Science 2 Teacher Book (New Edition)

August 11, 2017 | Author: Silvia Calderón | Category: Senses, Reading Comprehension, Human Body, Learning, Reptile
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Teacher’s Book New Science Science, Geography and History

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The teacher’s book for Science, Geography and History, New Science, for Year 2 of Primary Education is a collective work, created, written and developed in the Primary Education department at Santillana Educación S.L., under the supervision of JOSÉ LUIS ALZU GOÑI. Contributing authors: Cristina Zarzuela (Student’s Book), Gema Méndez Díaz, Isabel Jiménez and José Jiménez (Teacher’s Book) English language specialist: Paul and Susan House English editor and linguistic consultant: Katharine Scott Artwork: Alberto Piruz Project coordinator: Maite López-Sáez Editor: Cristina Zarzuelo (Student’s Book), Mar García and José Tomás Henao (Teacher’s Book)

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Contents Introduction Presentation of The Learning Ladder

IV

Project components Resources for the student Resources for the teacher

VI VII

Teacher’s Book organization

IX XII

Contents for the cycle

Science, Geography and History, Year 2 Contents – Student’s Book Content map – Student’s Book Unit organization

1 3 4 6

Teaching notes First term Content map and letter to the families Welcome unit Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

8A 8 12 22 32 42 52

Second term Contents and letter to the families Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Unit 9 Unit 10

66 A 66 76 86 96 106

Third term Contents and letter to the families Unit 11 Unit 12 Unit 13 Unit 14

Final revision

120 A 120 130 140 150 164

III

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Presentation The Learning Ladder

is the new Santillana programme for quality education, which provides a complete educational project in both Spanish and English for two subject areas, Science, Geography and History, and Mathematics.

Quality education involves being able to guarantee improved learning skills. In order to achieve this principle one of the main corner-stones of this project is learning more; that is whilst covering all the essential contents, the students are presented with a much more complete programme. This project contains: Texts for the students with: • More practice • More study aids (graphs, diagrams, workbooks, etc.) • More revision • A student centred methodology Resources for the teacher with: • Reinforcement and extension activities • A programme for improving oral expression «Speak and understand» • More practice activities • Various classroom resources

Quality education involves improving understanding. In order to achieve this principle one of the main corner-stones of this project is improving understanding; students should understand the concepts they learn, establish relationships between newly learnt concepts and previous knowledge, and apply existing knowledge to show that they understand. This project contains: Texts for the students with: • More reading comprehension activities • More activities for expanding and developing vocabulary • Activities for integrating knowledge • Activities for applying knowledge to problem solving Resources for the teacher with: • Workbooks • Programme for developing intelligence

IV

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Quality education involves integrating cross-curricular issues. In order to achieve this principle one of the main corner-stones of this project is acquiring the necessary habits and values for living within a community. This project contains: Texts for the students with: • Cross-curricular programme • Activities for developing the social and emotional aspects of the child Resources for the teacher with: • Activities for working with cross-curricular issues • Programme for developing study habits (Workbook)

Quality education requires promoting responsibility for learning amongst the students. In order to achieve this principle one of the main corner-stones of this project is reviewing and revising in different ways.The students are supervised continuously in these tasks. This project contains: Texts for the students with: • Term reviews • Final review Resources for the teacher with: • Workbooks • Test and assessment activities for each unit • Tests and assessment sheets for each term

Quality education requires educating for the information society. In order to achieve this principle one of the main corner-stones of this project is linking new technologies to school activities. This project contains: • Multimedia resources • Audio recordings • On line resources for the student • On line resources for the teacher

V

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RESOURCES FOR THE STUDENT

Year 1

Books for the student

* Workbooks

* Spanish Language 1 Primeros pasos * Spanish Language 1 Primeros pasos Graph paper edition * Spanish Language 1 En marcha Readers

• First term • Second term • Third term

Mathematics 1 Including an envelope with materials for the classroom

• First term • Second term • Third term

• First term graph paper edition • Second term graph paper edition • Third term graph paper edition

Science, Geography and History 1 Including an envelope with craft activities for Christmas

Art and Craft English * Music * Society, culture and religion: catholicism * Society, culture and religion: non-denominational

* Spanish Language 2 Readers

• First term • Second term • Third term

Year 2

• First term graph paper edition • Second term graph paper edition • Third term graph paper edition Mathematics 2 Including an envelope with materials for the classroom

Science, Geography and History 2

Art and Craft English * Music * Society, culture and religion: catholicism * Society, culture and religion: non-denominational

* Not yet available in English.

VI

• First term • Second term • Third term

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RESOURCES FOR THE TEACHER Teacher’s Books

* Resource folder Special programmes

Photocopiable sheets

• * Teacher’s Book for Spanish Language 1 Primeros pasos (including CD of stories and poems) • * Teacher’s Book for Spanish Language 1 En marcha (including CD of stories and poems)

• Speak and understand (Workbook and CD) • Spanish Language Workbook 1

• Reinforcement and extension Spanish Language 1 • Test and assessment Spanish Language 1 • Writing activities 1

• Teacher’s Book for Mathematics 1

• Mathematics Workbook 1 • Developing intelligence 1

• Reinforcement and extension Mathematics 1 • Test and assessment Mathematics 1 • Numbers activities 1

• Teacher’s Book for Science, Geography and History 1

• Science, Geography and History Workbook 1

• Reinforcement and extension Social Sciences 1 • Test and assessment Social Sciences 1

• * Teacher’s Book for Spanish Language 2 (including CD of stories and poems)

• Speak and understand (Workbook and CD) • Spanish Language Workbook 2

• Reinforcement and extension Spanish Language 2 • Test and assessment Spanish Language 2

• Teacher’s Book for Mathematics 2

• Mathematics Workbook 2 • Developing intelligence 2

• Reinforcement and extension Mathematics 2 • Test and assessment Mathematics 2 • Numbers activities 2

• Teacher’s Book for Science, Geograhy and History 2

• Science, Geography and History Workbook 2

• Reinforcement and extension Social Sciences 2 • Test and assessment Social Sciences 2

• Teacher’s Book for Art and Craft • Teacher’s Book for English • * Teacher’s Book for Music • * Teacher’s Book for Society, Culture and Religion

• Teacher’s Book for Art and Craft • Teacher’s Book for English • * Teacher’s Book for Music • * Teacher’s Book for Society, Culture and Religion

Classroom materials and new technologies: • Interactive programme for basic subject areas • Classroom posters for Spanish Language • Classroom materials for Mathematics • On line resources * Not yet available in English.

VII

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RESOURCES FOR THE TEACHER

* Photocopiable sheets

• Reinforcement and extension These worksheets are designed to offer a support to learning for those students who encounter difficulties (reinforcement) and fast finishers (extension).

• Tests and assessment These worksheets are designed as a review for assessing each term’s work. The workbook contains an assessment sheet for each unit of work; three test sheets (one per term) and three assessment registers (one per term).

• Numbers activities These worksheets are designed to consolidate basic contents relating to numeracy and mathematical operations. Each worksheet relates to the contents in the Student’s Book.

• Writing activities These worksheets are designed to develop and practice handwriting skills and to consolidate basic notions of handwriting. The workbook includes a handwriting sheet for each letter or group of letters. Each worksheet is available in plain version and in graph paper version.

* Not yet available in English.

VIII

* Special Programmes

• Workbooks This programme is designed to develop study habits and learning skills. There is one workbook for each subject area.

• Speak and understand This programme is designed to develop basic skills in oral expression and comprehension. • Workbook • CD with recordings

• Developing intelligence This programme is designed to develop and exercise reasoning skills to improve learning. Each workbook contains 35 photocopiable worksheets classified according to the following skills: Perception and attention, Memory, Oral comprehension, Spatial comprehension, Logical reasoning, Time sequencing and Numeracy.

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Teacher’s Book The Teacher’s Book is organised as follows:

1. Presentation of the term: two pages introduce the work for each term. Term 1 Contents

Contents for the term

THEME

LEARNING TO READ

INFORMATION

Dear Families:

The human body Theme

This section presents the contents and assessment criteria for each term.

1

How does our body work? Theme

2

• The parts of the body • Bones, muscles and joints • The senses

• Descriptive text

• Making a skeleton

• Types of food • The mouth, the teeth

• Descriptive text

• Do a health survey

• Explanatory text

• Making a life cycle

We are about to embark upon the next step in your child’s learning. The children already have a considerable body of knowledge and our aim now is to consolidate and improve this knowledge so that they can learn even more.

We will be looking at how the human body works and which organs we use for breathing and eating. We will also be studying types of animals and plants so that the children can recognise similarities and differences.

wheel

and carnivorous animals

Animals

• Vertebrates

3

and invertebrates

• Viviparous and oviparous animals

Animals, animals all around Theme

4

• Insects • Fish • Reptiles • Mammals • Birds • Amphibians

• Descriptive text

• Wild plants

• Descriptive text

In order to practice and review what we have done at school you can help by doing activities at home which bring your child into contact with nature. This is how children develop observational skills which help them to identify types of animals and plants. You can also discuss how to care for animals and plants so that your child acquires a sense of responsibility for the other living beings in our environment.

• Observing and describing marine animals

• Making plant file

and cultivated plants

Plants Theme

This is a photocopiable page explaining the most important contents of the term’s work. Families are encouraged to take an active role in supporting the child’s learning through simple activities and games.

During this first term in Science, Geography and History your child is going to learn about living beings.

and the stomach

• Breathing and the lungs • Pets and wild animals • Herbivorous

Theme

Letter to the family

I CAN DO IT

Welcome unit

• What plants need • The parts of a plant • Types of plants • Plant reproduction

5

Thank you for your support and help.

Assessment criteria

On the next page there is a letter for you to photocopy and hand to the parents of your students. This will help them to participate in supporting their child’s learning.

8A

2.

Presentation of the unit:



1. Identifying the parts of the body, bones, muscles and joints 2. Relating food substances to our vital needs 3. Identifying the characteristics of a healthy diet 4. Relating air entering and leaving our bodies to the function of breathing 5. Identifying what changes and what stays the same during growth 6. Classifying animals according to different criteria: the presence of bones, the way they are born, what they eat 7. Identifying the parts of a plant 8. Understanding that a new plant can grow from each seed 9. Appreciating the importance of plants to human beings

8B

two pages introduce the work for each unit.

UNIT 1

UNIDAD 0

The human body CONTENTS AND RESOURCES

UNIT CONTENTS

Student’s Book

Objectives • To recognise that the human body is made in such a way as to allow us different types of activities and movements • To identify the main parts of the human body • To understand one’s own body, its abilities and its limitations • To understand that we relate to our environment through our senses • To understand the limitations of people who have some kind of physical disability (motor disability, blindness or deafness)

Contents This section presents the objectives, contents, assessment criteria and suggested timing for each unit of work.

Page 12-13

14 -15

Contents THEME: The human body INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The main parts of the body • The human body and movement: bones, muscles and joints • The senses • People with physical disabilities

16-17

* Resources for the teacher

* Other materials for the students

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

The human body ● To locate the main parts of the body in ourselves and in others ● To identify the parts of the body that move and carry out different actions

Moving the body ● To understand the function of the bones, muscles and joints ● To identify the main bones, muscles and joints

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 1



Tasks in natural science: The human body 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 1

The senses To identify the function of each sense To relate each sense to its sensory organ

● ●

LEARNING TO READ: I have got a new neighbour I CAN DO IT: Making a skeleton

18

Learning to read To develop reading with understanding of a descriptive text To accept and appreciate people with physical disabilities



Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

Contents and resources



Reflecting on the possibilities of movement in the human body Locating the main parts of the human body Identifying the abilities and limitations of the human body Differentiating between bones, muscles and joints Understanding the senses, the sensory organs and their functions Appreciating healthy habits and the importance of personal hygiene Accepting differences in people

19

20-21

I can do it ● To study bones and joints through the assembly of a skeleton

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 1 Test and assessment: Unit 1 test

This page shows the contents and objectives for each page of the Student’s Book and how they are related to the additional resources and materials for the students and the teachers.

Suggested timing for the unit September

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June * Not yet available in English.

12 A

12 B

IX

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3. Teaching notes: these include teaching suggestions for developing the work in the Student’s Book. Animals are born and grow Rabbits come from their mother’s womb. Rabbits, horses, monkeys and lots of other animals come from their mothers’ wombs.

OBJECTIVES

Objectives for the page: one or two sentences describing what the students will learn in this page.

Animals that are born like this are called viviparous animals.

• To distinguish the ways animals are born • To classify animals according to how they are born

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Order of activities: a description of the suggested order in which the activities can be undertaken.

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the text and the pictures. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 35 out loud.

Ducks are different from cats. Ducklings come from eggs. The mother duck lays the eggs. Fish, frogs, crocodiles and butterflies come from eggs. Animals which come from eggs are called oviparous animals.

How many names for baby animals do you know? M. A. Chicks, puppies, kittens, lambs, calves…

36

thirty-six

■ Teaching suggestions

Teaching suggestions: activities that complement those included in the book.

• In order to find out what the students already know about this theme ask them how certain animals are born (a cow, a rabbit, a chicken, a sardine, a horse, a turkey…). Ask: Is this animal born from an egg or from its mother’s womb? Point to your stomach to show them what you mean. Explain: Some animals are born from eggs which the female of the species lays. These animals are called oviparous. Give some examples (a chicken, a sardine,

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION How long does it take for animals to be born? Not all animals take the same length of time to be born. The time taken from the laying of an eggs to the hatching of the chick varies from bird to bird. For example: Time taken for bird eggs to hatch Canary 13 days Pigeon 18 days Hen 21 days Duck 28 days Goose 31 days Ostrich 42 days

36 36

This section of the Teacher’s Book includes the following: • Additional information. Further information for the teacher to transmit to the class.

• Anticipating difficulties. Basic information on some of the more common difficulties experienced by children in the target age group.

• Learning skills Suggestions for strategies and activities which help to develop learning skills.

• Checking and assessing. A list of the basic concepts the students should have acquired during the unit.

X

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Answer key: reproduction of the Student’s Book with the answers marked on the page. unit 3

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3 1 Tick the oviparous animals.









a frog). Other animals are born from their mother’s wombs (a horse, a cow, a human being). These animals are called viviparous. Tell the students to draw two columns in their notebooks and classify animals into oviparous and viviparous. • Discuss the way that oviparous animals are born. Explain that not only birds are born from eggs but also fish, insects and reptiles. Then ask: Are all eggs the same? Are they all the same shape and colour? Do all animals lay eggs? Make sure that they understand that some marine animals are viviparous, such as whales and dolphins.



2 How a sparrow is born. Complete the sentences. 3

2

1

The mother lays the

eggfi

The baby breaks the

[email protected] oviparoufi

.

• The sparrow is an

and is born.

The mother gives the chick

foo∂

.

animal because it is born from an egg.

3 Number the sentences in the correct order.

2

3

1

The calf has just been born.

The calf is inside the mother.

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft

The calf is drinking the mother’s milk.

Oviparous animals come from eggs. The mother lays the eggs. Viviparous animals come from their mother’s womb.

thirty-seven

37

• Divide the class into two groups. Give each group a piece of construction paper, entitled Oviparous animals, and Viviparous animals. Each group makes a poster by cutting out and gluing animals from their group onto the construction paper. Under each animal they should write the name. Ask students to present their poster to the rest of the class. Cross-curricular Team work

It is the same case with the mammals. Not all babies remain inside their mother’s wombs for the same length of time. For example: Time taken for mammals to be born Cat 2 months Lion 3 months Bear 7 months Human being 9 months Dolphin 11 months Elephant 22 months

• Before beginning the activity above remind the students of the rules for working in teams. They should agree on a division of tasks, they must not impose their ideas on everyone else, they should avoid arguments, etc.

Other activities called

Multidisciplinary links These help to develop links between the subject area (Science, History and Geography) and other subject areas.

Other activities are called

Cross-curricular These help to develop the cross-curricular programme:

• Self-discipline • Solidarity • Tolerance and respect • Teamwork • Responsibility • Health and hygiene • Tidiness and cleanliness • Courtesy • Time management

Resources for the teacher:

Resources for the teacher

This section indicates the teaching resources for the page.

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 3. (See pp. VI-VII)

37

XI

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Contents for Science, Geography and History - FIRST CYCLE

Year 1 THEME Food Theme

1

Health Theme

2

The senses

Science

Theme

4

The human body Theme

6

9

Geography and History XII

10

3

5

11

12

The Earth and the Sun Theme

13

As time goes by Theme

descriptions

• Understanding oneself

• Different uses for water • Observing the changes in water • Saving water

Nature Theme

• Filling in a form with physical

• The air and wind • Water: its characteristics

Cities and villages Theme

• The movement of the body • The parts of the body

8

Family and friends Theme

• Taste: organs and perceptions • Making a stained-glass window • Friendship and relationships

• Observation of the growth

House and clothes Theme

• Sight: organs and perceptions • Smell: organs and perceptions • Hearing: organs and perceptions • Touch: organs and perceptions

• What plants need • Cultivated plants • The parts of a plant • Plants we use for food

Materials and objects Theme

• Health and sickness • Filling in a form with personal data • The importance of personal hygiene

7

The air and water Theme

• Growing and changes • Healthy habits • Looking after our health

• What animals eat • Filling in a form about an animal • Respecting animals

Plants Theme

• The origin of different food • Classification of food • Solidarity

• Pets and wild animals • Habitats. How animals move • How animals are born

Animals Theme

• Types of food • Food and health • The meals of the day

14

and presence in nature

and development of a plant

• Respecting nature

• Different materials and where they come from • Using tools and machines

• Using recycled paper • Recycling materials

• The functions of a house • Types of houses • Clothes

• Appropriate clothes for each

• Activities we do with the family • Christmas • Living together: the family and friends

• Filling in a form about the family • Cooperation

• Streets and buildings • The city: inhabitants, jobs and services • The village: inhabitants and jobs

• Locating elements in the street • Looking after public areas

• Natural elements of the landscape • The coast: mains kinds of relief • Nature in the city

• Making nature stickers • Friendship and relationships

• Living beings and the Sun • Sunset and sunrise • Day and night: the different activities we do

• Making a sun wheel • The importance of asking

occasion

• The importance of housing

for help

at different times

• Changes which happen as time goes by • The present and the past • How we measure time

• Making a time-line • Appreciating the importance of the past

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Year 2 THEME The human body Theme

1

How does our body work? Theme

2

Animals Theme

3

Animals, animals all around Theme

4

Plants Theme

5

In the country Theme

6

Inventions and discoveries Theme

7

The Earth and the sky Theme

8

Landscapes on the Earth Theme

9

Homes and houses Theme

10

My family and neighbours Theme

11

Jobs and working Theme

12

Time goes by Theme

13

Stories and memories Theme

14

• The human body and movement • Bones, muscles and joints • The senses: organs and perceptions

• Making a skeleton • Respecting the disabled

• Healthy food • Different types of food • The mouth, the teeth and the stomach • Breathing and the lungs

• The blood and the heart • Doing a health survey • Looking after our bodies

• Pets and wild animals • Vertebrates and invertebrates • Carnivores and herbivores

• Oviparous and viviparous animals • Reflecting on the life cycle • Animal protection

• Insects • Fish • Reptiles

• Mammals • Birds • Amphibians

• What plants need • The parts of a plant • Plant reproduction

• Making a plant file • Protecting nature

• The soil: sand, rocks and earth • Water: states and changes • The air and the wind

• Observing the forces of water

• Inventions and their uses • Electricity • Materials

• Medical discoveries • Recycling paper • The value of scientific work

• The Earth, the Sun and the Moon • Day and night

• The seasons • Recording the weather

• Coastal landscape • Inland landscape: plains and mountains • Transport by land, sea and air

• Road safety test • Environmental protection

• Inside the house: spatial and functional analysis • Streets • Neighbourhood and services

• Public and private transport • Map reading • Behaviour on public transport

and wind

• The importance of caring for plants

• The members of the family: relatives and changes • Communication • Interpreting a population graph • Neighbours • Children’s rights • The neighbourhood and its services • Transforming products (secondary sector) • Obtaining food products (primary sector)

• Services (tertiary sector) • Food safety

• The sequence of daily activities • Measuring how time goes by • Past and present

• Changes to daily life • Making a calendar

• Birthdays and festivals • A family history • Customs and local symbols

• Testimonies from the past: monuments, statues…

• Organising a time line • Appreciating the past

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Primary

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2 Science, Geography and History

Project: The Learning Ladder

Santillana

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Science 2 is part of the series THE LEARNING LADDER, a new programme for quality education. This book is based on the three main corner-stones of our project: improving understanding, learning more and acquiring the necessary habits and values for living within a community.

Improving understanding is unquestionably the key to learning. The importance of this aspect is clear from the structure of the material itself. Each discipline is colour-coded. Natural Sciences = green and orange; Geography = blue; and History = purple. The conceptual content is clearly presented to make learning easier for the pupils. The reading passages are short and simple in the first units, but they become progressively more complex. Towards the end of this book they include systematic comprehension exercises. Furthermore, the LEARNING TO READ programme is clearly marked in each unit. This programme has been designed as an introduction to reading and aims to develop comprehension skills of scientific texts.

Learning more is another key aspect of the project. Science 2 provides a large number of activities typical of the most common and efficient teaching practices: application activities, summaries, conceptual maps, revision, vocabulary exercises, etc. and the following complementary programmes. I CAN DO IT: activities which ask the pupils to use their knowledge and skills. REVISION ACTIVITIES: resources for each term’s work.

Acquiring the necessary habits and values for living within a community is the third key aspect of the project which develops a programme of education in values. The pupils learn how to behave in their personal and social lives by analysing motivating situations. These situations are based on the contents of the book.

2

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Contents Welcome to Year Two

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

8

The human body

12

How does our body work?

22

Animals

32

Animals, animals all around

42

Plants Revision and discovery activities

52 62

In the country

66

Inventions and discoveries

76

The Earth and the sky

86

Landscapes on the Earth

96

Homes and houses Revision and discovery activities

106 116

My family and neighbours

120

Jobs and working

130

Time goes by

140

Stories and memories Revision and discovery activities

150 160

Final revision

164

three

3

3

Content map

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SUBJECT

INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES

1

The human body

2

How does our body work?

3

Animals

4

Animals, animals all around

5

Plants

6

In the country

7

Inventions and discoveries

8

The Earth and the sky

9

Landscapes on the Earth

• The human body and movement

• Bones, muscles and joints

• Healthy food • Different types of food

• The mouth, teeth and the stomach

• Pets and wild animals

• Vertebrates/invertebrates • Carnivores/herbivores

• Insects

• Fish • Reptiles

• What plants need

• The parts of plants

• The soil: sand, rocks and earth

• Water: states and changes

• Simple machines and complex machines

• Forces • Movement

• The Earth, the Sun and the Moon

• Day and night

• Coastal landscape

• Inland landscape: mountains, plains

• Inside the house: spatial and functional analysis

• Streets • Neighbourhoods and buildings

• The members of the family: relatives, changes

• Neighbours • The neighbourhood and its services

• Transforming products (secondary sector)

• Obtaining products (primary sector)

• The sequence of daily activities

• Measuring how time goes by

• Birthdays and festivals

• A family history • Customs and symbols

12

22

32

42

52

66

76

86

96

10

Homes and houses

11

My family and neighbours

12

Jobs and working

13

Time goes by

14

Stories and memories

106

120

130

140

150 REVISION ACTIVITIES: by term and year

4

4

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INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES

Página 19

LEARNING TO READ

I CAN DO IT

• The senses: organs and perceptions

I have got a new neighbour

Make a skeleton

• Breathing and the lungs • Blood and the heart

Growing up

A health survey

• How animals are born: oviparous and viviparous animals

We look after animals

The life cycle

• Mammals • Birds

Amphibians

Marine animals

• Reproduction in plants

From wheat to bread

Make a plant file

• Air and wind

Forests are oxygen factories

Find out the force of water and wind

• Medical discoveries

Pasteur: a great scientist

Make recycled paper

• The seasons

Different places on the Earth

Record the weather

• Transport by land, sea and air

Friends of the Earth

Road safety

• Public and private transport

I like my neighbourhood

Map reading

• Communication and the media

Children’s rights

Interpret population charts

• We need services (tertiary sector)

The life of a sweet

Think about food

• The evidence of the past in the present • Changes in daily life

Natural clocks

Make a calendar for birthdays and special days

• Memories of the past: monuments, statues, buildings

Columbus reaches America

Make a time-line of inventions and discoveries

five

5

5

The organisation of the units

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6 In the country

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1. The picture. This reminds you of

ACTIVITIES 1 Look at the pictures and write dry or wet.

situations you have seen or experienced and it tells you what you are going to study in the unit.

cloud air bird

2 What do people build on the land? Colour the things in the picture.

2. This short passage explains the

rock

3 Look at the picture. What is there under wet soil?

stones

worms

sand

2. 3.

ants’ nest

The children are wearing climbing boots. Sometimes they walk on hard ground made of rocks. Sometimes they walk on sandy ground and sometimes they walk on wet ground.

4. roots

ants

stones

Plants do not grow on dry ground. They grow on wet ground.

66

situation and sums up the main idea.

1.

water

5.

sixty-six

sixty-seven

67

3. It is not enough to read the text: you must understand and learn. These activities will help you.

Air is everywhere

4. This is a passage which is easy to

unit 6

ACTIVITIES

Air

1 Look at the picture and answer the questions.

We cannot see air, but it is everywhere, all over the Earth.

read. There are clear drawings to help you understand what you have to learn.

• What is inside the parachute?

There are lots of gases mixed together in the air. The most important gas is oxygen. All living beings need oxygen to survive.

• Can we see the air?

• What is oxygen?

air air

5. Answer this question as well as you

2 Colour the picture of a windy day.

can and ask more questions on the subject.

air

Wind Air often moves. When the air moves we call it wind.

Colour the arrow which shows the direction of the wind.

When the wind is so strong that it blows down trees and roofs we call it a hurricane. There is air everywhere. There are lots of gases in the air. The most important gas is oxygen. All living beings need oxygen.

Who needs air? Does the air have a shape?

70

seventy

seventy-one

71

6. You know you understand when you can apply what you have learnt to other situations.

7. The summary helps you to remember the main idea.

8. This reading passage helps you

unit 6

I CAN DO IT

LEARNING TO READ

Forests are oxygen factories

Find out the force of water and wind

to understand scientific texts. The activities help you to be a better person and get on well with others.

1. Make a plastic windmill.

When we breathe we use the oxygen from the air.

a

c

b

Plants use oxygen, too. Plants also produce oxygen and give it back to the air. There are lots of plants in forests, parks and jungles. These places are oxygen factories. The oxygen from the plants is necessary for all the life on the Earth. We should plant, look after and care for plants and trees.

2. Put the windmill under a tap. Turn the tap on. When a lot of water comes out of the tap, the windmill turns very fast.

3. Blow up a balloon. Hold the windmill near the balloon. Let the air out.

1 Complete the sentence. • use

• produce

Plants

• use and produce oxygen.

2 Write the name of three places that are oxygen factories.

9. You will enjoy learning and making

3 Tick the correct sentence. We should care for plants because they produce oxygen. We should care for plants because they use oxygen.

72

6

6

six

seventy-two

What can we use the force of water and wind for? seventy-three

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useful things.

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10. With these activities you can see

Now I know 1

3 LET’S REVISE

LET’S REMEMBER

that your hard work was worth while. You will remember the most important things, you will use the vocabulary you have studied and you will test yourself.

Label the picture of a plant. Answer the questions.

• There are rocks, sand and soil in the ground. • Everything needs water. There is no life without water. • Water is a liquid, but it can be a solid or a gas.

• What part of the plant is in the soil?

• Air is gas. Air is everywhere. • Oxygen is in the air. We need oxygen. • What parts of the plant are in the air?

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS 4 LET’S PRACTISE

Write true (T) or false (F).

Solve the problem. • A lot of boys and girls are playing in a room. The windows are closed. It is difficult to breathe. What should they do?

Fruit trees grow in the sand in the desert.

Snow and hail are liquid water.

A hurricane is a strong wind.

• In some parts of the world there is not very much water. A lot of people become sick or die of thirst. What can we do to help?

5 I KNOW 1. What the ground is made of. 2. What water is for. Buildings are made out of rocks.

When liquid water gets hot it turns into gas.

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We can catch liquids and gases in our hands.

3. What water is like. 4. What air is like and what it is for.

seventy-four

seventy-five

75

IN ADDITION

REVISION ACTIVITIES. Group work The Smiths visited a village yesterday. Let’s see what they saw.

FIELDS

FLAG

5 Describe the flag.

1 What do we call someone who grows crops?

CUSTOMS

6 What traditional dish are they eating? BAKERY

water

fried fish

onion soup

2 Which raw materials go into flour

this factory?

yeast

MONUMENTS

CUSTOMS

8 What monument did they visit?

7 What colours are the clothes?

Revision activities

3 Which finished product comes out of the factory?

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

4 What are they using? Who did you work with? How many activities did you finish?

160

one hundred and sixty

one hundred and sixty-one

161

To revise previous units with your classmates.

DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES. Group work LOOK AT THE PICTURE

INVESTIGATE 3 Find out the most common shoe size in the class. Before you begin, organise

1 Find and circle things in the picture.

your work.

4 mammals

1 plant with flowers

1 child

1 reptile

4 trees

1 old lady

2 birds

1 lake

1 girl

2 fish

2 clouds

1 gardener

Name and surname

1. Write the names of all your classmates. Write their shoe sizes.

Shoe size

Pilar García

2. Count the number of times you have the same size.

31

Anne Smith

33

Shoe size

Number of times

30

5

31

8

32

17

33

12

34

2

3. Compare the numbers. 4. Decide which size is most common.

Follow the steps and do the work in your notebook.

4 Use the table to answer the questions. Which shoe size is the most common? Which is the smallest size?

Discovery activities

Which is the biggest size?

2 Think about the activity. Which classmates did you work with?

What was the most difficult thing to find?

Which activities did you get right?

Where is it?

64

sixty-four

sixty-five

65

To learn to think like a scientist.

Revision test 3 What are the parts of a plant?

1 Label the picture.

Tick the correct answer. • head

Roots, stem and leaves. Trunk, branches and flowers.

• trunk

Trees, grass and trunk.

• limbs

Now use the words to label the picture.

4 Choose and draw a means of transport. Do not forget to draw • joints

the people or the goods. • land

• sea

• air

2 Classify the animals. • mammal

• bird

• fish

• reptile

• insect

Final revision This is a

5 Find six things farmers provide.

164

one hundred and sixty-four

M L C V L

I B E T V

L N R Y C

K V E J F

E E A L R

L I E G G E T A L S S L H L G C U I T L

G B L M Q

S L O E W

O E P A L

S S D T T

one hundred and sixty-five

165

To check what you have learnt this year. seven

7

7

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Term 1 Contents THEME

INFORMATION

LEARNING TO READ

I CAN DO IT

Welcome unit The human body Theme

1

How does our body work? Theme

2

• The parts of the body • Bones, muscles and joints • The senses

• Descriptive text

• Making a skeleton

• Types of food • The mouth, the teeth

• Descriptive text

• Do a health survey

• Explanatory text

• Making a life cycle

and the stomach

• Breathing and the lungs • Pets and wild animals • Herbivorous

Animals Theme

3

Animals, animals all around Theme

4

Plants Theme

5

wheel

and carnivorous animals • Vertebrates and invertebrates • Viviparous and oviparous animals

• Insects • Fish • Reptiles • Mammals • Birds • Amphibians

• Descriptive text

• Wild plants

• Descriptive text

• Observing and describing marine animals

• Making plant file

and cultivated plants • What plants need • The parts of a plant • Types of plants • Plant reproduction

Assessment criteria

8A

On the next page there is a letter for you to photocopy and hand to the parents of your students. This will help them to participate in supporting their child’s learning.



1. Identifying the parts of the body, bones, muscles and joints 2. Relating food substances to our vital needs 3. Identifying the characteristics of a healthy diet 4. Relating air entering and leaving our bodies to the function of breathing 5. Identifying what changes and what stays the same during growth 6. Classifying animals according to different criteria: the presence of bones, the way they are born, what they eat 7. Identifying the parts of a plant 8. Understanding that a new plant can grow from each seed 9. Appreciating the importance of plants to human beings

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Dear Families: We are about to embark upon the next step in your child’s learning. The children already have a considerable body of knowledge and our aim now is to consolidate and improve this knowledge so that they can learn even more. During this first term in Science, Geography and History your child is going to learn about living beings. We will be looking at how the human body works and which organs we use for breathing and eating. We will also be studying types of animals and plants so that the children can recognise similarities and differences. In order to practice and review what we have done at school you can help by doing activities at home which bring your child into contact with nature. This is how children develop observational skills which help them to identify types of animals and plants. You can also discuss how to care for animals and plants so that your child acquires a sense of responsibility for the other living beings in our environment. Thank you for your support and help.

8B

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Welcome to Year Two 1 What do you do before you go to school? Tick the pictures. F. A. (Free Answer)

In activities 1, 2 and 3 the students will be working with aspects related to the body: personal autonomy and hygiene, diet, etc. Objectives • To identify every-day activities • To recognise and appreciate the importance of personal hygiene. • To identify the appropriate foods for each meal. • To recognise clothing.

I have breakfast.

I get dressed.

I brush my teeth.

I put on my shoes.

I clear the table.

I wash my hands.

Activities • Talk to the students about what the child in activity 1 is doing. Ask them what they do at home after school and before bed. Remind them that they should wash their hands before dinner and brush their teeth after dinner. • Ask the students to put the pictures in order. • For activity 2, discuss the meals of the day. Ask the students: – Do we need to eat every day? Why? – Do you eat macaroni for breakfast? Why? – What would happen if you only ate chocolate and sweets? Would you be healthy? – What kind of things do we have to eat to stay healthy?

2 What did you have for breakfast this morning? Draw a picture.

(Note: check that the food drawn represents a healthy breakfast suitable for the age group.)

What do you have for breakfast on Saturdays and Sundays? F. A. (Free Answer)

8

eight

Language link Materials: pictures of food, shops, pets, clothes, actions we do in the street and at home. Revise key vocabulary for the welcome unit. This unit includes six sets of vocabulary: clothes, food, shops, street objects, actions done at home and pets. Draw six columns on the board, each headed with a category. Hand out the pictures so that students can take turns putting them in the correct columns. Ask the students to help you fill in the columns with key vocabulary.

8

THE WELCOME UNIT This unit has been designed to help the students during the period of adaptation after the summer holidays The objective of these activities is to review and remember what the students learnt last year and to apply some of this knowledge. The welcome unit focuses on a series of activities concerning the immediate world of the child and related to some of the themes that we are going to be looking at this year.

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THE WELCOME UNIT 3 What clothes do you wear every day? Label the pictures.

sockfi

shø±fi

pantfi/ underpantfi

skir†

troußerfi

T-shir†

• After you have done activity 3 ask the students to say what clothes they would wear in different situations. For example: – It’s very cold and it’s raining. What should you wear to school? – It’s very hot and I want to have a swim. What should I wear to go swimming? Activity 4 is designed for the students to express their knowledge of the street, public services and jobs.

4 What do you see on the way to school? Colour the pictures. F. A. (Free Answer)

Objectives • To recognise objects from the street: traffic light, waste paper bin, trees, shops, etc.

Activities a zebra crossing

a bakery

a traffic light

some trees

a traffic policeman

a rubbish bin

nine

9

• Talk to the children about the pictures in activity 4. Ask them to think about how important traffic signs are. Ask the following questions: – What do we do before we cross the road? – Where should we cross the road? – How many colours can you see on the traffic light? What does each colour mean? Are traffic lights just for cars or for cars and people? – What do the traffic police do? • Ask the students to look out of the window for a few minutes and to say what they can see outside. Students work in pairs and draw all the things they can remember seeing outside. Help them to label their pictures by writing the words on the board as they ask for them. • Divide the class into four groups. Tell them to choose one of the pictures in activity 4 and act out a scene based on the picture. For example: buying bread, crossing the road, throwing litter in the bin, etc.

