Things I learned Upgrading technology will expand the manufacture of weapons, and atomic bombs when these weapons will be confirmed and used; then the environment will get poisoned.With the improvement of technology there is also improvement in the field of war through the designed atomic bombs and weapons that can destroy a certain area. I am not impressed with the advancement of it because it means one thing, Earth maybe destroyed by a highly technological bombs that is a product of science. Source/s: Toffler’s Waves Why Third

Alvin Wave

Toffler’s Matters

by Michael Finley

Impacts of Science and Technology on the Environment Topics: Environmental Penalties of High Technology, Sustainability and Social Change, Industrialization and Environment and Environment friendly Technologies

Preview: Changing technologies, however, can have negative consequences for certain sectors or constituencies. Examples of negative aspects include pollution (including environmental, noise, and light pollution) associated with production processes, increased unemployment from laborsaving new technologies, and so forth. This suggests that society must consider the relative costs and benefits of new technologies. The negative effects of technology are numerous. In our march to progress we have degraded the natural world. Forests are chopped down, topsoil is washed away, rivers are polluted and our waste is dumped in the oceans. Environmental Penalties:

Pollution (noise,air,water)- wstes of technologies

Conversion of forest land to urban areas

Pollute human psychologically and emotionally-- the usage and addiction of new

gadgets 

Fatal Births and Diseases--Health effects of overused technologies

"It is the great multiplication of the productions of all the different arts, in consequence of the division of labour, which occasions, in a well-governed society, that universal opulence which extends itself to the lowest ranks of the people." Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations Eco-Friendly Technologies These are sustainable technologies. It It utilizes resources from the environment without causing negative effects on it. Some of These are: 

Solar Energy--used of solar panels to provide electricity

Geothermal enrgy

Wind power --wind mills as source of energy

Narrative/ Things I Learned

The reporters presented the topic well with the use of pictures regarding the effects of technologies in our environment. I learned that, Initially, we will argue the effect of technologies on the environment. Better equipment means that there would be more industrial development. No doubt automation is valuable for the economy, and as well as for the people existing in the country. Destruction of the natural environment has been taking place since the birth of civilization yet it is only now that we are seeing it on a global scale. We are holding the technology so it is up to us to use it for good and not for the destruction of the planet.

Source/s: Article Source:

The Negative Effects of Technology on the Planet - Our Cultural Vision is Driving the Destruction By Thomas Ryaner Article Source:

The Economic Aspects of Science and Technology Topics: The Economics of R and D and Technological Change, Classical Theories Of Economic Growth, Views of Technological Changes and Analyses of Growth and Development Preview: The effect of long-range historical forces on science is difficult to identify and describe in detail Marxian framework attempts to insert science and technology as variables within its categories : Socio-economic base Superstructure Marxian Framework Socio-economic base Constitute the forces of production of a given society Superstructure Comprises the social relations, as well as political and cultural manifestations. THEORIES: A number of theories of technological change have been proposed by economists. Some of these theories have evolved over time by refinements of earlier theories, while others have benefited from new revelations. Adam Smith (1723-1790) recognized the role of changing technologies. According to him, improvements in production technology would emerge as a by-product of the division of labor, including the emergence of a profession of schedulers or organizers akin to modern-day engineers. A specialized worker doing the same job repetitively would tend to look for ways to save time and effort. In Smith’s world, productivity could also increase indirectly via capital accumulation. Karl Marx’s (1818-1883) notion of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall stems from a recognition of technological change (process innovation) leading to more efficient production, and the replacement of labor with capital or machinery. Labor-saving innovation or mechanization occurs when Marx’s capitalists are unable to further

lengthen the working day and therefore are unable to extract further surplus value in absolute form from labor. Production Functions, Productivity Growth, and Biased Technological Change The measurement of the rate and direction of technological change rests fundamentally on the concept of the transformation function. Economic growth requires structural change Productivity growth in developed countries mainly relies on technological innovation. For developing countries, however, growth and development are much less about pushing the technology frontier and much more about changing the structure of production towards activities with higher levels of productivity. Th is kind of structural change can be achieved largely by adopting and adapting existing technologies, substituting imports and entering into world markets for manufacturing goods and services, and through rapid accumulation of physical and human capital. A few developing countries have been able to undertake original research and development in some fields, but technological innovation continues to be highly concentrated in the industrialized world. Narrative/ Things I learned These topics also was assigned to our group, our group decide to have power point presentation. From the discussion headed by group mate, I learned the major impact of technology in economy. The major impact are:  As the focus becomes less global, the social and political influences on science become more obvious  The scientific community is buffeted by the social, political, & economic considerations of the society in which it is embedded. The pace of technological change can vary across industries, firms, and countries, depending upon the resources devoted to research and the nature of products or processes pursued. Source: "Resources for the Future" by: Jaffe, Newell, and Stavins

3. SOCIETAL ASPECTS AND IMPACTS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Topics: Scientific Research Community, Complexity of Engineering,Design and Invention and Scientists. Preview: Let us define first sociology.Sociology is the study of society and the interaction of people within the society. These topics helps us know how science affects the society. Scientific Research Community is made up of those people who has career in science.They are defined as network,field and profession. Engineering begins with a desire and their plans would make this desire to become visible. Engineers needs to be equipped with vast ideas and information in order for them to create effective plans. There are components of engineering and these are: 1. Engineers was driven most in industrial works and process.

