SAT Vocab Workbook

December 27, 2017 | Author: eshen16 | Category: Vocabulary, Word, Adjective, Sat, Deception
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SAT vocab....







Welcome to the SAT Teaching Systems We’ve developed our educational package to integrate you, your students, the video component, and the supplemental materials into an effective learning system. The program delivers information in a clear, concise, example-filled manner that teaches with the perspective of the learner in mind. The supplemental material allows students structured opportunities to practice and enhance their knowledge of basic and advanced concepts. Each module contains the following items: a lesson plan, worksheets, and various testing components, and a practice exam.

The Lesson Plan has three parts: • Pre-viewing reviews the basic elements of the SAT test. • Viewing the program offers a fun fast-paced way to teach important concepts. • Post-viewing provides worksheets to reinforce the concepts taught in the video.

Testing components consist of: • Worksheets that have your students practice the material to reinforce the concepts and topics introduced. • Practice Test which covers all the learning objectives and can be used either as a homework assignment or as a practice test in class. We hope that you and your students find Teaching Systems beneficial and enjoyable. Be sure to check out for special offers, new subjects, and other great resources!





Lesson Plan Video: 63 minutes

Lesson: 70 minutes

Pre-Viewing • :00 Warm Up: Do you need to have a photographic memory? No. Do you need to possess a canny ability to outwit the schemes of devious SAT designers? No. The good news is that increasing your vocabulary is a relatively simple process, anyone can do it. We’ll make the job easier by showing you the best way to learn new vocabulary words, along with tricks and tips to help you remember them. The only skill you need to have is a willingness to work. • :00 Test-Prep: There are three main learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic & tactile (doing and touching). Most people favor learning in one of these three styles. For example, when you meet a new person, what is easiest for you to remember about that person a week later? • The person’s face, but not the name? (visual learner) • The person’s name, but not the face? (auditory learner) • What you did together with the person? (kinesthetic & tactile) If you are able to identify the way you learn best, you can use that knowledge to help you learn. We’ve made a list of study tips geared towards each learning style. Try memorizing the following words with the strategies we provide. Rank how effective you find each strategy on a scale of 1 to 3 (1=Works great! 3=Doesn’t help much) to see which ones fit you best.

Viewing • :04 Playing Video: The SAT Vocabulary video program is divided into 2 segments. “Two’s Company” uses short comedic videos to illustrate the meanings words in a way that students can easily relate to and understand. The videos are to engage students’ interest and enable them to learn and remember the meanings of difficult words. The Vocabulary Skills & Drills section will help you beef up your word skills–the better your vocabulary, the better you’ll do on the test! • :60 Wrap-Up: When you’re ready, you can have students take the practice tests provided on the CD-ROM. The idea is that if you take these tests in a similar settings to the real tests, your students will be better prepared come test day.





SAT: Vocabulary The Good and Bad News About Learning New Words The good news: whatever your talents or abilities, you can increase your SAT vocabulary. A lot. Almost as much as you want to. Do you need to have a photographic memory? No. Do you need to possess a canny ability to outwit the schemes of devious SAT designers? No. The good news is that increasing your vocabulary is a relatively simple process. Anyone can do it. We’ll make the job easier by showing you the best way to learn new vocabulary words, along with tricks to help you remember them. The only skill you need to have is a willingness to work. The “bad” news: memorizing new words takes work. There isn’t a single trick or magic system that will allow you to memorize 500 words a day and rattle off esoteric words that will make you look erudite to your friends after a week. It’s not hard work, but it does take effort, and the more time you spend studying, the better you will do. You are in control of how much or little you learn. But that’s not really bad news, is it?

What’s in This Section? 1. Study Plans. Taking the SAT in six months? What about in a week? We suggest the best study strategy depending on how much time you have. 2. Learning Tips. Tricks and tools that will help you remember the words you learn. 3. Word Roots + Flash Cards. Word roots can help you figure out a word’s meaning even if you’ve never seen the word before. Take neologism. If you know that neo means new, and log means speech, thought, you know neologism is close to “new speech, thought”. The real definition: neologism--a new word, expression, or usage. 4. Word Groupings. We organized like-minded words into groups to make them easier to memorize. For example, canny, esoteric, and erudite (highlighted above) are in the Intelligence or Knowledge group. The definitions of these words are all related to intelligence or knowledge. Each word group is followed by a quiz, and we have a cumulative review after every four chapters.

Learning Strategies and Tips There are three main learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic & tactile (doing and touching). Most people favor learning in one of these three styles. For example, when you meet a new person, what is easiest for you to remember about that person a week later? • The person’s face, but not the name? (visual learner) • The person’s name, but not the face? (auditory learner) • What you did together with the person? (kinesthetic & tactile) If you are able to identify the way you learn best, you can use that knowledge to help you learn. We’ve made a list of study tips geared towards each learning style. Try memorizing the following words with the strategies we provide. Rank how effective you find each strategy on a scale of 1 to 3 (1=Works great! 3=Doesn’t help much) to see which ones fit you best.





Words cupidity (adj.) greed diurnal (adj.) active during the day dogmatic (adj.) arrogantly certain about an opinion without adequate grounds. endemic (adj.) belonging to a particular area indubitable (adj.) unquestionable; too evident to be doubted nefarious (adj.) very mean and villainous quiescent (adj.) quiet; still; at rest

Rating (1-3)

Strategy (visual) Make a flash card. Write the word on one side, the definition on the other. (visual/tactile) Draw a picture that incorporates the meaning of the word. Example: diurnal. Draw a rooster crowing as the sun rises. (tactile) Act out the word, or tie it to one of your senses. Example: nefarious. Twirl your imaginary mustache, and cackle in your most villainous voice, “Ha ha ha! I love being nefarious”. (auditory) Record your voice (or a friend’s) reading the word and definition. Play it back until you memorize it. (auditory) Ask a friend to say the word aloud and then quiz you on the definition. (auditory, optional) There are several web sites on the Internet that provide free mp3 files that teach a new word or two every day. Download one of these files and listen to it at home or on the way to school. (Search for “vocabulary podcast” in an Internet search engine).





Strategies for All Learners These techniques are useful no matter which learning style you favor;

1. Create a sentence using the word. Underline the word, and put clues to the word’s meaning in the sentence. It will help you remember the definition. His cupidity cost him a fortune when he put all his winnings on 25 at the casino’s roulette wheel and lost. Marsh grass is endemic to the Spotsylvania area, but it is non-existent in the neighboring counties.

2. Integrate new words in your daily routine. Every day, pick three words that you will use at least once either while talking or writing. Make a checklist and mark off the word once you use it. If it feels unnatural to use the word in conversation, tell your friends, “I’m going to use a new vocabulary word in the next two minutes. Try to guess what it is”. The added benefit is that they’ll pay close attention to what you say for the next few minutes.

3. Tie the word to a strong emotion. Try this exercise. For one minute, think about your childhood. What are the first memories that come up? It’s likely that most, if not all of those memories, are connected with a strong emotion. When an event is associated with a strong emotion, we are much more likely to remember the event than if the emotion wasn’t there. It’s why you may not be able to recall a word of what your teacher said yesterday, but you can clearly remember a scene from a scary movie six months ago. For practice, try associating these words with an emotional event in your life. chide (v.) to scold or criticize delectable (adj.) delicious euphoria (n.) the feeling of happiness or elation Connecting an emotion to a word is a powerful way to remember its meaning.

Last Step: Write down five learning strategies you will use to help you memorize new words. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.





Where Do I Start? The most effective way to augment your vocabulary (augment: to make greater) is as you’d expect—slow and steady. Learning a handful of words a day over many months is by far the best way to increase your vocabulary. It is less stressful than cramming, makes memorization easier, and most importantly, gives you time to review the material. Regularly reviewing, even for just a few minutes a day, is one of the most important things you can do to become an SAT-crushing wordsmith. But even if you only have a few weeks before taking the SAT, you can still make significant progress. We’ve created two study plans, depending on how much time you have before the big day.

Before You Start Buy a notebook to track your progress and to use the learning strategies we outlined on pages 3-5, such as drawing a picture of the word or using it in conversation.

“Help! I’m taking the test next week.” (Test date: 2 weeks or less. Study time: 2-3 hours a day) Day 1: Memorize word roots. Each word root has a few examples of it in action. Guess what the word means based on its root, and then check the definition to see how close you are. Day 2: Skim the word groups. For now, ignore the definitions and try to memorize which group the word belongs to. When you recognize a word root, underline the root and guess the word’s definition. Day 3: For as many words as you can, cover up the definition and guess whether the word’s connotation is positive, negative, or neutral. Often, knowing a word’s connotation is enough information to answer a SAT question, or at least make an educated guess. Day 4-6: Do as many chapters as possible in the book. Review word roots for 15-30 minutes a day. Day 7: Review all material. If you have more than a week, either spread out the work above or repeat the tasks you have trouble with.

“I’m taking the test in the next month or two.” (Tesdt dare: 6 weeks or more. 1 hour a day) 1. Proceed through the chapters at your own pace. We suggest finishing a chapter every other day, and reviewing the material once a week until you have it well memorized. 2. Outside study: after you finish all the chapters (2-4 weeks), go to a library and borrow a few books written at or near college level. Books that were nominated or won an award are often good places to start. Make it your goal to learn 5-10 words a day. When you read a word that you are not 100% positive of the definition, follow this process: a) Guess what the word means. b) Look up the definition in a dictionary. c) Write the word and definition in your notebook. d) Write a sentence using the word. e) Reread the sentence in the book. ™





Learning vocabulary through reading has two benefits. One, seeing the word used in context helps memorization and understanding of proper usage. Two, the new SAT values reading comprehension skills more than the old SAT. By reading a few pages every day, you’ll be able to improve your reading comprehension skills at the same time.

Reviewing For both plans, set aside 5-10 minutes at the end of the day to review. Once a week, take 30-60 minutes to review material from the past week or two. Once a month, take 60 minutes to skim over your notes and refresh any definitions.

Word Roots One of the tricks to increasing vocabulary is to memorize common word roots. Knowing word roots makes it easier to do the following: 1. Remember the word’s definition. 2. Figure out the meaning of new words. 3. Make educated guesses on the SAT. Often, you can make an educated guess just by knowing a word’s connotation or part of its definition. Keep in mind... 1. Word roots can look identical but have different meanings. amoral—without morals (“a” means “not, without”) abet—to encourage or assist another (“a” means “to, towards”) 2. Many words have two or more roots: incessant—unending (“in” means “not”; “cess” means “to go, to yeild”) 3. Sometimes, a word appears to have a word root when it doesn’t, or its roots are no longer related to its current meaning. ostensible—1. intended for display. 2. plausibly true but not really true (“os” means “in the way”; “tens” means “to stretch”)