9

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5 Match the pictures and write the name of the shop.

In activity 4 the students use their knowledge to recognise different shops and what each one sells.

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Objectives • To relate the names of the shops to the things we buy in each shop.

Activities • Before doing activity five, ask: – What do we buy at the greengrocer’s/baker’s/...? – Where do you buy...? • Divide the class into four groups and play hangman using shop names. In activity 6 the students express their knowledge about animals.

statio>e®ªfi shø¶ shoπ 6 Circle your favourite pet. F. A. (Free Answer)

Objectives • To understand and express what animals need to survive • To encourage positive attitudes of respect and protection for animals

Activities • Tell the students to look at the pictures in activity 6, name the animals, and then to work out which animals you are describing: – Which animal comes from an egg and can fly? – Which animals come from their mothers’ wombs and are pets? – Which animal comes from an egg and has got a hard shell?

Language link Materials: construction paper, crayons, white paper The students draw their pets or favourite animal on half of the A4 sheet of white paper. They cut them out and glue them onto the construction paper, and write sentences on the other half of the sheet to describe the animal and glue them on below the pictures. Make a wall display with all the pets, entitled Our Pet Gallery.

10

How do you look after your pet? Tick the sentences. I feed my pet every day. I give my pet water every day.

10

ten

✓ ✓

I take my pet to the cinema. I love my pet.



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THE WELCOME UNIT 7 Which picture is like your house? Tick the picture. F. A. (Free Answer)

In activity 7 the students continue working on everyday activities, now focusing on their houses.

Objectives • To identify different types of houses • To describe one’s own house

Circle the correct words and write the missing words. F. A. (Free Answer) I live in a house / flat. It is big / small. It has got and

Activities

windows

• The students should look carefully at the picture in activity 7 and describe the house. Ask: – Which building is probably in a city? Is this building for one family, or more than one? What do we call this kind of house? – Which house is probably in a village? Does it rain or snow a lot in this village? Look at the roof. – Which house is modern and has a garden? – Which building is most like your own house? The object of activity 8 is to reinforce basic spatial concepts, such as left, right, in front of, behind, above, etc.

doors. I have / have not got a garden.

8 Read and complete the picture. Colour the picture. • Flowers around the fountain.

• A pigeon on the roof of the market.

• A dog on the right of the post-box.

• A cat outside the ice-cream shop.

pigeon

cat

dog flowers

Objectives • To reinforce spatial awareness

Activities eleven

11

• After doing activity 8, the students can play Robot steps. Give orders: – Forward three! The students take three steps forward like robots. – Back one! The students take one step back like robots.

Language link Revise vocabulary of the parts of a house with the students: sitting room, hall, kitchen, dining room, bathroom, toilet, bedroom, and garage. They can draw pictures of their houses and label the rooms. Ask the students: – What do we call the room where we do the cooking? – Where do we have a shower?

11

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UNIT 1

The human body UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To recognise that the human body is made in such a way as to allow us different types of activities and movements • To identify the main parts of the human body • To understand one’s own body, its abilities and its limitations • To understand that we relate to our environment through our senses • To understand the limitations of people who have some kind of physical disability (motor disability, blindness or deafness)

Contents THEME: The human body INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The main parts of the body • The human body and movement: bones, muscles and joints • The senses • People with physical disabilities LEARNING TO READ: I have got a new neighbour I CAN DO IT: Making a skeleton

Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

Reflecting on the possibilities of movement in the human body Locating the main parts of the human body Identifying the abilities and limitations of the human body Differentiating between bones, muscles and joints Understanding the senses, the sensory organs and their functions Appreciating healthy habits and the importance of personal hygiene Accepting differences in people

Suggested timing for the unit September

12 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 12-13

14 -15

16-17

* Resources for the teacher

* Other materials for the students

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

The human body ● To locate the main parts of the body in ourselves and in others ● To identify the parts of the body that move and carry out different actions

Moving the body ● To understand the function of the bones, muscles and joints ● To identify the main bones, muscles and joints

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 1



Tasks in natural science: The human body 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 1

The senses To identify the function of each sense ● To relate each sense to its sensory organ ●

18

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding of a descriptive text ● To accept and appreciate people with physical disabilities

19

I can do it ● To study bones and joints through the assembly of a skeleton

20-21

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 1 Test and assessment: Unit 1 test

* Not yet available in English.

12 B

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1 The human body

OBJECTIVES • To locate the main parts of the body in ourselves and in others • To identify the parts of the body that move and carry out different actions

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text within the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the picture. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group.

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the following questions to enable the students to discuss the picture. – Where are the children in the picture? Have you ever been to a place like this? – What are the children doing? Encourage them to use the following words. Climbing, dancing, going up the slide… – Are the children having fun? – Look at the girl climbing up the rope. Which parts of her body is she using? – Look at the girl climbing up the slide. Which parts of her body is she using? • Take some photos and pictures to class of people doing different

12

The children are jumping, running, climbing and playing. They are moving their bodies and having fun.

12

twelve

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • In the presentation of this unit make a special distinction between the following words: hard, rigid, soft and elastic. It is essential that the students should understand these words in order to understand the difference between the characteristics of the bones and the muscles. Elasticity is the key to the working of the muscles. • Some students may not have assimilated the shape and concept of the human body yet. It is important to review this by running through the parts of the body from the head to the feet. Touch and name the parts of the body and get the students to join in with you.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 1 What are the children doing? Complete the sentences. • swimming He is

She is

• jumping

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.

• crawling She is

.

He is

• climbing

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kinds of physical activity. Describe the movements and ask the children to relate the movements to the parts of the body. Then ask them to explain what kinds of actions they can do using the following parts of the body. Arms, hands, legs, head.

.

.

2 Label the picture. HEAD

Multidisciplinary link. Gym

face



cheek



chin



• Ask the students to perform the following actions and movements and to think about the parts of the body they are moving in each case. • jump • write • sew • run • swing backwards and forwards

LIMBS

TRUNK



hand



arm



leg



calf



foot

underarm• chest



Multidisciplinary link. Language stomach •

3 What do you move when you are swimming? Circle the words.

ƒæe† armfi

stomac™ ¬egfi

handfi chi> thirteen

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

13

• Ask the students to memorise and act out the following rhyme: • My body has three main parts, My head, my trunk, my limbs. Here’s my face, my eyes and nose My mouth, my cheeks, my chin. Here’s my trunk, my underarms, My chest and my tummy. And here’s my bellybutton. Doesn’t it look funny? Here are my limbs, my legs, my feet, My arms, my hands, This is how I say hello, And run and jump and stand.

People perform two different types of movement: voluntary movements and involuntary movements. • Voluntary movements are those we do because we want to. For example, run, jump, swim or pick up an object with our hand. • Involuntary movements are those movements which we do not control. For example, sneeze, pull our hand away if we prick our finger or the beating of our hearts.

13

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Moving the body cranium

rib

biceps

pectoral muscles

OBJECTIVES • To understand the function of the bones, muscles and joints • To identify the main bones, muscles and joints

abdominal muscles

spinal column femur

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud and describe the pictures. 2. Discuss the text and the pictures. 3. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the answers to all the activities with the whole class. 6. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 15 out loud.

tibia

calves The muscles in our body

The bones in the skeleton

Bones and muscles The hard parts of our body are called bones.

neck shoulder

• Bones are hard and rigid. We cannot bend them. • Our bones are covered by muscles. We move our body with our muscles.

wrist elbow

• Muscles are soft and elastic. They do not break when we stretch and contract them.

knee

• We bend our body with our joints.

ankle

Main joints

Touch your arms, legs, hands and hips. Can you feel your bones?

14

fourteen

■ Teaching suggestions • Encourage the students to name the parts of the body that we can bend. Help them by asking the following questions: Can we bend our arms? Can we bend our feet? Etc. • Show the students an articulated figure (the wooden figures used for painting and drawing are ideal for this purpose). Point to the main joints and ask the students to help you name them. Elbows, wrists, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles.

14

■ LEARNING SKILLS Interpreting words in bold print When we want to identify the main concepts in a text we can use the words which are highlighted in bold print. These words usually tell us what the main theme of each paragraph is. For example:

◗ Read the text on page 14 and ask the students to answer the following questions: • Which words are highlighted in each paragraph? • Which paragraph gives us information about the main joints? • What is the text about?

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unit 1

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 1 Write true or false.

tr¤æ tr¤æ tr¤æ falßæ

▲ ▲

• There are bones inside our body.

>

• There are bones all over our body.

>

• There are a lot of bones in our hands.





• All our bones are the same.

>

• Explain the function of the muscles to the students. Encourage them to find certain muscles in their bodies and to think about how they work. For example, when we bend our arms or legs we can observe how the biceps work or the muscles in our calves. The muscles get harder and then relax.

>

2 Complete these sentences about muscles. • Our muscles are • We

so‡† mo√¶

elasti©

and

.

our bodies with our muscles.

Multidisciplinary link. Gym

3 Look at the pictures and write the names of the joints.

• Ask the students to perform the following actions to the sound of the tambourine as you play it.

c

b a

• – Move your arms every time you hear the tambourine. • – Cross and uncross your arms when you hear the tambourine. • – Touch your left shoulder with your right hand. • – Touch your right shoulder with your left hand. • – Walk like a robot to the rhythm of the tambourine. Do not bend your knees. • – Walk and lift your knees very high.

e d a) b) c)

elbo∑ k>eæ ank¬æ

d) e)

wris† shoul∂e®

We use our muscles, bones and joints for moving.

fifteen

15

• Ask: What differences do you notice between walking with straight legs and walking as you bend your knees?

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Bones can be classified in the following way: • Long bones: they are long and cylindrical. Their function is to facilitate movement. For example, the femur, the tibia and the humerus. • Short bones: they are short and cube-shaped. Their function is to give strength to the body. For example, the bones in the wrist and the vertebrates. • Flat bones: they are small, flat and not very thick. Their function is to protect other organs. For example, the bones of the cranium.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 1. (See pp. VI-VII)

15

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The senses There are five senses We use our senses to recognise people, animals and things around us.

OBJECTIVES

• Sight: we recognise light, colour, shape and size.

• To identify the function of each sense • To relate each sense to its organ of sense

• Hearing: we recognise voices and sounds. • Smell: we recognise different smells.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• Taste: we recognise different flavours.

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look at and describe the pictures. 3. Discuss the text and the pictures. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 17 out loud.

• Touch: we recognise texture and temperature (soft, hard, hot, cold).

We use five parts of our body for our senses We see with our eyes. We hear with our ears. We touch with our skin. We taste with our tongue. We smell with our nose. How can we look after our eyes? Circle the correct words. Sit close to / a good distance from the television.

16

sixteen

■ Teaching suggestions ADDITIONAL INFORMATION • Before reading the text out loud find out how much the children already know about the senses. Ask them how many senses we have. Ask them to name the senses and what they are each used for. • Prepare three paper plates. Put slices on lemon on one of the plates, crisps on another and sugar on the third. Ask the students to taste the things on the plates.

16 16

The eye

The eyes are the organs of sight. Part of our eyes is for protecting the eye and the other part is used for seeing. The eyelids, eyelashes and the eyebrows protect our eyes. The eyeball, the pupil, the iris and the lens are used for seeing. The eyeball is a sphere shape and it is what we normally call the eye. The pupil is the black dot in the centre of the eyeball. Light enters the eye through the pupil.

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unit 1

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 1 1 Use the key to circle the words. ears

eyes

nose

skin

tongue

* bitter

*

salty

thunder

*

clouds

rough

colours

sound

heat

music

cold

sweet

perfume

• Ask the students the following questions about the foods they have tasted. Is the lemon sweet or bitter? Which of the food you tasted is sweet? What other sweet things can you name? What are the crisps like? Are they sweet, bitter or salty? What other salty foods can you name?

* 2 What sense do we use? Write sight, hearing, smell, taste or touch. The flavour of an ice-cream.

>

The texture of a teddy-bear.

>

A friend’s voice.

>

The smell of a pear.

>

The light of the stars.

>

tas†æ touc™ ™[email protected] sµel¬ sigh†

Multidisciplinary link. Art and Craft • Tell the students to work in pairs and make a collage using different materials of different textures (sandpaper, magazine paper, crepe paper, sand, cloth, wool, cotton, etc.). Once they have finished their work ask them to describe their collages to the rest of the class. They should say what they have included and describe the textures (e.g. rough, soft, delicate…).

3 Write sweet, salty or bitter.

>

bit†e®

>

salt¥

>

Cross-curricular Health and hygiene

s∑æe†

We use our senses to recognise the things around us. We have five senses: hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch.

seventeen

17

• Ask the students to say what happens if they listen to music too loud. Ask them to describe the sensation in their ears. Ask them to think about what might happen to their hearing if they constantly listen to very loud music. Cross-curricular Solidarity

The iris surrounds the pupil. Irises can be different colours. When the iris closes a bit the pupil gets smaller and only a little bit of light enters the eye. When the iris opens up more light enters the eye. The lens is located behind the pupil and inside the eye. This works like an ordinary lens and helps us to focus so that our vision is clearer over various distances. The retina is at the back of the eye. The light that enters the eye through the pupil reaches the retina.

• Ask the students to think about and list ways that they can help people who are blind or deaf. For example, they can help them cross the road, go to the playground at break time or move from one part of the school to another.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 1. (See pp. VI-VII)

17

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LEARNING TO READ

I have got a new neighbour I have got a new neighbour in my street. His name is Leo. Leo is blind. He cannot see people, objects or places. Leo is really great. We go out for walks. Leo uses a white stick. He taps the floor in front of him with his stick. He does not knock into things.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding of a descriptive text • To accept and appreciate people with physical disabilities

He recognises our voices. He has got a lot of friends in our street! He also recognises things just by touching them. When we play a guessing game with our eyes closed, he always wins. Leo is a champion!

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the problems that people with physical disabilities face. 4. Do the activities.

1 Answer the questions. • What sense can Leo not use?

Leo ca>´† ußæ hifi sigh†. • How does he recognise his friends?

Hæ ®ecognißefi t™ei® voi©efi.

■ Teaching suggestions • Lead the students in an experiment on their senses of hearing and sight. Choose one student and say: – Walk around the classroom with your eyes shut; – Now stop. Ask a different student to call the one that has got their eyes shut. – Can you walk towards the person that is calling your name? – Now you may open your eyes. How did you walk in the right direction? Repeat with different students. • Choose a student and say: Please cover your ears. Ask a different student to speak to the one with their ears covered, and discuss how much we can hear with our ears covered, and what it feels like.

18 18

2 Write two games you can play with Leo. M. A. (Model Answer)

[email protected] gaµefi an∂ pasfi t™æ par©e¬. 18

eighteen

LEARNING TO READ Text type: descriptive text This text describes some of the skills that blind people develop in order to overcome their disability. This text highlights the things that the protagonist can do. Activity

Strategy

1

Identifying and understanding details in a text

2

Applying information to other similar situations

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I CAN DO IT

unit 1

UNIT 1 Make a skeleton 1. Trace the skeleton. Draw the skeleton on construction paper. 2. Join the pieces using butterfly-clips.

OBJECTIVES

3. Move the skeleton’s joints.

• To study bones and joints through the assembly of a skeleton

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Explain the skeleton to the class. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Assemble the skeleton. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

■ Teaching suggestions

nineteen

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Braille Alphabet The Braille alphabet is a system of writing for the blind. It was invented by the Frenchman Louis Braille. The letters, numbers and punctuation signs are represented by a combination of six raised dots.

19

• Take a skeleton from the science lab to the classroom and review the main bones and joints with the students. Ask the following questions. Where is the femur? What do we call this joint (point to one)? Which bone is the tibia? Where is the cranium? • Show the students a rag doll. Let them feel it so they can see that it is very soft. Ask them to notice how the doll cannot stand up on its own. Ask the following questions. Do you think that the doll could stand up if we put wires through it? Ask them to think about the fact that the skeleton (all the bones together) keep the body standing upright. Remind them that the soft things covering the bones are the muscles.

19

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Now I know 1 LET’S REMEMBER • We use our muscles, bones and joints for moving. • Bones are hard. The skeleton is made of bones.

OBJECTIVES

• Muscles are soft. We use them for moving.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• We can bend our body with our joints.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• We use our ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin to recognise things around us.

• We use our senses to recognise things around us. • There are five senses: hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, Let’s revise, Let’s practice and I know). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Complete and label the picture. • head

• trunk

>

™ea∂

>

trun§

• limbs

• joints

>

>

jointfi

limbfi

■ Teaching suggestions • Remind the students of the aims of each section. – Let’s remember is designed to reinforce the main concepts studied in the unit. – Let’s work with words is designed to reinforce the main vocabulary studied in the unit. – Let’s revise is designed to reinforce and help them remember some of the basic concepts in the unit. – Let’s practice requires the students to use the knowledge they have acquired in the unit. – I know is a self assessment activity where each student marks what they have learnt.

20 20

20

twenty

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts. • The different movements that the body is capable of • The main parts of the body • The abilities and limitations of the body • The relationship between the skeleton, the muscles, the joints and movement • The use of the senses • The names of some bones and muscles

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UNIT 1 3 LET’S REVISE How do you keep healthy? Colour the pictures.

Multidisciplinary link. Language • Write the key words up on the board. Point to each word and ask the students to tell you something about the word. Ask questions if necessary. For example, Can you point to your limbs? Tell me how many limbs you have got. What do we call these limbs? Etc. Write their answers on the board, and ask the students to copy some of them into their notebooks. Cross-curricular Health and hygiene

4 LET’S PRACTISE Why is David’s arm in plaster? Tick the answer.



• Explain to the students that stretching their backs and walking upright is very important for the development of their bones and muscles. Tell them also how they should carry their schoolbags in order to avoid damage to their backs. It should fit firmly into the centre of their backs and the weight inside the bag should be evenly distributed. Tell them to empty out their schoolbags and fill them again thinking about how they can distribute the contents so that the weight is evenly balanced.

Because a bone in his arm is broken. Because his arm is cold.

excellent good

5 I KNOW…

fair

1. I can move my body in many ways. 2. I must look after my senses. 3. There are bones in my body. 4. The names of the joints in my body.

Language link twenty-one

KEY WORDS • Head • Trunk • Limbs • Skeleton • Ribs • Cranium • Spinal column • Tibia

• Femur • Muscles • Pectoral muscles • Abdominal muscles • Calves • Biceps • Joints

21

Review the parts of the body, and left and right. Tell the students to work in pairs. They need the skeletons they made in the previous lesson. The students stand facing each other and give instructions: Move the left leg. Bend the right knee. Touch the head. Etc.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 1. Test and assessment: Unit 1 sheet. (See pp. VI-VII)

21

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UNIT 2

How does our body work? UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • • • • • • •

To To To To To To To

understand what a healthy diet consists of recognise that nutrition and respiration are vital functions of the body relate taking air in and expelling air with breathing recognise the function of the heart as a vital function understand that our bodies change as we grow read and understand a descriptive text reflect on healthy habits and customs

Contents THEME: How does our body work? INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • A healthy diet • Types of food • Nutrition • Respiration LEARNING TO READ: Growing up I CAN DO IT: Doing a health survey

Assessment criteria • • • • • •

Identifying the characteristics of a healthy diet Understanding that respiration and nutrition are vital functions Explaining the function of the teeth and the stomach in nutrition Explaining the basic function of respiration Recognising healthy dietary habits Identifying some of the changes to the human body during growth

Suggested timing for the unit September

22 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 22-23

24 -25

26-27

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

A healthy diet ● To recognise the need to follow a healthy, balanced diet

Food and nutrition ● To show the route of the alimentary canal and the names of some of the organs involved in the digestive tract

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 2

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: The human body 2

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 2

Breathing To understand that breathing is a vital function



28

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text ● To understand that some things change and some things stay the same through the growth stages

29

I can do it ● To reflect on healthy habits and customs

30-31

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension, sheet 2 Test and assessment: Unit 2 test

* Not yet available in English.

22 B

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2 How does our body work? meat vegetables

OBJECTIVES

fish

• To recognise the need to follow a healthy, balanced diet

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the questions under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the picture. 4. Do the activities.

egg

yoghurt fruit

bread

water

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the following questions to help the students analyse the picture: – How many people can you see? – Where are they? – What are they doing? Are they having breakfast, lunch or dinner? – What food can you see in the picture? – Where is the food? Point out that the food is kept in covered cabinets for health and hygiene purposes. • Ask students to choose a tray of food that they would like to have for lunch and practice ways of asking for the food; remind them to say please and thank you. • Ask the students about the children’s behaviour in the picture. Is anybody running in the canteen? What can you see on the trays besides the food (cutlery: knives, forks and spoons)? What can you see on the table besides the food and water (napkins)?

22

Our body needs lots of different substances. We get these substances from food and water. We must all eat a little bit of everything.

22

twenty-two

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • In this unit we will be working on the anatomy and physiology of the human body. It is important that the students should be able to differentiate between the characteristics and functions of basic organs such as the stomach, the lungs and the heart. They will need these concepts for future years when they will be working more in depth. • It is also important that the students understand clearly which substances are needed for correct physical development during the growth years. They should also acquire good habits of hygiene and healthy attitudes with respect to their personal hygiene.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2 1 Label the pictures. • fish

• meat

• fruit

• vegetables

• milk

• pulses

yoghur† an∂ mil§

fis™

pulßefi µea†

√±@etab¬efi

frui†

• Ask the students the following questions. – Is all the food you eat the same? – Can a person live if they only drink water and they don’t eat anything at all? • Reinforce the idea of different food types by drawing the chart below on the board. Ask the students to classify different food items.

2 Write true or false.

Types of food

The girl needs a lot of sweets. The girl needs a good diet.

Fruit and vegetables

Falßæ Tr¤æ

Meat, fish and pulses Dairy produce Sugar, cereals and bread

The boy does not need a lot of sweets. The boy does not need fruit and vegetables.

Tr¤æ Falßæ

Multidisciplinary link. Language

3 What did you have for lunch? Draw a picture and answer the questions. F. A. Analyse and correct eating habits. • Is it varied? A balanced meal.

• Is it enough? • What is missing? •

twenty-three

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION • A healthy diet consists of a variety of food items and balanced quantities of each type of food. • Food can be classified into four main groups: 1. Dairy produce (milk, yoghurt, cheese, etc.) which strengthens the bones and the teeth. 2. Meat, fish, eggs and pulses which are necessary for growth. 3. Cereals, bread, pasta, potatoes and sugar, which give us energy. 4. Fruit, vegetables and salad which give us vitamins.

23

• Develop the students’ vocabulary by associating food with the shops where it is bought. Write a list of shop words on the board and ask the students what they buy in each shop (fishmonger’s, butcher’s, greengrocer’s, supermarket, baker’s…). Then clean the board and write the names of food items and ask the students where they would buy each item. • Play a chain game. Start of by saying: I went to the fishmonger’s and I bought some sardines. The next students should repeat your sentence and add another and so on. Cross-curricular Health and hygiene • Discuss healthy eating with the students: • – You should eat all of the different types of food in the correct proportions. • – It is not good to eat a lot of sweets and other foods that are not nutritious. • – Can you help me write out a balanced menu, including breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner?

23

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We need to eat

mouth

We put food and water into our mouth.

OBJECTIVES

We use our tongue to mix the food with saliva.

• To show the route of the alimentary canal and the names of some of the organs involved in the digestive tract

lip

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read each paragraph out loud and describe the corresponding pictures. 2. Discuss the pictures and text. 3. Read the instructions out loud and explain what the students should do. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the answers with the whole class.

milk teeth

tongue

We cut and chew our food with our teeth.

molars (grind)

canine (tears)

molars

canine incisors (cut)

We swallow our food and it goes to our stomach. stomach

Complete the sentence. We must very well.

■ Teaching suggestions • Find out how much the children already know about teeth and digestion. Ask the following questions. – Do all our teeth look the same? Why do we have different kinds of teeth? – What would happen if we lost all our teeth at the same time? – Do you know these words: grind, tear, cut? Can you show me these actions with your hands? – What happens inside our bodies when we eat? Where does the food go?

24

24

c™e∑

our food

twenty-four

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Other organs of the digestive tract are: • The salivary glands. They produce saliva which we need to make the food moist and soft. • The oesophagus. This is the tube which connects the mouth to the stomach. • The intestines. Nutritious substances pass from the small intestine into the blood. The waste products then go into the large intestine and are eliminated.

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unit 2

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2 1 Use the key to colour the teeth. Teeth that tear.

• Write the following words on the board and ask the students to take turns coming to the board and underlining those words which have something to do with the digestion of food. ears stomach tongue saliva nose hand teeth air mouth

Teeth that cut. Teeth that grind.

2 Where does the food go? Colour the route and label the picture.

†æet™

Cross-curricular Health and hygiene

mout™

Tell the students that they should wash their hands before each meal and brush their teeth after each meal. Tell them to draw a chart and cross off each day after each meal.

stomac™ 3 Use the words to complete the sentences. • stomach

• mouth

First, we put the food in our Then, we chew with our

• teeth

mout™ †æet™

We use our tongue to mix the food with The food goes to our

stomac™

• saliva

M Tu W Th F

.

S Su

Breakfast

.

salivå

Lunch

. Dinner

.

Everybody needs food. We put the food in our mouth, we chew it and then we swallow it. The food goes to our stomach.

twenty-five

■ LEARNING SKILLS Finding information in a picture In order to find information in a picture we need to look carefully at all the details, especially the labels which complement the information or add more information. For example:

Language link

25

Teach the students the following rhyme. Show them how to mime the actions to demonstrate the correct movement of the toothbrush. • Brush up and down • Brush in and out. • Every day three times. • Now wash your brush • And rinse your mouth • Now everybody smile!

◗ Look at the picture on page 24 and answer the following questions: • What do we call the teeth which are used for tearing food? • What do we call the teeth which are used for grinding food? • What do we call the teeth which are used for cutting food?

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 2. (See pp. VI-VII)

• Where did you find these names?

25

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We need to breathe nose

air goes in air comes out

OBJECTIVES • To understand that breathing is a vital function

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the paragraphs out loud and describe the corresponding pictures. 2. Discuss the pictures and the texts. 3. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that all the students know what they should do. 4. Do the activities. 5. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 27 out loud.

lungs

When we breathe in, air goes into our body through our nose. The air goes to our lungs. Then we breathe out and expel the air. Our body needs the oxygen in the air.

heart

The blood transports and distributes the nutrients and the oxygen around our body. The heart beats and pumps the blood round our body.

■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss breathing with the students. Tell them: Breathe in and out slowly; now breathe more quickly. What changes can you notice? Now put your hand on your chest, and see what each rhythm of breathing feels like. • Tell the children to try to find their ribs. Explain that their lungs are behind their ribs and that the ribs are bones which protect our lungs. • Show the students how they can find their pulse. Explain that the soft movement they can feel is their blood flowing around their bodies. • After reading the text, ask: – What does our blood do? (It transports nutrients and oxygen around the body).

26 26

Put your hands on your chest and breathe in. What can you feel?

26

twenty-six

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Hiccups

When we get hiccups a strange sudden sound is made by a muscle which is located just below the lungs. The movement of this muscle helps our breathing. It is called the diaphragm. When the diaphragm is irritated we get hiccups. One of the causes of hiccups is eating too much, too fast. If you get hiccups you can try one of the following remedies: • Breathe into a paper bag. • Pinch your nostrils together and take small sips of water. • Put some sugar under your tongue. • Ask somebody to give you a big shock!

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unit 2

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 2

1 Look at the picture and complete the sentences. • First they fill their lungs with .

ai®

• Then they blow the into the balloons.

– What do we mean when we say that our heart beats? (It means that it moves in and out). Ask them to think about the rhythmic beating of a drum. Tell the students to find their pulses and say the rhythm out loud.

ai®

2 Use the key to colour the pictures. Now label the pictures. the heart

the lungs

Multidisciplinary link. Language • Explain the meaning of the following words: – Inhale: (breathe in): take air into your lungs. – Exhale: (breathe out): expel the air from your lungs.

t™æ lungfi

t™æ ™ear†

Language link

3 Circle the differences in picture a . a

b

• Which man is breathing clean air?

T™æ ma> i> pictu®æ ∫.

Everybody needs to breathe. Our blood transports and distributes the nutrients from our stomach and the oxygen from our lungs.

twenty-seven

■ LEARNING SKILLS Underlining words Underlining words is a good way of helping us to remember parts of a text very quickly. One way the students can do this is by underlining the main idea or ideas in a text. For example:

◗ Look at the following text in which the key words have been underlined. Then underline the key words in the paragraph at the bottom of page 27. When we breathe , air enters our body through our nose. The air reaches the lungs and then we breathe out again. Our body need the oxygen in the air.

27

Materials: construction paper, felt tip pens. This unit contains some words which the students may find difficult to remember and especially to spell. breathe (in and out), distribute, exhale, expel, heart, inhale, lungs, nutrient, oxygen and transport. It is important that they should learn to use the correct terms. Divide the class into groups. Give each group a couple of words from the list above. The students should write their words in the middle of pieces of construction paper and illustrate the meaning of the word. They can also think of some simple sentences using the words and write them around the word as examples. Display the word posters on the wall of the classroom and use them to remind the students of the correct terminology while working through the unit.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 2. (See pp. VI-VII)

27

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LEARNING TO READ

Growing up Human beings are living beings. All living beings are born. Then they grow and change.

OBJECTIVES

As we grow our bodies change.

• To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text • To understand that some things change and some things stay the same through the growth stages

Children grow very quickly. Our height and our weight increase very quickly.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Everybody learns new things as they grow up.

When we are fifteen our bodies grow more slowly. At fifteen there are more differences between girls and boys, too. Our body stops growing when we are adults. As we get older we learn more and we know more.

1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Do the activities.

1 Answer the questions. • Do children grow very quickly?

Yefi, t™e¥ do. • Do adults stop growing?

■ Teaching suggestions • All the students can write their own autobiography with the help of their families. Ask the parents to give children information about one significant event for each year of their lives. For example: – In my first year I learnt to sit up and crawl. – When I was two years old I stopped using a dummy. Multidisciplinary link Art and craft • Make a classroom poster using photos of the students when they were babies. Write the title When we were young across the top of a large sheet of paper and glue the photos of the students on the paper. Display the poster on the wall.

28 28

Yefi, t™e¥ do. 1 2 How has your body changed? Write three things. M. A.

I´µ tal¬e®, I´µ ™eav^e® an∂ I´√¶ go† †æet™. 28

twenty-eight

LEARNING TO READ Text type: descriptive text This text describes a process. Certain expressions such as: Then they grow and change, When we are fifteen and As we get older mark the progression of stages in our lives. Activity

Strategy

1

Understanding details in a text

2

Applying information to new contexts

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unit 2

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 2 A health survey 1 Use the key to colour the boxes. F. A. never

always

sometimes

Reinforce good habits. Correct bad habits.

OBJECTIVES • To reflect on healthy habits and customs

I wash my hands before eating. I brush my teeth after eating. I have a shower every day.

■ Teaching suggestions

I have a varied diet.

• Ask the students: – What is a survey? (It’s a series of questions. In this case we have to tick the answers that apply to us). – What is a survey for? (It is to find out more information about people and their habits.)

I eat enough food. I sit up straight. I do exercise. I go to the doctor’s when I am ill. I go to the doctor’s for check-ups.

Cross-curricular Health and hygiene

2 Answer the question. F. A. • How can you look after yourself better?

• I should twenty-nine

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Dentistry is a field of medicine which treats illnesses and problems in the mouth and teeth. Cavities are the most common problem that we have with our teeth. Cavities destroy the teeth little by little. They begin by destroying the surface of the tooth and progress gradually to the inside of the tooth. Once the cavity is deep it can be very painful and we need to go to the dentist to have a filling. In order to prevent cavities we should brush our teeth after every meal and not eat too many sweet things.

29

Ask the students to think carefully about personal hygiene and why it is important. Suggest reasons to them, for example: Our hands collect lots of dirt. That’s why we need to wash them before meals. If we don’t wash everyday and wear clean clothes, our bodies don’t smell very nice. We share our classroom with our classmates and it isn’t nice for other people if we smell bad.

Language link • Ask the students to classify things that they do every day, every week and from time to time, with regard to health and personal hygiene. For example, every day: have a shower, brush my teeth, wash my hands, change my clothes, comb my hair…; every week: cut my nails, wash my hair, clean my ears…; from time to time: visit the doctor, visit the dentist, buy a new tooth brush, wash my hair brush…

29

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • Everybody needs to eat and breathe. • We chew our food in our mouth and it goes to our stomach.

OBJECTIVES

• When we breathe in, the air goes to our lungs.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Our heart beats and pumps the blood round our body. • The blood distributes the nutrients and the oxygen. • Our height and weight increase very quickly when we are children.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

Label the pictures. Write a sentence about each picture. • mouth

• nose

• lungs

• stomach

• air

• food F. A.

lungfi

noßæ ai® breathing

stomac™ ■ Teaching suggestions • Remind the students of the aims of each section: – Let’s remember is designed to reinforce the main concepts studied in the unit. – Let’s work with words, to reinforce the main vocabulary studied in the unit. – Let’s revise, to reinforce and remember some of the basic concepts in the unit. – Let’s practice requires the students to use the knowledge they have acquired in the unit. – I know is a self-assessment activity where each student marks what they have learnt. • Talk to the students about what they have learnt in this unit and encourage them to give their opinion about the activities they have worked with. Ask:

30 30

mout™

foo∂ eating

30

thirty

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The characteristics of a healthy, balanced diet • Nutrition and breathing are essential for human life • The function of the stomach, teeth, heart, lungs, and blood • People’s bodies change as they grow • Healthy habits and customs we should follow

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UNIT 2 3 LET’S REVISE Fill in the card. Draw a picture of yourself. F. A. ME I am

– Which activities did you like most/least? – Which activities were difficult/easy? – In which activities did you learn more/less? • Ask the students to read section 1 (Let’s remember) in silence, and try to memorise the sentences. Tell the students to close their books, give them the first few words of each sentence and see if they can supply the rest of the sentence. • Take some large plastic bags to school. Make holes in them for the arms and tell the students to put them on as if they were a jacket (with the opening at the back). Students can use felt tip pens to draw the position of the following organs on their partners: heart, lungs, stomach.

centimetres tall.

I weigh

A self-portrait.

kilos.

My shoes are size I have lost

. teeth.

Things I do to keep healthy and strong: I

4 LET’S PRACTISE Circle the answers. Can the swimmer breathe under water? Yes she can. / No she can’t. How long can she stay under the water? 3 minutes. / 3 hours. / 1 day.

Language link

5 I KNOW… 1. Everybody needs to breathe. 2. We use our lungs to breathe. 3. Everybody needs a varied diet. 4. I am growing and my body is changing.

thirty-one

KEY WORDS • Nutrition • Food • Breathing • Mouth • Tongue • Saliva • Teeth

• Stomach • Nose • Lungs • Blood • Heart

31

• Materials: a large sheet of continuous paper, blue paint and rulers. • Tell all the children to take off one shoe and sock. Place the continuous paper on the floor and ask the students to line up and place a hand print and a foot print on the paper. Write the students name above each set of prints. Tell the children to find their prints on the paper, measure the length of their footprints and hand prints and write the length by the side. Then tell them to write in their shoe sizes. • Display the mural and ask questions, for example: Who has got the biggest feet?