2. Engineering was divided into sub fields. Such as: Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering etc. 3. Engineers has their intellectual disciplines and entity of responsibilities they served. 4.

Engineering was known for their products.

Archer wrote that: “Design is that area of human experience, skill and knowledge which is concerned with man’s ability to mold his environment to suit his material and spiritual needs.” During the inter-war years the Bauhaus movement attempted to knit the design process into a coherent whole in that students were encouraged to study design in a way that was both total and detailed. An invention is a creation of the mind, and both the process to arrive at this creation or the capability to create it are referred to as invention. An invention is also supposed to be new, although it is unspecified for whom. An invention is a novel device, material, or technique. We infer from the above that there are three phases that play a role in the colloquial meaning of invention: 1. The capability or skill to invent. 2. The act or process of invention. 3. The outcome of this process.

Diagram of invention: Concept-----Invention-----Innovation A list of the top 10 scientists of all time.

1. Sir Isaac Newton. Discovered laws of gravity and motion. Made investigations into a whole range of subjects maths, optics, physics, and astronomy 2. Louis Pasteur. Probably saved more lives than any other person. Contributed greatly towards the advancement of medical sciences developing cures for rabies, anthrax and other infectious diseases. Also enabled process of pasteurization to make milk safer to drink 3. Galileo. Using first modern telescope, Galileo revolutionized our understanding of the world successfully proving the earth revolved around the sun and not the other way around. 4. ray.

Marie Curie. Discovered radiation and helped to apply it in the field of X

5. Albert Einstein. Revolutionized physics with his theories of quantum physics. Lay framework for atomic energy. 6. Charles Darwin. Developed theory of evolution against a backdrop of disbelief and skepticism. Collected evidence over 20 years. 7. Emil Fisher - The outstanding chemist of the modern age. Synthesized many products to show their constituent parts. 8. Nikola Tesla - Work on electro-magnetism and AC current. Credited with many patents from electricity to radio transmission 9. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose. Great Bengali scientist who made important contributions in the field of radio and microwave technology. Also showed how sap in a plant rose. 10. Aristotle. Great early Greek scientist who made many researches in the natural sciences including botany, zoology, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and meteorology, geometry Narrative/ Things I learned I am the reporter for the first three topics. I find it hard to researched for these topics and relate it with my course because of the topics about engineering. I was glad that by

studying these topics I learned deeper about the nature of science and the effects of engineering field in terms of design and invention. In the diagram of invention, I learned that every big things comes from small things which means that every invention comes from a vast concept. From the idea or concept it becomes visible which resulted for a new invention and the application of the new invented material is what we called innovation. My group mate reported the last topic about scientists and their influences. Its a nice thing to know that these scientists contributed major ideas that affects the vast development in science in their different fields. We prepared activities and we present our report in a power point presentation manner. Although there are many errors occurred at least we've done our job well. Source/s; " Complexity of Engineering" (book) by: James Adams

cience, technology and Society in the 20th century Preview: The twentieth century witnessed the greatest changes in technology and science that humans have ever witnessed. These occurred rapidly and affected such a broad range of people. Scientists, inventors, and engineers built upon the great inventions of the 19th century to expand the reach of modern technology - for a citizen in 1900, communication, transportation, and agricultural was still primarily local activities; by 2000, an American citizen was part of an interconnected global community. These developments in science and technology were also important in the social and cultural changes of the period. The Great Depression, the World Wars and Cold War, the civil rights and women's rights movements - all were greatly impacted by the rapid scientific and technological advancements in the universities and industry. Features Science and Technology in Twentieth-Century American Life chronicles this relationship between science and technology and the revolutions in the lives of everyday Americans. The volume includes a discussion of: • Transportation - the 20th century marked the transition from the railroad to the automobile and airplane, and the mass production of the automobile, and the building of roads and highways made it possible for Americans to travel the United States by car. ; Communication — radio and television brought news and entertainment into the home, while at the end of the century the World Wide Web linked people, news and entertainment by personal computer. • Agriculture - The 20th century was an era of scientific farming. The techniques of animal and plant breeding combined with the science of genetics to produce high yielding varieties of crops and livestock to suit consumers. The book includes a timeline and a bibliography for those interested in pursuing further research, and over two dozen fascinating photos that illustrate the daily lives of Americans in the 19th Century. Narrative/ Things I learned:

In this age of the development in science, the main focus of it was the advancement of communication, transportation and agricultural matter. Most of the inventions of this century aims the development of the three factors indicated. During this century, they've invented materials that was closely related to the three sectors of development on the society. Source: Science and Technology in 20th-Century American Life Christopher Cumo

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