Study Tips We suggest two ways to learn word roots: 1. Head-On Approach: Use flashcards to learn 10-15 word roots a day. Review old word roots along with new ones. 2. Integrated Approach: As you proceed through the chapters, identify the word roots in each word. Check the word root table or a dictionary to verify the root. Root



a, an

not, without

amoral, atrophy, atheist

ab, a

away, from

aberration, abject, abscond, absolve, abstain

ad, a

to, towards

abet, adroit, admonish, affluent

ante, ant


antecedent, antediluvian, anticipate

am, ami


ameliorate, amicable

anti, ant

against, opposite

antipathy, antithesis


good, well

benefactor, benevolent, benign

cede, cess

go, yield

cede, incessant, secede



anachronistic, chronological



circumlocution, circumspect, circumvent

clud, clus claus

shut, close

exclude, preclude, occlude, reclusive

cogn, gno


cognizant, ignorant, incognito, prognosis

co, com, con,

with, together

combustion, complete, congenial, constrain, convoluted

contra, counter

against, opposite

contradictory, counterintuitive, incontrovertible



credulity, discredit, incredible


from, down, away

debase, deface, demarcation, deride

dei, div

God, godly

deity, divine

dem, demo


democracy, endemic



abdicate, contradictory, malediction

dis, dys, dif apart, away, not

discern, discordant, disdain, disparage, disseminate, dysfunctional

en, em

in, into

embellish, empathy, endemic



equidistant, equivocal

e, ex

out, out of, from

exacerbate, exonerate, exorbitant, expiate, egregious, egress

fac, fea, fect, fic, fy

make, do

benefactor, confection, feasible, factory, vilify



fervent, effervescent








flu, flux


affluent, confluence, superfluous

grad, gress


digress, gradient, progress



gratuitous, gratuity, denigrate, ingratiate


crowd, flock

aggregate, gregarious, egregious


above, over, too much

hyperventilate, hyperbole, hyperthermia


below, less than, too little

hypothermia, hypothetical

in, ig, il, im not

impeccable, impregnable, insipid, intrepid, ignoble, illogical

in, il, im, ir in, on, into

incandescent, imbue, induct, ingratiate, innate, irritate

inter, intro


internet, interstate, introduction, intervene

intra, intr

within, into

intrastate, intrinsic, introspective

jac, ject

to throw

abject, conjecture, interject

loc, log, loqu

speech, thought

circumlocution, eulogy, loquacious, neologism

luc, lum


elucidate, illuminate, lucid


bad, badly

malediction, malevolent



microcosm, microscope


wrong, bad, badly

mischievous, misconstrue, misleading



amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology



commute, immutable, mutate

nat, nasc


innate, native, nascent



nonchalant, nonplussed


against, toward

obfuscate, oblivious, obscure, obtuse



panacea, pandemic


feeling, suffering

apathy, empathy, sympathy


through, intensive, throughout

perfunctory, perspicacious, peruse


against, destruction

perfidious, perjure


seek, go towards

impetus, impetuous, petulant



despot, impotent, omnipotent

pre before

preclude, precocious, predilection, prescient, presumptuous, prevent









ahead, forth

procrastinate, progeny, provoke



acquiesce, disquiet, quiescent



deride, ridiculous

sacr, sanct


consecrate, sacrilege, sacrosanct


apart, away

secede, segregate, sedition

sed, sid


assiduous, insidious, sedate, sedentary


seed, sow

disseminate, seminal



subjugate, subliminal, subservient

super, sur


insuperable, supercilious, surfeit

theo, the


apotheosis, atheist, theology


drag, draw

protract, tractable

trem, trep

shake, timid

intrepid, trepidation, tremor, tremulous



vacant, vacuous, vacuum

ven, vent


advent, contravene, circumvent

vert, vers


aversion, incontrovertible, subvert, versatile



benevolent, malevolent, volition

volv, volut

turn, roll

convoluted, evolve

Study Strategy 1. Read definitions 2. Use learning strategies to memorize definitions 3. Test knowledge with quiz aberration








Root a, an: not, without ab, a: away, from aberration (n.) a deviation from the normal “The police chief publicly apologized for the two officers involved in the bribery scandal. He assured citizens that the officers were aberrations and not representative of the department in any way.”





atypical (adj.) not typical “When Dr. Munson’s robot overcame his programming and began a killing spree, the doctor understatedly said that ‘the outcome was atypical’.” eclectic (adj.) selected from a variety of sources “The honorary feast was an eclectic mix of traditional dishes and modern cuisine.” eccentric (adj.) 1. odd, different from the norm 2. deviating from a circular form or path, as in an elliptical orbit. “Coworkers found Greg’s habit of bird house collecting to be a little eccentric.” iconoclast (n.) one who defies common beliefs or institutions “Many of the people we revere today, such as Gandhi or Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., were iconoclasts and controversial figures when they were alive.” idiosyncratic (adj.) peculiar to one person “Susan has the idiosyncratic habit of tapping the tune of ‘Skip to my Lou’ with her foot every time she meets someone named Lou or Louise.” pathology (n.) a departure from a normal condition “The formerly pleasant neighborhood of Lyonsville is currently suffering from the pathologies of drug dealing and late-night drag racing.” uncanny (adj.) seeming to have supernatural origin “Robert has an uncanny ability to find dollar bills on the ground whenever he visits the city.”

Boost Your Score • Underline the word roots. • Pick the four toughest words and use each of them in a sentence in your vocabulary journal. • Look up eccentric in a thesaurus and learn the definitions of three of its synonyms.





Chapter 1 Quiz: Words Dealing with the Abnormal or Odd Matching: Definitions 1. atypical

a. selected from a variety of sources

2. eclectic

b. one who defies common beliefs or institutions

3. eccentric

c. odd, different from the norm

4. iconoclast

d. not typical

5. idiosyncratic

e. peculiar to one person

Word Roots Flashback 6. ab, a = _________________________ 7. co, com, con = __________________ 8. ex, e = _________________________

Circle the Correct Word 9. It is (idiosyncratic, uncanny) the way the lamp post flickers every time I walk by it. 10. Louie’s (pathology, eccentricity) is that his skin turns blue during winter. 11. The diners found the chef’s selection of dishes—Mongolian crab, Japanese bamboo shoots, French croissants, and Hungarian wine—to be pleasantly (atypical, eclectic). 12. Joan assured her boss that her late arrival today was (an aberration, idiosyncratic) and wouldn’t happen again.

Chapter 2: Words Dealing with Admirable Character alacrity






decorous intrepid

deft lenient





Root bene: good, well en, em: in, into in, ig, il, im: not mag, maj, mas, max: great phil: love path, pass: feel, suffer trem, trep: shake, timid vol: wish





alacrity (n.) cheerful willingness; timeliness “Matt’s boss appreciated how he would do any task, even mundane ones, with alacrity.” assiduous (adj.) persistently attentive; diligent “Kathie was assiduous to her grandfather’s needs after he had a stroke and needed help to get around.” benevolent (adj.) marked by goodness “Mateo’s father was a benevolent man, who gave much of his time and money to charities.” decorous (adj.) socially proper “Sarah warned her boyfriend about the necessity of being decorous with her family, but he still forgot to put his napkin on his lap before eating.” deft (adj.) skillful “The locksmith deftly picked the lock in under 15 seconds.” diligent (adj.) characterized by persistent effort “It is difficult for most people to be diligent about studying for a subject in which they have little interest.” empathy (n.) sensitivity to another’s feelings as if they were one’s own “Susanna is so empathetic that I’m hesitant to tell her when I’m feeling depressed, because she’ll usually feel depressed as well.” fidelity (n.) faithfulness to one’s obligations; devotion “Fidelity to each other is treasured in any marriage.” forbearance (n.) patience and restraint, especially when being provoked “Kenny showed great forbearance in not punching a classmate that was goading him into a fight, especially considering that Kenny was six inches taller than his classmate.” fortitude (n.) strength of mind that allows one to endure adversity “Although being a political prisoner for 11 years was a horrible experience, the activist developed a sense of fortitude while in jail that allowed him to feel unbreakable after he was released.” intrepid (adj.) fearless, unable to be shaken “The hero was intrepid, even when the dragon ate his sword and shield.” lenient (adj.) tolerant, merciful “The teacher was in a lenient mood and decided not to chide Tammy for coming late to class.” magnanimous (adj.) generous and noble; forgiving “It was magnanimous of the king to allow the assassin to live.” philanthropic (adj.) charitable and giving “Charities depend on the philanthropic spirit of people to survive.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Pick the six toughest words and use the learning strategies on page 4-5 to learn them.





Chapter 2 Quiz: Words Dealing With Admirable Character Matching: Definitions 1. alacrity

___a. cheerful willingness; timeliness

2. benevolent

___b. fearless, unable to be shaken

3. decorous

___c. tolerant, merciful

4. fortitude

___d. socially proper

5. intrepid

___e. strength of mind that allows one to endure adversity

6. lenient

___f. marked by goodness

Word Roots Flashback 7. a, an = _____________________ 8. ab, a = _____________________ Circle the Correct Word 9. It is (benevolent, intrepid) of her to volunteer at a soup kitchen every week. 10. Some of his friends took advantage of his (assiduous, magnanimous) character. 11. The thief was (deft, philanthropic) at breaking into art museums unseen. 12. Bert finished his task with (alacrity, fidelity) and had enough time to watch a movie before going to bed.

Chapter 3: Words Dealing With Arguing or Convincing accost


arbiter beseech








Root co, com, con: with, together cogn, gno: to know de: from, away, down accost (v.) to confront verbally, often with a demand or request “The teacher was accosted by several students after class with demands that she change their test grades.” altercation (n.) a dispute “The two men got in an altercation when they arrived at the grocery line at the same time.”





arbiter (n.) one who can resolve a dispute, make a decision “Neither side is happy with the arbiter’s ruling, which some say means it’s a good decision.” beseech (v.) to beg, to plead “I beseech you, Mr. Scrooge! Please let me leave a hour early to visit my child in the hospital.” cajole (v.) to repeatedly coax, usually in a good-natured way “Freddie cajoled his friends to go skinny-dipping with him. Eventually, they gave in.” coerce (v.) to make someone do something by force or threat “The Mafia coerces owners of local businesses to pay them protection money.” cogent (adj.) logically convincing “I disagreed with the speaker at first, but his argument was so cogent that it changed my view.” contentious (adj.) quarrelsome, belligerent “Brittany is a contentious child, always picking fights with her parents and sister.” debunk (v.) to discredit or disprove “Although scientists have debunked the notion of ESP repeatedly, some people still believe it exists.” dogmatic (adj.) arrogantly certain about an opinion without adequate grounds. “Amy hated arguing with Carlos. He is dogmatic and unwilling to change his mind.” sophistry (n.) a plausible but misleading argument “The politician’s sophistry regarding immigration proved popular with the public, in spite of the criticism of it by many experts.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Look up the definition for pugnacious and write it down in your notebook. • Find antonyms for these words and write down the definitions: coerce, contentious, debunk.





Chapter 3 Quiz: Words Dealing With Arguing or Convincing Matching: Definitions 1. beseech

___a. a plausible but misleading argument

2. coerce

___b. quarrelsome, belligerent

3. contentious

___c. to discredit or disprove

4. debunk

___d. to make someone do something by force or threat

5. sophistry

___e. to beg, to plead

Word Roots Flashback 6. bene = __________ 7. en, em = __________ 8. in, ig, il, im = __________ 9. mag, maj, mas, max = __________ 10. phil = __________ 11. path, pass = __________ 12. trem, trep = __________ 13. vol = __________ Circle the Correct Word 14. He looked so pitiful when he (beseeched, coerced) his boss for a raise that his boss was reluctant to say no. 15. Sarah convinced me with her (cogent, dogmatic) argument that I should start saving for retirement as soon as possible. 16. The five-year study on alien abduction thoroughly (debunked, accosted) the notion that aliens are snatching up people in the middle of the night.

Chapter 4: Words Dealing With Assistance, Calm, or Relief ameliorate











Root am, ami: love pan: all





ameliorate (v.) to improve “The mayor hopes the new subway system will ameliorate traffic congestion downtown.” assuage (v.) to relieve, to reduce pain or difficulty “The cool, damp cloth assuaged his fever.” equanimity (n.) the act of being calm, even-tempered “Greg accepted the bad news with equanimity.” mitigate (v.) to make less severe or painful “The dentist gave her patient a shot of Novocain to mitigate her pain.” mollify (v.) to pacify, soothe, or appease “Xavier was ready to chase after the guy that stepped on his toe, but his girlfriend mollified him.” panacea (n.) a remedy for all ills or difficulties “The salesman claimed his elixir was a panacea but I was skeptical, as he kept coughing during his presentation.” pacific (adj.) peaceful, soothing “Lying on warm sand on a beach while listening to the ocean roar in the distance is quite pacific.” placate (v.) to ease the anger of, soothe “Jimmy’s mother was so desperate to get him to stop crying that she bought him an ice cream cone to placate him.” respite (n.) a break or period of relief “After each round, boxers get a moment of respite before returning to the fight.” salve (n.) a soothing balm “The salve mitigated the pain from the burns, but not by much.” serene (adj.) calm, peaceful “The only sound on the serene lake was the water lapping gently against the boat.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Find antonyms for these words and memorize the definitions: ameliorate, pacific, placate.