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 2. Test and assessment: Unit 2 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

31

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UNIT 3

Animals UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To recognise that animals are born, grow and die and therefore are living beings • To appreciate the life cycle • To classify animals according to different criteria • To identify the different types of food animals eat and the different ways they are born • To encourage respect for all living beings

Contents THEME: Animals INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Pets and wild animals • The main parts of animal bodies • Herbivores and carnivores, vertebrates and invertebrates • Types of animals according to the way they are born: viviparous and oviparous animals • The dangers to animal life • Stages in animals’ lives LEARNING TO READ: We look after animals I CAN DO IT: The life cycle

Assessment criteria • Recognising that animals are living beings which are born, grow and die • Identifying different ways in which animals are born and different food that they eat • Classifying animals according to how they are born • Classifying animals according to the food they eat • Differentiating between vertebrates and invertebrates • Showing respect for animal life

Suggested timing for the unit September

32 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 32-33

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

Pets, farm animals and wild animals. ● To recognise the main features of pets, farm animals and wild animals ● To locate the main parts of animals’ bodies

34-35

Herbivores, carnivores, vertebrates and invertebrates ● To classify animals according to whether they are herbivores or carnivores ● To identify vertebrates and invertebrates

36-37

Types of animals according to how they are born: viviparous or oviparous ● To distinguish the ways animals are born ● To classify animals according to how they are born

38

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through an explanatory text ● To encourage respect and protection of animal life

39

I can do it ● To reflect on the stages of the life cycle

40-41

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: Animals and plants 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 2 Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 3

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 3 Test and assessment: Unit 3 test

* Not yet available in English.

32 B

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3 Animals wild animals

OBJECTIVES

toucan

• To recognise the main features of pets, farm animals and wild animals • To locate the main parts of animals’ bodies

pets

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text and the questions under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the picture. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

Lucy brings her rabbit to school. Her friends ask lots of questions. What do rabbits eat? Do they eat meat like wolves? Do they eat plants like sheep? Can a rabbit be a pet like a dog or a cat?

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students to look carefully at the main picture and read the words in the illustration. Then ask the following questions: – Have any of you got a pet rabbit at home? – What other pets have you got? – Ask the students who have dogs and cats: What do they eat? How often do you feed them? Do you take them for a walk? How often? How often do you have to change their water? – Who looks after the pets in your house? – Has anybody got a real lion, tiger or bear at home? Why do you think that we don’t keep these kinds of animals as pets? Where do these animals normally live?

32

32

thirty-two

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • When you are working with the question of carnivorous animals being meat eating animals some students may believe that “meat” means pork or beef. Explain that in this case “meat eating” means that they eat fish, mice, birds and so on. • While you are working through the unit and especially in the section on looking after pets explain to the students that although some animals are carnivores we give them animal feed made up of different products. This is the case of dogs and cats.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3 1 Match the pictures and the sentences. • They live close to people. Pets and farm animals • They live a long way from people.

• Show the students photos of different animals and ask them to say whether they are pets, farm animals or wild animals. • Play the animal chain game. Start the chain off by saying: My favourite animal is a tiger. Point to another students who says: My favourite animal is a tiger and a rabbit. Continue making the chain with different animal words until somebody makes a mistake with the sequence. Start again.

• They can feed and look after themselves.

Wild animals

• People feed and look after them.

2 Label the picture. • head >

• mouth

• ear

• legs

• tail

• skin

• eye

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tai¬

Multidisciplinary link. Gym

3 What does a rabbit eat? Use the key to colour the picture. Grass, leaves, carrots. 1

3

3 3

3

1

Multidisciplinary link. Language

2

1 1 3 1

1

2

1

3 3

• Ask the students to mime the movements of the following animals: a cat, a bear, a kangaroo, a frog and a bird. Then ask the students to think about the kinds of sounds these animals make.

2 2

Pets live with people. People feed them and look after them. Wild animals feed and look after themselves.

thirty-three

• When you are working with the section on fish explain that the fish bones are the skeleton of the fish’s body. • Make sure they understand the difference between a hard exoskeleton and a shell. The exoskeleton is completely joined to the body of the animal (a tortoise or a crab). The shell is partially separate (a mussel or an oyster).

33

• Explain to the students that we often use expressions about animals to describe a person. Give them some examples: as busy as a bee; as greedy as a pig, swim like a fish, naughty monkey, etc. • Discuss the meanings of these expressions and ask the students why we use them. Tell the students to choose one of the animals they have discussed, draw a picture and write the expression. They should try to reflect the trait in their pictures. Cross-curricular Responsibility • Discuss the needs of pets and how we should look after them. Talk about being a responsible pet owner. Discuss feeding, giving fresh water, keeping the pets clean, taking them for walks, loving them and showing affection, keeping the streets clean and so on.

33

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What are animals like? big ears

fur

What is a rabbit like? OBJECTIVES

Rabbits have got long teeth to cut the plants they eat. Animals that eat plants are called herbivores.

• To classify animals according to whether they are herbivores or carnivores • To identify vertebrates and invertebrates

short tail

Animals that eat meat are called carnivores. Sharks and lions are carnivores.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the text and the pictures. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 35 out loud.

Vertebrates and invertebrates. Rabbits have got bones inside their bodies. the skeleton of a rabbit

• Animals with bones are called vertebrates. Rabbits are vertebrates. Dogs and sardines are also vertebrates.

the skeleton of a sardine

• Animals without bones are called invertebrates. Clams and worms are invertebrates.

clam

worm

Are people vertebrates or invertebrates? We are vertebrates.

34

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students the following questions. When we have chicken for lunch, do we eat the bones? Do we eat the lamb chop bones? Do we eat the fish bones? Why not? • Take a complete fish bone into class and some chicken and rabbit bones so that they students can observe the shape, consistency and types of bones (flat bone, long bones, joints, etc).

34

thirty-four

■ LEARNING SKILLS Classifying according to specific criteria Classification according to common characteristics is a very useful way of organising information. For example:

◗ Classify the following animals into vertebrates and invertebrates. sardine – rabbit – fly – worm – pigeon – prawn – spider Vertebrates

Invertebrates

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unit 3

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3 1 Colour the animals’ food. Label the pictures herbivore or carnivore.

>

carnivo®æ

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft • Give each student a sheet of paper with a partially drawn elephant. Leave out the ears, trunk and tail, for instance. Tell the students to complete and colour the picture. Ask the following questions: Is the elephant a vertebrate or an invertebrate? Is it a herbivore or a carnivore? Is it a pet or a wild animal?

™erbivo®æ carnivo®æ

™erbivo®æ

2 Match the pictures.

bones

shell

Language link

hard exoskeleton

3 Colour the skeletons of the vertebrates.

fish

dove

dog

Herbivores eat plants. Carnivores eat other animals. Vertebrates have got bones. Invertebrates have not got bones.

thirty-five

35

Give the students the following animal quiz to do in pairs. 1. Write the names of three herbivorous animals. 2. Write the names of three carnivorous animals. 3. Write the names of three vertebrates. 4. Write the names of three invertebrates. 5. Write the names of two herbivorous vertebrates. 6. Write the names of two carnivorous vertebrates. Tell the students to say stop when they have finished the quiz. The first pair to finish reads its answers to the rest of the class for discussion.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Omnivorous animals Animals which eat both plants and meat are called omnivorous animals. Tortoises, pigs and bears are all omnivorous. The largest animal in the Spanish fauna is the brown bear, which is unfortunately in danger of extinction. It lives in the Cantabrian mountain range and in the Pyrenees. Although its diet consists mainly of plants such as chestnuts, acorns and walnuts it also eats small animals like snails and ants. One of its favourite treats is honey

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 3. (See pp. VI-VII)

35

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Animals are born and grow Rabbits come from their mother’s womb. Rabbits, horses, monkeys and lots of other animals come from their mothers’ wombs.

OBJECTIVES

Animals that are born like this are called viviparous animals.

• To distinguish the ways animals are born • To classify animals according to how they are born

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the text and the pictures. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 35 out loud.

Ducks are different from cats. Ducklings come from eggs. The mother duck lays the eggs. Fish, frogs, crocodiles and butterflies come from eggs. Animals which come from eggs are called oviparous animals.

How many names for baby animals do you know? M. A. Chicks, puppies, kittens, lambs, calves…

36

thirty-six

■ Teaching suggestions • In order to find out what the students already know about this theme ask them how certain animals are born (a cow, a rabbit, a chicken, a sardine, a horse, a turkey…). Ask: Is this animal born from an egg or from its mother’s womb? Point to your stomach to show them what you mean. Explain: Some animals are born from eggs which the female of the species lays. These animals are called oviparous. Give some examples (a chicken, a sardine,

36 36

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION How long does it take for animals to be born? Not all animals take the same length of time to be born. The time taken from the laying of an eggs to the hatching of the chick varies from bird to bird. For example: Time taken for bird eggs to hatch Canary 13 days Pigeon 18 days Hen 21 days Duck 28 days Goose 31 days Ostrich 42 days

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unit 3

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 3 1 Tick the oviparous animals.









a frog). Other animals are born from their mothers’ wombs (a horse, a cow, a human being). These animals are called viviparous. Tell the students to draw two columns in their notebooks and classify animals into oviparous and viviparous. • Discuss the way that oviparous animals are born. Explain that not only birds are born from eggs but also fish, insects and reptiles. Then ask: Are all eggs the same? Are they all the same shape and colour? Do all animals lay eggs? Make sure that they understand that some marine animals are viviparous, such as whales and dolphins.



2 How a sparrow is born. Complete the sentences. 3

2

1

The mother lays the

eggfi

The baby breaks the

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.

• The sparrow is an

and is born.

The mother gives the chick

foo∂

.

animal because it is born from an egg.

3 Number the sentences in the correct order.

2

3

1

The calf has just been born.

The calf is inside the mother.

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft

The calf is drinking the mother’s milk.

Oviparous animals come from eggs. The mother lays the eggs. Viviparous animals come from their mother’s womb.

thirty-seven

37

• Divide the class into two groups. Give each group a piece of construction paper, entitled Oviparous animals, and Viviparous animals. Each group makes a poster by cutting out and gluing animals from their group onto the construction paper. Under each animal they should write the name. Ask students to present their poster to the rest of the class. Cross-curricular Team work

It is the same case with the mammals. Not all babies remain inside their mother’s wombs for the same length of time. For example: Time taken for mammals to be born Cat 2 months Lion 3 months Bear 7 months Human being 9 months Dolphin 11 months Elephant 22 months

• Before beginning the activity above remind the students of the rules for working in teams. They should agree on a division of tasks, they must not impose their ideas on everyone else, they should avoid arguments, etc.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 3. (See pp. VI-VII)

37

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LEARNING TO READ

We look after animals Animals are living beings. All living beings are born, grow, get old and die. Some animals only live for a few days, like flies. Some animals live for a long time. Tortoises can live longer than people.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through an explanatory text • To encourage respect and protection of animal life

A lot of animals are in danger. Some animals cannot find enough food. Other animals live in polluted places. Some animals lose their parents and they cannot survive.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

We should protect and look after all animals.

1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the importance of protecting and caring for animals. 4. Do the activities.

1 Write true (T) or false (F).

F F T

All animals live for a long time. All animals live for a short time. Some animals live for a long time and others live for a short time.

Read the passage again. Find and classify two animals.

Cross-curricular Responsibility Tell the students that they must never abandon an animal nor should they bring home abandoned animals without asking their parents first. If they find an abandoned animal they should tell a grown up so that he or she can get in touch with a special organisation that cares for abandoned animals.

38 38

It lives for many years.



tortoißæ



fl¥

■ Teaching suggestions • Explain to the students: When certain animal species are not really able to survive or reproduce on their own in their natural environment we say they are in danger of extinction. There are many species that are currently in danger of extinction: whales, the lynx, seals, bears, etc.

It lives for a few days.

2 Why are animals in danger? Complete the sentences.

38

fin∂ enoug™ foo∂ i> pollu†e∂ pla©efi

Some animals cannot

.

Other animals live

.

thirty-eight

LEARNING TO READ Text type: explanatory type This text has the following structure: • The normal life cycle of animals with some specific examples • The risks and dangers of animal life • The responsibility that humans have towards animal protection Activity

Strategy

1

Understanding details in a text

2

Giving opinions

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unit 3

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 3 The life cycle 1 Complete the life cycle. • Colour the arrows.

OBJECTIVES

• Complete the picture.

• To reflect on the stages of the life cycle

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 2. Draw and colour the elements in the life cycle. 3. Make the wheel for the life cycle. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

Newborn chick

2 Follow the instructions. 1

2

3

■ Teaching suggestions Turn the wheel. What can you see? F. A.

thirty-nine

■ LEARNING SKILLS Summarising a text in a title We use titles in order to summarise a text in just a few words. These titles should be short and should say what the text is about in a very general way. For example:

◗ Read the following text and write a title. Title: _______________ Rabbits have got very long teeth. They use these teeth to cut plants which they eat. Animals that eat plants are called herbivores.

39

• Give each student a sequence of three scenes on the theme of the life cycle of an animal or a person. Ask them to place the scenes in the correct order. • Tell the students to bring three photos of themselves to school; one photo of when they were babies, one photo of when they first went to school and another more recent photo. Ask them to glue the photos onto a piece of construction paper in chronological order. • Ask the following questions in order to make them think carefully about the life cycle: – What would happen if men and women stopped having babies? – What would happen if only one pair of lions were left (a male and a female) and they did not have any cubs?

39

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • Animals are living beings: they are born, they grow and they die.

OBJECTIVES

• Animals move from place to place and eat other living beings.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit

• Herbivores eat plants. Carnivores eat other animals.

• Review of the unit

• Vertebrates have got bones. Invertebrates have not got bones.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• Oviparous animals come from eggs. Viviparous animals come from their mother’s womb.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Use the words to complete the word map. • oviparous animals • invertebrates

they eat meat

■ Teaching suggestions

40 40

• carnivores

• vertebrates • viviparous animals

ANIMALS

food

• Remind the students of the aims of each section. • Encourage the students to think about the work they have done by asking the following questions: – How can we classify animals by the different types of food that they eat? – How are viviparous animals born? – What do we call animals that have bones inside their bodies? • Tell the students to work in pairs and make index cards about different animals using the following model: – This is a (name of animal). – It was born ……… so it is a ………. – It eats ……… so it is a ………. – It is a ……… so it has/hasn’t got bones.

• herbivores

bones

they eat plants

they have they have not got bones got bones

the way they are born

they come from eggs

they come from their mother’s womb

carnivo®efi √±r†ebra†efi oviparoufi ™erbivo®efi in√±r†ebra†efi viviparoufi 40

forty

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The difference between vertebrates and invertebrates • The main differences between pets, farm animals and wild animals • The different types of food that animals eat • The two ways in which animals are born • The need to protect and care for animals

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UNIT 3 3 LET’S REVISE How do animals help us? Match the pictures to the sentences.

They give us food.



– It lives ……… (on the land, in water…)

They help us.



Language link

They work for us.



They are pets.



4 LET’S PRACTISE Solve the problem: John has got a problem. His dog does not want to eat, run or play. What should John do? Tick the correct sentence. 1. He should take his dog to the park. 2. He should take his dog to the vet.



3. He should take his dog to the hospital.

5 I KNOW... 1. Animals are living beings. 2. How animals are born. 3. It is important to look after animals. 4. Some animals have got bones inside their bodies. forty-one

41

• Materials: flashcards or picture of different types of animals (insects, birds, fish, mammals). • Give each student a picture or a flashcard. Ask the students to do the following: Stand up and name your animal. Give as much information as you can about the animal. For example: This is a lion. It’s a carnivore, it’s a vertebrate and it is viviparous. • Call out classifications, for example: herbivores. All the students holding pictures of herbivores should stand up and hold out their picture. The rest of the class can check that students standing are right. • Play the classification game. • Tell the students that you are going to call out two classification words. They should form two groups according to the pictures they are holding. Tell the students to form the following groups: herbivores and carnivores; vertebrates and invertebrates; viviparous and oviparous; wild animals and pets or farm animals.

KEY WORDS • Animal • Pet • Farm animal • Wild animal • Carnivore • Vertebrate

• Invertebrate • Viviparous • Oviparous Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 3. Test and assessment: Unit 3 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

41

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UNIT 4

Animals, animals all around UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To understand that there are many different groups of animals • To classify animals into insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and amphibians • To recognise some of the essential characteristics of insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and amphibians • To identify the way that insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and amphibians reproduce and what they eat • To appreciate animal life

Contents THEME: Animals, animals all around INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Insects • Fish • Reptiles • Mammals • Birds • Amphibians • Marine animals LEARNING TO READ: Amphibians I CAN DO IT: Marine animals

Assessment criteria • Understanding that there are different types of animals • Understanding that each type of animal has specific characteristics • Identifying the way in which insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, birds and amphibians reproduce and what they eat • Describing and classifying animals according to different criteria • Appreciating and respecting the importance of animal life

Suggested timing for the unit September

42 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 42-43

44-45

46-47

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

Insects ● To distinguish the main characteristics of insects ● To identify some insects

Fish and reptiles ● To distinguish the main characteristics of fish and reptiles ● To identify some fish and reptiles

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 4

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science Animals and plants 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 4 ● Workbook unit 4

Mammals and birds To distinguish the main characteristics of mammals and birds ● To identify some mammals and birds ●

48

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text ● To identify the main characteristics of amphibians ● To recognise some amphibians

49

I can do it ● To identify and describe the external characteristics of some marine animals

50-51

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 4 Test and assessment: Unit 4 test

* Not yet available in English.

42 B

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4 Animals, animals all around

OBJECTIVES • To distinguish the main characteristics of insects • To identify some insects

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the picture. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 6. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 43 out loud.

dragon fly ladybird bee wasp

grasshopper

At midday the sun is warm. A lot of insects come out to fly. Insects have not got any bones. They are very small. Insects have got six legs. Some insects have got wings.

■ Teaching suggestions • Read the words in the picture and ask the students to look carefully at the picture. Then ask the following questions: – How many animals can you see in the picture? – In real life which is the biggest animal and which is the smallest? – Which animals fly? – Which animals have fins? – How do ladybirds move? How do grasshoppers move? – Where do fish live? On the land or in the water?

42

42

forty-two

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • It is important to clarify for the students that some animals that live in the water like whales or dolphins are not fish but mammals. • Students often classify spiders as insects. In order to avoid this confusion highlight the fact that insects all have six legs and that spiders have eight legs which is why they are not insects. Spiders belong to their own group called arachnids. • When you are describing reptiles explain that not all reptiles crawl along the ground like snakes. Some reptiles, like crocodiles, have legs and they walk or even run.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 4 1 Copy and label the picture. eye

• Write the following words on the board and ask the students to say which words are related to insects: • antennae • fins • viviparous • oviparous • vertebrates • invertebrates • wings • legs • bones • Explain how each word is related to insects. When you speak about legs remind them that insects all have six legs. Spiders have eight legs which is why they are not insects.

Insect with labelled parts.

antennae

head legs beetle

2 Write true (T) or false (F).

F T

T Insects come from eggs.

T T

Insects are invertebrates.

Insects are very big. Insects have got antennae.

Insects have got legs.

3 Find six insects. Label the pictures.

but†er‡l¥ an† mosquito fl¥

∫¶æ

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft H

O

R

M

I

A

N

T

W

A

E

R

A

W

A

S

P

A

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U

E

P

A

B

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E

A

N

P

I

M

O

F

L

Y

M

B

U

T

T

E

R

F

L

Y

M

O

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• Give each student a big picture of a ladybird. Tell them to colour in the ladybird and glue their picture onto a piece of construction paper. Tell the students to make holes where the black spots are and glue black shiny paper to the back of the drawing.

wasπ

Multidisciplinary link. Language

Insects are invertebrates. They have got six legs and two antennae. A lot of insects have got wings.

forty-three

43

• Ask the students to write three sentences about insects. They should begin their sentences with: All insects ... (for example: are oviparous, have six legs, are invertebrates). Language link

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Ants Ant are insects. They are found all over the world. One of the main characteristics of ants is that they are social creatures. They live in large groups and they share out the work. There are three different types of ants.

• Make an insect mural. Tell the students to find pictures of insects and bring them into class. Draw a background of a field and a small pond. Tell the students to glue their insects to the background and make labels for the names.

• Queens: they have wings and are responsible for laying the eggs which will be the next generation of ants. • Males: their function is to fertilise the queen ants. • Workers: they have no wings and their mission is to collect food and build the defences of the ant nest.

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Fish. Reptiles carp

Fish Carp are oviparous animals. They are vertebrates and they live in water. Some fish live in rivers, like carp.

OBJECTIVES

Carp have got fins. They use their fins for swimming. Their bodies are covered in shiny scales.

• To distinguish the main characteristics of fish and reptiles • To identify some fish and reptiles

Other fish, like bream and horse-mackerel, live in the sea. trunk scales

bream

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

head

tail

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 45 out loud.

carp

fins

horse-mackerel trunk

scales

head

Reptiles are vertebrates. They are oviparous animals. They live on the land.

legs

tail

Reptiles

lizard

snake

A lot of reptiles have got short legs, like crocodiles and lizards. Lizards have got long bodies and long, thin tails. Their bodies are covered in scales. Other reptiles have not got any legs, like snakes. They slide along the ground.

How is an oviparous animal born?

44

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask any students who have pet fish the following: Can you explain to us what you give the fish to eat? How do fish sleep? How are they born? How do you look after your fish? • Ask the students to think about the similarities between fish and reptiles, and to complete the following sentences in their notebooks.

44

forty-four

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Fish Fish are aquatic animals. They breathe through gills which are located at either side of the head. Fish take oxygen from the water and absorb it through the gills unlike land animals which take oxygen from the air. Fish eat plankton, marine plants, smaller fish, larvae, small molluscs, etc. Fish move their bodies from side to side and move their fins in order to move in the water.

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unit 4

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 4 1 Label the pictures. • tail

• fins

• scales

tai¬ sca¬efi

• legs

• head

sca¬efi tai¬

™ea∂

– Fish and reptiles have bodies covered in _______. – Fish and reptiles both have bones, so they are _____________. – Fish and reptiles are born from eggs so they are ____________. • Ask the students to say the names of fish and reptiles. Write the words on the board and then ask the students to describe some of the animals written on the board. Praise all the students for their answers but pay special attention to descriptions which have some scientific value. • Write the following code on the board and ask the students to work out the names of different types of sharks. 1B 2L 3U 4E 5W 6H 7A 8T 9I @G R #M &D

sardine

finfi

crocodile

¬egfi

2 Classify the animals. Write Yes or No.

trout

lizard

It has got scales.

Yes

Yes

It has got feathers.

NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO

NO YES NO NO YES NO YES NO YES

It is a vertebrate. It is an invertebrate. It has got fins. It has got legs. It lives in water. It lives on the land. It is a fish. It is a reptile.

1234 56724 1322 [email protected] 67##4647&

Fish are vertebrates. They have got fins and scales. They are oviparous animals. They live in water. Reptiles are vertebrates. They are oviparous animals. They have got scales. They live on the land.

forty-five

..... ..... ..... ..... .....

shark shark shark shark shark

45

Generally speaking fish have a highly developed sense of smell, however their sight is not very good and some fish that live in very deep water are blind. The skeleton of a fish can be cartilaginous, in other words soft (like a shark or a sting ray) or bony and hard (like a sardine or a hake). The biggest fish is the whale shark which can measure up to 18 metres and the smallest fish is the dwarf goby which is only 8 millimetres long.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 4. (See pp. VI-VII)

45

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Mammals. Birds Mammals Mammals are vertebrates. They are viviparous animals. They come from their mother’s womb.

OBJECTIVES

Baby mammals drink their mother’s milk, like this zebra.

• To distinguish the main characteristics of mammals and birds • To identify some mammals and birds

Zebras are mammals. They have got four legs, a long neck and their skin is covered in black and white hair. Dogs and lions are also mammals.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Birds

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 45 out loud.

Birds are vertebrates. They are oviparous animals. Their bodies are covered with feathers. Storks are birds. They have got black and white feathers. They have also got two wings, two legs and a long beak. Sparrows, ducks and eagles are birds.

eagle

sparrow

oriole

Describe the birds.

46

forty-six

■ Teaching suggestions

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

• Show the students three photos of mammals and three photos of birds. Tell them the names of the animals. Ask the students to copy and complete the following chart in their notebooks:

Birds are oviparous animals that are born from eggs. Most birds make nests using twigs and leaves. They lay their eggs in the nests.

Born from their mothers’ wombs

Born from eggs

46 46

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3.

However, some birds such as swifts, which are similar to swallows, make strange nests in the shape of a funnel. They make their nests using mud. Other birds like cuckoos lay their eggs in other birds’ nests. This way they don’t have to go to the trouble of building their own. The number of eggs laid by each type of bird varies. For example, penguins only lay one egg each time whereas ducks lay up to 15 eggs.

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unit 4

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 4 1 Which animals drink their mother’s milk? Tick the pictures.



dog

elephant

canary



pig

bee

• Divide the class into two groups. Say: I am going to call out the names of mammals and birds. When I say the name of a mammal the first group must clap their hands and when I say the name of a bird the second group must clap their hands. Complicate the activity by adding names of animals that are neither mammals nor birds.





cow

Complete the sentences.

[email protected] [email protected]

The the

, the and the

e¬ephan† co∑

, are mammals.

• Draw a flow chart on the board. Tell the students to copy it into their notebooks and complete it together with a partner.

2 Draw a bird. Label the picture.

™ea∂

∫±a§

wingfi ƒeat™erfi

(PICTURE)

¬egfi

• beak

• legs

• feathers

• head

MAMMALS Characteristics

• wings

Examples

BIRDS

3 What have all these animals got in common? Tick the boxes.



feathers four legs



come from eggs

Characteristics

skin

✓ ✓

wings bones

Mammals come from their mother’s womb. Mammals drink their mother’s milk. Birds are vertebrates. They come from eggs and they have got feathers.

forty-seven

The male or the female must sit on the eggs and incubate them so that the chicks can develop inside the eggs. They keep the eggs warm with their own bodies. This period of incubation may last from between 10 and 82 days depending on the species of bird. When the chicks are born, some birds leave the nest and follow their mother around looking for food. However, other chicks stay in the nest for a time. The parents bring food to the chicks and give it to them in their beaks. When the chicks have grown enough the parents teach them how to fly. Once the chicks can fly they leave the nest and begin an independent life.

47

Examples

• Write the names of the following animals and their young in two columns on the board. Tell the students to copy the columns into the notebooks and match the babies to the animals. Calf Sheep Kitten Lion Puppy Cow Cub Bird Chick Dog Lamb Cat Multidisciplinary link. Language Teach the students the following tongue twister. Ask them to say it faster and faster each time. Yellow lions lying in the long grass.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 4. (See pp. VI-VII)

47

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LEARNING TO READ

Amphibians Frogs, toads and salamanders are vertebrates. They are amphibians. Frogs, toads and salamanders have not got any fur. They live in wet places. They live where there is water.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text • To identify the main characteristics of amphibians • To recognise some amphibians

All amphibians start their life in the water. The females lay eggs in ponds and rivers. Tadpoles come from eggs. They look like fish. Tadpoles live in water. They can swim. Tadpoles change slowly. They grow legs. Then the second part of their life begins. They come out of the water and live on the land.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Do the activities.

1 Tick the correct sentence.



Amphibians are vertebrates. They have not got any fur. They are born in the water and then they live on the land. Amphibians are vertebrates. They always live in the water.

■ Teaching suggestions • After you have read the text out loud ask the students the following questions about amphibians: – Do amphibians have feathers, fur or skin? – Are they vertebrates or invertebrates? Why? – Are they oviparous? Why? – Where do amphibians live? – What would happen to the tadpole if we took it out of the water for a long time? Multidisciplinary link. Gym Tell the students to do the following physical activities. • Walk like frogs while I mark out a rhythm on the tambourine. • Crawl like snakes while I mark out a rhythm on the triangle. • Do a relay race in teams. You have to hop like frogs.

48 48

2 Write the names of three amphibians.

Frogfi, toadfi an∂ salaman∂erfi. 3 Where can you find a toad or a frog?

I> å ∑±† pla©æ. Nea® wa†e®. 48

forty-eight

LEARNING TO READ Text type: descriptive text This is a descriptive text which describes the main characteristics of amphibians.

Activity

Strategy

1

Identifying explicit details in a text

2

Applying information to new contexts

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unit 4

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 4 Marine animals 1 Match the sentences and the pictures. Use the words to complete the sentences. • eight

• black

• five

• two

OBJECTIVES • The body of a mussel is soft and orange. It has got a shell. • A starfish has got

• To identify and describe the external characteristics of some marine animals

blac§

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

fiæ

legs.

1. Explain the activities. 2. Read the descriptions out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Do the activities.

Its body is covered with a hard exoskeleton.

• An octopus has got a very big head. It has got

eigh†

tentacles.

• A crab has got a hard exoskeleton. It has got

twø

claws.

2 Look at the picture and circle the correct words.

■ Teaching suggestions

1. The shark is a fish. / an insect. 2. It lives in the water. / on the land. 3. It has got legs. / fins. 4. Its body is covered with skin. / feathers. shark

forty-nine

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Whales Whales are mammals that live in the sea. Their hearts are the same size as a small car and their bodies are covered in a layer of fat. They eat plankton or other sea creatures. They usually have one baby at a time and the young feed on their mothers’ milk for about seven months. Whales can stay under the water for quite a long time and when they come to the surface they blow out a stream of hot water through orifices located on their heads. Whales have been hunted for years and prized for their fat. This is why they are in danger of extinction.

49

• Show the students pictures of different animals and ask them to describe the animals. Encourage them to always do this following the same order. Begin by describing the head, then the body and finally the extremities. • Play What animal am I? A student describes an animal without saying which one it is. His/her classmates try to guess. The first one who guesses correctly describes another animal. Continue until all or most of the members of the class have had a turn. Multidisciplinary link. Language Ask the students to work out the following animal riddle: Guess who I am: I’m black and white I’m full of stripes. (Zebra)

49

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • Insects are invertebrates. They have got six legs and two antennae. A lot of insects have got wings. • Fish are vertebrates. They have got fins. They are oviparous animals and they live in the water.

OBJECTIVES • To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Reptiles are vertebrates. They have got scales. They are oviparous animals and they live on the land. • Mammals are vertebrates. They come from their mother’s womb and they drink their mother’s milk.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• Birds are vertebrates. They come from eggs and they have got feathers.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Write true (T) or false (F). Draw pictures. BIRDS

MAMMALS

T

They are born from their mother’s womb.

T

They have got feathers and a beak.

F T

They have got scales.

T F

They are born from eggs.

They drink their mother’s milk. FISH

■ Teaching suggestions • Remind the students of the aims of each section. • Write the names of several animals on the board and ask the students to say which group they belong to (reptiles, birds, mammals, etc.) • Ask the following questions to check whether the students have understood the concepts in this unit: – Which groups of animals have we studied in this unit? – Which groups of animals are invertebrates? – Are reptiles born from their mothers’ wombs or from eggs? – Which groups of animals have scales all over their bodies? – Which animals drink their mothers’ milk when they are babies?

50 50

T T F 50

They are born from eggs. They have got fins. They live on the land.

They have got four legs. REPTILES

T F T

They are born from eggs. They have got wings. They have got scales.

fifty

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The different types of animals • The characteristics and main features of insects, fish, reptiles, mammals and birds • The criteria to bear in mind when classifying animals • Animals should be respected, cared for and protected

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UNIT 4 3 LET’S REVISE Use the words to complete the sentences. • vertebrates

• walk

• head

• trunk

• we drink our mother’s milk

• mammals

√±r†ebra†efi ™ea∂ trun§

• People have got bones. We are • Our body has got a and

limbfi

• We can to swim.

mammalfi wal§

.

Before doing the activity above remind the students about the rules for working in the classroom. They should be tidy and organised in their work. Their writing should by clear and legible, they must glue the pictures down carefully and so on.

,a

.

• We come from our mother’s womb and We are

Cross-curricular Cleanliness and tidiness

• limbs

.

∑¶ drin§ ou® mot™e®´fi mil§

.

and we can run. We can also learn how

Language link Draw the following word search on the board and tell the students to find two birds, two mammals, two reptiles, two amphibians, two insects and two fish.

4 LET’S PRACTISE Circle the two insects.

A

N

T

X

S

T

S

P

P

I

G

E

O

N

D

O

G

F

Q

A

A

1. There are lots of different vertebrates.

W

B

E

E

C

D

K

2. How to recognise an insect.

V

F

R

O

G

M

E

3. How to classify animals.

S

H

A

R

K

E

R

4. All animals are important.

C

A

N

A

R

Y

T

N

L

I

Z

A

R

D

S

A

R

D

I

N

E

5 I KNOW…

fifty-one

51

KEY WORDS • Insect • Antennae • Fish • Fins • Scales • Reptiles • Birds • Feathers

• Beak • Skin • Fur • Mammals • Drink milk • Amphibian

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 4. Test and assessment: Unit 4 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

51

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UNIT 5

Plants UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • • • • •

To To To To To

understand that plants are living beings, they are born, grow and die recognise that plants need food and air in order to survive appreciate the importance of plants for human life identify the main parts of a plant classify plants according to different criteria

Contents THEME: Plants INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The needs of a plant • Cultivated and wild plants • Different types of plants: – Trees – Bushes – Grasses • The parts of a plant: – Roots – Stem – Leaves – Flowers – Fruit • Plants are born and grow LEARNING TO READ: From wheat to bread I CAN DO IT: Make a plant file

Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

Recognising plants as living beings Identifying the main parts of a plant Differentiating between and describing plants Classifying plants according to different criteria Identifying the stages of plant growth Locating the seeds in the fruit Appreciating the importance of plants to human life

Suggested timing for the unit September

52 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 52-53

54-55

56-57

* Resources for the teacher

* Other materials for the students

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

Plants ● To recognise the needs of cultivated plants ● To identify soil, air, water and light as necessary elements for plant survival

Parts of plant ● To identify the main parts of a plant: roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruit ● To differentiate between trees, bushes and grass

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 5



Tasks in natural science: Animals and plants 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 5

The life cycle of a plant To describe the stages of the life cycle of a plant ● To understand the reproductive function of seeds ●

58

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text ● To describe the process of making bread ● To appreciate the importance of plants as part of human nutrition

59

I can do it ● To describe plants using the criteria learnt in this unit ● To reflect on the different uses of plants for humans

60-61

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 5 Test and assessment: Unit 5 test

* Not yet available in English.

52 B

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5 Plants

OBJECTIVES • To recognise the needs of cultivated plants • To identify soil, air, water and light as necessary elements for plant survival

fir tree

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the picture. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

weeping willow

bushes grass

Plants need soil, water, air and sunlight. These plants are in a garden. People look after the plants in the garden.

■ Teaching suggestions • In order to encourage the students to look carefully at the main picture and describe it, ask the following questions: – Where are the people in the picture? – What are the children doing? – Do plants need water? – What else do plants need? – Are plants living beings? – Is a tree a plant? – Is a bush a plant? – Look at the tree. It’s a willow tree. Describe the trunk.

52

52

fifty-two

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • One of the difficulties that the students may find is differentiating between bushes, trees and smaller plants. Point out that we have to look carefully at the stem or the trunk to see the difference. • The students must also be aware of the fact that the flower and the fruit are not the same thing. • Most of students will have plants at home. Make them aware of the fact that plants are living beings not just decorative objects.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 5 1 What do plants need? Label the pictures.

wa†e®

soi¬

ai®

su>

2 Look at the picture and write A or B. a

Plant b Plant Plant

A B B

– Have the bushes got trunks? Are they the same as the tree trunk? – Have the bushes got flowers? – Are the plants in this garden wild plants or did somebody plant them deliberately? • Encourage the students to name food items which are from plants. Remind them that we eat different parts of the plant and ask them if they can remember some examples. Tell the students that not all plants are edible. Some plants are poisonous so when they are in the countryside they should not try eating plants unless an adult is present to guide them.

is healthy. is not healthy. needs water.