Chapter 4 Quiz: Words Dealing with Assistance, Calm, or Relief Matching: Definitions 1. ameliorate

___a. to improve

2. equanimity

___b. a break or period of relief

3. panacea

___c. a soothing balm

4. respite

___d. the act of being calm, even-tempered

5. salve

___e. a remedy for all ills or difficulties

6. serene

___f. calm, peaceful

Word Roots Flashback 7. co, com, con = ____________________ 8. cogn, gno = _______________________ 9. de = ______________________________ Circle the Correct Word 10. Tyson (mitigated, placated) his anger at losing the chess match by reminding himself that he only started playing a few months ago. 11. The health food company claimed its new vitamin was a (panacea, salve) that could cure almost any health problem. 12. After working non-stop for six days, the construction worker felt he earned a (respite, amelioration) from work.





Cumulative Review: Chapters 1-4 Match the word with the word group: ___1. pacific

a. Abnormal or Odd

___2. altercation

b. Admirable Character

___3. benevolent

c. Arguing or Convincing

___4. cajole

d. Assistance, Calm, or Relief

___5. eccentric ___6. magnanimous ___7. aberration ___8. ameliorate ___9. arbiter ___10. diligent ___11. mollify ___12. idiosyncratic Underline the word root(s) in the word. Then write the word’s definition. 13. atypical _____________________________________________________________ 14. intrepid _____________________________________________________________ 15. cogent _____________________________________________________________ 16. panacea _____________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer: 17. The (eccentric, wily) farmer was the only person in the whole state of Nebraska to have a blue farm house. 18. It takes an (intrepid, serene) person to go sky diving. 19. Jaromir’s mother (coerced, mollified) him into clearing his room. 20. It was (devious, uncanny) of Simone to tell her parents she was going to spend the weekend at a friend’s house when her real plan was to take a road trip with her friends to Las Vegas.





Chapter 5: Words Dealing With Brevity or Wordiness circumlocution turgid

concise verbose





Root circum: around loc, loq, loqu: speech, thought circumlocution (n.) indirect and wordy language “If the professor spoke directly instead of indulging in circumlocution, his lectures would take one-third the time and be easier to follow. concise (adj.) brief and direct “I appreciate Frank’s concise way of speaking. He rarely rambles and I don’t have to guess what he is trying to say.” laconic (adj.) terse or brief, in speech or writing “Gita was shocked when her usually laconic father spoke to her for over an hour on the phone.” pithy (adj.) concisely meaningful “Yoda responded to Luke with a pithy saying: ‘Do or do not. There is no try.’ ” succinct (adj.) precise, short “Her response to her son’s demands for a new toy was succinct: ‘no.’ ” redundant (adj.) unnecessary; repetitive in expression “The phrase ‘PIN number’ is redundant because PIN stands for Personal Identification Number.” turgid (adj.) swollen, excessively embellished in style or language “Before Karl ate his waffle, he said in his most turgid manner, O, glorious squares, aggregation of earthen wheat and heavenly flour, covered with the syrup of desire and strawberries of life: my mouth awaits you!’ ” verbose (adj.) unnecessarily wordy “Boomer disliked being verbose, but he needed to write a 15-page report on climate change and didn’t know how else to do it.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Pick the six toughest words and use each of them in a sentence in your vocabulary journal.





Chapter 5 Quiz: Words Dealing With Brevity or Wordiness Matching: Examples 1. circumlocution

a. “How was your three-month vacation to India?” “Fine.”

2. laconic

b. “Let’s meet in front of the theater at 9:00 p.m. That’s 9:00 p.m., in front of the theater.”

3. pithy

c. “So what I’m trying to say is, well, first, maybe I should start with what happened this morning. This morning, I was eating cereal, when—actually, let me start over.”

4. redundant

d. “A stitch in time saves nine.”

5. turgid

e. “It is necessary for all white, rectangular paper to meet the required classifications and requirements as stated in the official office supply purchasing and procurement manual, OB-87b.”

6. verbose

f. “From the deepest pits of hell, from the darkness where demons linger, may the beasts of evil arise and come forth to inflict a thousand wounds upon you for eating the last jelly doughnut.”

Word Roots Flashback 7. am, ami = __________________ 8. pan = ______________________ Circle the Correct Word 9. His answer to my question was (succinct, verbose): “no.” 10. Steve’s thoughts tend to be disorganized when he is under stress. His normally concise speaking style is replaced with lapses into (circumlocution, pithiness). 11. Diane was unusually (concise, laconic). She usually can’t stop talking. 12. The guru’s followers found his wisdom to be (pithy, turgid).





Chapter 6: Words Dealing With Caution or Uncertainty addle









Root a, an: not, without ambi, amphi: both circum: around equi: equal morph: shape spec, spic: around, look addle (v.) to muddle or confuse “The fever so addled his brain that he could barely recognize his own room.” ambiguous (adj.) open to interpretation; uncertain “The staff found their boss’ latest request to “work hard, but not too hard” very ambiguous.” amorphous (adj.) without definite shape or form “Tanya was frightened by the dark, amorphous shape drifting towards her through the fog.” apocryphal (adj.) of questionable authorship or authenticity “The story of Newton devising the Universal Law of Gravitation after an apple dropped on the head is apocryphal, but many people believe it is true anyway. circumspect (adj.) cautious; prudent “He was circumspect about making his way through the jungle as he heard it was infested with poisonous snakes.” dubious (adj.) doubtful, questionable “Big Joe’s claim of bowling two perfect 300 games in a row is dubious.” equivocal (adj.) subject to two or more interpretations, and sometimes intended to mislead “Sometimes when faced with a scandal, a politician will issue an equivocal statement that is misleading but technically true, like ‘I did not accept a bribe on that day.’ ”





prudent (adj.) careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment. “Sarah’s decision to buy fire insurance for her home proved to be prudent when a bolt of lightning struck her house and set the roof on fire.” vacillate (v.) to be indecisive; to sway between decisions Jon vacillated so much between the chicken and pasta before ordering dinner that his date eventually snapped, “Just pick one!”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write down something ambiguous you heard or were told today. • Write down a dubious claim a friend made recently. • Write down a story or urban legend that you believe to be apocryphal.

Chapter 6 Quiz: Words Dealing with Caution or Uncertainty Matching: Definitions 1. addle

a. without definite shape or form

2. ambiguous

b. to be indecisive; to sway between decisions

3. amorphous

c. open to interpretation; uncertain

4. circumspect

d. to muddle or confuse

5. dubious

e. cautious; prudent

6. vacillate

f. doubtful, questionable

Word Roots Flashback 7. circum = ________________________ 8. loc, loq, loqu = __________________ Circle the Correct Word 9. Sandra couldn’t make out the (amorphous, circumspect) object beneath the lake’s surface. 10. Mr. Swanson found it (dubious, prudent) that Tony’s dog ate his homework for the third time in a week. 11. Benny was (addling, vacillating) between ordering the soup and the hamburger. 12. Jennifer felt her husband was being (apocryphal, equivocal) when she asked him if he planned a surprise vacation to Tahiti for her birthday and he responded, “I didn’t make any plans to travel... there.”





Chapter 7: Words Dealing with Compliance or Timidity acquiesce






servile tractable





Root cap, cip: head co, com, con: with, together ob: against, toward sequ, secu: follow tract: drag, draw trem, trep: shake, timid acquiesce (v.) to comply quietly “The hostage, fearful of being killed, acquiesced to his captors’ demands.” amenable (adj.) agreeable, cooperative “Although they had agreed to go hiking, Lily knew she could get her amenable friend to see a movie instead.” capitulate (v.) to surrender “On April 9, 1865, after four years of fighting, General Robert E. Lee capitulated to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, and the American Civil War was finally over.” compliant (adj.) yielding, obedient “Most children are compliant to their parents’ wishes until they get older and begin to rebel.” deferential (adj.) yielding to the wishes of another; showing respect for authority “Zoriada says she would like to give the President of the United States a piece of her mind, but I suspect if she ever met him, she would be deferential to him.” docile (adj.) easily taught or trained “Some breeds of dogs, like the poodle and Golden Retriever, are more docile than other breeds.” obsequious (adj.) excessively submissive or attentive “Franklin’s obsequiousness towards his teacher evoked derision from his classmates, who called him a ‘kiss-up’.” punctilious (adj.) eager to follow rules or conventions “Joseph is punctilious about signaling while driving. He even uses his turn signals when no one is around.”





servile (adj.) subservient, almost slave-like “It makes me cringe to see a married couple where one of them is servile to the other. Shouldn’t there be equality in relationships?” tractable (adj.) easily controlled or dealt with; obedient “When the glass of the python’s pen broke, the situation was tractable because it happened after zoo hours and the python stayed nearby.” trepidation (n.) fear and apprehension “Louise agreed to give the graduation speech with trepidation—she hated public speaking and had never spoken to so many people at once.” timorous (adj.) fearful, timid “Jill appears timorous at first because of her small stature and mousy voice, but people who know her are quick to say she can be pushy and demanding when she wants to.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Look up the definitions of these words: accede, conciliatory, tremulous. For each word, write a sentence that uses the word.

Chapter 7 Quiz: Words Dealing with Compliance or Timidity Matching: Definitions 1. amenable

a. yielding to the wishes of another; showing respect for authority

2. capitulate

b. excessively submissive or attentive

3. deferential

c. eager to follow rules or conventions

4. obsequious

d. agreeable, cooperative

5. punctilious

e. easily controlled or dealt with; obedient

6. tractable

f. to surrender

7. timorous

g. fearful, timid

Word Roots Flashback 8. ambi, amphi = ______________________ 9. circum = ___________________________ 10. equi = ____________________________ 11. morph = __________________________ 12. spec, spic = _______________________





Circle the Correct Word 13. Judy felt (docile, timorous) when waiting in line for a scary roller coaster. 14. True friendships can’t work when one of the people is (amenable, servile) to the other. 15. Joseph is (deferential, punctilious): a real stickler for the rules. 16. The war finally ended with the general’s (capitulation, trepidation).

Chapter 8: Words Dealing with Criticism or Scolding admonish disparage

berate invective

censure rebuke

chide upbraid




Root ad, a: to, towards de: from, down, away dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not admonish (v.) to caution or warn gently “ ‘Now, now,’ admonished the pastor, ‘It’s not nice to lie.’ ” berate (v.) to scold in an angry or harsh tone “Lucy berated her husband mercilessly for getting drunk and insulting her boss last night.” censure (v.) the act of blaming or condemning sternly “Before giving his verdict, the judge censured the delinquent mother for neglecting her children.” chide (v.) to scold or express disproval “Louise found it humorous when his younger brother chided him for not doing the dishes last night.” decry (v.) to criticize publicly “At her sermon, the minister decried people who only thought about spirituality on Sundays.” denigrate (v.) to insult someone’s reputation “It makes Mateo uncomfortable to hear Cathy denigrate Arin behind her back, because he considers both of them to be his friends.” deride (v.) to mock, scorn, or make fun of “Jon is a movie snob. He derides every movie made by Hollywood unless it is filmed in black-and-white and is difficult to understand.” disparage (v.) to reduce in esteem or rank; to speak of in a disrespectful way “James is jealous of his sister Alexia’s accomplishments, so he constantly disparages her to make himself feel better.”





invective (n.) a verbal attack, such as cursing “Ms. Williams was speechless when she asked one of her sixth-grade students to pay attention and he responded with an invective directed at her.” rebuke (v.) to reprimand; to criticize sharply “After she recovered from the shock, Ms. Williams rebuked the student and sent him to the principal’s office.” upbraid (v.) to criticize or scold severely “Robert cringed to hear the mother upbraid her daughter in the store just for asking for a new dress.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Pick the six toughest words and use each of them in a sentence in your vocabulary journal.