Multidisciplinary link. Language • Show the students pictures of garden tools (hoe, spade, rake, hose, watering can…) and ask them to think about how we use these tools in the garden. Teach the students the verbs to go with the tools (dig, rake, water, plant…). Ask the students to draw the tools in their notebooks and help them to write a short sentence for each tool explaining how we use it.

3 Match the words and the pictures. • lettuce

• apple tree

• tomato plant

• carrot

fifty-three

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION • While you are working through this unit you will need pictures and leaflets on plants. It would also be a good idea to arrange a visit to a botanical garden, a florist or a garden centre. • You could also organise a plant file for the classroom. – Collect grass and leaves. Press the samples between two sheets of paper. – Place the sheets of paper between two heavy books for a couple of weeks. – Glue the dried samples to sheets of construction paper and write the names of the plants they belong to. Store the sheets in a folder.

53

Cross-curricular Responsibility • Divide the class into pairs. Each pair should bring a small plant to class and agree to care for the plant. They should decide what they are going to do. How often they are going to water the plant, where they are going to place it… Explain to the students that when they water the plants they should not soak the plant but make sure that the water does not spill out of the plant pot. Spend some time looking at the plants at the end of each class and praise the students for their work.

53

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Different kinds of plants flower

The parts of a plant

leaves

All plants have got roots, a stem and leaves.

stem

Most plants also have flowers and fruit.

OBJECTIVES

roots

Big plants and small plants

• To identify the main parts of a plant: roots, stem, leaves, flowers and fruit • To differentiate between trees, bushes and grass

Plants have different kinds of stems. • Trees have got a thick, hard stem called a trunk. • Bushes have got a short, hard stem.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• Grass has got a short, soft, green stem. tree (chestnut)

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 55 out loud.

bush (rose)

grass (clover)

Plants also have different roots, leaves, flowers and fruit. ROOTS

wheat

carrot

elm

54

FLOWERS

LEAVES

rose

bay

oak

FRUIT

tulip

orange

daisies

cherries

lilac

acorn

fifty-four

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to collect leaves and bring them to class. The students then place a sheet of paper over the leaves and draw around the outline. Tell the students to colour in the leaves. Discuss the different shapes of the leaves. Ask them to describe the size, shape and texture of the different leaves.

54

The chestnut tree The chestnut tree has a thick, brown trunk. The leaves are big, it has white flowers (occasionally they are dark pink) and the fruit is the chestnut. The wood from this tree is used to make furniture. Some chestnut trees have edible fruit. The fruit from the horse chestnut tree, which is commonly found in parks, is not edible for humans but it can be eaten by animals. The olive tree The olive tree has a greyish brown trunk. It has leaves all year round. The olive tree has small white flowers and the fruit is

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unit 5

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 5 1 Label the picture.

flo∑±® • Take a selection of fruit to class and ask the students which type of plant the fruit comes from. Let the students took, smell and taste the fruit. Ask: Do bananas grow on trees or bushes? What about apples? Do they grow on trees? Students may not know what kind of plant some fruit that they often eat grows on. For example, children often think that pineapples grow on trees, which is not correct. Show the students pictures of the fruit growing on its plant.

¬ea√±fi s†eµ

rootfi 2 Circle and colour the roots.

Multidisciplinary link. Art and Craft pine tree

poppy

sugar beet

Tell the students to make a collage using the leaves they collected. They can make a landscape by gluing the leaves onto paper.

3 Colour the stems. Label the pictures tree, bush or grass.

violet

grasfi

lavender

bus™

oak

Multidisciplinary link Mathematics

t®ææ

Plants have got roots, a stem, leaves, flowers and fruit. Trees and bushes have got trunks. Grass has got a short, soft, green stem.

fifty-five

edible. We use olives (the fruit) to extract olive oil. The wood from the olive tree is used for making furniture. The strawberry tree The strawberry tree is really a bush which has a brownish, reddish trunk. It has leaves all year round, white flowers and a fleshy, red fruit. The fruit has a rough surface. The leaves of the strawberry tree are used to make medicine and the fruit is used for making different kinds of drinks and cakes. Lavender Lavender is a bush. It has a dark green stem and long, spear shaped, greyish leaves. The flowers are blue and we use them for making medicines and perfume.

55

Read out the following sentences and ask a volunteer to come to the board and write the numbers as you read: – There are 69 tall buildings. 8 blackbirds have made their nests in the buildings and 54 salamanders are climbing up the walls of the buildings. – There are 345 trees in the park. 23 squirrels are running up and down the trees and 58 sparrows are flying in the park. – There are 70 pigeons eating bread in the square. Ask students to write sums on the board using the numbers from the sentences.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 5. (See pp. VI-VII)

55

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Plants are born and grow

OBJECTIVES • To describe the stages of the life cycle of a plant • To understand the reproductive function of seeds

Apple tree

A lot of plants have leaves and flowers in the Spring. The flowers become fruit.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Plants come from seeds

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 57 out loud.

Seeds are inside the fruit. A new plant can grow from a seed. The seed needs soil and water. 2

A plant grows in four stages.

stem

1. First, the seed falls on the ground. root

2. Then, the seed opens. A small root and a stem grow. The stem has got small leaves. 3. The root grows down and the stem grows up. Leaves grow on the stem.

3

4. Then, the plant grows and has got a lot of leaves.

4 How long does a tree take to grow: a few hours or a few years? A few years.

56

■ Teaching suggestions

1

fifty-six

■ LEARNING SKILLS Identifying the stages in a process.

• Ask the students: Where can you see the seeds on a plant? What are the seeds for? • Take a selection of fruit to class. Make sure your selection contains a variety of seed types, for example: strawberry, sunflower seeds, and so on. Explain that the black specks on the surface of the strawberry are in fact the seeds and that sunflower seeds are the

56 56

In order to identify the stages in a process we need to identify the words which sequence the stages: first, then, after that and so on. For example:

◗ Write the following sentences on the board and ask the students to number them in the correct order: Finally the plant grows and the leaves grow. First the seed falls on the ground. Then the roots grow down. Then the seed opens and a small root appears. 1.

3.

2.

4.

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unit 5

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 5 1 Look at the seeds and classify the fruit.

apple

peach

• One seed:

plum

melon

πeac™, pluµ app¬æ, µelo>

.

• A lot of seeds:

.

2 Where can a seed grow? Tick the box.

✓ stones

soil and water

sand

Complete the sentence. Seeds need

soi¬ an∂ wa†e®

.

3 Number the pictures in the correct order.

3

1

part that we eat. Then encourage the students to name other fruit and say where the seeds are and what they look like. • Take some packets of seeds to class of plants that give us food the students will be familiar with. Give each student a small flower pot and some soil. Tell the students to look carefully at the instructions on the packets of seeds. Help them to read these instructions if necessary. The students plant their seeds and care for their plants. Remind the students of the basic rules of plant care (light, water, air). Tell the students to write their names on their flower pots. Seeds which will grow quickly are: radishes, parsley, courgettes and beans.

2 Multidisciplinary link. Art and Craft

Plants come from seeds. The seed falls on the ground. The soil covers the seed. The seed opens. The stem, the roots and small leaves grow. The seed grows into a plant.

fifty-seven

57

Tell the students to bring some seeds to class. Give each student a small piece of construction paper (A4 size) and tell them to make a mosaic using the seeds. Remind them of the rules for art work in the classroom. They should tidy up and clean the tables after they have finished and work carefully in order to achieve the best results. Praise the students who make an effort to produce tidy work.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The tomato plant The tomato plant has a green stem, yellow, star shaped flowers and the fruit is the tomato which we use for salads, making juice and sauces. The carrot plant The carrot plant has a thin, green stem and white flowers (although sometimes the central flower is red). It has a thick, fleshy orange root. This is the part of the plant that we eat.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 5. (See pp. VI-VII)

57

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LEARNING TO READ

From wheat to bread Bread is very healthy. It gives us energy. We need energy for growing, moving and working.

OBJECTIVES

2

Bread is normally made with wheat. This is how it is made.

• To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text • To describe the process of making bread • To appreciate the importance of plants as part of human nutrition

Farmers sow the wheat seeds in the Autumn. The wheat grows and the farmer harvests it in the summer.

3

Then we grind the wheat and make flour. We mix the flour with water and yeast to make dough. We knead the dough well and make different shapes.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

4

Then we put the dough in the oven and we bake it. Now the bread is ready to eat.

1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss activity two and explain to the students they they should put the actions in order. 4. Do the activities.

1 Match the words to the meanings. grind





To cut the wheat.

harvest





To make flour.

knead





To mix the dough.

2 Number the sentences in the correct order.

3

We grind the wheat and make flour.

1 We sow the wheat seeds.

■ Teaching suggestions • If there is a kitchen in your school, spend one session making bread with the students. Mix the flour with water and yeast and show them how to kneed the dough well. Each student can make a small bread roll. • Take a selection of different types of bread to class. Discuss the differences with the students.

1

6 58

We bake the dough in the oven.

4

We mix the flour with water and yeast.

2 5

We harvest the wheat. We knead the dough.

fifty-eight

LEARNING TO READ Text type: descriptive text The text “From wheat to bread” describes a process, the process of making bread. The text is written in the order of the process. The pictures show the order of the actions.

Multidisciplinary link. Art and Craft Give the students bread dough to make sculptures with. Once they have made the shape they want they can paint and decorate the sculptures. Hold a class exhibition of the sculptures.

58 58

Activity

Strategy

1

Matching words to their definitions

2

Putting sentences in the correct order to show a process

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I CAN DO IT

unit 5

UNIT 5 Make a plant file 1. Choose some useful plants. 2. Make a card for each plant.

OBJECTIVES

• First, describe the plant.

• To describe plants using the criteria learnt in this unit • To reflect on the different uses of plants for humans

• Then, write what we use it for. • Finally, draw a picture.

THE ORANGE TREE Description

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• It is a tree.

1. Explain the basic concepts involved in making a plant file. 2. Remind the students of the main ideas of the unit: types of plants and the parts of a plant. 3. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 4. Do the activities.

• The trunk is dark grey. • It has got small, white flowers. • The fruit is an orange. Use • The orange tree is a fruit tree. • We eat the fruit of the orange tree.

3. Cut out coloured cards.

■ Teaching suggestions Complete and classify the cards. fifty-nine

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The melon plant The melon plant has stems which grow along the ground. It has big leaves and yellow flowers. The fruit is the melon which can grow very big. It is green or yellow, very juicy and edible. Beet Beets have long straight stems, big leaves and small green flowers. The root is very big and fleshy. There are two types of beet. One type is red and we eat it in salads. The other type is white and we use it for extracting sugar.

59

• Explain to the class that we use plants in many different ways (food, decoration, paper, furniture, perfumes, textiles…). Ask them to say how we can use various different plants. • Collect the plant files that the students have made in this activity and make a class folder. Cross-curricular Team work • Divide the class into groups of four or five students. Each group makes a mural on one aspect of this unit. The spokesperson for each group presents the mural to the rest of the class. Remind the students of the rules for working together in groups.

59

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • Plants are living things. They need soil, water, air and sunlight. Plants have got roots, a stem, leaves, flowers and fruit.

OBJECTIVES

• Trees are plants with a long, hard, thick stem.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Seeds are inside fruit. • Plants come from seeds. Seeds fall on the ground. Soil covers the seeds and a new plant grows.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

Use the words to complete the sentences. • roots

• stem

• leaves

1

2

The seed is in the soil.

¬ea√±fi

• Remind the students of the aims of each section. • Read the section Let’s remember out loud. Ask the students to copy the following questions into their notebooks and to write the answers: – What do plants need to survive? – Describe a tree. – Describe the stem of a bush. – Where are the seeds in fruit? – What happens when the seeds fall on the ground? • Tell the students to exchange books with their partners and to correct each other’s work. Show them how to tick and give one point for each correct answer.

60 60

The grow from the stem.

60

• fruit

• seed

3

A root and a stem grow from the .

ßæe∂

5

4

■ Teaching suggestions

• flowers

rootfi s†eµ

The grow down. The grows up. 6

flo∑±rfi

The appear.

frui†

The grows on the plant.

sixty

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • Plants are living beings and as such they are born, grow, reproduce and die • The necessary elements for plant life • The parts of a plant • The differences between types of plants • The usefulness of plants to human life • The need to respect plant life

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UNIT 5 3 LET’S REVISE Which things come from plants?

Give the class the correct answers. Ask students to explain to their partners any answers which are not correct. • Write the following words on the board: big tree small bush medium-sized food with flowers decoration without flowers wood grass

cotton bread popcorn wood metal

popcor> paπe®

paper

,

woo∂

,

cotto>

,

leather

b®ea∂

, and

come from plants.

4 LET’S PRACTISE Colour the good actions. Cross out the bad ones.

Show the students pictures of plants and ask them to describe the plants using the words on the board.

Language link

5 I KNOW… 1. Plants are living things. 2. Plants need water. 3. Where plants come from. 4. We need plants for food.

sixty-one

KEY WORDS • Plants • Root • Stem • Leaves • Flowers • Fruit • Seeds • Sow

• Trunk • Grass • Trees • Bushes

61

• Materials: construction paper, crayons, scissors, glue, paper. • Show the students how to draw a plan for a garden. Large circles represent trees, medium-sized circles represent bushes and small circles represent small plants. Discuss the other elements of a garden such as paths, walls, ponds, benches, chairs and tables, play areas and so on. • Tell the students to work in pairs. They design their ideal garden. Tell them to draw the garden using light pencil marks and then cut and glue the elements onto the construction paper. They can then colour and label the elements. Students describe their gardens to the rest of the class. Display the gardens on the wall.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 5. Test and assessment: Unit 5 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

61

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REVISION ACTIVITIES. Group work THE HUMAN BODY

1 Find and write three joints. M. A.

Elbo∑, wris†, ank¬æ. 2 What part of our body do we use for our sense of touch?

Ou® ski>. 3 What part of our body do we use to cut and chew food?

Ou® †æet™. ANIMALS Check: 6 legs 2 antennae

9 What do herbivores eat?

Plantfi. 62

62

sixty-two

10 Draw an insect.

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PLANTS

4 Draw a tree in Spring.

5 What do plants need?

Ai®, wa†e®, su>, soi¬. 6 Where are the seeds?

Insi∂æ t™æ flo∑±rfi o® t™æ frui†. 7 Colour the fruit.

8 What is the name of the part of a plant that grows under ground?

T™æ rootfi. 11 Which animals have got feathers?

13 Colour the reptile.

Birdfi. 12 Where do mammals come from?

Froµ t™ei® mot™e®´fi wombfi. Which classmates did you work with? How many activities did you finish?

Discuss the rules for team work: organisation, respect, sharing, listening, participating...

sixty-three

63

63

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DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES. Group work LOOK AT THE PICTURE 1 Find and circle things in the picture. 4 mammals

1 plant with flowers

1 child

1 reptile

4 trees

1 old lady

2 birds

1 lake

1 girl

2 fish

2 clouds

1 gardener old lady

bird

cloud plant with gardener flowers

4

girl

cloud 1, 2, 3, 4 trees

1 mammal

3 mammal

2

mammal child mammal bird lake 2

reptile

fish

2 Think about the activity. What was the most difficult thing to find? Where is it?

O> å roc§.

T™æ ®epti¬æ.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

64

64

sixty-four

These pages provide an introduction to the procedures for scientific work. In this section the students will be working with the following procedures: observation (activities 1 and 2), collecting and recording data (activity 3) and analysis of data (activity 4).

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INVESTIGATE 3 Find out the most common shoe size in the class. Before you begin, organise your work. 1. Write the names of all your classmates. Write their shoe sizes. 2. Count the number of times you have the same size.

Name and surname

Shoe size

Pilar García

31

Anne Smith

33

Shoe size

Number of times

30

5

31

8

32

17

33

12

34

2

3. Compare the numbers. 4. Decide which size is most common.

Follow the steps and do the work in your notebook.

4 Use the table to answer the questions. Which shoe size is the most common? Which is the smallest size?

Which is the biggest size?

Which classmates did you work with? Which activities did you get right?

sixty-five

65

65

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Term 2 Contents THEME

INFORMATION • The components of the soil:

In the country Theme

6

Inventions and discoveries Theme

7

LEARNING TO READ • Discursive text

• Discovering the force of water and wind

sand, earth and rocks • Types of soil: sandy and wet • The water cycle • Changes in the state of water • The air and the wind

• The use of inventions • Electricity • New materials (plastic) • Significant advances

I CAN DO IT

• Informative text

• Making recycled paper

in medicine

• The Earth, the Sun

The Earth and the sky Theme

8

Landscapes on the Earth Theme

9

and the Moon • The movements of the Earth • Day and night • The seasons

• Descriptive text

the weather

• Didactic text

• Coastal landscapes • Plains • Mountains • Means of transport:

• Recording

• Doing a road safety survey

air, land and sea

Homes and houses Theme

10

• Inside houses • Streets and neighbourhoods • Urban transport: public

• Discursive text

• Map reading

and private

Assessment criteria

66 A

On the next page there is a letter for you to photocopy and hand to the parents of your students. This will help them to participate in supporting their child’s learning.



1. Identifying the different forms of water in nature and changes in its state 2. Recognising the presence of air in different places and objects 3. Understanding the importance of technological and scientific advances for the development of human life 4. Understanding what we use machines for and identifying different types of machines 5. Identifying the Sun, the Earth and the Moon 6. Differentiating types of landscape and their main features 7. Understanding the function and usefulness of means of transport 8. Identifying the main rooms in a house, locating them on a floor plan and in space 9. Understanding the most common services in a neighbourhood

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Dear Families: We are now about to start the second term and once again I would like to ask you for your help and support in this new stage. Any activity which you can do at home to help develop your child’s understanding of the concepts we will be dealing with is of enormous value. You child will feel secure knowing that you are involved and interested in his/her learning process. During this second term in Science, Geography and History your child is going to learn many things about the air, the water and the Sun. We are going to study the environment which we live in, the landscape which surrounds us and some of the inventions and discoveries which have made significant improvements in the quality of human life. In order to reinforce at home the work we are doing at school I would like to suggest that you spend some time with your child in the kitchen. Show him/her how we heat or freeze water so that he/she can see the changes in state (liquid, solid and gas). You can also show him/her some of the inventions that you use on a daily basis such as the fridge and the washing machine. Explain how these machines work and what people did before they had these devices at home. Your cooperation and support is essential for your child’s development. Thank you for your effort and interest.

66 B

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UNIT 6

In the country UNIT CONTENT Objectives • • • • • • •

To To To To To To To

understand the different types of soil reflect on the usefulness of water for living beings observe the different forms of water in nature encourage water saving practices identify the air as an essential element for living beings appreciate the importance of the forests for living beings develop reading with understanding of a discursive text

Contents THEME: In the country INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Types of soil: rocky, sandy, wet, dry… • Water: – Use – Changes in state • The air: – Composition – The wind • The forests and plants: their importance for human life LEARNING TO READ: Amphibians I CAN DO IT: To discover the force of water and wind

Assessment criteria • • • • • • •

Recognising different types of soil Understanding that water and oxygen are necessary for life Explaining the water cycle Recognising the main characteristics of water Distinguishing the three states of water Identifying oxygen as one of the gases present in the air Appreciating the importance of forests and their usefulness to living beings • Developing water saving practices

Suggested timing for the unit September

66 C

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 66-67

68-69

70-71

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

Soil ● To identify different types of soil: rocky, sandy, wet ● To analyse what is present in wet soil

Water: use and changes in state ● To distinguish the different states of water ● To understand that water is in continuous movement

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 6

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: The natural environment

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 6

The air and the wind To understand that oxygen is one of the components of the air and an essential element for life ● To understand that the wind is air in movement ●

72

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a discursive text ● To appreciate the importance of plants and forests

73

I can do it ● To discover the force of the wind and the water through an experimental task ● To make a windmill

74-75

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 6 Test and assessment: Unit 6 test

* Not yet available in English.

66 D

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6 In the country

OBJECTIVES

cloud

• To identify different types of soil: rocky, sandy, wet • To analyse what is present in wet soil

air bird

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the picture. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

rock

stones water

sand

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the picture. Ask for volunteers to read the words in the picture out loud. Then ask: – Where are the children in the picture? – What can you see on the ground? What can you see in the sky? – Where is the ground soft? Why is it soft there? – Why are there plants growing near the water? – Are there any plants growing on the rocks? Why not? – Look at the boy’s hair. Is it windy? – Can you see the air? – Is it cold? Why do you think so? • Explain to the students that living beings depend a lot on the type of soil. Plants and animals need certain conditions (humidity,

66

The children are wearing climbing boots. Sometimes they walk on hard ground made of rocks. Sometimes they walk on sandy ground and sometimes they walk on wet ground. Plants do not grow on dry ground. They grow on wet ground.

66

sixty-six

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • Students may well have difficulty understanding the different states of water. Point out that ice and steam are also water. Explain that the clouds are not made of steam but small droplets of liquid water. • When you are discussing the characteristics of water explain that water has no colour, it is not white. • Explain that the wind is air in movement. When we say it’s windy or there’s a breeze we are saying that the air is moving.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 6 1 Look at the pictures and write dry or wet.

dr¥

mineral substances, etc.) for their survival. The soil conditions in a particular area influence the types of plants and animals that we will find there. • Show the students a receptacle full of sand and another one full of damp soil. Encourage them to observe the different colours, textures and smell. Ask: Which soil do you think would be best for plants? Why? What essential element has the damp soil got?

∑±†

2 What do people build on the land? Colour the things in the picture.

tunnel

bridge road

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft • Tell the students to make a collage of a landscape using stone, sand, leaves, grass, etc. Hold an exhibition of all the collages and invite another class to come and see the work.

house

3 Look at the picture. What is there under wet soil? 1. worms

2. 3.

ants’ nest

4. ants

roots stones

5.

rootfi antfi´>es† antfi sto>efi wormfi

Cross-curricular Courtesy

sixty-seven

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The soil is made up of different sized rocks and stones, sand, earth and the remains of living beings such as leaves which have fallen from the trees. Different kinds of animals live underground, for example moles. Moles are mammals which have special feet for digging the soil. They have very strong claws and they can build long underground tunnels to connect the different parts of their nest. They are practically blind because they live in darkness. However, their sense of smell and touch are very well developed. They eat other animals that live underground such as insects or worms.

67

• Take advantage of the activity above to ask the students to prepare a written invitation as follows: • The students and teacher of class (2) would like to invite you to visit their art exhibition called “Natural Art”. The exhibition will be open on (day) from (time) to (time). • We look forward to seeing you here. • Class (2) • Tell the students to vote for three class representatives to present the exhibition to the visitors. • Divide the class into 2 groups. Give each group a drawing of the outline of the trunk of a body drawn on a long sheet of paper. Tell the children to complete the outline of the body. Group 1 draws the outline of a boy and group 2 draws the outline of a girl. In order to perform this task the students will have to organise their work and share out the tasks.

67

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We need water Water There is water in the sea, in rivers, lakes and in our houses. Water is a liquid. We cannot keep it in our hands.

OBJECTIVES • To distinguish the different states of water • To understand that water is in continuous movement

When water gets cold it turns into ice. Ice is a solid. When water gets hot, it turns into vapour. Vapour is a gas.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 3

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 69 out loud.

cloud rain

2

snow

4 1 river

evaporation

sea

5

Changes in water Water is always moving in nature. 1. When the water in the seas and rivers gets hot, it evaporates and goes into the atmosphere. 2. The water vapour in the atmosphere joins together in small drops and makes clouds. 3. When the clouds get cold they make rain, snow and hail. 4. The water from the rain and the snow comes back to the ground, the rivers and the lakes. 5. The water in the rivers goes back to the sea.

68

sixty-eight

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Water is an essential element for life. A reliable water supply is essential for human life and the development of a society.

■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss the different uses of water. Use the information on this page in the Additional Information section. Then ask the students to name daily activities which involve using water.

68

Water is necessary for just about all human activities. We need it for health and public health, agricultural production, nutrition and for maintaining an ecological balance. There is a lot of water on the Earth but nowhere near all the water available is suitable for using as drinking water. The water in the sea is salt water and therefore cannot be drunk unless it is first processed to remove the salt.

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unit 6

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 6 1 What do we use water for? Write four words.

wa†[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

1. 2. 3. 4.

• Tell the students to make a mural on the different uses of water. They can use pictures or draw their own. Show them how to display the different uses and label them: washing, personal hygiene, cooking, electricity, watering and so on. • Put water into three different receptacles (a plate, a bottle and a glass) and leave the receptacles on the window ledge for the morning. In the afternoon ask the children to look at the water and see if it has evaporated. Ask them which receptacle shows more evaporation. Explain that more water has evaporated from the plate because the surface area exposed to the warm air is greater. Then ask them why the receptacle which shows the least evaporation is the bottle.

2 Use the key to colour the pictures. solid

liquid S

gas L

G

G S

S S G

L

S

S S

L

G

S

S

Write another example of each one. A solid:

sto>æ

A liquid:

mil§

A gas:

ai®

3 Read and copy.

Cross-curricular Responsibility

Remember to drink lots of water every day.

Water is a liquid. When water gets hot, it turns into vapour. Vapour is a gas. When it gets cold, it turns into ice. Ice is a solid.

sixty-nine

In some places in our country it rains heavily and there is plenty of drinking water. However, in other places it hardly rains at all and drinking water is scarce. In order to ensure a regular supply of drinking water dams are built to store water. This water is then piped to our houses. In the cities we use water for cleaning the streets and watering the public gardens. In many cities now this water is recycled water. It is not suitable for drinking but it can be used for other purposes.

69

Discuss the importance of not wasting water and ask the students to think about what we can do on a daily basis to save water. For example, ask the following questions: When you brush your teeth do you turn off the tap or leave the water running? Which uses the least amount of water, a bath or a shower? Do you throw water away after you have finished a meal or use it to water the plants at home?

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 6. (See pp. VI-VII)

69

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Air is everywhere Air We cannot see air, but it is everywhere, all over the Earth. There are lots of gases mixed together in the air. The most important gas is oxygen. All living beings need oxygen to survive.

OBJECTIVES • To understand that oxygen is one of the components of the air and an essential element for life • To understand that the wind is air in movement

air

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

air

1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 7. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 71 out loud.

air

Wind Air often moves. When the air moves we call it wind. When the wind is so strong that it blows down trees and roofs we call it a hurricane.

Who needs air? Does the air have a shape? All living beings. No, it doesn’t.

70

■ Teaching suggestions

seventy

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Wind energy

• Ask the students: Can we touch the air? In order to prove the existence of the air tell the students to hold up a strip of paper and blow on it. The paper moves because we make the air move. We turn the air into wind. In order to show them that the force of the wind depends on the force exerted on the air use a hair dryer or a fan and direct it at the strips

70 70

This type of energy is produced by the wind. People have been using wind energy for many centuries. They used the wind to move sailing ships and the sails on a windmill. The energy generated by the windmills was then used to mill the wheat and obtain flour. We now use the wind to make electricity in the wind farms. The wind moves the blades on the windmills. These new windmills do not look like the old ones. They are very tall and thin and have long thin blades. The movement of the blades is transformed into electricity.

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unit 6

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 6 1 Look at the picture and answer the questions. • What is inside the parachute?

Ai®.

of paper. Ask the students: When does the paper move more? When we blow it or when we use the hairdryer/fan? Why do you think it moves more with the hair dryer/fan? • Explain some of the ways in which we use the air and the wind: the tyres on a car contain air under pressure, we generate electricity with the wind, we use the wind to move a sailing boat and so on. • Discuss the negative effects of air pollution. Ask the students if they can name some of the things that produce air pollution (cars and factories, for example). Ask the students if they can think of some ways in which we can help to reduce air pollution (using public transport or walking). • Explain the difference between the air and the wind. The wind is air in movement.

• Can we see the air?

No, ∑¶ ca>´†. • What is oxygen?

I† ifi t™æ gafi ∑¶ >æe∂. 2 Colour the picture of a windy day.

Colour the arrow which shows the direction of the wind.

Cross-curricular Responsibility There is air everywhere. There are lots of gases in the air. The most important gas is oxygen. All living beings need oxygen.

seventy-one

■ LEARNING SKILLS Comparing pictures In order to find the differences between two pictures of the same subject but taken at different moments, first do a general analysis of the picture and then focus on the details which show the differences between one and the other. For example, look at the clothes the people are wearing, which objects are in a different position, and so on.

◗ Look at the pictures in activity 2 on page 71 and say what is different.

71

Explain to the students how they should behave when a classmate is giving his/her opinion. Tell them that if they do not agree with something that is being said they should raise their hand and wait for their turn to speak. They should not shout or raise their voices. Remind them that everyone has something interesting to say and that we should take turns expressing our opinion and listening to others.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 6. (See pp. VI-VII)

71

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LEARNING TO READ

Forests are oxygen factories When we breathe we use the oxygen from the air.

OBJECTIVES

Plants use oxygen, too. Plants also produce oxygen and give it back to the air.

• To develop reading with understanding through a discursive text • To appreciate the importance of plants and forests

There are lots of plants in forests, parks and jungles. These places are oxygen factories. The oxygen from the plants is necessary for all the life on the Earth. We should plant, look after and care for plants and trees.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the importance of caring for plants. 4. Do the activities.

1 Complete the sentence. • use

• produce

• use and produce

ußæ an∂ produ©æ

Plants

oxygen.

2 Write the name of three places that are oxygen factories.

fo®estfi

parkfi

jung¬efi

3 Tick the correct sentence. We should care for plants because they produce oxygen.

■ Teaching suggestions • After reading the text, explain that forests are necessary for all living beings not only because they produce oxygen and purify the water but also because they are the natural habitat of many different species of animals. • Point out that plants don’t just produce oxygen they also consume oxygen. Cross-curricular Responsibility Explain that if we dirty the soil and throw rubbish and waste on the ground the plants stop growing in those places and eventually they die.

72 72



We should care for plants because they use oxygen.

72

seventy-two

LEARNING TO READ Text type: discursive text Look carefully at the structure of the text: 1. Oxygen is necessary for life (paragraphs one and four). 2. Plants produce oxygen (paragraphs two and three). 3. So, we must care for and respect plant life (paragraph four). Activity 1 and 2 3

Strategy Remember and name details in a text Explain the conclusion and apply the information to a new context

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unit 6

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 6 Find out the force of water and wind 1. Make a plastic windmill. a

c

b

OBJECTIVES • To discover the force of the wind and the water through an experimental task • To make a windmill

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

2. Put the windmill under a tap. Turn the tap on. When a lot of water comes out of the tap, the windmill turns very fast.

1. Briefly explain what a windmill is. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that all the students know what they should do. 3. Make the windmill 4. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

3. Blow up a balloon. Hold the windmill near the balloon. Let the air out.

■ Teaching suggestions

What can we use the force of water and wind for? To make electricity. seventy-three

73

• Talk to the students about the most common types of mills (wind and water mills) that have been used over the centuries. Explain their most common uses: milling grain, extracting water from a well, generating electricity and so on. Multidisciplinary link. Language

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION In many reservoirs the pressure of the water is used to generate electricity. The water which is released from the dam exerts enough pressure to turn the turbines of the power station. The water in some reservoirs is also used to water the surrounding fields. A system of pipes and canals is built to channel the water to the crops that need irrigating.

Tell the story of Don Quixote and the windmills. Use a simplified version of the story. Ask a few comprehension questions about the text and then choose a section to dictate. Count up the number of words in the text and write the number of words on the board. Before you do the final reading tell the students to count the words they have written down and check that they have the correct number. This will help them with the problem of word breaks in English.

73

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • There are rocks, sand and soil in the ground. • Everything needs water. There is no life without water.

OBJECTIVES

• Water is a liquid, but it can be a solid or a gas.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Air is gas. Air is everywhere. • Oxygen is in the air. We need oxygen.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Write true (T) or false (F).

Fruit trees grow in the sand in the desert.

F

Snow and hail are liquid water.

F

A hurricane is a strong wind.

T

T

We can catch liquids and gases in our hands.

F

■ Teaching suggestions • Remind the students of the aims of each section. • Check that the students have understood the main ideas in this unit by asking them orally: – What happens when water gets very cold? What does it turn into? – What happens when we heat liquid water? What does it turn into? – Why do we need air to live? – Is air a gas or a liquid? – What kind of soil do plants grow best in? • Ask the students to complete in their notebooks: – When the water in the sea and the river heats up, it… – The clouds are made up of… – When the water in the clouds gets cold, it…

74 74

When liquid water gets hot it turns into gas.

74

T

Buildings are made out of rocks.

seventy-four

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The different elements which soil is made of • The main characteristics and uses of water • The changes in the state of water • The main characteristics of the air and some of the ways in which we use the wind • Oxygen is one of the most important gases for life

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UNIT 6 3 LET’S REVISE Label the picture of a plant. Answer the questions.

flo∑±®

¬ea√±fi • What part of the plant is in the soil?

T™æ rootfi. s†eµ

• What parts of the plant are in the air?

rootfi

T™æ s†eµ, ¬ea√±fi an∂ flo∑±rfi.

4 LET’S PRACTISE Solve the problem. • A lot of boys and girls are playing in a room. The windows are closed. It is difficult Open the to breathe. What should they do? window.

Language link

• In some parts of the world there is not very much water. A lot of people become sick or die of thirst. What can we do to help? We can save water. We can help them to collect water.

5 I KNOW… 1. What the ground is made of. 2. What water is for. 3. What water is like. 4. What air is like and what it is for.

seventy-five

KEY WORDS • Soil • Rocks and stones • Sand • Water • Liquid • Solid

• Gas • Air • Oxygen • Wind

• Help the students to write the story of the water cycle from the perspective of a drop of water. Narrate the story. Start: Once upon a time there was a little drop of water in a cloud. Encourage the students to tell the story with you and write the key words on the board. Then the students can write the story on sheets of paper and illustrate the different events. Encourage them to be creative. They can give the drop of water a name, name the places it travels to, and describe the places the drop of water passes through. Display the water stories on the wall.

75

Ask the students to recite this rhyme with you and mime the actions. I’m a little drop of water floating in the clouds. I’m feeling very cold and now I fall down. I fall into the river and I float along so fast. I float for days and days until I’m at the sea at last. I’m feeling nice and warm floating on the waves. And suddenly I find myself in the clouds again. I’m a little drop of water…… Divide the class into groups. Group 1 starts by reciting the rhyme and miming the actions. Group 2 takes over and repeats the rhyme and the actions. Continue reciting and miming to reinforce the idea of a cycle.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 6. Test and assessment: Unit 6 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

75

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UNIT 7

Inventions and discoveries UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To find out about certain inventions and discoveries which have changed our lives considerably • To appreciate the usefulness of inventions in our daily lives • To understand that electricity is a type of energy which is used to make many machines work • To understand that people invent many different materials to improve our lives • To read and understand an informative text • To appreciate the work of scientists • To understand the importance of recycling for protecting nature and conservation

Contents THEME: Inventions and discoveries INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The function of inventions • The use of different types of energy. Electricity • Using new materials: plastic • Medical discoveries. Treatment and prevention of illnesses • Medicines LEARNING TO READ: Pasteur: a great scientist I CAN DO IT: Make recycled paper

Assessment criteria • Recognising the importance of technological and scientific advances for human development • Finding out about inventions that help to make our lives easier and identifying their functions • Appreciating the usefulness of electricity • Appreciating the advantages of new materials • Appreciating the importance of advances in medicine for fighting illness • Understanding the need for recycling as a way of protecting the environment

Suggested timing for the unit September

76 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 76-77

78-79

80-81

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

Inventions and discoveries ● To identify the function and use of certain inventions ● To recognise that technological advances improve the quality of human life

Energy and new materials ● To recognise the usefulness of electricity and plastic in our daily lives ● To understand the applications of electrical energy

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 7

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: Matter and energy

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 7

Scientists and health To appreciate and value scientific discoveries and their role in human life ● To recognise the usefulness of medicines and other scientific discoveries ●

82

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through an informative text ● To appreciate the importance of the work of the scientists

83

I can do it ● To reflect on the importance of recycling ● To make recycled paper

84-85

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 7 Test and assessment: Unit 7 test

* Not yet available in English.

76 B

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7 Inventions and discoveries

OBJECTIVES • To identify the function and use of certain inventions • To recognise that technological advances improve the quality of human life

phonograph

automobile lighter

telephone

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. camera

Luke takes his collection of old inventions to school. He is explaining that we use inventions every day. They make life easier for us. He is telling the class that scientific discoveries are very important.

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students to look carefully at the picture and then answer the following questions: – Do you use the telephone at home? – What does your telephone at home look like? Does it look like the telephone in the picture? – Can you find an object in the picture that people used to use for listening to music? What do you use at home for listening to music? – Look at the car in the picture? Do you see cars like this today? What’s the same about the cars today? What’s different? Do you think that the car in the picture goes faster than the cars today?

76

stethoscope

76

seventy-six

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • Some students may relate electricity to the presence of wire and cables. Explain to them that there are many devices which run on electricity but which do not have wires and cables. • You should also point out while working through this unit that we only take medicines when we are ill and only when a doctor prescribes the medicine. Children should never take medicines unless an adult is present.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 7 1 What are these inventions important for? Tick the boxes. Transport

Our life at home

Communication

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓



✓ ✓ 2 Match the invention with the inventor. What do we use each invention for? light bulb

Bell

steam engine

Edison

telephone

Watt

3 Write the names of three inventions you use every day.

Ca®, trai>, †e¬epho>æ, schoo¬ [email protected] seventy-seven

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION • The washing machine was invented by Alva Fisher in 1901. The original invention was a drum turned by a motor. • The vacuum cleaner was invented in 1908 by William Hoover. In English speaking countries many people call a vacuum cleaner a hoover. • In 1945, the American inventor, Percy Le Baron Spencer exhibited a special oven which could cook food very fast. This was the predecessor of the microwave. • John Baird, considered to be the inventor of the television, made the first television transmission across the Atlantic ocean in 1928.

77

– Have you got a camera at home? Is it like the camera in the picture? What’s different? – Do you know what a stethoscope is for? Who uses a stethoscope? Where can you see one? • Ask the students to say how they would perform these tasks without using a machine: – Do the washing – Do the ironing – Open a tin – Heat the water for a shower Explain that thanks to the hard work and creative genius of certain people we have machines and devices to help us do all these things much more quickly and much more easily. • Ask the students to name the devices or machines that we use to: – Measure time – Wash the dishes – Go up and down stairs in large buildings – Collect the dust from the floor – Find out what somebody’s temperature is Help by writing the words on the board and asking the students to find the correct word: clock/watch, dishwasher, lift, vacuum cleaner, thermometer. • Make a file of inventions and inventors. Write the names of inventions, the name of the inventor and the date of the invention on index cards.

Cross-curricular Responsibility Discuss how cars have developed over the years and the increase in the amount of traffic on the road. Explain that cars now travel much faster than before. This is why we should always wear a seat belt, even in the back seat of the car.

77

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Energy and new materials The discovery of electricity Scientists discovered electricity more than 250 years ago. Electricity is a form of energy. We use electricity for many different things.

OBJECTIVES • To recognise the usefulness of electricity and plastic in our daily lives • To understand the applications of electrical energy • To appreciate the usefulness of new materials

Most of the things we use every day work with electricity. Washing machines, televisions, mobile phones and computers all work with electricity. We use electricity to move engines, produce light and transmit sounds.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud and look carefully at the pictures. 2. Discuss the pictures and the text. 3. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 6. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 79 out loud.

The invention of plastic Plastic is a new material. It was invented less than 100 years ago. In the past, people made some objects from metal and glass. Today, we make these things from plastic. Plastic objects are cheaper, safer and easier to use.

Imagine there is no electricity in your house. What can you not do? F. A.

78

seventy-eight

■ Teaching suggestions • Read the text about electricity out loud. Then ask the students questions about their city or town at night. Ask them what they think it would be like if there was no electricity. Ask questions to guide them, for example: Could you see at night in the street? What would happen to the traffic lights? What about at home? Would you be able to watch TV? • Ask the students to identify objects and devices in the classroom which use electricity.

78

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The origin of plastic In 1860 a manufacturer of billiard balls offered an award of $10,000 to anyone who could make a material to substitute the ivory that was used for making billiard balls. Hyatt did not win the prize but his invention, celluloid, was used to make a huge number of objects from dental prostheses to shirt collars. There are some types of natural plastics like amber or rubber but most plastics are synthetic like linoleum, bakelite and so on. Synthetic materials are made using a complex industrial process of transformation. The raw material is petroleum.

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unit 7

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 7 1 These machines work with electricity. Label the pictures.

iro> radio

mi≈e® ju^©e®

2 Spot the differences. Talk about the pictures. electric light

B

A

cooker

microwave

running water

dish washer

3 Match the pictures to the sentences. • To protect the eyes.

• To stop water getting in.

• To store food.

We use electricity and energy. Electricity and energy are discoveries. We also use plastic. Plastic is an invention.

seventy-nine

■ LEARNING SKILLS Finding information in a text In order to find specific information in a text, first read the text through quickly to get a general idea of what the main ideas are.

◗ Read the text on page 78 and find the answers to the following

79

Ask them what we use these objects for. Repeat the process asking them about objects and devices used at home. • Read the text about plastics and discuss the importance of plastic in our daily lives. Ask the students to name objects that they use in the classroom which are made of plastic, for example: school bags, pens, felt tips, pencil sharpeners and so on. • Ask the students about their toys. Ask them to name toys that are made of plastic. Make a list of all the toys they name on the board. Explain that plastic is one of the most commonly used materials today. • Take a selection of objects to class which are made of hard plastic, for example: a pen and a cup. Contrast these with objects that are soft, for example, a plastic bag. Manipulate the objects so that the students can see that they each have different properties. Draw a chart on the board with two columns: hard plastic and soft plastic. Tell the students to name objects for each column.

Cross-curricular Solidarity Tell the students that one of the problems of plastic is that it is very difficult to dispose of. We should always try to reuse plastic. Give them some examples. We can reuse plastic food containers and plastic bags. Ask them what colour the plastic recycling bins are.

questions. • When was electricity discovered? • What do we use electricity for? • Why is plastic a new material?

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 7. (See pp. VI-VII)

79

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Scientists and health

Looking after our health OBJECTIVES

A lot of scientists study the human body. They discover the origin of illnesses.

• To appreciate and value scientific discoveries and their role in human life • To recognise the usefulness of medicines and other scientific discoveries

Scientists also discover medicines. These medicines make us strong and cure our illnesses.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text out loud and ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 2. Discuss the pictures and the text. 3. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class. 6. Read the paragraph at the bottom of page 81 out loud.

Important medical discoveries A lot of medical discoveries are very important. They cure our illnesses. For example: • We use X-rays to see inside the body. • We use vaccinations to prevent illnesses like smallpox. • We use antibiotics to cure infections. • We use heart transplants to save lives. We replace a sick heart with a healthy one.

How many vaccinations have you had? F. A.

80

■ Teaching suggestions • Read the texts on page 80 out loud and ask the following questions. – Do you know why we have vaccinations? (In order to avoid getting certain illnesses or to make sure that if we do get the illness it is not serious). – When do we take medicines? – Who tells you to take medicines? Explain how we use the word prescribe.

80 80

eighty

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Many of the discoveries and inventions related to medicine took place more than 200 years ago. • In 1798, the British scientist Edward Jenner first used the vaccination for smallpox. In 1885 Louis Pasteur discovered a vaccine against rabies. • In 1846 a drug was discovered to anesthetise patients. • An early stethoscope was also invented at approximately the same time. This is used to listen to the respiratory system and the heart. • Many other medicines were discovered. In 1899 the company founded by Friedrich Bayer discovered aspirin.

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unit 7

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 7 1 Circle the things you use when you are ill. F. A.

capsules

cream

suppositories

• Take a thermometer to class. Ask the students if they know what it is and what it is used for. Ask them where the medicines are kept in their house and if they know how they should be used. Emphasise that they should never take medicines unless they are supervised by an adult; the doctor decides when we need to take medicines. • Tell the students to ask their parents about the illnesses they have had. For example: chickenpox, mumps, measles, and so on. Make a list of all the usual childhood illnesses and explain that today these illnesses are not such a problem in our country because of medical discoveries. Explain that these illnesses are still a problem in some parts of the world. • Ask the students if they have ever had flu. Ask them to say how they felt (hot, achy, tired…). Explain that flu is a virus, and we don’t usually take antibiotics when we have flu. Other infectious illnesses can be cured by antibiotics.

medicine

injections

spray

tablets

2 Which part of the body can you see in the X-rays? Label the pictures.

han∂

hand

foot

foo†

chest

c™es†

3 Use the words to complete the sentence. • penicillin

[email protected] πenicilli>

• Fleming

discovered an

called

• antibiotic

antibioti©

.

Many scientists study the human body. They cure illnesses. Our lives are healthier now.

Cross-curricular Health and hygiene

eighty-one

Transplants Recently there have been huge advances in medical science especially in the field of organ transplants. The most common organ transplants are: the cornea, kidney, heart and liver. The milestones in organ transplant are: • 1954. The first successful kidney transplant was carried out.

81

Take a first aid kit into class. Show the students its components and name them. Explain that it is important to have a first aid kit at home, at school and in public places in case of accidents; it must be kept in an accessible place for adults but out of the reach of children. Remind the students that medicines are only good if they are used correctly.

• 1963. James Hardy carried out the first lung transplant. • 1963. Thomas Starzl carried out the first liver transplant. • 1967. Christian Bernard carried out the first heart transplant.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 7. (See pp. VI-VII)

81

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LEARNING TO READ

Pasteur: a great scientist Louis Pasteur was a scientist. He lived more than one hundred years ago. He worked very hard. He did research in his laboratory. He discovered that some bacteria cause illnesses. He discovered how to cure them.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through an informative text • To appreciate the importance of the work of the scientists

Now we know the origin of a lot of illnesses, like diarrhoea and pneumonia. We also have vaccinations to prevent some illnesses, like rabies. Pasteur also discovered a way of preserving food for a long time. This is called pasteurisation. We use it today to preserve milk and yoghurt.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Do the activities.

1 What did Pasteur do? Tick the boxes.

✓ ✓

He did research in his laboratory. He discovered that bacteria cause illnesses. He made bacteria.



■ Teaching suggestions • Contact a local university or scientific research centre and invite one of the research scientists to come to the school to talk to the children about their work, what they are trying to discover or invent, the objects that they use in the laboratory and so on. Prepare the visit beforehand by deciding with the class the questions they are going to ask.

He invented a way of preserving food.

2 Write the names of two illnesses.

diarrhø±å, p>eumoniå. 3 Is Pasteur’s work important for us? Complete the sentences. Pasteur invented He invented

82

vacci>efi pas†eurisatio>

to prevent illnesses. to preserve food.

eighty-two

Cross-curricular Solidarity

LEARNING TO READ

Explain to the students that many children in the world do not have the same opportunities or facilities that they have for looking after their health. For example, in many places there is a lack of medicines, the hospitals are not as well equipped or the means which we have for preventing and curing illnesses such as vaccines do not exist. Ask them to think about how we could help these children.

Text type: informative text This text gives us information about the advantages of Pasteur’s work for society. The words in bold print are the key words relating to the work of this scientist.

82 82

Activity 1 and 2 3

Strategy Identifying general information and implicit details in a text Giving opinions

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unit 7

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 7 Make recycled paper 1 Look at the pictures.

OBJECTIVES trees

wood

cellulose paste

• To reflect on the importance of recycling • To make recycled paper

paper

2 Follow the instructions.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES used paper

1. Mix used paper, glue and water.

1. Look carefully at the instructions for making recycled paper. 2. Make the recycled paper. 3. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole class.

2. Spread the mixture.

■ Teaching suggestions recycled paper

3. Press down the paper paste.

4. Dry the paper.

What do you recycle at home? M. A. Glass, paper, plastic, metal, organic waste. eighty-three

■ LEARNING SKILLS Interpreting the meaning of unknown words by using the context. In order to understand a piece of text we need to know what the words mean. One way in which we can find out the meaning of the words is by relating unknown words to the rest of the text. For example:

◗ Read the text on page 82 and explain the meaning of the word laboratory.

83

• Explain to the students that we use the trees in the forests to make many things, one of which is paper which we then use for making books and for writing on. We have to cut down lots of trees to obtain this paper. Remind them that we have learnt that trees and forests are very important for living beings. Explain that this is why we should not be wasteful when using paper. • Discuss the importance of recycling in general. Ask the following questions: – What kinds of things can we recycle? – Where can we take things that we want to recycle? – Can we make other objects from recycled materials? Remind the students that the simplest form of recycling is to reuse objects.

83

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Now I know 1 LET’S REMEMBER • Scientific advances are very important. They make our lives better.

OBJECTIVES

• Electricity is a discovery. Machines work with electricity.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Plastic is an invention. Plastic objects are useful, safe and easy to use. • Medical advances save lives and help us to live better.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Write and draw an invention. M. A. AN INVENTION FOR TRAVELLING

AN INVENTION FOR COMMUNICATING

ca®

†e¬epho>æ

drawing

drawing

AN ELECTRIC MACHINE

A PLASTIC OBJECT

[email protected]æ drawing

plasti© bott¬æ drawing

■ Teaching suggestions 84 • Ask the students to work in pairs and to make index cards about inventions and inventors. Use the following model: Invention: _____________________________. Inventor: ______________________________. Year: _________________________________. Use: ________________________________. ____________________________________. ____________________________________. ____________________________________. Description (draw or glue a picture of the invention):

eighty-four

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The advantages of scientific and technological discoveries and inventions for human beings • Inventions and discoveries have meant that our societies have developed • The function and application of electricity and materials such as plastic • The work and effort of scientists have improved our quality of life

84 84

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UNIT 7 3 LET’S REVISE Label the pictures. paper

metal

wood

woo∂ plasti© paπe®

wool

plastic

glass

• Ask the students to complete the following chart showing how they would have done things before the discovery of electricity and electrical appliances.

woo¬ glasfi

Action

Before

Now

Wash the dishes Cook the dinner

µeta¬

Light up a room Listen to music Iron the clothes

4 LET’S PRACTISE

Language link I am very lucky.

Materials: a vaccination calendar. Draw the calendar on the board (using the names of the illnesses in English) Ask the students to copy the calendar into their notebooks and tick the vaccines they have had. They can do this by checking the ages. Explain that before these vaccines existed many people died of these illnesses. That’s why although we might not like having vaccinations they prevent serious illnesses.

In some countries children do not have vaccinations or medicines. They do not have comfortable houses with water and electricity. Do you think you are lucky? Why?

5 I KNOW… 1. Important inventions. 2. Research is important. 3. Important scientists.

Cross-curricular Solidarity

4. Important medical discoveries.

eighty-five

KEY WORDS • Discovery • Invention • Energy • Antibiotic • Vaccine • Transplant • Penicillin • Recycling

85

You may well have some children in your class who need to take medicines on a regular basis, or whose family or friends do so (diabetics and asthmatics for example). Explain that these people are not sick, they simply need to take medicines all the time whereas most people only take medicines occasionally.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 7. Test and assessment: Unit 7 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

85

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UNIT 8

Earth and the sky UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • • • • •

To identify the Sun as the source of heat and light To understand the process involved in the change from day to night To relate the movement and rotation of the Earth to the seasons of the year To develop the capacity of observation and analysis To understand the differences in areas of the Earth which receive more or less sunlight

Contents THEME: The Earth and the sky INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The Sun, the Earth and the Moon • Day and night: – Changing from one to the other – Times of the day • The four seasons of the year • The differences in areas of the Earth depending on whether they receive more or less sunlight LEARNING TO READ: Different places on the Earth I CAN DO IT: Record the weather

Assessment criteria • • • •

Understanding that the Sun is the source of light and heat for the Earth Identifying the Sun, the Earth and the Moon Differentiating the four phases of the Moon Explaining the change of day to night as a consequence of the rotation of the Earth • Relating the movement of the Earth to the four seasons of the year • Understanding that the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth conditions life in different parts of the Earth • Observing and recording the weather in our region over a week

Suggested timing for the unit September

86 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 86-87

88-89

90-91

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

The Sun, the Earth and the Moon ● To understand that the Sun is the source of light and heat on the Earth ● To differentiate the four phases of the Moon Day and night ● To relate the changing of day to night to the rotation of the Earth

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 8

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: The natural environment

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 8

The four seasons To understand that the Earth takes twelve months to orbit the sun ● To understand that this movement around the sun is the origin of the seasons of the year ● To recognise the main characteristics of each season ●

92

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text ● To recognise that there are many different climate zones on the Earth ● To understand the influence of the climate on people’s lives

93

I can do it ● To develop the capacity of observation and analysis of the weather and the climate ● To record and organise data in a chart

94-95

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 8 Test and assessment: Unit 8 test

* Not yet available in English.

86 B

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8 The Earth and the sky

OBJECTIVES

The Moon

• To understand that the Sun is the source of light and heat on the Earth • To differentiate the four phases of the Moon

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

The Earth

The spaceman is looking at the Earth and the Moon. There is air all round the Earth. There is a lot of water on the Earth. There is no air and water on the Moon.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the main picture and then ask: – What is the person in the picture? – What does an astronaut do? – Which of the two circular objects in the picture is the Earth? – Look at the picture of the Earth. What colour is the water? What colour is the land? – Is there any water or air on the Moon? – What are the little dots in the rest of the picture? – Can you see the stars during the day? Can you see the Moon during the day? – Where does the light come from to light up the Earth?

86

The Earth and the Moon get light from the Sun.

86

ochenta y ocho

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • It is very important to insist during this unit that the Sun does not move around the Earth but rather it is the Earth that moves around the Sun which means that we see the sun in different positions during the course of a day. • Explain that the Moon also moves and that the lunar phases are a result of the position of the Moon with respect to the Sun.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 8 1 Label the pictures Earth, Sun and Moon. Use the key to colour picture. sea

land

atmosphere atmosphere

Moo> land Sea

Su>

Eart™

2 Write true (T) or false (F). We need air and water.

T

There is air and water on the Moon.

F

3 Colour the dark part of the Moon blue. Copy the words.

[email protected] waning Moon

ful¬ full Moon

• Tell the students to look at the astronaut in the picture. Ask the following questions. Is he walking? How is he moving? What is he wearing? Why is he wearing a special suit? What has he got on his back? Explain that like all astronomical objects the Earth has a special force which acts like a magnet (gravity). As we move away from the Earth this force is reduced. This is why astronauts float in space. • Explain the phases of the Moon. Tell the students how they can differentiate between the waxing and the waning of the moon: they hold up their hands and form a circle between the right and left hand. Imagine the Moon fits inside the circle. When the moon fits into your left hand it is waning. When it fits into your right hand it is waxing. Waning means getting smaller and waxing means getting bigger. Language link

[email protected] waxing Moon

>e∑ new Moon

eighty-seven

87

• Remind the students of the rhyme they learnt in Year 1. When the Moon fits my left hand It’s getting smaller every night. When it’s getting bigger, It fits into my right! Language link

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The Sun The sun is an enormous star at the centre of our Solar System. Our Solar System is located in the galaxy called the Milky Way. The Sun is a sphere made of materials which are submitted to very high temperatures. It gives light and heat to the Earth and the rest of the planets and satellites in our Solar System. Life on the Earth depends on the Sun, because without the Sun’s energy we would have no heat or light. Plants would not be able to develop and the life cycle of the Earth would be broken.

• Materials: construction paper, scissors and crayons. • Give each student a small piece of construction paper (A4). Tell the students to draw a circle on white paper, colour it like the moon, cut it out and glue it onto the paper. Ask them to think of sentences to describe the moon. Write some examples on the board. They can choose the sentence they like best and copy it round the shape of the Moon. Display the Moon-shape poems on the wall.

87

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Day and night From day to night The Earth spins round and round like a top. It takes 24 hours to turn round once. Because the Earth is spinning, a part of the Earth always gets light from the Sun. In this part of the Earth it is daytime. In the other part of the Earth it is night-time.

OBJECTIVES • To relate the changing of day to night to the rotation of the Earth

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the pictures and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 89 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

the Sun the Earth

night

the Sun

day

the Earth

The parts of the day The Sun seems to come up in the morning and go down at night. But the Sun does not move. The Earth moves.

We cannot see the Sun at night because the Earth turns.

The day ends when we see the Sun going down. This is the sunset.

The day begins when we see the Sun coming up. This is the sunrise.

At midday the Sun is high in the sky.

When is the Sun high in the sky? At midday.

88

■ Teaching suggestions • Explain the rotation of the Earth using a spherical object for the Earth and a lamp for the Sun. Explain that this is how we have day and night time. Ask the following questions: – Where is it daytime? Why do you say that? – Which object is moving? The Earth or the Sun? – What happens to the areas where there is not light?

88

eighty-eight

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The Earth The Earth is the planet we live on. It is spherical and when we look at pictures of the Earth taken from space the predominant colour is blue. This is why the Earth is sometimes called the Blue Planet. When we look at the Earth from space we can see three different areas: • The water (oceans, seas, river and lakes) covers most of the Earth’s surface. • The land is the part that is out of the water. It is made up of the continents and the islands. There is also land under the water. • The air surrounds the Earth and makes up the atmosphere.

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unit 8

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 8 1 Label the pictures day or night. Write three differences.

nigh† da¥ Nigh†: t™æ Moo> an∂ t™æ starfi a®æ ou†. I†´fi dar§. Da¥: t™æ Su> ifi ou†. I†´fi ligh†. Wæ ca> ßææ colourfi. It is

.

It is

.

2 What do you do at these times of the day? F. A. • At sunrise

.

• At midday

.

• At sunset

.

• At night

.

3 Find the information in a newspaper. Complete the sentences. F. A. • The Sun came up today at • The Sun went down today at

. .

The Earth takes 24 hours to turn round once. It is daytime where the Earth receives the light from the Sun. It is night-time where the Earth does not receive the light from the Sun.

eighty-nine

The Moon The Moon is the Earth’s only satellite. It has a very similar shape to the Earth but it is much smaller. There is no air or water on the Moon. The changes in temperature are very sharp and life cannot exist on the Moon. The Moon takes about 28 days to orbit the Earth. We can see four lunar phases which are the result of the position of the Moon with respect to the Sun: • New Moon: we cannot see the Moon at all in this phase. • Waxing Moon: only the right-hand side of the Moon is visible from the Earth. • Full Moon: we can see the whole of the Moon. • Waning Moon: only the left-hand side of the Moon is visible from the Earth.

89

• Tell the students to look carefully at the pictures for the times of the day on page 88. Tell the students to describe the light in the pictures. Ask them to describe the colour and the intensity. Tell them to also look carefully at the shadows and describe the length and position of the shadows. • Work with the vocabulary for the times of the day. • Explain to the students that the sunrise is when the sun is coming out. We also call this time of the day, dawn. The sunset is when the sun is going down behind the horizon. We also call this time of the day, dusk. Multidisciplinary link. Language Teach the students this riddle. Ask them to copy the riddle and illustrate it once they have worked it out. I’m big and yellow and sometimes red. I’m the king of the sky, so it is said. Some think I move through the daytime sky. But I don’t. I just sit here way up high. I warm up the Earth and light up the day. I’m the king of the sky, so they say.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 8. (See pp. VI-VII)

89

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The four seasons of the year The four seasons The Earth takes twelve months, or a year, to go round the Sun. The twelve months are divided into four seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Each season lasts three months.

OBJECTIVES

Spring: 21st March-20th June

Summer: 21st June-21st September

In the Spring it is warm. Days and nights are the same length. There are a lot of flowers.

It is hotter and drier in Summer. Days are long and nights are short.

Autumn: 22nd September-20th December

Winter: 21st December-20th March

It is cool in the Autumn. It can rain a lot. Days and nights are the same length. Some trees lose their leaves.

It is cold in Winter. It rains and it can snow. The nights are longer than the days. Some animals hibernate.

• To understand that the Earth takes twelve months to orbit the sun • To understand that this movement around the sun is the origin of the seasons of the year • To recognise the main characteristics of each season

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 91 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

90

ninety

■ LEARNING SKILLS Making index cards

■ Teaching suggestions

Organising information into index cards is a useful way to summarise and store things we want to remember. Only write down the most important information. For example:

• Ask the students the following questions: When is your birthday? In the winter, spring, summer or autumn? When do we celebrate Christmas? Which season are we in now? When do we have the longest holidays? When do we start school again after the holidays?

◗ Read the text on page 90. then make index cards for the seasons

90 90

of the year using the model.

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unit 8

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 8 1 Circle the correct words and complete the sentence. • The Earth takes 24 hours to turn round once. / to go round the Sun. • The Earth takes one year to turn round once. / to go round the Sun.

• Tell the students to work in pairs and act out the relationship between the Sun and the Earth. One student (the Sun) stands still in the centre. The other student (the Earth) turns round on themselves and around the sun at the same time. • Divide the class into groups and do a quiz on the subject of the unit. Ask questions about the issues they have studied. (How long does the Earth take to orbit the Sun? Are the days or the nights longer in the Summer? Is there water on the Moon). If the group give the right answer they get two points. If they do not answer correctly the other group have the opportunity to answer and if they do so correctly they get one point. The winner is the group with the most points.

• The year is divided into four seasons: Spring,

Sumµe®

,

Autum>

and

Win†e®

.

2 Draw a picture of Winter or Spring. Describe your picture.

Landscape Plants Clothes Colours Light

3 Complete the sentences. • A festival we have in Winter is • A festival we have in Spring is

Christmafi. Eas†e®.

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft

The Earth takes one year to go round the Sun. The year is divided into four seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter.

ninety-one

Spring • Time of the year: 21st March to 20th June • Temperature: mild • Length of days and nights: the same length • Other data: there are flowers and many animals are born

Summer • Time of the year: • Temperature: • Length of days and nights: • Other data:

Autumn • Time of the year: • Temperature: • Length of days and nights: • Other data:

Winter • Time of the year: • Temperature: • Length of days and nights: • Other data:

91

Divide the class into four groups. Each group makes a mural representing one of the seasons. They can use pictures and drawings. While they are doing their mural play the Four seasons by Vivaldi. Explain to the class that this music represents the four seasons. When there is a season change in the music ask them if they can guess which season it is.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 8. (See pp. VI-VII)

91

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LEARNING TO READ North Pole

Different places on the Earth

Spain

In many places on the Earth it is always like Winter, Sahara for example, the North Pole. The Sun is never very hot at the North Pole. The ground is covered in ice most of the year.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text • To recognise that there are many different climate zones on the Earth • To understand the influence of the climate on people’s lives

The Inuit people live at the North Pole. They make their houses with materials to protect them from the cold. In other places on the Earth it is always like Summer, for example, in the Sahara Desert. It is very hot in the desert. The Sun shines almost every day and it hardly ever rains. The Tuaregs live in the Sahara. They wear clothes to protect them from the heat.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and describe the pictures. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the questions in activity 2. 4. Do the activities.

1 Use words from the passage to complete the sentences. The The

Inui† πeop¬æ Tua®egfi

live at live in

t™æ Nort™ Po¬æ t™æ Saharå Deßer†

• Which place is hotter?

T™æ Saharå Thæ Nort™ Po¬æ

2 Complete the sentence. F. A. I would prefer to live in the

because

■ Teaching suggestions

Cross-curricular Tolerance and respect Encourage the students to show an attitude of tolerance and respect towards people from other countries and to show an interest in other cultures.

92 92

.

Now describe the North Pole and the Sahara.

• Which place has got more water?

• Talk about what people’s lives are like when they live in very cold places. Contrast this with people who live in very hot places. Ask the students about the kinds of houses they live in, the clothes they wear and the food they eat. Explain that people have to adapt their lives to the places they live in.

.

92

ninety-two

LEARNING TO READ Text type: descriptive text This text can be summarised as follows: Part one Part two Paragraph 1: cold places Paragraph 3: hot places Paragraph 2: how people Paragraph 4: how people live in the cold live in the heat Activity

Strategy

1

Identifying explicit information in a text

2

Expressing personal preference

. .

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unit 8

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 8 Record the weather 1 Look at this weather map for a Spring day.

OBJECTIVES • To develop the capacity of observation and analysis of the weather and the climate • To record and organise data in a chart

sun

clouds

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES rain

1. Briefly explain the main features of a weather map and the symbols that we use. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities. 4. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

storms

snow

2 Keep a record of the weather in your area for two weeks. F. A.

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Friday

Saturday

■ Teaching suggestions ninety-three

■ LEARNING SKILLS Summarising a text We use summaries to synthesize the information contained in a text and express the contents in an abbreviated form. In order to summarise a text it is first necessary to read the text carefully and underline the main ideas or key words. We use these words and ideas to write our summary.

◗ Summarise the text on page 92. Write one sentence for each paragraph.

◗ Read the text on page 92 and underline the main ideas or key words. Then write one sentence for the first two paragraphs and one sentence for the last two paragraphs.

93

• Tell the students to bring newspapers to class and cut out the weather maps and the other information about the weather. Tell them to look carefully at the symbols on the maps. Tell the students to cut out the symbols and glue them into their notebooks. They should also write the meanings of the symbols. • Ask the students why it is important to know what the weather is going to be like in the following situations: – We are going on a long car journey. – We are going to sow some plants in the garden.

93

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • All living beings need the light and heat from the Sun.

OBJECTIVES

• There is water and air on the Earth.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• The Earth takes 24 hours to turn round once. We have days and nights because the Earth turns round. • The Earth takes one year to go once round the Sun. The year is divided into four seasons.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Use the words to complete the sentences. • Earth

• midday

• Moon

• days

• sunset

• season

• Most of the surface of the • There is no water or air on the

Eart™ Moo>

is covered in water.

• The Earth and the Moon receive light from the • At

midda¥ sunße† ßeaso> dayfi

• In the Winter • The

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students to work in pairs and revise the main ideas in the unit. Then tell them to sit as if they were TV presenters and to explain the main ideas to the rest of their classmates. • Write the following sentences on the board. Tell the students to copy them into their notebooks and write true or false: – The Earth takes 48 hours to turn around once. – The Earth takes a year to orbit the Sun. – There are five seasons in the year. – The temperature is mild in the Spring. – It does not rain much in the Summer.

94 94

• In Summer the

94

• Sun

.

Su>

.

the Sun is high in the sky. begins at 6 o’clock in the evening.

after Winter is Spring. are very long.

ninety-four

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The Sun is the source of light and heat for the Earth • The shape of the Earth and its movements • The relationship between the rotation of the Earth and the day and night • The relationship between the Earth’s orbit and the four seasons

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UNIT 8 3 LET’S REVISE • Complete the sentences. Use: vapour, liquid, solid. Sea water is Snow and ice are There is water

liqui∂ soli∂ vapou®

water. water. in the clouds.

• Tick the correct sentence. The Earth moves in a straight line.



The Earth moves in a closed circle.

4 LET’S PRACTISE Tick the things the children have got to protect themselves from the sun. hat coat shirt ice-cream



✓ ✓ ✓ sun glasses ✓ umbrella

suncream

shoes

• Make a model of the lunar phases using paper and construction paper. – Draw a full moon on black construction paper. Colour in the moon using white wax crayons to make it shine. – Cut out a round disc of black construction paper the same size as the Moon you have drawn. – Place the disc exactly on top of the Moon and secure it at the top. – Turn the black disc from side to side to represent the different lunar phases. Encourage the students to help you write a short text about the Sun using the information in the chart. Ask the students to write similar texts about the Moon and the Earth.

5 I KNOW… 1. What the Earth is like.

Sun

Earth

Moon

What is it?

Star

Planet

Satelite

What colour is it?

Yellow Blue

Does it move?

No

2. How the Earth moves. 3. What makes the day and the night.

White

4. The names of the four seasons.

ninety-five

KEY WORDS • The Sun • The Earth • The Moon • Sunset • Sunrise • Day • Night • Midday

• Seasons • Spring • Summer • Autumn • Winter • Weather map

95

Yes, Yes, around around the Sun the Earth

Has it got water No and air?

Yes

No

Has it got life?

Yes

No

No

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 8. (See pp. VI-VII)

95

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UNIT 9

Landscapes on the Earth UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To understand that there are different types of landscapes on the Earth • To identify the different landscapes • To understand that a landscape is made up of physical and human features • To develop the capacity of observation and investigation • To explain the need for and usefulness of means of transport • To differentiate between different means of transport according to the merchandise carried • To relate different means of transport to features in the landscape which have been built for them

Contents THEME: Landscapes on the Earth INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The definition of a landscape • Features in a landscape: natural and artificial • Types of landscapes: coastal, plains and mountains • Transport and landscapes: – Transport of people and merchandise – Types of transport: by land, sea and air LEARNING TO READ: Friends of the Eath I CAN DO IT: Road safety

Assessment criteria • Perceiving and appreciating the existence of different types of landscape on the Earth • Differentiating between physical and human features in a landscape • Distinguishing between coasts, plains and mountains • Recognising the main features of the three types of landscape: coasts, plains and mountains • Understanding and explaining what a means of transport is • Classifying the means of transport according to what they transport and how they transport • Relating means of transport to the features in a landscape which have been built for them

Suggested timing for the unit September

96 A

Octuber

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page

Contents and objectives

96-97

Elements in a landscape: coastal landscape ● To analyse a coastal landscape and identify the main features in the landscape ● To distinguish physical and human features in the landscape

98-99

100-101

Inland landscapes ● To identify the main characteristics of a landscape composed of plains ● To identify the main characteristics of landscape composed of mountains

* Resources for the teacher Classroom materials ● Posters

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 9

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: The natural environment

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 9

Transport and landscapes To relate means of transport to the features in the landscape that have been built for them ● To understand the need for transport and its function ● To differentiate between types of transport ●

102

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a didactic text ● To reflect on good habits for protecting the environment

103

I can do it ● To understand the road safety rules for pedestrians and users of means of transport ● To analyse one’s own behaviour with respect to road safety and to correct negative aspects

104-105

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 9 Test and assessment: Unit 9 test

* Not yet available in English.

96 B

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9 Landscapes on the Earth

OBJECTIVES • To analyse a coastal landscape and identify the main features in the landscape • To distinguish physical and human features in the landscape

road trees

village lighthouse

cliffs beach

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

This landscape is the coast. We can see cliffs and a beach at the edge of the sea. We can also see trees, buildings and roads. A lot of people live on the coast. There are fishing villages, cities with ports and housing estates.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the picture. Ask a volunteer to read the text in the picture out loud. Ask the following questions: – Where are the people in the picture? What are they doing? – How many cars can you see? Is the orange car on the beach or on a road? – Look at the buildings in the village. Are they big or small? – Look at the tall, red and white building. Do you know what it is? (A lighthouse). Do you know what it is for?