Chapter 8 Quiz: Words Dealing With Criticism or Scolding Matching: Definitions 1. admonish

___a. to caution or warn gently

2. decry

___b. to insult someone’s reputation

3. denigrate

___c. to criticize publicly

4. deride

___d. a verbal attack, such as cursing

5. invective

___e. to reprimand; to criticize sharply

6. rebuke

___f. to mock, scorn, or make fun of

Word Roots Flashback 7. cap, cip = ____________________ 8. co, com, con = _______________ 9. ob = _________________________ 10. sequ, secu = ________________ 11. tract = ______________________ 12. trem, trep = _________________





Circle the Correct Word 13. After fouling out of the basketball game, Nancy expected the coach to berate her, or at the very least, (admonish, upbraid) her, but the coach said nothing. 14. Most people prefer to be criticized in private rather than (decried, rebuked). 15. The secretary has a bad habit of (denigrating, rebuking) the reputations of coworkers she dislikes. 16.The stand-up comic cruelly (admonished, derided) the slovenly appearance of one of the audience members.

Cumulative Review Chapters 5-8 Match the word with the word group: ___1. amorphous

a. Brevity or Wordiness

___2. denigrate

b. Caution or Uncertainty

___3. deferential

c. Compliance or Timidity

___4. punctilious

d. Criticism or Scolding

___5. laconic ___6. addle ___7. succinct ___8. acquiesce ___9. deride ___10. turgid ___11. dubious ___12. censure

Underline the word root(s) in the word. Then write the word’s definition. 13. circumlocution ___________________________________________________________ 14. amorphous _____________________________________________________________ 15. tractable ________________________________________________________________ 16. disparage _______________________________________________________________





Circle the Correct Answer 17. When Kia didn’t acquiesce to Mary’s demand to help her cheat on a test, Mary (censured, denigrated) Kia’s reputation to all her classmates. 18. The prudent man was quite (amenable, circumspect) about investing his entire life savings in magic beans. 19. Cathy wished her mother was more (laconic, verbose) when upbraiding her. 20. The power-hungry warlord berated his lieutenant for suggesting that they (capitulate, equivocate) to the enemy.

Chapter 9: Words Dealing with Deception or Trickery beguile bilk chicanery concoct connive devious dissemble duplicity guile ostensible pretense prevaricate ruse spurious veneer wily unctuous Root co, com, con: with, together dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not beguile (v.) to deceive; to charm “The con artist, pretending to be a prince from a faraway land, beguiled the heiress and won her heart.” bilk (v.) to cheat; to defraud “The slimy salesman bilked dozens of elderly people out of their savings before he was caught.” chicanery (n.) deception by trickery “The football team won the game by using chicanery. The players painted footballs on the fronts of their jerseys so the opposing team couldn’t tell who was carrying the ball.” concoct (v.) to fabricate, make up “When Taylor’s parents caught him sneaking into the house past his curfew, he concocted a story about how his friend’s car broke down and it took two hours for a tow truck to arrive.” connive (v.) to plot, scheme “The disgruntled bank teller connived to rob the bank if he didn’t get a raise next month.” devious (adj.) dishonest, deceptive “Most people found Larry friendly, but Tameka sensed a devious side to his nature and was wary to trust him.” dissemble (v.) to conceal or disguise one’s nature, feelings, or motives “Ken dissembled when he invited his friend over on Saturday to watch a basketball game. It was his friend’s birthday and Ken had planned a surprise party.”





duplicity (n.) crafty dishonesty “The spy’s duplicity ran so deep that she fooled both the U.S. and Russia into thinking that she was working for them.” guile (n.) deceitful, cunning behavior “Allison rarely engaged in guile, but when she started having a romantic liaison with a coworker, she surprised herself with her ability to hide the affair.” ostensible (adj.) 1. intended for display 2. plausibly true but not really true “His ostensible purpose for being in the Debate Club was to be a better communicator, but his real purpose was to pad his college résumé.” pretense (n.) an appearance or action intended to deceive “Some parents poke around in their teenagers’ rooms on the pretense that they are trying to find a household object they can’t find, like a pair of scissors.” prevaricate (v.) to stray from or evade the truth “Sean thought it was wise to prevaricate when his wife asked him about the details of his spelunking expedition. He almost died in the cave, and thought she would demand that he give up his hobby if she knew.” ruse (n.) a trick “The ruse worked—the noblemen ran into the bandit’s stronghold after a woman pretended to cry for help.” spurious (adj.) false but designed to seem plausible “The Van Gogh painting was spurious, but created expertly enough to deceive art critics at first.” veneer (n.) a mask, façade; a superficial or deceptively attractive appearance “It is difficult to tell whether a celebrity’s personality is genuine or a veneer.” wily (adj.) crafty, sly “Wile E. Coyote attempted to live up to his name, but his wily attempts to catch the Road Runner always met with failure.” unctuous (adj.) insincerely earnest; oily “The unctuous car salesman feigned interest in the family’s needs and then led them to a more expensive model.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write a paragraph about someone you know that is crafty or dishonest. Use at least three of the vocabulary words in this section as you write.





Chapter 9 Quiz: Words Dealing With Deception or Trickery Matching: Definitions 1. beguile

a. to fabricate, make up

2. chicanery

b. dishonest, deceptive

3. concoct

c. to conceal or disguise one’s nature, feelings, or motivess

4. devious

d. plausibly true but not really true

5. dissemble

e. to deceive; to charm

6. ostensible

f. insincerely earnest; oily

7. prevaricate

g. deception by trickery

8. unctuous

h. to stray from or evade the truth

Word Roots Flashback 9. ad, a = _______________________ 10. de = ________________________ Circle the Correct Word 11. Fredrick asked Jennifer if she wanted to study together on the (pretense, ruse) of preparing for the test, but his real motive was to get to know her better. 12. Some of the more perceptive shoppers noticed the store clerk’s insincere, (wily, unctuous) manner. 13. Even the most moral person (bilks, prevaricates) from time to time when caught in a lie. 14. Although I’ve lived next to Mr. Mitchell for years, I barely know him as he (connives, dissembles) his feelings and thoughts.





Chapter 10: Words Dealing with Food, Taste, or Hunger arable delectable





insipid voracious

Root in, ig, il, im: not vor: eat arable (adj.) suitable for growing crops “Increasing land development and environmental damage makes finding arable land more difficult than it was 50 years ago.” culinary (adj.) relating to cooking “Beth cajoled her roommate into taking take a culinary skills class with her in hope that their house would no longer be filled with smoke when her roommate cooked.” delectable (adj.) delicious “ ‘Your crab patties are delectable!’ the patron said, to the delight of the chef. ‘Can I have your recipe?’ ” gourmand (n.) someone fond of eating “I know how much Big Al enjoys being a gourmand, but he never exercises and I’m afraid he’s going to develop heart problems.” insatiable (adj.) incapable of being satisfied “Violet’s desire for porcelain figurines is insatiable. She has over 200 of them, and she is still searching for more.” insipid (adj.) lacking flavor or taste; dull “ ‘Ugh! This food is insipid,’ thought the restaurant critic as he chewed the rubbery shrimp. ‘This place will be lucky to get 2 stars.’ ” palatable (adj.) agreeable to the taste or sensibilities “ ‘I don’t care what the restaurant looks like,’ said Francis. ‘I’m starving. I just want the food to be palatable.’ ” voracious (adj.) unending hunger; insatiable “Violet’s brother, Samuel, also shared her thirst for knowledge. He was a voracious reader, particularly of books on history and science.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write three sentences, each one using a word in this section and a word in Chapter 6: Words Dealing with Caution or Uncertainty.





Chapter 10 Quiz: Words Dealing With Food, Taste, or Hunger Matching: Definitions 1. culinary

a. delicious

2. delectable

b. unending hunger; insatiable

3. insatiable

c. lacking flavor or taste; dull

4. insipid

d. relating to cooking

5. palatable

e. agreeable to the taste or sensibilities

6. voracious

f. incapable of being satisfied

Word Roots Flashback 7. co, com, con = _____________ 8. dis, dys, dif = _____________ Circle the Correct Word 9. The gourmand finds most food (insipid, palatable), even the foods his friends think are bland. 10. While the cooking class didn’t make Mark a master of (culinary, insatiable) arts, it did teach him how to make simple meals that were also appetizing. 11. It takes a truly (delectable, voracious) eater to complete the Sonny’s Steak House 70 oz. Steak Challenge. 12. When John bought the farm land, he didn’t care if it was (arable, insipid) because he planned to transform it into a housing development.

Chapter 11: Words Dealing With Happiness or Friendliness amiable












Root am, ami: love co, com, con: with, together greg: cloud, flock eu: well, good





amiable (adj.) friendly, kind “The townspeople were amiable to strangers, but at the same time, they were hesitant to offer personal details about themselves.” amicable (adj.) agreeable, showing good will “The two neighbors came to an amicable agreement to mow each other’s lawn when one of them went on vacation.” camaraderie (n.) brotherhood, group unity “Keith isn’t passionate about playing the trombone, but the camaraderie of the pep band made him look forward to the group’s practices.” congenial (adj.) having similar tastes or habits; a pleasant disposition “Anton and Sarah are a congenial couple; they share many interests like hiking, watching basketball, and going to the movies.” ecstatic (adj.) intensely happy “Emily was ecstatic to see her brother, who had been serving in the Army overseas for the past two years.” ebullient (adj.) extremely enthusiastic “Henry is ebullient about the prospect of achieving his lifelong dream—becoming a professional rodeo clown.” effervescent (adj.) bubbly, excited “The waitress has an effervescent personality that endears her to many of her customers.” euphoria (n.) the feeling of happiness or elation “After crossing the finish line to win the marathon, Jay’s fatigue washed away and he was overcome by euphoria.” facetious (adj.) humorous, not serious “Jack made a joke about Jill’s clumsiness, and was taken aback when she became angry. ‘Jill, calm down! I was just being facetious.’ ” gregarious (adj.) friendly, talkative, sociable “Some of Greg’s friends call him ‘Gregarious G’ because he strikes up a conversation with a stranger everywhere he goes.” jocular (adj.) given to joking; habitually jolly “Bernard is a good match for his jocular friend, Pete. Bernard is often serious and reserved, and Pete jokes around all the time, so they even each other out.” jubilant (adj.) extremely joyful, happy “On graduation day, Joe felt jubilant about the prospect of being able to sleep in and have fun for a few months before leaving for college.”





Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • For each of the following words, write down a name of a friend or classmate who best fits the definition: amicable, gregarious, jocular.

Chapter 11 Quiz: Words Dealing With Happiness or Friendliness Match the word with its general definition. Definitions can be used more than once. ___1. amiable

a. friendly/talkative

___2. amicable

b. humorous/joking

___3. ecstatic

c. very happy/excited

___4. ebullient ___5. effervescent ___6. euphoria ___7. facetious ___8. gregarious ___9. jocular ___10. jubilant Word Roots Flashback 11. in, ig, il, im = ____________ 12. vor = ____________ Circle the Correct Word 13. Tweedledee and Tweedledum are a (congenial, ebullient) pair. They both enjoy logic puzzles, reading, and singing. 14. Simone’s friends were surprised at her lack of (camaraderie, jubilation) when she won the lottery. She won $5,000,000 and acted like nothing special happened. 15. Dave’s wry humor makes it difficult to tell when he is being serious and when he is being (ecstatic, facetious).





Chapter 12: Words Dealing with Hatred or Evil abhor




enmity heinous






Root ab, a: away, from de: from, down, away dic, dict: speak mal: bad, badly vol: wish abhor (v.) to loathe “Melissa abhorred her fancy pink dress, but her mother forced her to wear it whenever they attended church.” animosity (n.) bitter hostility; open hatred “Ever since his father abandoned Steven and his mother, Steven has felt animosity toward his estranged father.” antipathy (n.) a strong feeling of dislike or aversion “Almost everyone has a food that inspires antipathy in them.” depravity (n.) wickedness; moral corruption “The depravity of the villain in the movie was too extreme to be believable. No one could murder his own family plus countless others and feel no remorse.” enmity (n.) intense, often mutual hatred “Many wars and regional conflicts are fueled by enmity held by various ethnic groups against each other.” heinous (adj.) wicked, reprehensible “Hitler’s crimes against the Jewish people and other minorities was heinous.” malediction (n.) a curse “Before the adventurer could escape, the witch put a malediction on him that would haunt him for the rest of his life.” malevolent (adj.) having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others “Jon’s parents worried about him. At times he was uncaring, even malevolent to those around him. It was disturbing to see in a child so young.” nefarious (adj.) extremely wicked or villainous; known for being wicked “Everyone in Oz also feared the Wicked Witch of the West’s cousin, the Nefarious Niece of the North.”





odious (adj.) contemptible; instilling hatred or intense displeasure “Some find the thought of eating raw oysters odious; others love them.” wrath (n.) vengeful anger; punishment “Although her name may sound unthreatening, the citizens of Oz know from experience they have good reason to fear the wrath of Silent Sally of the South.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Choose three words in this section and use each one in a sentence to describe something you despise.

Chapter 12 Quiz: Words Dealing With Hatred or Evil Matching: Definitions 1. abhor

a. wickedness; moral corruption

2. depravity

b. extremely wicked or villainous; known for being wicked

3. enmity

c. wicked, reprehensible

4. heinous

d. vengeful anger; punishment

5. malevolent

e. intense, often mutual hatred

6. nefarious

f. having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others

7. wrath

g. to loathe

Word Roots Flashback 8. _______________ = love 9. co, _______, ________= with, together 10. ______________ = cloud, flock 11. ______________ = well, good Circle the Correct Word 12. “Jonas wanted to break off his friendship with Darlene, but he feared her (malediction, wrath).” 13. “The princess found the thought of scrubbing floors all day (heinous, odious).” 14. “It is remarkable that Romeo and Juliet fell in love considering the (depravity, enmity) between their feuding families.” 15. “The palm reader claimed that if Roberto did not give her more money, she would put a/an (antipathy, malediction) on him.”





Cumulative Review 9-12 Match the word with the word group ___1. gourmand

a. Deception/Trickery

___2. beguile

b. Food/Taste/Hunger

___3. insipid

c. Happiness/Friendliness

___4. amiable

d. Hatred/Evil

___5. abhor ___6. veneer ___7. effervescent ___8. palatable ___9. voracious ___10. gregarious ___11. unctuous ___12. malevolent ___13. heinous ___14. jubilant ___15. dissemble ___16. malediction Underline the word root(s) in the word. Then write the word’s definition. 17. amicable ______________________________________________________________ 18. dissemble _____________________________________________________________ 19. malevolent ____________________________________________________________ 20. voracious _____________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer 21. Steven holds (animosity, jubilation) toward doctors ever since one of them used a (malediction, ruse) to poke him with a needle when he was a child. 22. An excellent meal sends a gourmand into a state of (euphoria, malevolence). 23. The (congeniality, depravity) of the villain to kidnap the little girl’s dog is truly (insipid, odious). 24. The defendant lied under oath when he made a/an (abhorrent, spurious) statement about his alibi during the night of the murder.





Chapter 13: Words Dealing With Intelligence or Knowledge acumen








perspicacious sagacity



Root ac, acr: sharp, sour cogn, gno: know peri: around spec, spic: look, see acumen (n.) sharpness of mind; shrewd judgment His natural-born acumen allowed him to beat opponents who have more experience with chess.” ascertain (v.) to discover with certainty “Sherlock Holmes explained his reasoning to Dr. Watson. ‘If we can ascertain the original owner of the painting, we will eventually be able to find the identity of the murderer.’ ” arcane (adj.) obscure, known only by a few “Consultants who are knowledgeable about arcane matters, such as China’s tax regulations for foreign oil companies, can charge a lot of money for their advice.” astute (adj.) clever intelligence; sharp perception “Jennifer is an astute businesswoman who has a knack for negotiating the best possible prices from her suppliers.” canny (adj.) shrewd; founded on common sense “Robert’s mother may not have gone to college, but her natural canniness proved to be more beneficial to her family than a formal education would have been.” cognizant (adj.) aware, mindful “Wang-Shi was cognizant that he had difficulty focusing for more than a few minutes ever since his daughter ran away with her boyfriend, but he could do nothing to help his concentration.” didactic (adj.) meant to teach “While fairy tales like Hansel and Gretel are entertaining, they are also didactic in that they teach children lessons such as, ‘Be wary of strangers’ and ‘Don’t wander too far from home.’ ” erudite (adj.) scholarly, learned “While it is obvious that the professor is erudite, his habit of talking to the floor makes it difficult for him to share his knowledge with his students.” esoteric (adj.) understood by only a select few “Quantum Physics is an esoteric field that seems inaccessible to non-scientists.”





ingenious (adj.) clever or inventive “The plane crash survivors might have died if one of them hadn’t figured out an ingenious way to covert rain water into fresh water by using a bucket, a sheet of plastic, and some rope.” perspicacious (adj.) having keen perception or judgment “Reginald considers his father a perspicacious man and often asks him for advice.” sagacity (n.) shrewdness, farsightedness “Thomas Edison proved his sagacity many times with his hundreds of inventions and keen business sense in marketing them.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • For each of the following words, write down a name of someone you admire who best epitomizes the word: astute, erudite, ingenious, sagacious.

Chapter 13 Quiz Matching: Definitions 1. acumen

a. sharpness of mind; shrewd judgment

2. arcane

b. scholarly, learned

3. didactic

c. obscure, known only by a few

4. erudite

d. meant to teach

5. ingenious

e. clever or inventive

Word Roots Flashback 6. dic, dic = _________________________ 7. mal = ____________________________ 8. vol = _____________________________ Shrewd or Not? Write “S” if the word’s meaning is similar to shrewd, write “D” if it is different. 9. ascertain ________________________ 10. astute _________________________ 11. canny _________________________ 12. cognizant ______________________ 13. esoteric ________________________ 14. perspicacious __________________ 15. sagacity _______________________ ™





Chapter 14: Words Dealing with Joining or Separating aggregate









Root co, com, con: with, together dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not greg: crowd, flock se: apart, away sem: seed, sow aggregate 1. (v.) to gather together 2. (n.) a total “The aggregate of her purchases over the weekend is $213.47, a bargain for a two-day vacation at a Florida resort.” cleave 1. (v.) to divide 2. (v.) to stick together firmly (Tricky SAT word alert: note that cleave has two opposite meanings.) “The chef cleaved the head of lettuce in half and tossed the pieces to his assistant.” “The frightened little girl cleaved herself to her mother’s leg.” coalesce (v.) to come together; to fuse “After staring at the math problem in frustration for hours, the lessons of the past monthly finally coalesced and the solution popped into his head.” confluence (n.) a gathering or meeting together at a juncture “The two streams met at a confluence before flowing into the lake.” linchpin (n.) something critical that holds separate parts together “Carol was the linchpin for her group of high school friends. Once she transferred to a different high school, her friends lost contact with each other.” segregate (v.) to separate others from a group “After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, the federal government segregated hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans from their communities and forced them to live in internment camps.” yoke (v.) to join or link securely “The farmer expertly yoked the cart to his mule.”





Mini-Group: Words Dealing With Creating and Spreading disseminate (v.) to spread widely “The soccer club, desperate for new members, disseminated flyers advertising its next meeting all over campus.” engender (v.) to bring about, create, generate “The teacher engendered creativity in her students by giving them half-an-hour each Friday to write and illustrate a fairy tale based on the lives of themselves and their families.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write three sentences using a vocabulary word in this section and a word in the previous section.

Chapter 14 Quiz Write the Word in the Blank to come together; to fuse


something that holds separate parts together

2. ________________________________

to spread widely

3. ________________________________

(v.) to gather together; (n.) a total

4. ________________________________

to bring about, create, generate

5. ________________________________

to join or link securely

6. ________________________________

Word Roots Flashback 7. ac, acr = ________________________ 8. cogn, gno = _____________________ 9. peri = ___________________________ 10. spec, spic = ____________________ Circle the Correct Word 11. News about the police’s arrest of the Homecoming King (disseminated, engendered) quickly around school. 12. Mrs. Krobowsky (segregated, yoked) the boys and the girls in her class to keep them from fighting. 13. The annual International Physicist Conference was a (confluence, linchpin) of the brightest minds in science. 14. Mary hoped her love and affection would (coalesce, engender) good behaviors in the abandoned puppy.





Chapter 15: Words Dealing with Laziness or Lack of Energy dormant







torpid wallow



Root sed, sid: sit somn: sleep torp: stiff, numb dormant (adj.) sleeping, temporarily inactive “Bears become dormant in the winter to conserve energy.” flag (v.) to decline in energy or strength “Cynthia’s energy flags in the afternoon and she can barely concentrate for the last two hours of the workday.” indolent (adj.) lazy, not wanting to work “Every weekend, Lucy claims she is too busy to help clean the house, but her roommate thinks that she is just being indolent.” languid (adj.) lacking energy, slow “After staying up all night and skipping breakfast, Winston felt languid and could barely trudge to his next class.” lethargic (adj.) having little or no energy; unmotivated to move “The humidity and 90 degree heat made everyone without air conditioning feel lethargic.” repose (n.) relaxation “Tyrone entered a state of repose after he finished his last exam.” sedentary (adj.) related to sitting around a lot “Homer Simpson is a sedentary person. He is often sitting on the couch, watching TV.” somnolent (adj.) drowsy, sleepy “The sandman sprinkled his dust on the child’s forehead. The child because somnolent and quickly fell asleep.” stagnate (v.) to be inactive, not develop, not flow “As the lava cooled, it slowed down and eventually became stagnate.” torpid (adj.) sluggish; unable to move “After running around deliriously in the heat, the Golden Retriever became torpid and unwilling to play fetch anymore.”





wallow (v.) to indulge oneself excessively “Ana wallowed in the mud bath for hours, only leaving because she had an appointment for a massage.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write three sentences using a vocabulary word in this section and a word from Chapter 10: Words Dealing with Food, Taste, or Hunger.

Chapter 15 Quiz Matching: Definitions Match the word with its general definition. A few of the words have two matches. ___1. dormant

a. drowsy/sleepy

___2. flag

b. sluggish/inactive

___3. indolent

c. lazy/relaxation

___4. languid ___5. lethargic ___6. repose ___7. sedentary ___8. somnolent ___9. stagnate ___10. torpid ___11. wallow Word Roots Flashback 12. greg = ______________________ 13. se = ________________________ 14. sem = ______________________ Circle the Correct Word 15. Once the invigorating effect of the coffee dissipated, Thomas’s energy (flagged, wallowed) and he felt tired. 16. Although they are twins, Mark and Andy chose two markedly different career paths. Mark is a construction worker who is soaked with sweat by the end of the day while Andy, an office manager, has a/an (indolent, sedentary) job.





Chapter 16: Words Dealing with Poor Character effrontery












Root pet: seek, go towards effrontery (n.) brazenly bold or rude “After an American hugged the Queen of England instead of shaking her hand, many in the British press chided the American for her effrontery.” haughty (adj.) overly proud of oneself and disdainful of others “Tamriel’s haughty attitude irked her neighbors, who felt they were at least as good as she was.” insolent (adj.) insultingly rude “Calling the President ‘Dude’ would be considered by many people to be insolent.” irascible (adj.) quick to anger “His irascible nature made his friends wary to bring up certain subjects with him.” licentious (adj.) displaying a lack of moral or legal restraints “The lawyer’s willingness to be licentious when defending his clients made him detested by his colleagues, and admired by his clients who were desperate to avoid jail time at any cost.” mendacious (adj.) having a lying, false character “The Senator was so charming that few voters considered him mendacious in spite of the fact that he was caught lying several times.” mercurial (adj.) temperamental, quick to change “Samantha’s mercurial temperament made him unpredictable and difficult to like.” petulant (adj.) unreasonably irritable “The petulant child cried all the way home because her mother wouldn’t buy her a doll at the department store.” supercilious (adj.) scornful; looking down on others “After he won the lottery, he alienated most of his friends by adopting a supercilious attitude towards anyone with less money than he.” truculent (adj.) disposed to fight “Bruno’s truculent nature caused him to be suspended several times from school for fighting.” vindictive (adj.) vengeful, disposed to seeking revenge “Sometimes it is just easier to apologize to a vindictive person, as there is no telling how far he or she will go to extract revenge for even a small slight.”





wanton (adj.) immoral, lustful; malicious, inhumane “The mayor’s wife wanted him to remove the nude statue in the park because she felt it encouraged wanton thoughts in the people that saw it.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Rank the words in order of most to least appealing traits. Then look up antonyms for the first five traits and learn their definitions. • Look up the definition for “pugnacious.” Which word in this chapter is its definition closest to?