96

96

ninety-six

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • Make sure that through the course of this unit the students focus on relating human activity to landscapes. • Point out that there is a difference between ancient and modern. Explain that these terms do not mean the same as old and new. Make sure that they can see the difference between new and modern.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 9 1 Look at the picture of the landscape. Use the key to colour the circles. physical features

human features

– Is the beach sandy or stony? Can you see the cliffs? Are they sandy or rocky? – Do you think that the cliffs have been built or are they natural? – Who uses the lighthouse? – Do the people in the village work in factories and offices or do you think they might be fishermen? • Explain that the coastline is not a straight line and that sometimes the sea cuts into the land and makes different kinds of relief like bays and inlets. Point out that the coastline is sometimes sandy (beaches) and sometimes there are high cliffs. • Ask the students about their visits to the beach. Ask them to name the beaches they have visited and what they did when they were at the beach. Ask them about the water. Was it cold or warm? What is the sea water like? Is it fresh water or salt water?

2 Match the numbers and the pictures. Colour the picture. 1 lighthouse

2 port

3 fishing

4 housing

village

1

5 beach

6 island

estate

3

4

6 2 5

Multidisciplinary link. Language A landscape is everything we can see. A landscape has got natural elements like the sea and rocks. A landscape has got also things built by people like roads and houses.

ninety-seven

97

Write the following words in a list on the board: fishing village, housing estate, island and port. Ask them to describe what they might find in each of these places. Guide their descriptions by asking questions such as: Can you find a big supermarket in a small fishing village?

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Lighthouses A lighthouse is a tower situated along the coast and in sea ports. The lighthouse has a bright light on the top of the tower which helps sailors at night. The oldest known lighthouse was the Alexandria lighthouse in Egypt which is one of the seven wonders of the world. Nowadays lighthouses run on electricity and the brightness of the light is increased using lenses and mirrors which produce a flashing, rotating light. The flashing of the light means that it is easier to identify at night and warns sailors of the proximity of the coast.

Cross-curricular Health and hygiene • Discuss the importance of protecting oneself from the sun. Ask the students to explain what happens if we stay out in the sun without any protection (sunburn, redness, blisters, headache, etc). Then ask them to think about how they can protect themselves (sun cream, sun hat, T-Shirt, limit time spent in the sun, etc).

97

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Inland landscapes Plains Flat land is called a plain. Rivers come down from the mountains and cross the plains.

OBJECTIVES • To identify the main characteristics of a landscape composed of plains • To identify the main characteristics of landscape composed of mountains

There are a lot of towns and cities on the plains. Good roads and railways connect the towns and cities. There are farms and fields near the towns. There are workshops and factories near the cities.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 99 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Mountain landscapes Some land is not flat. It has got mountains, forests, and usually, a lot of water. It is normally cold in the mountains and sometimes it snows. There are very small villages in the mountains and the roads are narrow. They go up and down the mountains. A lot of the people from the mountains have got farm animals or work in the forests. A lot of people from the cities go to the mountains for sports activities.

What is the landscape like where you live?

98

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students about their personal experiences of different types of inland landscapes. Ask the following questions: – Do you know a mountain village? – What colours can you see in a mountain landscape? – What colours can you see on the plains in the summer? – Have you ever been swimming in a river in the mountains? Is the water very cold or very warm?

98

ninety-eight

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Some of the natural landscapes that we can see have changed very little over the years. Others have been transformed considerably by actions such as: • The building of villages, towns and cities • The building of roads, railways, tunnels, bridges, reservoirs and so on • The installation of telecommunications masts and electricity pylons and cables • The cutting down of trees in order to obtain wood

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unit 9

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 9

1 Match the pictures and the sentences. • The road is straight and flat.

• Explain that the people who live on the inland plains work in agriculture, both animal farming and crop farming. In the mountainous areas people work in animal farming and industries related to exploiting the forests. Ask the students to help you to make lists of products which we obtain from these different industries (meat, fruit, wood, paper, and so on). • Show the students pictures of different kinds of landscapes and ask them to identify the main type (coastal, plains or mountains). Tell them to describe the pictures.

• It is near the sea. • It is a landscape with mountains. • There are animals. • There are cultivated fields. • There is a big forest. • It is a flat landscape.

2 Label the picture. • mountain

• plain

fo®es†

• river

• forest

• village

• road

mountai>

Multidisciplinary link. Art and craft

roa∂ ri√±®

Tell the students to work in groups and to find pictures of landscapes. They can use magazines, newspapers, brochures and the Internet. They should use these pictures, together with their own drawings and short pieces of text to make posters about types of landscapes. Each group presents its poster to the rest of the class.

[email protected]æ plai>

There are mountains, forests and small rivers in the mountains. The villages are small. Plains are flat. There are cities and big towns on the plains.

Cross-curricular Responsibility ninety-nine

People also affect the landscape greatly. In some areas huge forest fires, which may have been caused deliberately, have had a massive impact on the landscape. The new trees takes many years to grow so the change in the landscape will be obvious for some time.

99

Take the students on a visit to see a natural landscape. Before you go remind them of the rules for school trips. Tell them to take a notebook, pencil and crayons with them so they can take notes and draw pictures. Tell them to also take a plastic bag to collect all their rubbish and litter and take it home with them.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 9. (See pp. VI-VII)

99

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Transport and landscape Transport We often travel long distances from one place to another. We need transport to do this.

OBJECTIVES

Food is grown in the country and produced in factories. The food travels from the country to markets and shops. It travels by goods transport.

• To relate means of transport to the features in the landscape that have been built for them • To understand the need for transport and its function • To differentiate between types of transport

Land transport ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 101 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Cars, buses and lorries travel along the ground. They need roads and motorways. Trains also travel along the ground. They need railways and stations.

Air transport Aeroplanes travel through the air. They need airports and control towers.

Sea transport Ships travel over the sea. They need ports.

100

one hundred

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The aeroplane

■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss means of transport with the class. Ask the following questions: – Have you ever been on a ship or a boat? What did it feel like? Did you feel a bit sick? – Where did you travel from and to?

100

More than 100 years ago the first plane was built. It was a glider with an engine that turned a huge propeller in the nose of the plane. In 1903 the Wright brothers were the first people to fly a plane. The flight lasted for just 1 minute but it was an incredible breakthrough in the history of flight. Gradually aviators began to make longer journeys. In 1909 the French pilot Blériot managed to cross the Channel between Great Britain and France. In 1913 Roland Garros crossed the Mediterranean Sea. In 1927 Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic in just a day and a half.

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unit 9

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 9 1 Classify the means of transport.

bus

lorry

van

– Have you ever travelled by plane? Were you scared? Did you enjoy the flight? Where did you start your journey? Where did you fly to? Did you see the clouds? Was it a bumpy flight? – Have you ever travelled by train? Did you like it? Was it fun? – Which means of transport do you use more often? – What’s your favourite means of transport? Why is it your favourite? • Tell the students to bring toy planes, cars, trains, buses and ships to school. Tell them to look carefully and describe the differences. Guide them by asking questions like: Has it got wheels? How many wheels has it got? Can lots of people travel in it?

car

Transport for people

Transport for goods

bufi ca®

lorr¥ va>

2 Label the pictures old or modern.

ol∂

mo∂er>

mo∂er>

Multidisciplinary link. Mathematics

mo∂er>

ol∂

ol∂

Tell the students to look carefully at the pictures on page 100. Ask them to say how many triangles, squares and circles they can see in the pictures. Ask them to identify the shapes in the objects.

There are means of transport for people and for goods. Some transport travels on the land, some over the sea and some through the air. We need roads, ports, rails and airports for transport.

Cross-curricular Courtesy one hundred and one

Thanks to the invention of new materials and the development of technology we now have supersonic aircraft which can reach very high speeds and can cross the Atlantic Ocean in just three hours.

101

Remind the students how they should behave when they travel on public transport. Give them the basic rules: Don’t push. Wait your turn. Give your seat to an elderly or handicapped person or anyone who needs to sit down. Don’t make too much noise. Don’t throw litter on the floor. Don’t disturb the driver or other passengers. And so on.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 9. (See pp. VI-VII)

101

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LEARNING TO READ

Friends of the Earth Many people work hard to protect the Earth. There are lots of things we can do to protect the Earth.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a didactic text • To reflect on good habits for protecting the environment

We can avoid polluting the air we breathe.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

We can protect wild animals so they can live in freedom.

We can use water carefully. We can help everyone to have water. We can protect the forest from fires.

1. Read the text out loud and look carefully at the photo. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the issue of environmental protection. 4. Do the activities.

We will all live better if we protect our Earth. We must all work hard to protect our Earth. The world is better place for everyone if we protect our Earth.

1 Choose another title for the passage. F. A. Let’s make the world a better place! The world belongs to all of us.

Working hard to protect the world. Oh, what a beautiful world!

2 Read the passage again and complete the sentence. F. A. I can work hard to protect the Earth. I can And I can

■ Teaching suggestions • Talk to the students about the work done by organisations dedicated to environmental protection. Invite a member of one of these organisations to come to the school and talk to the students about his/her work. Encourage the students to ask questions. They can prepare a list of questions before the visit and record the interview on tape. Play the tape back to the class after the interview. • Encourage the students to think about the importance of protecting the environment we live in. Ask them what they can do to help. Ask guiding questions, for example: What kind of materials can you recycle? How can you help to save water?

102

Look at the ways we can protect the Earth. What would you most like to do? F. A.

102

one hundred and two

LEARNING TO READ Text type: didactic text This text provides a list of suggestions as to how we can help protect our planet. All the sentences begin with: We can … The repetition of these words highlights the importance of our intervention in these matters.

Activity

Strategy

1

Choosing a new title to fit the text

2

Applying information to a personal situation

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unit 9

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 9 Road safety 1 What do you do? Use the key to colour the boxes. F. A. never

always

sometimes

OBJECTIVES • To understand the road safety rules for pedestrians and users of means of transport • To analyse one’s own behaviour with respect to road safety and to correct negative aspects

I do not walk on the edge of the pavement. I wear a seat-belt in the car. I get out of and into the car on the side next to the pavement. I cross the road on zebra crossings and at the traffic lights.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Briefly explain the importance of road safety and the basic rules for pedestrians. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Do the activity. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

I wait for the green man before I cross the road. I look both ways before I cross the road. On public transport I give my seat to people who need to sit down. On public transport I hold on tight so I do not fall over.

2 Classify your results and talk with your classmates. F. A. never

always

sometimes

number of boxes

one hundred and three

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Traffic signs Traffic signs first appeared more than one hundred years ago when the number of vehicles on the roads and the speed at which these vehicles travelled began to increase. In those days the traffic was so disorganised that there were accidents involving many vehicles (with or without engines) and pedestrians. This is why traffic signs were placed along the public highways to organise and control the movement of the traffic and avoid accidents.

103

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students that this kind of survey is designed to assess how much we know about road safety and our opinions on the same matter. • Discuss the importance of respecting the rules and the traffic signs. Ask them what would happen if everyone did exactly what they wanted instead of following the rules. Ask them to tell you some of the rules they follow (where they cross the road, how they look, whether they run or walk across the zebra crossing, and so on).

103

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • A landscape is everything we can see in a place on the Earth.

OBJECTIVES

• A landscape has physical features like mountains, rivers, forests and animals and human features like roads, villages and cities.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• There are landscapes with coast, mountains and plains. • We need transport to travel from one place to another by land, sea or air.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• The means of transport need roads, stations, ports and airports.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Complete the table with these words. • passengers

• goods

• sea

• air

• roads

• rails

• ports

• airports

MEANS OF TRANSPORT

are for

pasß[email protected]

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students to bring photos to class of different types of mountain landscapes. Tell them to glue the photos into their notebooks and write a brief description of what they can see in the photo: natural features (rivers, trees, etc.) and human features (roads, bridges, etc). Ask them to describe the weather in the photo. Repeat the process with landscapes of plains. • Write a list of means of transport on the board: – sailing boat – canoe – bus – car – plane – bike – helicopter Ask the students to draw each vehicle and classify them into two groups, vehicles with an engine and without an engine.

104

goodfi

they travel by

ßeå

land

ai®

they need

they need

they need

portfi 104

roadfi

railfi

airportfi

one hundred and four

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The existence of different types of landscape • The main characteristics of the different types of landscape • The difference between physical and human features in a landscape • The usefulness of means of transport and the different types • The need for roads, stations, airports, ports and other installations for transport

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UNIT 9 3 LET’S REVISE Answer the questions. What do we call animals that live in the wild?

Multidisciplinary link. Language

Wil∂ animalfi.

Ask the students to use the vocabulary in activity 2 and to write sentences of at least five words. Volunteers can read their sentences out loud.

What do we call plants that live in the wild?

Wil∂ plantfi.

Language link 4 LET’S PRACTISE What is the best means of transport? Match the pictures and the sentences. • I am going to a restaurant near my house. • I am going on a journey a long way from my home. • I am moving to another city with all my furniture.

5 I KNOW… 1. The natural elements in a landscape. 2. How to recognise mountains and plains. 3. How to recognise the coast. 4. About means of transport.

one hundred and five

KEY WORDS • Landscape • Coast • Cliff • Physical features • Human features • Port • Plain • Mountain • Transport

• Merchandise • Roads • Airports • Railways • Stations • Road safety • Pedestrian • Traffic light

105

Materials: construction paper. Make word maps. Use a piece of construction paper for each set of words: vehicles and transport, and physical and human features in the landscape. Make word cards for the vocabulary in each set of words. Hand out the word cards and ask the students to come and attach their words to the correct category (use Blue Tac). Play different games with the words in the categories, for example: 1. Which word is missing. Tell the students to look carefully at one of the categories and then close their eyes. Remove one or more of the words. Students open their eyes and say which word(s) is missing. 2. Mixed up words. Tell the students to close their eyes while you put some of the words into incorrect categories. Students open their eyes and take turns putting the words back into the correct category. 3. Spell the word with me. Place your hand over all the letters of a word except for the first letter. Ask the students to call out the letters. Gradually show the letters of the word one by one and ask the students to spell the word out loud.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 9. Test and assessment: Unit 9 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

105

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UNIT 10

Homes and houses UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • • • • • • • • •

To To To To To To To To To

recognise the reasons why we need to live in houses recognise a home as a place where several people live together identify the rooms or places in a house understand that cities and towns are divided into neighbourhoods appreciate the importance of urban transport services identify the different means of urban transport interpret different symbols understand the difference between a model and a plan develop observational skills

Contents THEME: Homes and houses INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Houses: – Their development – Rooms and furniture • Streets: features found in the street • Neighbourhoods • Urban transport: public and private LEARNING TO READ: I like my neighbourhood I CAN DO IT: Map reading

Assessment criteria • • • • • • • •

Understanding the necessity of having houses Identifying the different rooms and places in a house Relating each room or place to its use and contents Understanding that cities and towns are divided into neighbourhoods Explaining the concept of a neighbourhood Appreciating the importance of urban transport Identifying the different types of urban transport Recognising and appreciating what is necessary for a peaceful coexistence in a neighbourhood • Analysing and interpreting a plan

Suggested timing for the unit September

106 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page

Contents and objectives

106-107

Development of houses. Rooms and furniture ● To relate different pieces of furniture and devices to the rooms or places in the house where they are normally found ● To understand that houses have developed over time ● To understand that a house is composed of different rooms

108-109

110-111

Neighbourhoods and streets ● To understand the structure and composition of a neighbourhood ● To identify the main architectural features in the street

* Resource for the teacher Classroom materials ● Posters

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in natural science: The natural environment

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 10 Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 10

Urban transport To differentiate between public and private transport ● To identify different means of public and private transport ●

112

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a discursive text ● To identify the main characteristics of one’s own neighbourhood ● To appreciate the importance of good behaviour and manners in our relationships with our neighbours

113

I can do it ● To analyse the relationship between a model and a plan ● To read a map ● To draw a route on a map

114-115

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 10 Test and assessment: Unit 10 test

* Not yet available in English.

106 B

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10 Homes and houses

OBJECTIVES • To relate different pieces of furniture and devices to the rooms or places in the house where they are normally found • To understand that houses have developed over time • To understand that a house is composed of different rooms

kitchen

bathroom

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

bed corridor

1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

bedroom

window door

This is a model of a house. There are different rooms in a house. We live in houses to protect us from the cold and rain. At home we learn to live with other people.

■ Teaching suggestions • Explain to the students that a model is a representation on a smaller scale of a real object. Tell them to look carefully at the picture and ask the following questions: – If this were a real house what would be missing at the top of the house? – How many bedrooms are there? Which piece of furniture helps you to recognise which rooms are bedrooms? – Which room is the kitchen? – What other rooms can you see?

106

106

one hundred and six

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • In this unit the students will be reading maps. Some of the students may still have difficulty with spatial concepts (left-right, up-down, in front of-behind, etc.). Do some simple exercises to reinforce these concepts. • Explain the difference between a plan or map, which is a drawing to scale of a building or a city and a model which is a miniature representation of the city or building.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 10 1 Use the words to complete the sentences. bedroom

kitchen

sitting room

bathroom

bed

bath

sofa

fridge

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– How many rooms are there in your house? – What would happen if we had to live in the street? Would we be cold? How would we wash? – How many people live together in your house? • Remind the students that when we describe a person, thing or animal we explain its main characteristics. Ask them to think about the house that they live in and to try to describe it to the rest of the class. Ask the following questions to help the students: – How many rooms are there in your house? – What is each room for? – What is there in the (kitchen)? – What colour are the walls? – Is your home in a tall building? – Is it a house on its own? – What is it made of?

The bed is in the The

2 Talk about the different houses. F. A. (Materials, structure, height, parts...) Thousands of years ago.

A thousand years ago.

A hundred years ago.

Today.

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft

3 Read and copy. Everyone has the right to have a house to live in.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Divide the class into groups of four. Ask them to make a house using construction paper, coloured paper, glue, scissors and recycled materials. Tell each group to make its house roughly the same size as the other groups so that when they have all finished you can put them together to form a neighbourhood.

Different types of house

Multidisciplinary link. Language

Human beings have not always lived in houses like the ones we know today.

Ask a volunteer to write his/her answers to activity 1 on the board. Correct any mistakes and tell the students to correct their own work.

one hundred and seven

Thousands of years ago people lived in caves. Later they built huts using clay and straw. After that they started to build houses using wood or stone.

107

In the areas near the north pole, the Inuit people, the local inhabitants, make their winter houses using blocks of ice.

107

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Página 108

The houses in my neighbourhood The streets All streets have: – buildings – a road for the cars and a pavement for the people.

OBJECTIVES • To understand the structure and composition of a neighbourhood • To identify the main architectural features in the street

ent em v a p

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

road

Each street has got a name and all the houses have got a number. A group of houses surrounded by streets is called a block.

Neighbourhoods

1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 109 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Towns and cities are divided into neighbourhoods. Every neighbourhood has a lot of streets and buildings. Every neighbourhood usually has shops, offices, schools, libraries, churches, health centres and playgrounds. Every neighbourhood has a name.

What is the name of your street? What is the name of your neighbourhood?

108

one hundred and eight

■ Teaching suggestions • Take the students for a walk around the neighbourhood where your school is situated. Point out the most common features. Before you leave ask them to write down the following questions in their notebooks so that when you return to the classroom they are able to answer them. – What are the streets like? Are they narrow or wide? What about the pavements?

108

■ LEARNING SKILLS Completing the information in a picture In order to complete the information in a picture which accompanies a piece of text you can label the picture. For example:

◗ Look at the picture on page 108, titled The streets. Label the following features in the picture: • Building • Street • Block

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unit 10

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 10 1 Tick the things you can see in your street. F. A.

– Are there lots of shops? Is there a shopping centre? – Are the buildings very high? – Are the streets clean. Are there any parks or gardens? – Are there any streetlamps, benches, litter bins, recycling bins or postboxes? – Is there a health centre? Is there a library? Are there any other schools? • After your walk around the neighbourhood, the students write the answers to the questions. Ask any of your students from other neighbourhoods to compare theirs with where the school is located.

Complete the sentence about your street. F. A. There is not a

and there are not any

.

2 Number the things in the street. Colour the picture. 1 houses

2 shop

3 pavement

4 road

1

Multidisciplinary link Art and craft

2

4

Use the houses that the class made in the previous Art and craft link on page 107. The students place their houses and buildings together to make a neighbourhood with streets and pavements joining the areas. They can use construction paper, and place some of the features that they saw in the street like streetlamps and postboxes.

3

There are buildings, roads and pavements in the street. There are lots of streets and buildings in a neighbourhood.

one hundred and nine

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The names of streets All streets have names. Some streets are named after certain professions or jobs (for example: Artists’ Street), others are called after a monument or denote the size or importance of the street (for example: The High Street or The Main Street). Other streets are named after people from the area or important people in history (for example: Christopher Columbus or Goya). Some streets are called after a historical event which is particularly relevant like Constitution Street. We can also find streets named after geographical features like The River Ebro Street or the names of animals or plants (for example: Fish Street or Olive Street).

109

Cross-curricular Responsibility Before you go out for your walk to explore the neighbourhood remind the students how they should behave. They should pay attention to your instructions, not make too much noise, stand aside for other people to pass, use the pedestrian crossings, throw any litter in the litter bins.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 10. (See pp. VI-VII)

109

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Página 110

Streets and transport Transport in the city A lot of people travel in the city. They go to school or to work. Other people go shopping, go out to have fun or go to visit their family and friends.

OBJECTIVES • To differentiate between public and private transport • To identify different means of public and private transport

We all use transport to travel quickly and comfortably.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Public transport

1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 111 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Anyone can use public transport. Buses, taxis and the underground are all public transport. The Town Council is responsible for public transport.

Private transport People use private transport when they use their own vehicles. Sometimes there are a lot of cars in the streets. Then we have traffic jams and a lot of pollution.

Do you use public transport to come to school?

110

■ Teaching suggestions • Talk to the students about the public transport services that they know and use. Ask the following questions. – How do you come to school? – Do you use a means of transport that has wheels? Which one(s)? – Where does this means of transport travel, on the surface or under the ground? – Do you know the person who drives it?

110

one hundred and ten

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION The bicycle Throughout history man has built different kinds of vehicles with two wheels joined by a bar. These primitive forms of transport were the precursors of the bicycle. In ancient China a type of bicycle with two bamboo wheels but no pedals was built. Many years later Leonardo da Vinci drew a vehicle very much like the bicycles we have today. However, two hundred years ago the vehicle that we know as a bicycle was first designed. The Penny-farthing, a bicycle with two wheels, one large one at the front and one small one at the back, pedals and a saddle was the first of the modern bicycles.

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unit 10

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 10

1 Use the words under the pictures to complete the sentences. • It has a green or red light on the top. We wave our hand to stop it in the street. It is a

tax^

– Can you use it at any time of the day? – Can this means of transport change its route if there is a lot of traffic? – Where do you catch it? • Take a map of the local (or nearest) underground to class. You can find these on the Internet. Explain that each line is classified according to a colour and all the lines go through several different stations. Some lines meet at a station where passengers can change from one line to another. Show them some examples. • Give the students copies of the maps and ask them to work out the best route from one place to another. They should say which station they start at, which line they take, where they have to change and which other lines they take and where they end up.

bus

.

• It has a fixed route. We wait for it at a special stop. It is a

bufi

.

• It travels under the ground and has no problems with traffic jams. Only some cities have this means of transport. It is an

un∂ergroun∂ trai>

underground train

. taxi

2 Match the pictures and the sentences. Reserved for pregnant women.

Reserved for the elderly.

Reserved for disabled people.

Cross-curricular Responsibility

We use transport to travel around the city. Anyone can use public transport. Private transport is when we use our own vehicles.

one hundred and eleven

111 •

From that moment on bicycles developed until they reached the modern form we know today. The shape of the bicycles that were designed depended largely on what they were going to be used for. For example, the racing bikes were built using a very light material and a small, curved handle bar so that the riders could learn forward and gather up speed. Mountain bikes were built for rough terrain. Tandems were designed for two or more riders.

• •



Reiterate the rules we must follow when we are on public transport. Make a poster with the students to reflect these rules. Discuss the importance of the rules for both safety and out of respect for other passengers. Wait till the bus stops completely before getting on or off. Don’t block the exits or entrances. Don’t put your head or arms out of the windows because you might cause an accident. Don’t disturb the driver. He might get distracted and you will put other passengers’ lives at risk.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 10. (See pp. VI-VII)

111

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LEARNING TO READ

I like my neighbourhood Andrea likes her neighbourhood. Andrea was born in this neighbourhood. She likes it because there are a lot of places where she can play with her friends.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a discursive text • To identify the main characteristics of one’s own neighbourhood • To appreciate the importance of good behaviour and manners in our relationships with our neighbours

She likes it because there are a lot of trees and a park near her house. She likes it because it is always clean. She likes it because there are a lot of different kinds of shops. She likes it because there are not many cars. She especially likes it because it is a small neighbourhood and she knows a lot of people.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and describe the picture. 2. Ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Discuss the answers to question 2. 4. Do the activity.

1 Circle the correct words. 1. Andrea’s street is always clean. / dirty. 2. Andrea’s street has got a lot of shops. / only a few shops. 3. There are only a few / a lot of cars in Andrea’s street. 4. There are / are not any gardens and parks in Andrea’s street.

2 What’s your neighbourhood like? Circle the words. F. A. In my neighbourhood the streets are always clean / dirty. There are a lot / only a few parks and gardens. There are no / a lot of shops. There is a lot of / not much traffic.

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students questions so that they can compare their neighbourhood to the one in the text. • Ask the students Who is responsible for managing the traffic, cleaning the streets, watering the gardens? and so on. Multidisciplinary link Mathematics Ask the students to solve the following maths problem: Ten years ago there were 765 people in my neighbourhood. Now there are 948 people living here. How many more people are there now?

112

112

one hundred and twelve

LEARNING TO READ Text type: discursive text This text offers ideas in the form of a list. In this case the list gives us reasons why Andrea likes her neighbourhood. Look at the repetitive start to the sentences, She likes it because… The repetition reinforces the message. Activity

Strategy

1

Identifying explicit data in the text

2

Applying information to other situations

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unit 10

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 10 Map reading 1 Compare the model and the map.

OBJECTIVES • To analyse the relationship between a model and a plan • To read a map • To draw a route on a map

model

map

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

2 Find things on the map.

1. Briefly explain the differences between a model and a map. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Do the activity. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

• What is opposite the hospital?

T™æ par§. A fountai>.

• What is behind the supermarket? Draw the route:

flower shop ➙ hospital ➙ greengrocer’s ➙ fountain ➙ chemist’s

one hundred and thirteen

■ LEARNING SKILLS Finding information on a plan or map In order to find information on a map or plan the reader should first locate all the symbols, icons or signs. For example: ◗ Look carefully at the plan on page 113 and locate: – The hospital – The supermarket – The greengrocer’s – The chemist’s Now answer this question: – How do you know there is a chemist’s?

113

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the model and the map in activity 1. Explain that the same neighbourhood has been represented in two different ways. In the model we can see the houses, the streets and the park much as they are in real life but on a much smaller scale. In the map we can see these elements as if we are looking at them from above. • Ask the students to draw a plan of their house. Tell them to ask their parents to help.

113

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • We all need a house to live in. • Houses protect us from the cold and the rain. We learn to live with other people at home.

OBJECTIVES

• In our neighbourhood there are a lot of streets. A group of houses surrounded by streets is called a block.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• We use transport to travel around the city.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• We can use public transport or private transport.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Look at the pictures. Use the words in the boxes to complete the sentences.

road streets pavement

St®æetfi pa√±µen† roa∂ hoµæ ∑¶ li√¶

have a and a At

home we live

■ Teaching suggestions • After you have read the section Let’s remember, the students can copy and answer the following questions in their notebooks. – What do we call a group of houses surrounded by streets? – What do we use transport for? – Name two types of urban transport. • The students can write a short survey and ask their family and friends about transport. Give them the following model:

with

other people. We can all use a bus transport

bufi transpor†

because

it is public

114

one hundred and fourteen

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts:

• Name and relationship: • Which means of transport do you usually use? • How many days of the week do you use it? • Are you happy with this means of transport? • Does this means of transport cause a lot of pollution?

114

.

• The reason why people live in houses • The main parts of a house • A neighbourhood is a group of houses, streets and squares • The usefulness and importance of urban transport • The existence of different kinds of transport

.

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UNIT 10 3 LET’S REVISE Read the sentences and write true (T) or false (F). There is a lot of pollution in cities because…

F T

Cross-curricular Responsibility

the air is very cold and it is difficult to breathe. the air contains gases which are bad for us.

Talk to the students about the importance of cooperating with tasks at home. Ask them what kinds of things they do to help at home (tidying their bedrooms, taking the rubbish out, setting and clearing the table, etc.) and discuss what other things they can do to help with the housework.

We must protect trees to protect our own health because…

F T

trees stop the wind from bothering us. trees are living beings and they produce oxygen.

A clean and healthy city is not a rubbish dump, so…

F T

we should keep our rubbish at home. we should put our rubbish in recycling bins.

Language link Draw the street below on the board.

4 LET’S PRACTISE

Hospital

Solve the problem.

School

A ticket for one bus journey costs 1 Euro and a bus pass for ten journeys costs 7 Euros. What is the difference between ten single tickets and a bus pass? 1 € ⫻ 10 ⫽ 10 € 10 € ⫺ 7 € ⫽ 3 € 10 tickets cost 3 € more than a bus pass. 5 I KNOW…

Bus station Police station

1. Why we live in houses. 2. All about my street. 3. All about my neighbourhood. 4. All about the transport in the city.

one hundred and fifteen

Supermarket

115

Cinema

Toy shop Library

Car park

Health centre

Ask questions in order to practice the following prepositions: opposite, next to, between. Add other elements like a bus stop and a postbox and practice the prepositions: in front of and behind. Tell the students to draw the street in their notebooks and take turns giving instructions and drawing the route from one place to another in pairs.

KEY WORDS • House • Neighbourhood • Block • Street • Road • Pavement

• Private transport • Public transport • Model • Plan Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 10. Test and assessment: Unit 10 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

115

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REVISION ACTIVITIES. Group work WATER

1 Complete the sentences with solid, gas or liquid.

liqui∂ gafi soli∂

Water is a

. When water gets

hot it turns into vapour. Vapour is a

. When water gets cold it turns

into ice. Ice is a

.

MACHINES

2 Match the three sentences to one picture. a. It is very simple. b. It is manual. DIBUJO

c. We use it to cut things. THE SEASONS

3 Look at the picture and write the name of the season.

Autum>

THE STREET

4 Write six things you can find in the street. M. A.

postbo≈ signfi tra‡‡i© ligh† carfi shopfi bußefi 116

116

one hundred and sixteen

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LANDSCAPES

5 Tick the picture of the coast.



TRANSPORT

6 Match the sentences to the pictures. Many people travel in it. It travels by land. It is public transport. It carries people and goods. It travels by air. It is public transport. It carries goods. It travels by land. It is private transport.

Who did you work with? How many activities did you finish?

one hundred and seventeen

117

117

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DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES. Group work LET’S EXPERIMENT 1 Let’s add substances to water and see what happens.



▲ salt

pencil shaving



▲ rice

sugar



▲ lemon juice

oil

2 Let’s analyse the results. Complete the sentences with these words. • dissolves Sugar Salt Rice Oil

• floats

dissolñfi dissolñfi sinkfi floatfi dissolñfi floatfi

• sinks

in water.

in water. in water.

on water.

Lemon juice

Pencil shaving

in water. on water.

3 Now classify your results in the table.

Substance

118

118

dissolves sugar, salt, lemon juice

floats pencil shaving oil

sinks rice

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

one hundred and eighteen

These pages provide an introduction to the procedures for scientific work. In this section the students will be working with the following procedures: observation and description (activities 1, 2 and 3), making conjectures (activity 4).

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LET’S THINK 4 Look at the problems. Talk to your classmates and tick the correct answer. If I mix hot water and cold water.

✓ I get warm water. I get cold water. If I mix a blue liquid with a yellow liquid.

✓ I get a green liquid. I get a black liquid. I get a white liquid.

If I untie the balloon.

✓ The air will come out quickly. The air will stay in the balloon. The balloon will get bigger.

If I pour water into these things.

✓ The water will have a different shape in each one.

The water will have the same shape in each one.

Who did you work with? How many activities did you finish?

one hundred and nineteen

119

119

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Term 3 Contents THEME My family and neighbours Theme

11

INFORMATION

LEARNING TO READ • Descriptive

• The family • The neighbours • The neighbourhood

text

I CAN DO IT • Interpreting population charts

and its services

• Means of communication: personal and collective

Jobs and working Theme

12

Time goes by Theme

13

Stories and memories Theme

14

• Work in the factories • Work for obtaining food • Work in the service sector

• Narrative

• Daily activities • Measuring time • The differences between

• Explanatory

text

text

the past and the present

• Festivals • Family history • The customs and symbols of a place.

• Narrative text

• Thinking about food

• Making a calendar for birthdays and special days

• Making a time line of inventions and discoveries

• Objects and buildings from the past

Assessment criteria

On the next page there is a letter for you to photocopy and hand to the parents of your students. This will help them to participate in supporting their child’s learning.

120 A



1. Identifying and appreciating the importance of the services in a neighbourhood 2. Understanding the different means of communication 3. Understanding and appreciating the importance of work 4. Differentiating between different types of work according to the tasks and aims 5. Understanding the importance of buying and selling 6. Understanding and using the correct measurements of time 7. Using some time markers correctly such as: before/after, ancient/modern… 8. Distinguishing between past and present 9. Identifying sequences of events in our own lives

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Dear Families: We are nearly at the end of the year now and close to completing a successful school year full of interest in learning. During this final term in Science, Geography and History your child is going to learn about their immediate environment. They will be looking at the family, neighbours, types of work and jobs and means of communication. We will also be looking at the importance of valuing the history, customs and symbols of our Autonomous Community. You can help your child by explaining your family history. Tell him/her about how things used to be for you when you were his/her age. Talk about the kinds of games you used to play, the things you celebrated and how you celebrated, and any other details which you think would be of interest to your child. When you are walking in the streets talk to your child about how things have changed with time. Thank you very much for your interest and cooperation.

120 B

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UNIT 11

My family and neighbours UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To understand that a family is a group of people who are related to each other • To understand that our neighbours are the people who live in our neighbourhood • To recognise different public services • To understand the usefulness of means of communication • To identify different means of communication • To encourage and appreciate social relationships • To understand the importance of children’s rights • To understand population graphs

Contents THEME: My family and neighbours INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • The family: – Members of the family – Possible changes in the family • The neighbourhood: neighbours and services • Means of communication LEARNING TO READ: Children’s rights I CAN DO IT: Interpret a population chart

Assessment criteria • • • • • • • •

Recognising the family relationships amongst members of the family Understanding and explaining the concept of a neighbourhood Recognising some of the services in the neighbourhood Understanding the need for means of communication Classifying means of communication into personal and collective Interpreting and making population graphs Reflecting on children’s rights Appreciating the importance of our relationships with others

Suggested timing for the unit Septiember

120 C

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 120-121

122-123

124-125

Contents and objectives

* Resources for the teacher Classroom materials ● Posters

Members of the family. Changes in the make-up of the family ● To identify the different members of the family ● To discover changes that take place in the make-up of a family over time Neighbours and the services of the neighbourhood ● To understand that neighbourhoods change over time ● To appreciate and respect the services in our neighbourhood

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 11

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 11

Means of communication To classify the means of communication according to the number of people who use each one ● To appreciate the importance of communicating ●

126

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text ● To reflect on and appreciate the importance of children’s rights

127

I can do it ● To interpret population graphs ● To understand that the population of any place is made up of men (boys) and women (girls) of different ages

128-129

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 11 Test and assessment: Unit 11 test

* Not yet available in English.

120 D

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11 My family and neighbours

OBJECTIVES • To identify the different members of the family • To discover changes that take place in the make-up of a family over time

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

These families are having a party. All families are different. There are people of different ages in each family. Families change a lot over the years. A family changes, for example, when they have a baby.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the main picture and then ask the following questions: – How many families can you see in the picture? – Look at the family in the middle of the picture. How many people are there in this family? Can you say who they are? (Mother, father, etc.) – There are different kinds of families, aren’t there? Can you tell me some differences? – Are all the members of a family the same age? • Talk to the students about their families. Ask the following questions: Who do you live with?