Chapter 16 Quiz Matching: Definitions 1. insolent

a. displaying a lack of moral or legal restraints

2. licentious

b. unreasonably irritable

3. mercurial

c. disposed to fight

4. petulant

d. insultingly rude

5. truculent

e. scornful; looking down on others

6. supercilious

f. temperamental, quick to change

7. vindictive

g. vengeful, disposed to seeking revenge

Word Roots Flashback 8. _______ = sit 9. _______ = sleep 10. _______ = stiff, numb Synonym or Not? Write “S” if the words have similar definitions, “D” if they have different definitions. 11. haughty

supercilious _______

12. truculent

wanton _______

13. petulant

vindictive _______

14. irascible mercurial _______ 15. petulant

supercilious _______

16. insolent

licentious _______





Cumulative Review: Chapters 13-16 Match the word with the word group ___1. acumen

a. Intelligence or Knowledge

___2. aggregate

b. Joining or Separating

___3. indolent

c. Laziness or Lack of Energy

___4. segregate

d. Poor Character

___5. haughty ___6. irascible ___7. perspicacious ___8. confluence ___9. mercurial ___10. ingenious ___11. languid ___12. wanton ___13. arcane ___14. somnolent ___15. yoke ___16. stagnate Underline the word root(s). Then write the word’s definition. 17. cognizant _____________________________________________________________ 18. disseminate ___________________________________________________________ 19. segregate _____________________________________________________________ 20. somnolent _____________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer 21. “The doctor tried to (ascertain, engender) why the normally energetic Ms. Murphy has been feeling so (insolent, lethargic) lately.” 22. “Missy’s (canny, supercilious) attitude made her disliked by most of her down-to-earth neighbors.” 23. “ ‘What (confluence, effrontery)!’ cried the Countess, as the carpet installer rested his muddy shoes on her couch and began watching TV.” 24. “Ya wanna fight?” snapped the (mendacious, truculent) bully.





Chapter 17: Words Relating to Religion or Spirituality apotheosis










Roots a, an: not, without co, com, con: with, together de: from, down, away dei, div: God, godly sacr, sanct: holy theo, the: God, godly apotheosis (n.) 1. elevation to divine status. 2. (n.) a glorified example “One hundred years after her death, the Pope highlighted the formerly unknown nun as an apotheosis of kindness and charity.” atheist (n.) one who does not believe in God “Although Essan is a devout Muslim, he enjoys arguing about the existence of God with his neighbor, Bob, who is an atheist.” consecrate (v.) to dedicate something to a holy purpose “When the church was finished, the minister gathered the congregation to consecrate their new home.” desecrate (v.) to violate the sacredness of a thing or place “Mildred gasped when she read in the newspaper that someone had desecrated the statue of the Virgin Mary in the park nearby.” divine (adj.) godly, exceedingly wonderful “ ‘These chocolate-covered strawberries are divine!’ exclaimed Evelyn.” ethereal (adj.) lacking material substance; celestial, heavenly “Renee had a dream that she was visited by an angel. At least, she thought it was an angel. Its ethereal form was difficult to make out, but she felt a warm, peaceful glow from its presence.” hallow (v.) revere, consecrate “The priest said solemnly, ‘In the name of our Lord, we hallow this ground in memory of our dead.’ ” rectitude (n.) extreme morality “Jim’s impression of his neighbor as a man of great rectitude was shattered when his neighbor invited him over for some drinks and to watch a movie he illegally copied with a DVD burner.” sacrosanct (adj.) holy, above criticism “Some Catholics think that the Pope should be sacrosanct, and other Catholics think it is fair to criticize him.”





sanctimonious (adj.) giving a hypocritical appearance of piety “Robin placed religious-themed bumper stickers on her car and chided her friends for not going to church more often, but in truth, she was being sanctimonious as she rarely practiced the teachings of her religion and prayed infrequently.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Lincoln uses one of these words twice in his 1863 Gettysburg address. Which one do you think it is? You can find the text of Lincoln’s speech on the Internet or in an encyclopedia.

Chapter 17 Quiz Matching: Definitions 1. apotheosis

a. godly, exceedingly wonderful

2. atheist

b. one who does not believe in God

3. consecrate

c. celestial, heavenly; lacking material substance

4. divine

d. giving a hypocritical appearance of piety

5. ethereal

e. (1.) elevation to divine status. (2.) a glorified example

6. rectitude

f. extreme morality

7. sacrosanct

g. to dedicate something to a holy purpose

8. sanctimonious

h. holy, above criticism

Similar, Opposite, or Different? Write “S” if the two words have similar definitions, “O” if they have opposite definitions, and “D” if neither apply (different definitions). 9. apotheosis, atheist _________ 10. consecrate, desecrate _________ 11. sacrosanct, sanctimonious _________ 12. consecrate, hallow _________ 13. apotheosis, rectitude _________





Chapter 18: Words Dealing With Shyness or Holding Back aloof












Roots dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not in, ig, il, im: not quie: quiet tacit, tic: silent aloof (adj.) reserved, distant “Cheryl’s coworkers found her aloof at first. She rarely greeted them in the hallways or joined them for lunch. Once they got to know her, though, they realized she is just shy around new people.” ascetic (adj.) practicing restraint as self-discipline “Many monks like an ascetic lifestyle, fasting for months and rejecting conveniences like hot showers and TV.” demure (adj.) modest, quiet “The demure little girl said nothing except ‘Thank you’ and ‘Yes, please’ until one of the grownups asked her about her doll.” diffident (adj.) shy due to lack of confidence “Charles wanted to introduce himself to people in his dorm, but he was diffident and thought no one would like him.” impassive (adj.) devoid of external emotion; expressionless “After Lara told her husband she wanted a divorce, he stood there, impassive, until the shock passed by and he realized what she’d said.” insular (adj.) isolated from others; related to living on an island “Jake’s insular world view makes it difficult for him to put himself in other people’s shoes.” quiescent (adj.) quiet; still; at rest “The woods were eerily quiescent. Not even the whistle of a single bird could be heard.” reticent (adj.) reserved or restrained, especially in offering personal information “Some people will share their life story with a stranger. Other people are reticent about their personal lives, even with their close friends.” staid (adj.) serious and self-restrained, “tight-laced” “The school teacher appeared staid to her students, but outside the classroom, she felt comfortable letting her vivacious personality out.”





stoic (adj.) seemingly unaffected by any passions or feelings “Murphy was stoic during his father’s funeral. His response concerned his friends, who knew that they were close.” taciturn (adj.) habitually disinclined to talk “The prosecutor had trouble getting useful testimony out of the taciturn witness.” temperance (n.) moderation and self-restraint in action or thought “Steven’s philosophy was to live with temperance. Enjoy the pleasures of life, but do not overindulge in them.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • For three of these words, write down the word, then the name of someone you know that embodies the word. • For the three words you chose above, use a thesaurus to find an antonym for the word. Then write the name of a person that symbolizes the antonym.

Chapter 18 Quiz Matching: Definitions ___1. aloof

a. devoid of external emotion; expressionless

___2. demure

b. reserved or restrained, especially in offering personal information

___3. diffident

c. habitually disinclined to talk

___4. impassive

d. isolated from others; related to living on an island

___5. insular

e. reserved, distant

___6. reticent

f. moderation and self-restraint in action or thought

___7. taciturn

g. shy due to lack of confidence

___8. temperance

h. modest, quiet

Word Roots Flashback 9. co, com, con = ___________________ 10. dei, div = _______________________ 11. sacr, sanct = ____________________ 12. theo, the = ______________________





Synonym or Not? Write “S” if the words have similar definitions, “D” if they have different definitions. 13. demure, quiescent _____ 14. impassive, stoic _____ 15. aloof, insular _____ 16. reticent, staid _____ 17. asceticism, temperance _____ 18. demure, stoic _____

Chapter 19: Words Dealing With Size or Grandeur august










Roots co, com, con: with, together august (adj.) majestic “The pyramids in Egypt ruins are truly august.” behemoth (n.) something of great power or size “The alien invaders in War of the Worlds were behemoths. They towered over 100 feet and could level a city in minutes with their lasers and metal arms.” commensurate (adj.) corresponding in size or amount “Many of the job listings Andrew read promised that salary would be commensurate with experience.” commodious (adj.) spacious “The hotel’s penthouse was commodious. It contained a king-sized bed, full-sized kitchen, two bathrooms, and a large balcony.” diminutive (adj.) small “Stars appear diminutive in the night sky, but they are actually hundreds of times the size of the Earth.” grandiose (adj.) magnificent; absurdly exaggerated or imaginative “Meredith found her best friend’s plans to own a multi-million dollar company and a private jet before turning 21 to be grandiose.” palatial (adj.) relating to a palace, or suitable for a palace “The community center’s new pool was palatial. It had twenty-four swimming lanes, a large wading area, and two water slides.”





sublime (adj.) grand, exalted, awe-inspiring “When the sun set behind the church, the light poured through the stain-glass windows and filled the church with a sublime radiance.” truncate (v.) to shorten by cutting off “After the previous speaker rambled for ten minutes past his allotted time, George had to truncate his speech so they could finish on schedule.” wane (v.) to decrease in size, amount, or intensity “The flashlight waned for several minutes before finally dying out.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • What is the difference between august and grandiose? • What is the difference between truncate and wane?

Chapter 19 Quiz Matching: Definitions ___1. august

a. spacious

___2. commodious

b. small

___3. diminutive

c. majestic

___4. sublime

d. to decrease in size, amount, or intensity

___5. truncate

e. grand, exalted, awe-inspiring

___6. wane

f. to shorten by cutting off

Word Roots Flashback 7. in, ig, il, im = ___________________ 8. quie = _________________________ 9. tacit, tic = ______________________ Circle the Correct Word 10. “As (august, diminutive) as the Roman Coliseum is today, it must have been truly magnificent when it was undamaged thousands of years ago.” 11. “The nefarious scientist had (grandiose, palatial) plans to conquer the entire world.” 12. “Evelyn (truncated, waned) the branches of her tree with a hedge clipper because they were hanging in her neighbor’s yard.” 13. “April’s new apartment was (commensurate, commodious) enough for her to fit all her belongings.” ™





Chapter 20: Words Dealing with Speech or Language acrimonious bombastic













Roots loc, log, loqu: speech, thought luc, lum: light tacit, tic: silent acrimonious (adj.) bitter and sharp in language or tone “The Presidential debate was acrimonious as both candidates were strong-minded people with starkly different views on the world.” bombastic (adj.) pompous, unnecessarily showy language or style “Greg felt that Desiree would find it much easier to make friends if she would stop trying to impress new people by acting bombastic.” colloquial (adj.) characterized by the use of informal language “The judge spoke formally while serving on the bench, but in private had a colloquial relationship with his staff.” eloquent (adj.) articulate, moving “Although she was 90, Nina’s grandmother gave an eloquent toast at Nina’s wedding that made her cry.” garrulous (adj.) talkative “Mike is so garrulous that sometimes his friends can’t get a word in for minutes.” harangue 1. (n.) a ranting speech 2. (v.) to rant “Before being sentenced to death, the terrorist gave an invective-laced harangue against the policies of the U.S. government.” inarticulate (adj.) incapable of expressing oneself through speech “Carol was rendered inarticulate for a few hours after getting her wisdom teeth removed.” lucid (adj.) clear, easily understandable “The lecturer’s lucid explanation of quantum physics helped the audience understand the complicated topic.” laudatory (adj.) expressing admiration or praise “Krystal blushed at the company award banquet when her supervisor made a laudatory speech in her honor.” platitude (n.) an uninspired remark, cliché “Platitudes provide little comfort to those who are suffering.” polemic (n.) an aggressive argument against a specific opinion “The talk show host’s polemics against taffy spurred a nationwide movement to ban taffy eating by children and the elderly.”





promulgate (v.) to proclaim publicly, often by official announcement “The USDA promulgated the revised food pyramid through a web site and a large marketing campaign.” tacit (adj.) expressed without words “Bruce has a tacit understanding with his neighbor not to mow his lawn before 10:00 A.M. on the weekend.” tirade (n.) a rant, a long speech marked by harsh or biting language “When I ate one of my roommate’s apples, he went on a tirade about how it was a sign of the downfall of civilization.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Find two synonyms for each of these words: bombastic, harangue, lucid.