120

120

one hundred and twenty

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES Some of your students may come from single parent families or have parents who have recently divorced or separated. Be aware of the fact that other children may be adopted. Address the issue of the family with sensitivity and care. Explain that there are many different types of families, not just the standard nuclear family. Families may be made up of different members, who have different ages, the relationship amongst the members of the family may be blood ties and may not be. But all families have one thing in common and that is that they protect and care for the children in the family.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 11

1 Draw a family and complete the sentences. F. A. My surname is . E. g. Parent(s), children, grandparents.

My father’s surname is . My mother’s surname is .

2 Write the names in the family tree. Daniel

Gloria

Luke

José

paternal grandparents

Louise Anne

Daniel maternal grandparents

An>æ Joßæ Gloriå Lu§æ Luc¥

Louise

mother

father

daughter

Lucy

3 Write about your family tree. F. A. There are I have got

people in my family tree. I have got sisters and brothers. grandmothers and grandfathers. one hundred and twenty-one

■ LEARNING SKILLS Interpreting a family tree We use a family tree to represent the relationships within a family. In this type of diagram, which usually has branches, the information is displayed in the following order: the most distant ancestors are placed in the upper part of the diagram and the most recent generations in the lower part. For example:

121

How many brothers and sisters have you got? Have you got any grandparents? Do they live in the same house as you? Have you got any great grandparents? What do you usually do with your family on Saturdays? Do you meet up with other families who are friends of yours? • Draw a picture of your house on the board and write the names of the people who live in your house inside the outline. Draw three balloons coming out of the roof of the house and write the following sentences in the balloons: We love each other. We help each other. We all take turns to do things at home. Discuss these sentences with the students and their significance within the family unit. • Hold a family party one afternoon at school. Tell the students to write an invitation to give to their parents: The students in class _____ would like to invite (names)________ to a party in their classroom. We want to get to know all the families in our class. Please come on (day) _________ at (time)__________.

Multidisciplinary link. Art and Craft Tell the students to bring a family photo to school and to make a photo frame. They will need construction paper, scissors, glue and a decorative ribbon or string. They glue the photo to the construction paper and hang up the family portrait using the ribbon.

◗ Draw your family tree. Use the model on page 121.

121

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Neighbours need each other My neighbours A lot of people live in our street.

OBJECTIVES

The street changes from time to time. Sometimes we get new neighbours and sometimes our neighbours go to live somewhere else.

• To understand that neighbourhoods change over time • To appreciate and respect the services in our neighbourhood

People who live in the same street are neighbours. Neighbours help each other.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 123 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Services In our neighbourhood we have got services. Services are for everyone. They help us to live better. Services are things like buses, the post, gardens and shops. Answer the questions. F. A. Do you know your neighbours? . Do you play with your neighbours? . Do you help your neighbours? . How many neighbours have you got?

122

■ Teaching suggestions • Encourage the students to talk about their neighbours and their relationship with them. Ask them the following questions: – How many neighbours do you know? – What are their names? – Are all your neighbours your friends? – Have you got any friends in your neighbourhood?

122

one hundred and twenty-two

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Public services and elements in the street This page of the unit discusses the neighbourhood services that we can all use such as public transport, postal services, public gardens and parks, and the shops. Many of these services provide facilities which make up the different elements we can see in the street. Have a walk around your neighbourhood and see how many different elements you can see.

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unit 11

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 11 1 Use the key to colour the boxes. neighbours

(N) P

N

P – Do you neighbours help you? • Ask a volunteer to talk about his/her neighbourhood. Ask questions to guide the student: What kinds of shops are there? Is there a health centre? Is it clean? Is there a park?

public services

(P) personal objects

(O) P

P

P

O

Cross-curricular Solidarity Talk to the students about the length of time they have been living in their neighbourhood. If there are new arrivals ask the other members of the class to tell them about their new neighbourhood. Point out to the students that it is important to welcome people into our neighbourhoods and make them feel at home.

2 Colour the pictures and write old or modern.

It is an

ol∂

street.

It is a

mo∂er>

Cross-curricular Responsibility

street.

Circle the clues in the picture. A lot of neighbours live on a street. Neighbours help each other. Neighbours use public services.

one hundred and twenty-three

123

Ask the students how they like to see their neighbourhood. Ask them if they like to see clean streets. Ask them about graffiti. Explain that it makes the neighbourhood look scruffy and uncared for. Ask them to think about how they can help to keep their neighbourhood in good condition.

• Bus stops • Public notices • Litter bins • Benches • Streetlamps • Traffic lights • Traffic signs • Telephone booths Children should learn from an early age that it is important to respect and use these objects carefully.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 11. (See pp. VI-VII)

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Communication 1

2

Personal communication We communicate when we talk, ask questions or explain something.

OBJECTIVES • To classify the means of communication according to the number of people who use each one • To appreciate the importance of communicating

We communicate when we tell other people what we think. We also communicate when we ask other people what they think or feel.

3 4

When people are not near us we can use the post, the telephone or e-mail to communicate with them.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 125 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

The media We get information about the world from different places. We read the newspapers and magazines, we listen to the radio, we watch television or we surf the Internet.

Answer the questions. F. A. Do you watch television every day?

124

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students about the type of TV programmes that they watch (music programmes, films, sports, etc.). Explain that TV and radio are means of communication which are enjoyed by lots of people. Compare them to other means of communication like letters or telephone calls which only involve a few people. • Ask the students if they listen to the radio. Divide the class into two

124

Do you listen to the radio?

one hundred and twenty-four

■ LEARNING SKILLS Reading and interpreting a sequence of pictures In order to interpret a sequence of pictures it is first necessary to look carefully at the order of the pictures and observe details in each one. For example:

◗ Look at the sequence of pictures on page 124 and explain what we have to do in order to send a letter

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unit 11

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 11 1 Write examples. Personal communication:

pos†, †e¬epho>æ, æ-mai¬. groups. Tell each group to think about one of these means of communication. Ask them to make a list of its advantages and disadvantages. For example: you can listen to the radio in all the rooms of the house. You can’t see images on the radio. • Talk to the students about the Internet. Explain that the Internet is a huge network of information and communication and it means that people all over the world can be connected. • Remind the students that they should not use the Internet without their parents supervision.

>ewspaπerfi, magazi>efi, radio, †e¬evisio>, In†erne†.

The media:

2 Guess what it is. Complete the sentences. • We can hear words and music. It is the

radio

.

• We can see pictures and hear sounds. It is the

†e¬evisio>

.

• We can see pictures and read words. It is the

>ewspaπe®

.

Multidisciplinary link. Language 3 What kind of communication did your great grandparents use? Circle the picture.

We get information by communicating. There are different kinds of communication. There is personal communication and the media.

one hundred and twenty-five

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION E-mail E-mail is a type of communication between people using the Internet. An e-mail is not very different to a letter written on a piece of paper but e-mail messages can be sent and received in a very short period of time even if the two people are living in different parts of the world. When we send a letter by ordinary post we need to write an address on the envelope. When we send an e-mail we also need to write an address. E-mail addresses have three parts: the first part is the name of the person who is sending the message, the second part is the sign @ and the third part is the name of the computer the message is being sent from.

125

Ask the students to bring a stamp and an envelope to school. Explain the layout of a letter. You write your address and the date in the top right hand corner. Then you start your letter on the left hand side. Write: Dear, followed by the name followed by a comma. You then write the body of the letter. To end the letter you write: Love from and your name. Ask all the students in the class to write their names and addresses on strips of paper. Collect the strips and shuffle them. Hand them out again. Tell the students to write a letter to the person whose name is on their strip of paper. Who they are writing to is a secret. Give each student an envelope and a stamp. Let them prepare the envelopes, with the addresses and stamps, and take them to the postbox to send them.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 11. (See pp. VI-VII)

125

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LEARNING TO READ

Children’s rights We all have our own name. We all have people to look after us, to protect us and to love us. We all have a house to live in and a school to go to.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a descriptive text • To reflect on and appreciate the importance of children’s rights

If we are thirsty, we have something to drink. If we are hungry, we have something to eat. If we want to say something, people listen to us. If it is cold, they keep us warm and if we are ill, they look after us.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

All the children in the world should have all these things. These are children’s rights.

1. Read the text out loud and describe the photo. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss question 2.

1 Write three examples of children’s rights. F. A.

4. Do the activities.

We all have the right to

2 Why is going to school a right for all children? Tick the correct answer. Because we learn about the world and to learn to live with others.



Because we have fun and play with our friends.

■ Teaching suggestions • Find an abridged version of the children’s charter of rights. For example in Internet on http://www.educared.net/ concurso2001/405/derechos. htm. You might also find this in an encyclopaedia. Make copies and hand it out to the children. Ask for volunteers to read the children’s rights out loud. Discuss the different rights with the students. • Encourage the students to reflect on what would happen if one of the needs mentioned in the text was not met. Help them to appreciate that their needs are met.

126

126

one hundred and twenty-six

LEARNING TO READ Text type: descriptive text Explain the structure of this text. The first two paragraphs describe situations which are common in our country. The last paragraph explains that this situation should be generalised and cover all children all over the world. This implies that there are places where children do not have full rights. Activity

Strategy

1

Identifying details and general information in a text

2

Applying information to other situations

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unit 11

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 11 Interpret population charts 1 Look at the charts and answer the questions. PUPILS IN A SECOND YEAR PRIMARY CLASS Number

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

OBJECTIVES

14

• To interpret population graphs • To understand that the population of any place is made up of men (boys) and women (girls) of different ages

Girls Boys • How many girls are there in the class?

14 2

• How many more girls than boys are there?

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

2 Look at the population chart for Los Sauces and answer the questions. 0

50

Women over 50

75

Men over 50

70

Women between 20 and 50

125

Men between 20 and 50

130

Women under 20

• Which is the smallest group?

150

1. Briefly explain what a graph is and how it works. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Do the activity. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

200

90

Men under 20 • Which is the biggest group?

100

100

Me> ∫±t∑±e> 20 an∂ 50. Me> ove® 50.

3 Make a chart for your family. F. A. one hundred and twenty-seven

127

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION UNICEF UNICEF is a United Nations organisation which was founded in 1946 to help children in war zones. After this the organisation began to undertake other commitments towards the protection of children. UNICEF tries to ensure that all children receive necessary health care and education. One of the main objectives is to defend children’s rights and make sure that others respect them.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the first graph on page 127. Explain that each box represents one unit (one person) whereas in the second graph each box represents fifty units (fifty people). • Tell the students to use the graph in activity 1 as an example and to make a graph representing the population of their class.

127

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER

• Families are all different. • There are people of different ages in a family. • Neighbours help each other, they look after their

OBJECTIVES

street and they use public services.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Letters and the telephone are examples of personal communication.

• The radio, newspapers and the television are examples of the media.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• The Internet is the most modern means of communication.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Write the words in the correct places.

• neighbours

• means of communication • All the

• public services

>eighbourfi

• news

in the street

join the carnival.

• We must look after the

publi© ßervi©efi

so that we can all use them.

• My brother likes watching the

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask for volunteers to read the sentences in the section Let’s remember out loud. Then write the following questions on the board for the students to copy into their notebooks and answer: – Are all families the same? – Are all the members of a family the same age? – Write down two means of personal communication. – Write down two means of collective communication. – Which is the most modern means of communication? • Divide the class into groups. Hand out old newspapers. Give the students tasks designed to make them look for specific information in the newspapers. For example: What’s on at the cinema? What was the weather like? Who was at

128

>ewfi

on the television.

• The Internet is a

128

µeanfi o£ communicatio>

one hundred and twenty-eight

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The members of a family are joined together by family ties which may or may not be blood ties. • There are different kinds of families. • Public neighbourhood services are very useful. • Means of communication are very useful. • The difference between personal and collective means of communication. • It is possible to extract information from a population graph. • Children’s rights.

.

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UNIT 11 3 LET’S REVISE Complete the sentences with the words: taller or bigger.

tal¬e®

John has grown. He is

than he was two years ago.

the top/bottom of the football league? And so on.

There are more streets in my neighbourhood now than two years ago. It is .

[email protected]®

Language link

4 LET’S PRACTISE

• Tick three things you do to help at home. F. A. make my bed

wash the dishes

tidy my bedroom

set the table

clean my shoes

put my clothes away

Write the following text on the board: Prestwood is a small town. It has a population of 289. There are 74 women and 72 men. There are 76 girls under the age of 18 the rest are boys under the age of 18. Tell the students to work in pairs. They should work out how many boys there are under the age of 18 and draw a population graph for the town of Prestwood using the graph on page 127 as a model.

• Solve the riddle. Sometimes they’re older but sometimes they’re younger. And sometimes they’re older and younger. Sometimes they’re short and sometimes they’re tall. But some people haven’t got them at all. Jump one letter on and you can see, Three secret words, write them down for me. A

Q

N

S

G

D

Q

R

Z

M

C

Language link R

H

R

S

D

Q

B ROTH E RS AND S I S

T

E RS

Draw the following bar chart on the board: How many people live in your house? Tell the students to copy the bar chart into their notebooks and ask ten classmates the question. They colour in the boxes on the bar chart according to the answers.

R

5 I KNOW… 1. All about families and how they change. 2. All about neighbours. 3. What we use means of communication for. 4. How we use public services.

one hundred and twenty-nine

129

KEY WORDS • Family • Neighbours • Neighbourhood services • Means of communication • Post • E-mail • Internet • Rights

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 11. Test and assessment: Unit 11 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

129

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UNIT 12

Jobs and work UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To understand the difference between a raw material and a finished product • To understand that there are many different jobs involved in obtaining finished products • To recognise the work of crop and animal farmers and fishermen as basic to obtaining food products • To recognise the jobs relating to obtaining and transforming food products • To identify different activities within a particular job or profession • To understand that some jobs provide services for others • To appreciate the importance of all jobs and professions • To understand the advantages of teamwork and the need to work together towards a common goal

Contents THEME: Jobs and work INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Workers who transform raw materials into finished products • Raw materials and finished products • Workers who produce food: animals and crop farmers, and fishermen • Workers who provide services • The stages of production from the raw materials to the finished product LEARNING TO READ: The life of a sweet I CAN DO IT: Think about food

Assessment criteria • Differentiating between raw materials and finished products • Understanding that raw materials are transformed in order to obtain finished products • Understanding that animal and crop farmers, and fishermen work to provide food • Recognising certain professions within the service sector and some of the activities they engage in • Relating shops to the products they sell and the people who work in the shops • Reflecting on the importance of work and workers • Appreciating the importance of teamwork

Suggested timing for the unit September

130 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page 130-131

132-133

134-135

* Resources for the teacher

Contents and objectives Classroom materials ● Posters

Raw materials and finished products ● To understand that some materials are transformed in factories to provide products to be used or consumed ● To relate finished products to their raw materials Workers in the food sector ● To understand the various tasks performed by farmers and fishermen ● To identify which products are obtained by animal and crop farmers, and fishermen

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 12

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 12

Other workers To identify professions within the service sector and their related tasks ● To understand the basic idea of commercial exchange ● To relate the different shops to the products sold in them and the people who work there ● To relate different skills to the tools used ●

136

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a narrative text ● To identify the main stages in obtaining a finished product

137

I can do it ● To understand that it is important to do things in a particular order when buying food items ● To recognise some health and safety rules for the handling of food items

138-139

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 12 Test and assessment: Unit 12 test

* Not yet available in English.

130 B

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12 Jobs and working

OBJECTIVES • To understand that some materials are transformed in factories to provide products to be used or consumed • To relate finished products to their raw materials

raw material

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text in the picture and the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

finished product

These people are working in a factory. They use machines. They are making strawberry jam from strawberries. We can buy the jam in the shops. People earn money when they work.

■ Teaching suggestions • Ask the students if they know where some of the most common commodities that we use each day come from. For example ask them where the furniture we use, the clothes we wear or the notebooks we use come from. Explain that all of these commodities are made in factories where very often a lot of people work. Ask the students to name things we use on a daily basis that are made in factories. Tell them to think about the materials that are used to make these commodities. For example: furniture is made from wood, clothes are made from textiles and

130

130

one hundred and thirty

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • In this unit some students may find it difficult to distinguish between a product and a service. Point out that not all jobs involve making products. Give them some examples, like: teachers, doctors, gardeners, etc. • Also make sure that the students do not confuse the concept of a raw material with that of a natural product. A natural product is made from raw materials but raw materials are materials in their original state: honey is a raw material but biscuits made from honey and cereals might be called a natural product.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 12 1 Read and copy. Strawberries are a raw material. Jam is a finished product.

notebooks are made from paper (wood). • Focus the students’ attention on the picture of the factory and describe the main features. Explain to them that this a jam factory. In order to make strawberry jam we need strawberries which are raw materials. Jam is the finished product. • Tell the students to look very carefully at the main picture and try to describe the process for making jam. Start the description off by saying the raw material, in this case the strawberries, arrives at the factory. • Write the following words on the board: cupboard, cheese, coat and hamburger. Tell the students to copy the words onto separate sheet of paper. They should then think about the raw materials that are used to make each product and where we obtain these raw materials from, and write them under the words. For example a cupboard is made from wood and wood is obtained from trees.

2 Circle the raw materials in red and the finished products in blue.

3 What goes into the factory and what comes out? Match the words. Raw material

Factory

Finished product

cotton





furniture

leather





oil

milk





belt

wood





scarf

wool





towel

olives





cheese

one hundred and thirty-one

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES • It would be a good idea to plan visits to a factory, a farm or some shops while you are working through this unit. Before you take the students on the visit, do some initial activities to make them aware of what they are going to see and what they should be looking for. • Show the students photos of activities carried out in the different sectors studied in the unit so that they acquire some basic notions of what different workers do in their jobs. • You could also ask some of the mothers and fathers of your students to come to the school and talk about their jobs, how they serve the community and other aspects of interest.

131

Cross-curricular Teamwork Explain to the students that most work involves teamwork. That is, most work is the result of a combined effort of several people who all work together with a common aim. This means that they all share the responsibility for the results of their work. Ask them to think about examples of teamwork and suggest situations where one member of the team does not pull his/her weight. For example: What would happen if the goalkeeper of a football team spent all his time talking to his friends in the crowd?

131

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Jobs connected with food Crop Farmers Men and women work as crop farmers. They grow plants for food. For example, they grow potatoes, cereals, fruit and vegetables.

OBJECTIVES • To understand the various tasks performed by farmers and fishermen • To identify which products are obtained by animal and crop farmers, and fishermen

Crop farmers sow seeds, look after the plants and then collect the harvest.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Animal farmers

1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 133 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Animal farmers look after animals. We use the animals for food. We use cows for meat and milk. We use sheep for milk, meat and wool. We use chickens for meat and eggs. Animal farmers look after their animals. They feed them and they protect them from illnesses.

Fishermen Fishermen go to sea to get fish and shellfish. They use small boats to fish near the coast. They use big boats to fish out at sea. The big boats stay at sea for several days.

132

■ Teaching suggestions

one hundred and thirty-two

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Fishing

• After reading the texts on page 132 ask the following questions: – Who works on the land? – What kinds of things does an animal farmer do? – What kinds of things does a crop farmer do? – What tools does a crop farmer use? – What products does a crop farmer produce?

132

Spain has a very long coastline and fishing in the sea has always been an important industry within the food sector. River fishing is not an important part of the food economy and is more of a leisure activity than an industry. It is increasingly difficult for fishermen to find fish near the coast and so many of them travel thousands of kilometres to fish on the high seas.

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unit 12

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 12 1 Number the pictures in the correct order.

2

The farmer He sows ploughs the the seeds. land. 2 What do we get from each animal? 1

We get We get We get

4

He collects the harvest.

µea† an∂ mil§ woo¬, µea† an∂ mil§ µea† an∂ eggfi

3

– What products does an animal farmer produce? – What do we call the person who gets fish from the sea? – What tools do they use? • Ask the students to relate the products to the person who produces them.

He waters the plants.

Food milk chops salmon tomatoes chicken prawns lamb chickpeas

from cows. from sheep. from chickens.

3 Find and classify six names of fish and shellfish. Fish

Shellfish

co∂ ha§æ sardi>æ

claµ musße¬ praw>

E C L A M J A T P P M U S S E L O N U U P E S C A C O D L A R U I H A K E O C K S A R D I N E C O O H A K B L P R A W N

In order to prevent the disappearance of fish from many of the world’s seas and oceans there are special rules to control the amount of fish taken from the sea and to allow the species to reproduce. Fishermen are not allowed to catch certain types of fish at certain times of the year. Many marine species are protected (just as land creatures are protected) and the fishing of these species is limited by international agreements. The whale is an example of a protected species.

animal farmer

fisherman

crop farmer

• Tell the students to ask someone at home to help them find three recipes. They should write out the recipes and underline the products produced by the crop farmer, animal farmer and fisherman in different colours. Discuss the recipes in class and remind the students of the importance of a healthy, balanced diet. Ask the class to vote on their favourite recipe.

A lot of people work to give us food. Crop farmers grow cereals, fruit and vegetables. Animal farmers give us meat, milk and eggs. Fishermen catch fish and shellfish.

one hundred and thirty-three

People

133

Multidisciplinary link. Language Ask the students to imagine that they are either a fisherman, a crop farmer or an animal farmer. Tell them to think about and draw the tools they need for their work. Tell them to draw themselves working and describe the picture to their classmates. Tell the students to make a list of the food products they provide.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 12. (See pp. VI-VII)

133

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People help us with their work Shopkeepers Some people work in services. Their work helps us in our daily life.

OBJECTIVES

Some people work as shopkeepers in shops.

• To identify professions within the service sector and their related tasks • To understand the basic idea of commercial exchange • To relate the different shops to the products sold in them and the people who work there • To relate different skills to the tools used

The shops sell the raw materials and the finished products from the farmers. Shops also sell things made in factories. We buy things in shops. We exchange money for products.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 135 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Other workers Electricians, street cleaners, teachers, musicians and doctors also work for us. They work in different services. Some people, like policemen and firefighters, keep the streets safe for us.

Can we take something from a shop without paying? No. We always have to pay for things in shops.

134

one hundred and thirty-four

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Play a guessing game. Ask the students to help you to brainstorm a list of professions and jobs. Write the words on the board, for example:

■ Teaching suggestions

photographer, butcher, doctor, nurse, actor/actress, shoemaker, electrician, plumber, lawyer, teacher,…

• Ask the students to read the texts on page 134 and to underline the professions in the text. Write the words on the board and encourage the students to talk about what these people do.

Write one profession for each member of the class. Give each student an index card. Number the words on the board and then walk around the classroom touching the students on the shoulder and saying one of the numbers. The students write the word corresponding to their number on the index card.

134

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unit 12

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 12 1 Colour the route from the farm to the table.

• Discuss the fact that some workers provide a service to other people in the community in order to help them or make their lives easier or more comfortable. Ask the following questions: – Where do you buy the fruit and vegetables? What would happen if there were no greengrocers? – What would happen if nobody cleaned the streets and watered the plants and trees? – Who works at the hospital? What would happen if nobody worked at the hospital? • Ask the students about their parents’ jobs. Ask them what they would like to be when they grow up. Make sure that you point out that mothers or fathers who do not work out of the house still work. Correct any student that says: “My mother doesn’t work.” Point out that people who work at home work very hard. Discuss the importance of work for our communities and the need to work hard at school in order to prepare ourselves for work in the future.

2 What do these people sell? Write two examples for each one. The baker: The butcher:

b®ea∂ an∂ ca§efi. chopfi an∂ s†ea§. ¬ettu©æ an∂ app¬efi.

The greengrocer:

3 Match the words to the pictures. photographer •

hairdresser •

painter •

writer •

Shopkeepers, teachers, doctors, office workers, politicians and taxi-drivers work very hard. They provide services for other people.

Cross-curricular Solidarity one hundred and thirty-five

Collect all the index cards and place them in a shoe box. Students take turns selecting a card (without looking at the word) from the shoe box. They then act out the profession for the rest of the class. The other students can ask yes/no questions to which the student doing the miming can answer with thumbs up or down (no speaking). The student who guesses the correct profession then takes the next turn. Establish the rule that while everyone can ask questions each student can only guess the profession correctly once. Repeat until all or most of the students have had a go.

135

Discuss the importance of the work done by NGOs (Non Governmental Organisations). Explain that many people who work for these organisations do so on a voluntary basis. They do not get paid for their work. Even so their work is very valuable and important for the community. Ask a volunteer from an NGO to come to the school and talk about his/her work and why it is important.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 12. (See pp. VI-VII)

135

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LEARNING TO READ

The life of a sweet This is the story of a sweet. The story begins on the farm. A farmer harvests a crop called sugar beet. She sells the sugar beet to a sugar factory.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a narrative text • To identify the main stages in obtaining a finished product

Then, the sugar beet travels in a lorry to the factory. At the factory, the workers grind the sugar beet over and over again until they get sugar. After that, the owner of the sugar factory sells the sugar to a sweet factory.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Then, the sugar travels in a small lorry to the sweet factory. The workers at the sweet factory mix the sugar with fruit flavours. Now the sweets are ready.

1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the finished products from the factories and ask the students to think about the raw materials used. 4. Do the activities.

The sweets travel in a van from the sweet factory to a sweet shop. Finally, somebody buys the sweet and eats it all up!

1 Number the pictures in the correct order.

3

2 sugar factory

sweet factory

4

1 sugar beet field

sweet shop

2 Underline the finished products from factories.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to work in groups of four or five. Tell them to find information about different finished products. Tell them to consider the following points: – The raw materials used. – The main stages in the production process. – The people who work in order to make the finished product. – The wrapping and packaging used. – The shops where these products are sold. Each group chooses a spokesperson who then describes the results of the group’s work to the rest of the class.

136

biscuits

136

oranges

chocolate

lemonade

one hundred and thirty-six

LEARNING TO READ Text type: narrative text This text describes the process involved in making a finished product from obtaining raw materials to placing the product in the shop. In order to identify the stages involved we use words like: then, after that, and finally.

Activity

Strategy

1

Forming a sequence of the stages of production

2

Applying information to other situations

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unit 12

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 12 Think about food 1 Look at Luke and Linda’s shopping trolley.

Hábitos y valores.

1. First, they put rice and a tin of tomatoes in the trolley.

OBJECTIVES Uso del tiempo

• To apply and use some of the Haga que los alumnos reflexionen, concepts acquired through con las siguientes preguntas, the unit sobre la importancia de planificar • Review ofelthe unit antes de y organizar trabajo comenzar a realizarlo: ORDER ACTIVITIES • OF ¿Qué pasaría si, a la hora de preparar la 1. Briefly explain cena,of decidimos the importance hygiene hacer huevos fritos y and safety when dealing no queda ninguno en with food. casa? 2. Read the instructions • El profesor o la and explain what te pide profesora the students should do. hacer un trabajo que 3. Do the activity. exige recortar y fotos y, cuando 4. Discuss thepegar results te dispones a of the activity with realizarlo, no tienes the whole class. las tijeras ni el pegamento: ¿Qué pasaría?

2. Then, they got a lettuce and some fish. 3. After that, they got some yoghurt. 4. Finally, they got a bag of frozen fish fingers. Draw the route they followed.

2 Classify the food.

yoghur†, mil§, fis™... ri©æ, ti> o£ tomatø±fi, pastå...

In a cold place: On the shelf:

one hundred and thirty-seven

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Food safety and hygiene Every day people become ill because they eat food products which have gone bad. It is very easy to prevent these illnesses by following basic steps in hygiene: • Always buy food in shops which are clean and where the food is kept in clean conditions. • Before buying packaged food read the information on the label and check the sell by and use by dates. • When buying a lot of food at once leave the food which requires refrigeration to the end and once at home store it quickly in the fridge or freezer.

137

■ Teaching suggestions • Explain some of the basic rules for food safety and hygiene. Tell the students what they should do when buying food. For example: look carefully at the use by dates on the packaging, check that the wrapping is not broken, place frozen foods in a special bag to keep them cold, use gloves when selecting fruit and vegetables, don’t handle the fresh food on the stalls, and so on. Then ask the students why it is important to take care with food products.

137

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Página 138

Now I know 1 LET’S REMEMBER • Most people work. • Farmers and fishermen work to get food for us.

OBJECTIVES

• In factories the workers turn raw materials into finished products.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• A lot of people work in services or helping other people.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

Write the words in the correct places. fishmonger

The

croπ farµe®

The

anima¬ farµe® fis™erma>

The

138

animal farmer

grows wheat.

butcher

ba§e®

The

looks after pigs. The

catches fish.

fisherman baker

sells bread.

butc™e®

sells ham.

[email protected]®

The

sells fish.

Which jobs are services? Complete the sentence.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to work in pairs and to explain some the main ideas from the unit as if they were TV newsreaders. • Write a list of professions and jobs on the board. Tell the students to choose one and write it in their notebooks. The students ask someone at home to help them find information about their profession or job. They should look for the following information: – What is the main function of the job? – Where do people who do this job work? – What timetable do they work? – What kinds of tools and machines do they use? – What kind of qualifications do they need?

crop farmer

hairdressers H

fishermen

aird®esßerfi †eac™erfi fi®e‡igh†erfi ,

and

138

teachers

nurses ,

firefighters

nurßefi

,

provide services for other people.

one hundred and thirty-eight

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts:

• The difference between a raw material and a finished product. • The relationship between crop and animal farmers, fishermen, and obtaining food products. • Raw materials are transformed into finished products in factories. • Some people work in the service sector and provide services for the rest of the community. • Food hygiene and safety is important for protecting our heath.

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UNIT 12 3 LET’S REVISE Classify the food. • sardines • chicken • asparagus

• cereals

VEGETABLE

b®ea∂ asparagufi ©e®ealfi suga®

• sausages • bread • milk • sugar

• mineral water

ANIMAL

sardi>efi chic§e> [email protected]fi mil§

• Once all the students have collected their information about jobs and professions tell them to exchange their information with a classmate and read each other’s work. Ask volunteers to explain their work to the rest of the class.

• salt

MINERAL

mi>era¬ wa†e® sal†

Language link

4 LET’S PRACTISE Solve the problem. Look at Liz and Frank’s shopping. What should they put in the fridge?

T™æ yoghurtfi an∂ t™æ fis™. 5 I KNOW… 1. Why people work. 2. Which people produce food for others. 3. How farmers work. 4. The names of a lot of jobs.

one hundred and thirty-nine

139

Tell the students to work in pairs. They should write out a shopping list of food they are going to buy from the supermarket. Help them think about this list by asking the following questions: – What do you have for breakfast each day? – How often do you eat fruit? – How often do you eat meat? How often do you eat fish? – What things do you eat and drink every day? Once they have written out their list tell them to underline in blue all the things which should be kept in the fridge. Remind the students that we also put things in the fridge once they have been opened. For example a tin of olives is kept in the cupboard, but once it is opened, if there are any olives left we put them in the fridge.

KEY WORDS • Food • Factory • Raw materials • Finished product • Crop farmer • Animal farmer • Fisherman • Salesperson

• Shop • Services • Buy • Sell • Food safety

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 12. Test and assessment: Unit 12 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

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UNIT 13

Time goes by UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To understand the changes that take place in people, nature and society as time goes by • To form a sequence of changes that take place chronologically • To discover the evolution of some aspects of daily life • To compare oneself at two different moments in time • To understand that we use different units to measure the passage of time (hours, days, weeks, months and years) • To understand that there are different instruments for measuring the passage of time

Contents THEME: Time goes by INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Time notions: hour, day, week, month and year • Relationships of equivalence between different units of time • Instruments for measuring time: the calendar and the clock/watch • Past and present with respect to daily life LEARNING TO READ: The life of a sweet I CAN DO IT: Make a calendar for birthdays and special days

Assessment criteria • Discovering the evolution of some aspects of daily life • Recognising the transformation and change in some aspects of life • Forming sequences of different events chronologically to show the evolution of an object or a fact • Understanding and using basic notions of historical time which show things happening simultaneously and successively • Establishing relationships of equivalence between different units of time • Interpreting a calendar • Distinguishing past from present • Identifying different types of watches

Suggested timing for the unit September

140 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page

Contents and objectives

140-141

Notions of time ● To form sequences of actions in daily life chronologically ● To understand the notions of a week and a day

142-143

144-145

Clocks and calendars ● To understand how we use clocks and calendars ● To discover and understand the relationships of equivalence between different units of time

* Resources for the teacher Classroom materials ● Posters

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 13

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in history: Discovering time 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 13

Things change over time To discover aspects of people’s lives and nature which change with the passage of time ● To understand the notions of past and present ● To distinguish ancient and modern objects ●

146

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through an explanatory text ● To identify different types of clocks used in the past

147

I can do it ● To understand that we use a calendar in order to organise events and remember important events

148-149

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 13 Test and assessment: Unit 13 test

* Not yet available in English.

140 B

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13 Time goes by

OBJECTIVES • To form sequences of actions in daily life chronologically • To understand the notions of a week and a day

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class.

■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss the scenes in the pictures with the students. Ask the following questions: – What is the boy in the first picture doing? What time is it? What time of day is it? (morning or night). – What are the children in the second picture doing? What time is it? – What are the children in the third picture doing? What time is it? What can you see on the table that we can use for measuring time? – What is the boy in the fourth picture doing? What time is it? Why is he brushing his teeth? • Then ask the students some questions about their schedule at

140

We do a lot of things from the time we get up to the time we go to bed. We only remember the most important things.

140

one hundred and forty

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • While you are working through this unit you may notice that some children still have difficulty distinguishing notions such as yesterday, today and tomorrow with respect to certain activities. • Some students may still not know how to tell the time. They may find it hard to identify the hands on the clock and relate time to activities which take place during the day.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 13 1 What do you do every day? Complete the diary. In the morning

In the afternoon

@e† uπ go to schoo¬ ha√¶ lunc™

do m¥ hoµewor§ ha√¶ †eå pla¥

What do you do only at the weekends? Draw a picture and write a sentence. F. A.

Child doing an activity.

2 Fill in your school timetable. F. A. 1 Time

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

3 Copy the sentence and underline the last two words. 1 What we do every day is known as our daily life.

Wha† ∑¶ do e√±r¥ da¥ ifi know> afi ou® dail¥ l^ƒæ. one hundred and forty-one

■ LEARNING SKILLS Organising time for studying. We write down the tasks we have to perform in a clear and organised fashion in order to distribute our time when we are studying. A simple way of doing this is to use a timetable. Timetables are very useful because we can quickly see exactly what we have to do at each moment of the day. For example:

◗ Use a timetable such as that on page 141 and write down the tasks and work you have to do for school this week.

141

school and when they are on holiday: – When do you have breakfast? In the morning, in the afternoon or at night? – What time do you start school in the morning? What time do you finish school in the afternoon? What time do you have break? – When do you play at home? In the morning, or in the evening? • Ask the students to do a survey at home. They should ask members of their families and other people they have contact with about their daily activities. Tell the students to make a note of their answers. Give them some examples of the questions they can ask. – What time do you get up on weekdays? – What time do you start work? What time do you finish work? – Do you spend any time doing a sport or hobby? – What time do you go to bed on weekdays? – How many hours a day do you sleep?

Multidisciplinary link. Language Tell the students to make a list of all the things they did at the weekend. Then tell them to number the actions and activities on their list in chronological order beginning on Saturday morning and finishing on Sunday evening. Tell the students to write a paragraph about what they did on Saturday and another paragraph about what they did on Sunday. Remind them to use words like: then, after that, later on, and finally. Ask for volunteers to read their work out loud.

141

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The clock and the calendar The clock Time passes and it never stands still. That means it never stops. We measure time by counting the hours. We use a clock to count the hours.

OBJECTIVES • To understand how we use clocks and calendars • To discover and understand the relationships of equivalence between different units of time

Clocks are very useful. We do not want to be late so we look at the clock. We have got a lot of things to do in our daily lives so we look at the clock and check the time. We can look at the clock when we start something and then again when we finish. That is how we know how long it takes.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 143 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

The calendar Time is divided into hours, days, weeks, months and years. Everything happens in the same order: – a day has 24 hours – a week has seven days – a month has four weeks and usually a few days more – a year has twelve months A calendar shows us the days, the weeks and the months of the year.

142

one hundred and forty-two

■ Teaching suggestions • Once you have read the text on page 142 out loud, ask: Could we tell the time if we didn’t have clocks? How? Would we be exactly right? Guide the students towards the idea of using the position of the sun and the length and direction of the shadows. • Ask students the names of festivals and celebrations that we have. Write the names of the festivals and the dates on the board. Students find these dates on their calendars on page 143.

142

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Clocks and watches People have felt the need to measure time since the very beginning of civilisation. This need has given rise to the invention of clocks and watches which are instruments we use to tell the time or divide time into hours, minutes and seconds. The oldest known clock is called a sun dial. It was used by the ancient Chinese and Egyptians. Later water clocks and sand clocks were made and used. The first mechanical clocks were manufactured in Germany. They were very big and had huge cogs moved by pendulums.

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unit 13

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 13 1 Look at the calendar. JANUARY

M Tu W Th

F

3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 31

FEBRUARY

S 1 8 15 22 29

Su 2 9 16 23 30

2 9 16 23 30

Su 6 13 20 27

M Tu 1 7 8 14 15 21 22 28 29

W 2 9 16 23 30

JUNE

MAY

M Tu W Th

MARCH

M Tu W Th F S 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26 28

F

3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27 31

S Su 1 7 8 14 15 21 22 28 29

M Tu W 1 6 7 8 13 14 15 20 21 22 27 28 29

Su 4 11 18 25

Th F S Su 2 3 4 5 9 10 11 12 16 17 18 19 23 24 25 26 30

M Tu W Th

M Tu W Th 4 5 6 7 11 12 13 14 18 19 20 21 25 26 27 28

JULY

M Tu W Th 4 5 6 7 11 12 13 14 18 19 20 21 25 26 27 28

OCTOBER

SEPTEMBER

M Tu W Th F S 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30

APRIL

Th F S Su 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27 31

F

3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 17 18 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 31

Su 2 9 16 23 30

M Tu 1 7 8 14 15 21 22 28 29

W 2 9 16 23 30

S 2 9 16 23 30

Su 3 10 17 24

• Help the students to work using a calendar by asking: – Which months have 31 days? – Which month has only 28 days? – In which month is the first day of the month on a Sunday? – Which day of the week is 26th of December? And so on.

AUGUST

F 1 8 15 22 29

S 2 9 16 23 30

Su 3 10 17 24 31

M 1 8 15 22 29

Tu 2 9 16 23 30

NOVEMBER

S 1 8 15 22 29

F 1 8 15 22 29

W 3 10 17 24 31

Th F S Su 4 5 6 7 11 12 13 14 18 19 20 21 25 26 27 28

DECEMBER

Th F S Su 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 17 18 19 20 24 25 26 27

M Tu W Th F S 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31

Su 4 11 18 25

Language link

Use the key to circle the dates on your calendar: M. A. • your birthday

• your best friend’s birthday

2 Answer the questions. 1 • Which is the shortest month? • What day of the week is 17th August?

Februar¥ Wed>esda¥

• How many days are left before the holidays?

. . . F. A.

We measure time in many different ways. We use hours, days, weeks and years. We use clocks and calendars to measure time.

one hundred and forty-three

In 1659, the Dutchman, Christiaan Huygens built the first pendulum clock and one hundred years later the Englishman, John Harrison built the first portable clock for using on ships. Wrist and pocket watches originated from this design.

143

Teach the students the poem about the months of the year. Write it on the board. Ask them to copy it and illustrate it. Divide the class into four groups and ask each group to memorise one verse. They can recite the poem in their groups. January is cold and the nights are long, February is cold and the wind blows strong, March is chilly but the trees have new buds April is wet, listen to the frogs. May is sunny, warm and bright June has days the same as nights. July is hot and the nights are short. August is time for holidays and sports. September comes and it’s back to class. October is here time for witches and bats. November is cold, windy and dark. December is here and it’s Christmas at last.

Finally in the 20th century quartz and atomic watches were invented and these are the watches we use today. They are very accurate and reliable. Atomic watches only lose one second every 300 years. Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 13. (See pp. VI-VII)

143

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Things change as time goes by In some ways we live the same now as people lived in the past. We have to eat, protect ourselves, communicate, travel, live together, learn and have fun. But in other ways things are very different now.

OBJECTIVES • To discover aspects of people’s lives and nature which change with the passage of time • To understand the notions of past and present • To distinguish ancient and modern objects

The Past

The Present

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 145 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

144

one hundred and forty-four

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the pictures on page 144 and describe the things that have changed from the past to the present. You may need to guide them by asking questions such as:

144

Ask the parents of your students to help you to organise an exhibition of objects from the past and objects from the present. Ask them to provide contrasting objects such as: photos, toys, clothes, machines, small pieces of furniture, coins, and so on. Try organising the objects according to their functions irrespective of whether they are ancient or modern. Tell the students to make labels with the words PAST or PRESENT and to label the objects. Tell the students to help you make a leaflet for the exhibition. They should list the items, give them an approximate date and say what they were/are used for.

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unit 13

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 13 1 Label the pictures past or present.

– Were there any cars in the streets in the past? What about now? – Did the farmers use tractors in the past? What about now? • Show the students pictures of objects from the past and examples of modern day versions (telephones, typewriters, computers, old-fashioned washing machines and so on). Explain how these objects have changed and the advantages of the modern versions. • Encourage the students to ask the older members of their families and friends how they used to do things before they had these modern day machines and devices. Tell them to ask people what they think has changed most. Suggest that they ask the following questions: – What were the means of communication like in the past? – How did you keep food? – How did you heat your houses? – What was the TV like?

p®eßen†

pas† 2 Circle the oldest objects.

3 Tick the changes in picture b . a

b

✓ ✓



Things change as time goes by. People change, the landscape changes and the things people make change.

one hundred and forty-five

145

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION About 10,000 years ago our ancestors began to cultivate the land and domesticate wild animals. This is how animal and crop farming began. The early farmers did everything using just their hands. One of the most difficult tasks was to turn the soil over when they were ready to plant the seeds. They used shackles made of wood or stone. 4,000 years ago the Egyptians invented the plough which was drawn by mules or oxen. By using a plough the farmers could plough more land and much more quickly. 100 years ago the tractor was invented. This is a vehicle which is used to draw a plough or turn over the soil. By using a tractor farmers can plough much bigger fields and work much more quickly.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 13. (See pp. VI-VII)

145

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LEARNING TO READ

Natural clocks Today there are a lot of different kinds of clocks. A long time ago clocks were very different. People used natural elements to measure the time, like the Sun, water or sand.

OBJECTIVES • To develop reading with understanding through a explanatory text • To identify different types of clocks used in the past

A sundial works using the Sun and a needle. The shadow from the needle falls onto a dial on the ground or on the wall. The dial is divided into hours so you can see the time all through the day.

sundial water clock

Water clocks measure the time it takes for an amount of water to go from one part of the clock to another.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Hourglasses have two parts which are joined together. Sand passes from one to the other through a small hole.

1. Read the text and look carefully at the pictures. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the different types of clocks. 4. Do the activities.

Although clocks have changed over the years, you can still see old clocks today.

hourglass

1 Write. • Choose another title for the passage. Clocks and time Time goes by and clocks change New clocks and old clocks • Complete the sentences. A sundial uses the

■ Teaching suggestions • After reading the text explain that people have always felt the need to tell the time more or less accurately and this is why they have invented different kinds of clocks over the centuries. Ask the following questions: Why do we need to measure time? Do you think that the sun dials, water clocks and sand clocks were very precise? Could the people in ancient times carry their clocks around with them? What kinds of clocks and watches do we use today? Multidisciplinary link. Art and Craft Play The clock by Haydn. Give the students poster paints and paper and tell them to draw a picture to represent the music they are listening to.

146

An hourglass uses A water clock uses

Su> an∂ å >æed¬æ san∂ wa†e®

. . .

• We use hourglasses in some games. Write the names of two games. F. A.

146

one hundred and forty-six

LEARNING TO READ Text type: explanatory text This text describes what clocks were like in ancient times. It also explains how they worked. The text includes expressions like: using, works and have two parts. Activity

Strategy

1

Summarising the contents of a text

2

Understanding details and general information in a text

3

Applying information to other situations

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unit 13

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 13 Make a calendar for birthdays and special days 3 1 Divide a large piece of card into twelve. Write the twelve months in the correct order.

OBJECTIVES

Write the names of your classmates in their birthday months.

JANUARY

FEBRUARY

• To understand that we use a calendar in order to organise events and remember important events

MARCH

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

1. Briefly describe the basic notions of the calendar. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Do the activities. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

s

Use these symbols in your calendar. birthday

■ Teaching suggestions

Day of the Child (20th November) th

Christmas holidays

Day of Peace (30 January)

summer holidays

Book Day (23rd April)

one hundred and forty-seven

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION A calendar is a way of showing the days of the year by classifying them into months and weeks. In western countries we use the solar calendar. Each year has 365 days and these days are divided into 12 months. The months are of different lengths. This is the time that the Earth takes to orbit the Sun. In other cultures such as the Muslim world they still use the lunar calendar. One month is a complete cycle of the moon (29 and a half days). Each year has 354 days and these are also divided into 12 months. Six months have 29 days and the other six months have 30 days.

147

• Explain that throughout the year we celebrate different festivals and events such as local and regional festivals, religious holidays, national holidays, etc. Explain that on these days the grown-ups don’t usually go to work and the children don’t go to school. Ask the students if they can think of any examples of these days. Cross-curricular Time management Remind the students that before they start any activity they should plan the time they think they are going to need and the order of the activities. If they are planning a craft activity they should also make a list of all the things they need.

147

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Now I know 1 LET’S REMEMBER • Time goes by and never stands still.

OBJECTIVES

• We use clocks and calendars to measure time.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• There are 24 hours in a day; 7 days in a week; 4 weeks in a month and 12 months in a year. • People and things change as time goes by.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

Use the words to complete the sentences. • day

• month

• week

• year

• hours

¥ea®

The first month of the is January.

It is a very long film. It lasts almost three

hourfi

.

We only see each other once a

∑¶e§

on Sundays.

I have to eat food and drink water every

da¥

.

I usually go to the cinema once a

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to copy the following riddles into their notebooks and work them out: I can move my hands but I can’t write a word. (Clock) Twelve knights, one after the other Not one of them more than 31 They’ve each got a name They’ve each got a number In the time the Earth orbits the Sun. (The months of the year) I move my hands if you wind me up. I can’t walk, but some say I fly. I’ve got a face, but no nose or mouth. I can’t speak but I can tell the time. (Clock)

148

148

mont™

, except in August.

one hundred and forty-eight

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The passage of time causes change in people and objects • The sequence of time and changes in different aspects of human life • The evolution of some aspects of daily life • The relationships of equivalence between: day-hours; week-days; month-weeks; year-months • The usefulness of clocks and calendars

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UNIT 13 3 LET’S REVISE • Write the months of the year in the correct order.

Februar¥, Marc™, Apri¬, Ma¥, Ju>æ, Jul¥, Augus†, Sep†em∫±®, Octo∫±®, No√±m∫±®, De©em∫±®.

January,

Twelve sisters standing all in a row. Number two’s the shortest, what’s her name? Do you know? (February) Seven by seven, we march through time. 24 hours till we each march by. (The days of the week)

.

• Let’s remember how the earth moves. The Earth takes Half of this time is The Earth takes

24 da¥ 365

hours to turn round once. and the other half is

nigh†

.

days to go round the Sun.

ßeasonfi

In every year there are four

.

Language link

• Materials: a classroom clock you can move the hands on. • Students may still have difficulty telling the time in English. Draw three boxes in a row on the board as follows: minutes past/to hour • Remind the students that this is how we say the time in English. Use the clock to display times and ask the students to say what time it is.

4 LET’S PRACTISE A joke

A riddle

“Hello John! Goodness me! You have changed a lot since last year.” “I certainly have. I’m not John.”

A tree has twelve branches, Each branch has four nests, Each nest has seven birds And each bird has a name.

5 I KNOW… 1. How time goes by.

Language link 2. How to use a clock. 3. How to use a calendar. 4. How things change.

one hundred and forty-nine

149

• Time dictation. Tell the students to draw six boxes where they can write a digital clock. Give an example on the board. Dictate times and ask the students to write the times into the digital clocks. Then tell them to draw the analogical clock next to the digital clocks.

KEY WORDS • Time • Clock/watch • Calendar • Hour • Day • Week • Month • Year

• Past • Present • Change Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 13. Test and assessment: Unit 13 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

149

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UNIT 14

Stories and memories UNIT CONTENTS Objectives • To reflect on the importance of our personal history • To appreciate different customs and traditions • To understand that festivals commemorate significant events in our societies • To identify personal history as the sum total of the events which have taken place over a lifetime and in the lifetime of our predecessors • To understand and appreciate the importance of historical objects • To appreciate the importance of our artistic, cultural and natural heritage and to take an interest in its preservation

Contents THEME: Stories and memories INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES • Festivals • The history of our predecessors • Distinctive elements of the history of a place: – Customs – Symbols – Typical elements • Artistic heritage. Types of historical objects LEARNING TO READ: Columbus reaches America I CAN DO IT: Make a time-line of inventions and discoveries

Assessment criteria • Using time identifiers to understand the history of a person or place • Appreciating and showing a positive interest in different people’s customs and traditions • Identifying what is being celebrated in different festivals • Showing an interest in history and our predecessors • Appreciating the importance of protecting our cultural, artistic and natural heritage • Organising events on a time-line

Suggested timing for the unit September

150 A

October

November

December

January

February

March

April

May

June

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UNIDAD 0

CONTENTS AND RESOURCES Student’s Book Page

Contents and objectives

150-151

Festivals and celebrations ● To understand that all the festivals we celebrate have an origin and a reason ● To identify and classify the festivals which are best known to us

152-153

154-155

Stories and customs ● To show an interest in the history of our predecessors ● To respect and appreciate customs and traditions from different places ● To identify the symbols of an Autonomous Community

* Resources for the teacher Classroom materials ● Posters

Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 14

* Other materials for the students ●

Tasks in history: Discovering time 1

Special programmes ● Developing intelligence 2 ● Workbook unit 14

Memories from times past To identify different types of historical objects ● To reflect on the importance of preserving historical monuments because they form part of our history ●

156

Learning to read ● To develop reading with understanding through a narrative text ● To find out about historical characters and events

157

I can do it ● To understand the usefulness of a time-line ● To form a sequence of events chronologically

158-159

Now I know ● To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit ● Review of the unit

Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 14 Test and assessment: Unit 14 test

* Not yet available in English.

150 B

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14 Stories and memories

OBJECTIVES • To understand that all the festivals we celebrate have an origin and a reason • To identify and classify the festivals which are best known to us

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Look at and describe the main picture. 2. Read the text under the picture. 3. Discuss, ask and answer questions about the pictures and the text. 4. Do the activities. 5. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole class

We celebrate the day we were born. This is our birthday.

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to look carefully at the picture and then ask the following questions: – What are the people in the picture celebrating? – Whose birthday is it? How old is she? – Who are the other people in the picture? – What are they doing? Are they having a good time? • Ask the students what they do on their birthdays and how they celebrate. Ask them whether they have a party or not and whether they have any special food like a birthday cake. Ask why we celebrate birthdays.

150

Every year we celebrate our birthdays on the same day of the same month. We also have local holidays and festivals 150 ciento cincuenta to celebrate important dates from the past.

■ ANTICIPATING DIFFICULTIES • The notion of historical time can be quite difficult for some students. Make sure that you use time markers like: before, after, now and then to help them situate the events in time. Start by helping them to describe their own personal history. • Point out that just because things are old it does not mean that they are useless or should be thrown away. Explain that thanks to the existence of old and ancient objects we know a lot about the past and how people lived. Explain that our past is all part of our history which is why it is important to preserve our historical heritage.

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ACTIVITIES

UNIT 14 1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

• Talk to the students about the festivals celebrated in your region or city/village. Discuss the reason for the festival and how it is celebrated. Ask the students what they usually do on these days.

Every year on my birthday, 1. I have a 2. I have a 3. I have a

ca§æ part¥ p®eßen†

. . .

Multidisciplinary link. Mathematics Celebrating a birthday party involves buying different things. Ask the students to make a list of all the things they would buy for their party, such as: balloons, cake, bread (for sandwiches), crisps, drinks, party bags and so on. Ask them to find out how much these things cost (they can ask at home) and to work out how much it costs to hold a birthday party.

2 Draw a picture of your local festival. F. A.

Cross-curricular Tolerance and respect

3 Match the festival to the picture.

• Carnival

• Christmas

• Local festival one hundred and fifty-one

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Festivals • Some festivals, such as those that take place in villages, celebrate a particular moment in agricultural life, for example the harvest or the collecting of the grapes for making wine. • Other festivals are dedicated to celebrating the local patron saint or religious events such as Christmas, when we celebrate the birth of Jesus. • We also celebrate historical events. In Spain we celebrate the Day of the Constitution and in other countries they celebrate the day they achieved independence.

151

• If you are fortunate enough to have a student in the class from another Autonomous Community or better still another country ask them to talk about the festivals they celebrate. Ask the following questions: – Which days are special? – What do you celebrate on those days? – Do you have any special food? What? – Do you have any special events (dances, exhibitions, plays, etc.)? – Who do you usually celebrate with? • Ask these students to bring photos to class to show the rest of the students about their traditions and celebrations. If you do not have anyone from a different background help the students to find out about other celebrations from around the world.

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Stories and customs Every family has a history Jenny’s grandad tells her stories about his past. She loves these stories about grandad when he was a child. His life was very different. He did not live in the city, he lived in the mountains.

OBJECTIVES • To show an interest in the history of our predecessors • To respect and appreciate customs and traditions from different places • To identify the symbols of an Autonomous Community

These stories tell us about our family. All families have their own family history.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 153 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

Every place has a history shield flag

Places have got also different symbols. The most common symbols are flags and shields.

152

■ Teaching suggestions

All places have different customs and traditions. People speak differently, they have got special legends, typical food and dances or traditional clothes.

one hundred and fifty-two

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Monuments

• After you have read the text Every family has a history, tell the children to ask the older members of their families about their own family history. They should find out facts, events and anecdotes, write a few sentences about their family history and illustrate their work. Ask for volunteers to read their work out loud. Explain that everyone has a different family history.

152

All cities and villages have buildings which were built a long time ago and which are different from the rest of the buildings because they represent our historical and artistic heritage. We call these buildings monuments or historical buildings and they are very important because they tell us a lot about the past and the way people used to live. There are many different types of historic buildings and monuments, for example: cathedrals, mosques, castles, palaces, monasteries, etc. A long time ago people built cathedrals in all the main European cities. The cathedrals are located in the main square of the city.

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unit 14

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 14 1 Complete the form: F. A.

My grandparents were born in

• Explain that places also have their own history and many places have festivals and celebrations to commemorate this history every year. • Find pictures in books, libraries or museums about the history of the student’s city, town or village. • Show the students pictures of some of the typical dishes from their region. Write the recipes on the board and ask them to copy them down in their notebooks. Ask students from other places to bring in typical recipes from their towns or countries. Ask these students to talk about typical food from their country/region.

My parents were born in I was born in

2 Match the words and the pictures.

• traditional dance

• traditional dish

• traditional costume

3 Colour the Spanish flag. Draw the flag of your community.

Multidisciplinary link. Language

red

yellow

Ask the students to name some of the special events that have happened to them over their lives and write them on the board. Give them some examples: their first day at school, the arrival of a new brother or sister, moving house, and so on. Students can write a few sentences about the event they most remember.

Community flag.

red

People remember the important things that happened to them and their ancestors. We like to know about these things.

one hundred and fifty-three

They were all so tall that in those days they stood above the other buildings. People could see the cathedrals from all the different parts of the city. These buildings were also very decorative. They often had stained glass windows, sculptures, paintings and huge arches built in different styles. The building of the cathedrals lasted for many years and it was a very difficult job. Architects and stonemasons took part in the building of the cathedrals and they often travelled from one city to another. Their tools were made of metal and wood and they worked with huge lumps of stone. They also used cranes for lifting the heavy blocks of stone.

153

Cross-curricular Tolerance and respect Explain to the students that it is important to treat the older members of our families and societies with respect, courtesy and tolerance. Encourage them to talk about their grandparents, say their names, explain what they do with their grandparents, how often they see them, and so on.

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 14. (See pp. VI-VII)

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Memories of the past In our houses we have got photos, pictures and objects from many years ago. When we see them we remember the past. In towns and cities we can also see churches, castles, palaces and other monuments that were built many years ago.

OBJECTIVES • To identify different types of historical objects • To reflect on the importance of preserving historical monuments because they form part of our history

Mota castle was built eight hundred years ago. It was built to defend the town against its enemies.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES 1. Read the text and ensure that the students understand all the words. 2. Look carefully at the pictures. 3. Discuss the picture and the text with the class. 4. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 5. Do the activities. 6. Discuss the results of the activities with the whole group. 7. Read the text at the bottom of page 155 to ensure that the students have understood the most important information.

The old city of Oviedo has got still a lot of streets and houses that were built hundreds of years ago. A lot of people visit Oviedo to see the old buildings and streets.

This bronze statue is of Miguel de Cervantes. Cervantes was a writer. He lived a long time ago. He wrote Don Quixote.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss the importance of preserving monuments and the older quarters of the cities. Ask the students to name some of the old buildings they have visited and the artistic heritage they have seen. Encourage all the students to take part in the discussion and check that they all show an

154

Castles In the year 1000 Europe saw a huge increase in the building of castles, built in places that were difficult to get to and easy to defend. The nobles lived in the castles and defended them against enemies who attacked the castles, so castles were protected with walls, towers, moats and drawbridges. There were huge store-rooms in the castles for keeping large quantities of food for the inhabitants to use if they were under attack. They collected rain water and used wells for drinking water. The servants who worked for the nobles also lived in the castles together with the soldiers and some peasants.

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unit 14

ACTIVITIES

UNIT 14 1 Where do these people live? Follow the paths.

interest in this issue. Explain that the reason we preserve these buildings and monuments is because they form part of our cultural and historical heritage. • Ask the students to prepare an index card on a historic building in their city/town/village. They should try to get a photo of the building or draw a picture and glue it onto a piece of construction paper. They should then write a few sentences under the picture describing the building, saying when it was built, what it was used for then and what it is used for now. They can ask someone at home for help if necessary. • Discuss the different measures that are taken to preserve the old neighbourhoods or quarters of the cities. For example: prohibiting traffic, making them pedestrian areas, restoring the houses, and so on. Ask the students if they think it is a good idea to preserve these places. Ask if they have any good ideas.

• palace

• castle

• monastery or convent

2 Label the photos. • statue

[email protected]

• building

statuæ

• painting

[email protected]

3 Are there any monuments in or near your town? Write two names. F. A.

There are beautiful buildings and parks in all towns and cities. They were built a long time ago and we should look after them.

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■ LEARNING SKILLS Describing a picture

Multidisciplinary link. Language

155

Encourage the students to help you invent a story about an old building. The building is in a very bad condition and somebody wants to buy it and knock it down. Ask the students to come up with good reasons why it should not be demolished and possible ways in which the building could be used for all the local community.

To describe a picture we need to look at the colours, the drawing, the scene, the landscape, the people, etc. for example:

◗ Look at the picture on page 155 and answer the following questions: • Who do you think the person is in the picture? Is he a prince or a farmer? • Are his clothes modern or ancient? • When do you think this picture was painted, a few years ago or a long time ago?

Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Reinforcement sheet 14. (See pp. VI-VII)

155

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LEARNING TO READ

Columbus reaches America 12th October 1492 is a very important day in the history of Spain and the history of the world.

OBJECTIVES

On this day, an explorer called Christopher Columbus and a small group of men landed in America.

• To develop reading with understanding through a narrative text • To find out about historical characters and events

Columbus had three ships. He wanted to find a new route to get to India by sea. Instead, he reached America. He did not know that America existed on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

12th October is a national holiday now. We celebrate the official discovery of America.

1. Read the text out loud. 2. Ensure that the students understand all the words and the overall meaning of the text. 3. Discuss the text. 4. Do the activities.

1 Answer the questions. • Who landed in America in 1492?

Christop™e® Colombufi. • How did he travel?

B¥ shiπ. 2 Circle the correct word in the sentence. The Atlantic / Pacific Ocean is between America and Europe.

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■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss the importance of the arrival of Columbus to the Americas. Explain that Columbus brought many things back from America, things that people in Europe had never seen before such as tomatoes, corn, peppers and cocoa which we use for making chocolate. Explain that the reason that Spanish is spoken in most of the countries in Latin America is because Columbus was one of the first Europeans to reach America.

156

LEARNING TO READ Text type: narrative text This text narrates a historical event. Look closely at the use of the past tense: landed, had, wanted, reached, etc. The last paragraph moves back into the present tense to describe a current event.

Activity

Strategy

1

Identifying relevant information

2

Explaining the present consequences of historical events

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unit 14

I CAN DO IT

UNIT 14 Make a time-line of inventions and discoveries 1 Look at the pictures and read.

OBJECTIVES

The wheel was invented 5,000 years ago.

Penicillin was discovered 75 years ago.

• To understand the usefulness of a time-line • To form sequences of events chronologically

Writing was invented 6,000 years ago.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

Printing was invented 500 years ago.

The steam engine was invented 200 years ago.

1. Briefly explain the concept of a time-line. 2. Read the instructions out loud and ensure that the students know what they should do. 3. Do the activity. 4. Discuss the results of the activity with the whole group.

The computer was invented a few years ago.

2 Complete the time-line with the inventions and discoveries. writing

6,000 years ago

t™æ w™æe¬

5,000 years ago

[email protected]

500 years ago

t™æ s†eaµ engi>æ

200 years ago

πenicilli>

75 years ago

t™æ compu†e®

A few years ago

one hundred and fifty-seven

■ LEARNING SKILLS Making a time-line We use time-lines to record historical events in the correct chronological order. We relate the event to the date when it took place. For example:

◗ Make a time-line for the following geographical discoveries: • 1522 Juan Sebastian Elcano first circumnavigated the world. • 1855 David Livingstone reached the Victoria Falls in Africa. • 1492 Christopher Columbus landed in America. • 1909 Peary reached the North Pole.

157

■ Teaching suggestions • Discuss the inventions and discoveries in the pictures on page 157. Explain the importance of these events for the history of mankind. Ask the students to name some of the uses and advantages that these events have had in our lives. For example, Thanks to the discovery of the wheel we now have cars which we can use for travelling from one place to another very quickly and comfortably. • Make a time-line with class showing the most important events in your local history.

157

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Now I know 1

LET’S REMEMBER • We celebrate birthdays and other festivals. We remember things that happened in the past.

OBJECTIVES

• People remember and celebrate things that happened to them or their ancestors.

• To apply and use some of the concepts acquired through the unit • Review of the unit

• Families have a lot of customs which come from their ancestors. • In all our cities and towns there are many monuments which were built a long time ago.

ORDER OF ACTIVITIES

• It is important to know about the past of our country.

1. Identify each section on the double page (Let’s remember, Let’s work with words, etc.). Explain the aims of each section. 2. Read the instructions and explain what the students should do. 3. Do the activities.

2 LET’S WORK WITH WORDS Use the words to complete the word map. • festivals

• castles

• legends

• statues

• flag

TOWNS AND CITIES have

Customs

Symbols

Monuments

for example

for example

for example

ƒestivalfi ¬[email protected]fi 158

stat¤efi

shields

[email protected]

cast¬efi

one hundred and fifty-eight

■ Teaching suggestions • Tell the students to read the section Let’s remember very carefully and then to close their books and complete these sentences: – When we celebrate our …… we remember the day we were born. – In our cities and town there are …… which were built a long time ago. – In our cities and towns we celebrate …… to remind us of famous people or events from a long time ago.

158

CHECKING AND ASSESSING Check that the students understand the following concepts: • The significance of some time indicators • Respect and appreciation of customs and traditions from all parts of the world • Festivals remind us of important historical events • The history of our predecessors is an important part of our heritage • The importance of preserving our cultural, artistic, natural and historical heritage

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UNIT 14 3 LET’S REVISE Label the pictures old or modern.

Multidisciplinary link. Language

ol∂

ol∂

Encourage the students to make sentences using the following words: birthday, festival, monument, statue and flag.

mo∂er>

Language link

mo∂er>

mo∂er>

Practice the past tenses of the verbs. Ask the students to help you write all the things that they did yesterday both at home and at school. Write the phrases on the board in note form and at random, for example: breakfast at 8:30, school at 9:00 and so on. Point to some of the phrases and ask the students to help you make full sentences. Reinforce the use of the past tense of the verb, for example: I had breakfast at 8:30, I went to school at 9:00, and so on. Tell the students to copy the phrases that apply to them and make a time-line. Once they have labelled the time-line with the phrases they should write a short paragraph about their day.

ol∂

4 LET’S PRACTISE F. A. You are going bury a box of objects. A hundred years from now somebody is going to find the box. What are you going to put inside the box? Draw things to show what you are like and how you live.

5 I KNOW… 1. That we remember things from the past. 2. How to recognise customs. 3. How to recognise a monument. 4. Why we must look after old monuments.

one hundred and fifty-nine

159

KEY WORDS • Birthday • History • Festival • Customs • Symbols • Flag • Shield • Ancestors

• Monuments • The discovery of America • Time-line Resources for the teacher Reinforcement and extension: Extension sheet 14. Test and assessment: Unit 14 test. (See pp. VI-VII)

159

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REVISION ACTIVITIES. Group work The Smiths visited a village yesterday. Let’s see what they saw.

FIELDS

1 What do we call someone who grows crops?

A farµe®

BAKERY

water

2 Which raw materials go into this factory?

Wa†e®, flou® an∂ ¥eas†. 3 Which finished product comes out of the factory?

B®ea∂. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

4 What are they using?

A †e¬epho>æ. 160

160

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flour

yeast

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FLAG

5 Describe the flag.

I† hafi go† two g®æe> ®ectang¬efi an∂ two whi†æ o>efi. CUSTOMS

6 What traditional dish are they eating? fried fish



onion soup

MONUMENTS

CUSTOMS

7 What colours are the clothes?

Re∂, g®æe>, blac§, purp¬æ an∂ [email protected]æ.

8 What monument did they visit?

A cast¾.

Who did you work with? How many activities did you finish?

one hundred and sixty-one

161

161

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DISCOVERY ACTIVITIES. Group work LET’S COMPARE 1 Find and circle fourteen differences between the past and the present. PAST

PRESENT

2 Now colour the new inventions red.

162

162

one hundred and sixty-two

SCIENTIFIC METHOD These pages provide an introduction to the procedures for scientific work. In this section the students will be working with the following procedures: observation and comparison (activity 1), making conjectures (activity 2), using instruments for measuring and recording data (activities 3 and 4) and explaining the results (activity 5).

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LET’S MAKE SOME USEFUL THINGS 3 Make an hourglass. Work in groups and follow the instructions.

1

2

3

4

5

6

4 Use your hourglass to measure time. What can you do before all the sand falls through the hole? F. A. We can bounce a ball

times.

We can count from 1 to We can clap

. times.

5 Write a report. F. A. • What do we use an hourglass for? • How can we make one? • What did you use it for? Which classmates did you work with? How many activities did you finish?

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163

163

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Revision test 1 Label the picture.

™ea∂

• head

trun§ • trunk

• limbs

limbfi

• joints

jointfi 2 Classify the animals. • mammal

• bird

• fish

• reptile

• insect

mamma¬ inßec† ®epti¬æ fis™ 164

164

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bir∂

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3 What are the parts of a plant?

¬ea√±fi

Tick the correct answer.

✓ Roots, stem and leaves.

s†eµ

Trunk, branches and flowers. Trees, grass and trunk. Now use the words to label the picture.

rootfi 4 Choose and draw a means of transport. Do not forget to draw the people or the goods. F. A. • land

• sea

• air

This is a

5 Find six things farmers provide.

M L C V L

I B E T V

L N R Y C

K V E J F

E E A L R

L I E G G G E T A B L S S L L H L G C M U I T L Q

S L O E W

O E P A L

S S D T T

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165

165

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Final revision 6 Number the things in the picture. 1 mountain

3 river

5 bridge

7 sea

2 forest

4 road

6 town

8 plain

2

1 7

6

3

5 8

4 7 Classify the words from activity 6. Natural elements

mountai> fo®es† ri√±®

ßeå plai>

Things built by people

roa∂ [email protected]æ [email protected]æ

8 Write three things can you see in a landscape with mountains. M. A.

Fo®estfi, lotfi oƒ wa†e®, smal¬ [email protected]fi, narro∑ roadfi, animalfi. 166

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9 Complete the calendar. • Write the year. Write the missing months. • Write your birthday in the correct month. YEAR JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

10 Label the pictures old or modern.

ol∂

ol∂

ol∂

mo∂er>

mo∂er>

mo∂er>

There is one point for each activity. Count your points and complete the sentence. I got

points in the revision test.

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167

167

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Art director: José Crespo Design team: Cover: Manuel Estrada Interior: Rosa Marín and Rosa Barriga Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera Design development: Raúl de Andrés, José Luis García and Javier Tejada Technical director: Ángel García Technical coordination: José Luis Verdasco and Marisa Valbuena Layout: Antonia Perales, José Luis Serrano and Javier Pulido Proofreader: Aoife Ahern, John Holt Research and photographic selection: María Leocadia Rodrigálvarez Photographs: A Toril; A. Viñas; Algar; C. Sanz; F. de Madariaga; F. Ontañón; G. Rodríguez; GARCÍA PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira; J.C. Muñoz; J. Gual; J. L. G. Grande; J. M. Escudero; J. V. Resino; Krauel; O. Torres; P Anca; P. Esguevara; Prats I Camps; R. Manent; R. Tolín; A.G.E. FOTOSTOCK/ Clause Nuridsany & Marie Perennou, Kenneth Willardt, Martin Rugner; E.A. Janes, Marevision, Al Ley; A.S.A./ Tom Cambell; AGENCIA ESTUDIO SAN SIMÓN/ A. Prieto; CD GALLERY/B. Lamm; COMSTOCK; COVER/SIGMA/SIEMENS, COVER/CORBIS/ Charles & Josette Lenars; Stephen Frink, Kevin Schafer, IMAGES; DIGITAL BANK; DIGITALVISION; EFE; EFE/SIPA-PRESS/Dirk Heinrich, Gritsyuk; ESTUDIO TRECE POR DIEZIOCHO; FOCOLTONE; JOHN FOXX IMAGES; LOBO PRODUCCIONES/ C. Sanz; MUSEUM ICINOGRAFÍA/ J. Martin; PHOTODISC; SAFI 2000; STOCKBYTE; MATTON-BILD; NEW POL/DOMAR S.A.; PHILIPS; SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

© 2004 by Santillana Educación, S.L. Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid PRINTED IN SPAIN Printed in Spain by

ISBN: 84-294-9398-0 CP: 774130 D.L.: All rights reserved; apart from the exceptions established in law, no part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, distributed, transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the copyright holders. Any infraction of the above may lead to an infringement of the laws of Intellectual Property (articles 270 and following the penal code).

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