Chapter 20 Quiz Matching: Definitions ___1. acrimonious

a. characterized by the use of informal language

___2. bombastic

b. articulate, moving

___3. colloquial

c. talkative

___4. eloquent

d. bitter and sharp in language or tone

___5. garrulous

e. an uninspired remark, cliché

___6. harangue

f. clear, easily understandable

___7. lucid

g. expressed without words

___8. platitude

h. to proclaim publicly, often by official announcement

___9. promulgate

i. pompous, unnecessarily showy language or style

___10. tacit

j. 1. (n.) a ranting speech 2. (v.) to rant

Identify the Example 11. “Hey, man, what’s up?” “Not much. Just chillin ” (colloquial, garrulous) 12. “’I ask you, how could anyone not be impressed by the grandiose extent of my palatial abode?’” (bombastic, tacit) 13. “Three cheers to the winner!” (laudatory, polemic) 14. “Mmrm irm is the smprm?” (inarticulate, tacit)





Cumulative Review: Chapters 17-20 Match the word with the word group, words can be used more than once. ___1. aloof

a. Religion/Spirituality

___2. commensurate

b. Shyness/Holding Back

___3. consecrate

c. Size/Grandeur

___4. acrimonious

d. Speech/Language

___5. tirade ___6. diffident ___7. sublime ___8. sacrosanct ___9. garrulous ___10. quiescent ___11. rectitude ___12. stoic ___13. commodious ___14. wane ___15. platitude ___16. ethereal Underline the word(s) roots. Then write the word’s definition. 17. apotheosis __________________________________________________________ 18. colloquial ____________________________________________________________ 19. diffident _____________________________________________________________ 20. quiescent ___________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer 21. “Melissa wondered if Joan was aloof or just (diffident, garrulous).” 22. “The community was split into two groups: one of them contended the (diminutive, grandiose) MegaCorp would drive out small businesses in their community, while the other group dismissed their claim as a/an (apotheosis, polemic) designed to scare people.” 23. “Mitch’s relationship with his parents became strained when he criticized a topic at dinner that his parents considered (reticent, sacrosanct).” 24. “Kendra’s (garrulous, stoic) personality lets her feel comfortable engaging anyone in conversation.”





Chapter 21: Words Dealing with Time or History anachronistic













Roots ante, ant: before chron: time ex, e: out, out of pre: before trans: across, over, through anachronistic (adj.) being chronologically out of place “The sense of realism in the movie about Shakespeare’s life was ruined by several anachronistic elements, such as one of the actors briefly showing a digital watch.” antecedent (n.) something that came before “Bob wished the antecedent for movies wasn’t a series of annoying commercials.” antediluvian (adj.) ancient “It was clear the wind-up clock was antediluvian once the dust was wiped from it. It was hand-made and the inscription on the clock was written in an archaic form of English.” chronological (adj.) arranged in order of time “It is difficult to arrange events that happened thousands of years ago chronologically. The start and end dates for these events is often missing or questionable.” dilatory (adj.) causing or intending to delay “Nikita was annoyed at her boyfriend for showing up late yesterday, so she was dilatory in getting ready for thier date while he waited downstairs.” ephemeral (adj.) short-lived, fleeting “The euphoria of winning their first play-off series was ephemeral once they learned their next opponent would be the undefeated Boston Bone Crushers.” expedite (v.) to speed up the progress of “Electronically filing a tax return can expedite receiving a refund.” hiatus (n.) a break or gap in space, time, or continuity “There was a hiatus in the construction of the new ball park when it rained for three days in a row.” prescient (adj.) to have foreknowledge of events “Spider-Man has a prescient ability to sense when he is in danger.”





portent (n.) an omen “Aaron’s mother-in-law thought it was a bad portent for it to rain at the wedding. Then again, she didn’t want Aaron to marry her daughter.” primeval (adj.) original, ancient “Archaeologists found primeval cutting tools that they suspect were the first tools used by homo sapiens.” quotidian (adj.) recurring daily; commonplace “Exercise is more beneficial if it is quotidian rather than just once a week.” transient (adj.) passing through briefly “In some places, the seasons are transient, changing almost every month.” Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Look up the definitions for the following words: archaic, contemporaneous, evanescent. Write down the definition in your vocabulary notebook, and then write a sentence using each of the words.

Chapter 21 Quiz Matching: Definitions ___1. anachronistic

a. Being chronologically out of place

___2. antediluvian

b. Causing or intending to delay

___3. dilatory

c. A break or gap in space, time, or continuity

___4. expedite

d. Recurring daily; commonplace

___5. hiatus

e. Ancient

___6. prescient

f. Passing through briefly

___7. quotidian

g. To have foreknowledge of events

___8. transient

h. To speed up the progress of

Synonym or Not? Write “S” if the two words have similar definitions, “D” if they have different definitions. 9. antediluvian, primeval __________ 10. dilatory, transient ____________





Used Correctly? Write “Y” if the word is used correctly, “N” if it isn’t. 11. “The circus is a transient business, moving from town to town every few weeks.” ________ 12. “Marshall was often called by reporters for quotes because he is such a quotidian person.” _______ 13. “After working non-stop on his Ph.D. thesis for the past three months, the grad student took a hiatus for a week and went on a vacation.” ________

Chapter 22A: Words Dealing with Wealth, Greed, or Envy avarice







Roots ad, a: towards fac, fea, fect, fic, fi: make, do flu, flux: flow ex, e: out, out of affluent (adj.) wealthy; plentiful; flowing freely “The Howells, an affluent couple, had more difficulty adjusting to the lack of amenities on the deserted island than did the rest of the castaways.” avarice (n.) greed “Mr. Burns’ avarice once motivated him to erect a large structure to block the sun so the townspeople would be forced to use more power from his nuclear plant.” benefactor (n.) one who gives aid or money “Jillian was shocked to learn that a mysterious benefactor was going to pay for her entire college education.” cupidity (adj.) excessive desire, especially for money “A common downfall of criminals, at least in the movies, is their cupidity for money.” covet (v.) to desire longingly “Martha coveted the expensive, glass figurines of her neighbor, Laura.” exorbitant (adj.) unreasonably excessive especially when related to wealth or price “ ‘$150 for a glass of wine! These prices are exorbitant,’ exclaimed Tom when he opened the menu.” opulent (adj.) richly abundant; showing great wealth “Red marble Grecian columns lined the walkway to the opulent mansion “





Chapter 22B: Words Relating to Poverty and Destitution austere









austere (adj.) strict, unadorned “Tom’s room was austere. It only contained the bare necessities: a bed, a desk, and a small bookshelf.” bereft (adj.) devoid of, without “The homeless suffer from many hardships; they are often bereft of shelter and food. “ dearth (n.) a scarcity “Antone complained to anyone who would listen about the dearth of intelligent science fiction movies.” derelict (adj.) abandoned, run-down “The city finally condemned the derelict house that had become overgrown with ivy and weeds over the years.” destitute (adj.) having nothing; in poverty “Most of the graduate students teaching Deepa’s college classes appeared destitute. They wore ratty clothes and had pallid complexions that suggested malnutrition. She wondered if she could trade them a sandwich for a better grade.” desolate (adj.) deserted; lifeless “The desolation that marks most of the Sahara desert also gives it an eerie beauty.” emaciated (adj.) overly thin, especially due to lack of food “It’s a mystery to some why emaciated models are considered the pinnacle of beauty.” indigent (adj.) very poor “Some of the indigent people in Mexico try to cross into the United States illegally to find work and escape poverty.” privation (n.) lacking basic necessities; the state of being deprived “The campsite was in a state of privation, lacking showers and toilets, but Greg and Linda were willing to live without such conveniences for a few days.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write five sentences, each one using a word from 22A and a word from 22B.





Chapter 22 Quiz Enter the Correct Word in the Blank affluent

austere avarice





derelict covet destitute

1. _______to desire longingly 2. _______wealthy; plentiful; flowing freely 3. _______greed 4. _______strict, unadorned 5. _______richly abundant; showing great wealth 6. _______one who gives aid or money 7 ._______having nothing; in poverty 8. _______abandoned, run-down 9. _______overly thin, especially due to lack of food 10._______excessive desire, especially for money Word Roots Flashback 11. chron = _______ 12. ex, e = _______ 13. pre = _______ 14. trans = _______

Chapter 23A: The Fun Person at the Party convivial






Roots co, com, con: with, together per: through, intensive, throughout viv, vit: life abandon 1. (n.) total lack of inhibition 2. (v.) to give up with the intent of never reclaiming “Vivian was going to be swamped with work the next three months, so she partied that night with abandon.”





convivial (adj.) outgoing and festive, especially at social gatherings “Greg’s convivial nature usually makes him the life of the party.” enthrall (v.) to charm, hold spellbound “The former Navy SEAL enthralled the crowd with stories of his adventures and brushes with death.” irreverence (n.) mischievous disrespect “A necessary quality for a satirist is irreverence. One needs to be willing to mock sacred beliefs and institutions to make a humorous point.” winsome (adj.) charming, often in a childlike way “The young boy had a winsome manner to him that make him instantly likable.” vivacious (adj.) animated; lively “Tita wasn’t planning on going on a cruise, but her friend was so vivacious when she was describing her trip that she began to consider going on one.”

Chapter 23B: The Boring Person at the Party banal





apathetic (adj.) lacking interest or concern “The teacher had a hard time motivating herself to be lively as most of her students were apathetic about learning.” banal (adj.) overly commonplace or trite, especially in relation to language “The Hollywood executive felt like tearing his hair out if he read one more script loaded with banal language and a clichéd plot.” dour (adj.) stern, joyless “The doorman’s dour personality reduced the number of tips he received.” perfunctory (adj.) done routinely and with little interest or enthusiasm “Hicham could tell the customer service representative wasn’t going to be interested in helping him from the perfunctory way that she answered the phone.” vapid (adj.) lacking liveliness or interest, dull “Lauren tried striking up a conversation with her new coworker, Bob, but she found him vapid and boring to talk to.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Match four of the above words with people you know or have met recently.





Chapter 23 Quiz Matching: Definitions ___1. apathetic

a. Outgoing and festive, especially at social gatherings

___2. banal

b. Stern, joyless

___3. convivial

c. Mischievous disrespect

___4. dour

d. Overly commonplace or trite, especially in relation to language

___5. enthrall

e. Animated; lively

___6. irreverence

f. To charm, hold spellbound

___7. perfunctory

g. Done routinely and with little interest or enthusiasm

___8. vivacious

h. Lacking interest or concern

Word Roots Flashback 9. ____, a = towards 10. _____, ______, ____, fic, fi = make, do 11. _____, ____ = flow 12. _____, e = out, out of Boring or Fun? Write “B” if the word best describes a boring person, “F” if it best describes a fun person. 13. banal _______ 14. vivacious_______ 15. dour _______ 16. vapid_______ 17. abandon _______

Chapter 24A: Words Dealing with Forgiveness or Mercy atone






Roots ab, a: away, from co, com, con: with, together ex, e: out, out of





absolve (v.) to free from blame, guilt, or sin “On his deathbed, the convict asked the priest to absolve him of his crimes.” atone (v.) to repent, make amends “Marcel atoned for injuring a woman while driving drunk by devoting his life to preventing alcohol abuse.” clemency (n.) a merciful act “Since it was Lindsey’s first traffic violation, the judge granted her clemency and let her go with a warning.” condone (v.) to overlook or forgive an offense “Condoning a friend’s actions can be harmful in the long run because it tells the friend he or she can repeat the action without a negative consequence.” contrite (adj.) feeling deep regret for one’s actions “Robert felt contrite about spending little time with his children while they were growing up.” exonerate (v.) to clear from guilt or blame “After the real killer was captured, Samuel was exonerated and released from jail.” repentant (adj.) guilty, remorseful “At the press conference announcing his resignation, the mayor said, “I truly feel repentant for my actions and for violating the trust of the people that elected me.”

Chapter 24B: Words Dealing With Sadness dirge






despondent (adj.) feeling depressed, hopeless “After a tornado destroyed her house and killed her cat, Beth felt despondent and unwilling to live.” dirge (n.) a mournful song “The dirge the elves sang about Gandalf’s death moved the hobbits’ hearts, even though they couldn’t understand the words.” elegy (n.) a speech given in honor of a dead person “It was difficult for Miriam to give an elegy for her mother, but afterwards many people told her it was a fitting tribute.” lugubrious (adj.) mournful or gloomy, often exaggeratedly so “Peter gets lugubrious every time he has to take an important test. His friends find his melodramatic antics comical, although they are kind enough not to make fun of him to his face.” morose (adj.) gloomy, sullen “A morose mood came over the bar crowd when their team lost the championship by fumbling the ball in the last minute of the game.”





wistful (adj.) yearning; musing upon sad things “Peter was wistful for his childhood, when he felt life was simpler and he was happy.”

Boost Your Score • Underline word roots. • Write four sentences, with each one containing a word from 24A and a word from 24B. • Review Chapter 11: Words Dealing with Happiness or Friendliness. For three of the words in 24B, find an antonym for it in Chapter 11.

Chapter 24 Quiz Matching: Definitions ___1. atone

a. Feeling depressed, hopeless

___2. clemency

b. Feeling deep regret for one’s actions

___3. contrite

c. A speech given in honor of a dead person

___4. despondent

d. Mournful or gloomy, often exaggeratedly so

___5. elegy

e. To repent, make amends

___6. lugubrious

f. Guilty, remorseful

___7. repentant

g. A merciful act

___8. wistful

h. Yearning; musing upon sad things

Guilt or Sadness? Write “G” if the word relates to guilt, “S” if it relates to sadness, or “N” for neither. 9. despondent ______ 10. morose _______ 11. repentant ______ 12. clemency ______ 13. contrite ______ 14. lugubrious _______





Cumulative Review: Chapters 21-24 Match the word with the word group ___1. anachronistic

a. Time/History

___2. avarice

b. Wealth/Greed/Envy

___3. cupidity

c. Poverty/Destitution

___4. dilatory ___5. destitute ___6. prescient ___7. indigent ___8. portent ___9. quotidian ___10. bereft ___11. morose

a. Fun person

___12. absolve

b. Boring person

___13. irreverence

c. Forgiveness/Mercy

___14. apathetic

d. Sadness

___15. despondent ___16. exonerate ___17. vapid ___18. convivial ___19. wistful ___20. repentant Circle the Correct Answer 21. “Carl asked why Alison is feeling (convivial, morose). She said it is because she had a (indigent, prescient) feeling that someone she loves is going to die soon.” 22. “The (destitute, opulent) party had life-size statues made of sorbet that were later served in china bowls.” 23. “The convict felt (contrite, dilatory) for the crimes he committed.” 24. “Watching the teenagers party with (abandon, dourness) made the elderly man (lugubrious, wistful) for the fun times he had as a teenager.”





Further Study: Words With Dual Meanings abandon

1. (n.) total lack of inhibition 2. (v.) to give up with the intent of never reclaiming


1. (v.) to gather together 2. (n.) a total


1. (n.) a formal ban or curse 2. (n.) one who is greatly detested


1. (v.) to seize territory or space 2. (n.) a room attached to a larger room


1. (v.) to seize, arrest 2. (v.) to perceive or understand


1. (n.) a piece of cloth on which an artist paints 2. (v.) to cover, inspect


1. (v.) to divide 2. (v.) to stick together


(v.) 1. to postpone 2. to yield to another’s wisdom


1. (n.) the decorative front wall of a building 2. (n.) a deceptive appearance or attitude


1. (adj.) easy 2. (adj.) superficial, insincere


1. (adj.) necessary, important 2. (n.) a command or order


(n.) 1. a swamp 2. something that confuses or overwhelms


1. (adj.) unprincipled, lacking in morals 2. (v.) to condemn


1. (adj.) optimistic 2. of the color of blood





Further Study: Mini-Groups If you have time, look up these words in a collegiate-level dictionary and write the definitions in your vocabulary notebook. The basic definitions are highlighted, but the words have shades of meaning that are necessary to know if you want to use them correctly. Loud


boisterous (adj.)

aspersion (n.)

strident (adj.)

defamatory (adj.)

vociferous (adj.)

pejorative (adj.)



copious (adj.)

brazen (adj.)

plethora (n.)

brusque (adj.)

profuse (adj.)

impertinent (adj.)

surfeit (adj.) Intense Praise A Tiny Amount

adulation (n.)

modicum (n.)

approbation (n.)

paucity (adj.)

exalt (v.)

pittance (n.)

extol (v.)


To Reduce

derivative (adj.)

abate (v.)

hackneyed (adj.)

atrophy (v.)

trite (adj.)

abridge (v.) corrode (v.)

Best Example

expurgate (v.)

archetypal (adj.) epitome (n.)


paradigm (n.)

clandestine (adj.)

paragon (n.)

covert (adj.) surreptitious (adj.)

Harmful baleful (adj.) deleterious (adj.) grievous (adj.) ™





Answer Keys Chapter 1 Quiz

1. e

1. d

2. d

2. a

3. b

3. c

4. c

4. b

5. a

5. e

6. good, well

6. away, from

7. in, into

7. with, together

8. not

8. out, out of

9. great

9. uncanny

10. love

10. pathology

11. feel, suffer

11. eclectic

12. shake, timid

12. aberration

13. wish 14. beseeched

Chapter 2 Quiz

15. cogent

1. a

16. debunked

2. f 3. d

Chapter 4 Quiz

4. e

1. a

5. b

2. d

6. c

3. e

7. not, without

4. b

8. away, from

5. c

9. benevolent

6. f

10. magnanimous

7. with, together

11. deft

8. to know

12. alacrity

9. from, away, down 10. placated 11. panacea 12. respite

Chapter 3 Quiz ™





Answer Keys Cumulative Review: Chapters 1-4

Chapter 5 Quiz

Match the word with the word group

2. a

1. d

3. d

2. c

4. b

3. b

5. f

4. c

6. e

5. a

7. love

6. b

8. all

7. a

9. succinct

8. d

10. circumlocution

9. c

11. laconic

10. b

12. pithy

1. c

11. d 12. a 13. atypical — not typical

Chapter 6 Quiz 1. d

14. in trep id — fearless, unshakable

2. c

15. cogent — logically convincing

3. a

16. panacea — a cure-all

4. e

17. eccentric

5. f

18. intrepid

6. n

19. coerced

7. around

20. devious

8. speech, thought 9. amorphous 10. dubious 11. vacillating 12. equivocal





Answer Keys Chapter 7 Quiz

14. decried

1. d

15. denigrating

2. f

16. derided

3. a 4. b

Chapters 5-8 Review

5. c

1. b

6. e

2. d

7. g

3. c

8. both

4. c

9. around

5. a

10. equivocal

6. b

11. shape

7. a

12. around, look

8. c

13. timorous

9. d

14. servile

10. a

15. punctilious

11. b

16. capitulation

12. d

Chapter 8 Quiz 1. a 2. c 3. b 4. f

13. circum loc ution — indirect and wordy language 14. a morph ous — without definite shape or form 15. tractable — easily controlled or dealt with

5. d

16. disparage — to reduce in esteem or rank; to speak of in a disrespectful way

6. e

17. denigrated

7. head

18. circumspect

8. with, together

19. laconic

9. against, toward

20. capitulate

10. follow 11. drag, draw 12. shake, timid 13. admonish





Answer Keys Chapter 9 Quiz

Chapter 11 Quiz

1. e

1. a

2. g

2. a

3. a

3. c

4. b

4. c

5. c

5. c

6. d

6. c

7. h

7. b

8. f

8. a

9. to, towards

9. b

10. from, down, away

10. c

11. pretense

11. not

12. unctuous

12. eat

13. prevaricates

13. congenial

14. dissembles

14. jubilation 15. facetious

Chapter 10 Quiz 1. d

Chapter 12 Quiz

2. a

1. g

3. f

2. a

4. c

3. e

5. e

4. c

6. b

5. f

7. with, together

6. b

8. apart, away, not

7. d

9. palatable

8. am, ami

10. culinary

9. co, com, con

11. voracious

10. greg

12. arable

11. eu 12. wrath 13. odious 14. enmity 15. malediction





Answer Keys Chapters 9-12 Review

Chapter 13 Quiz

1. b

1. a

2. a

2. c

3. b

3. d

4. c

4. b

5. d

5. e

6. a

6. speak

7. c

7. bad, badly

8. b

8. wish

9. b

9. D

10. c

10. S

11. a

11. S

12. d

12. D

13. d

13. D

14. c

14. S

15. a

15. sS

16. d 17. amicable — agreeable, showing good will

Chapter 14 Quiz

18. dis sem ble — to conceal or disguise one’s nature, feelings, or motives

2. linchpin

19. malevolent — having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others

1. coalesce 3. disseminate 4. aggregate

20. voracious — unending hunger; insatiable

5. engender

21. animosity, ruse

7. sharp, sour

22. euphoria

8. know

23. depravity

9. around

24. spurious

10. look, see

6. yoke

11. disseminated 12. segregated 13. confluence 14. engender





Answer Keys Chapter 15 Quiz

14. S

1. a, b

15. D

2. b

16. D

3. c 4. b

Chapters 13-16 Review

5. b, c

1. a

6. c

2. b

7. b

3. c

8. a

4. b

9. b

5. d

10. b

6. d

11. c

7. a

12. crowd, flock

8. b

13. apart, away

9. d

14. seed, sow

10. a

15. flagged

11. c

16. sedentary

12. d 13. a

Chapter 16 Quiz

14. c

1. d

15. b

2. a

16. c

3. f

17. cognizant – “aware, mindful”

4. b

18. disseminate – “to spread widely”

5. c

19. segregate – “to separate others from a group”

6. e 7. g 8. sed, sid 9. somn 10. torp 11. S

20. somnolent – “drowsy, sleepy” 21. ascertain, lethargic 22. supercilious 23. effrontery 24. truculent

12. D 13. D





Answer Keys Chapter 17 Quiz

18. D

1. e 2. b

Chapter 19 Quiz

3. g

1. c

4. a

2. a

5. c

3. b

6. f

4. e

7. h

5. f

8. d

6. d

9. D

7. not

10. O

8. quiet

11. D

9. silent

12. S

10. august

13. D

11. palatial 12. truncated

Chapter 18 Quiz

13. commodious

1. e 2. h

Chapter 20 Quiz

3. g

1. d

4. a

2. i

5. d

3. a

6. b

4. b

7. c

5. c

8. f

6. j

9. with, together

7. f

10. God, godly

8. e

11. holy

9. h

12. God, godly

10. g

13. S

11. colloquial

14. S

12. bombastic

15. D

13. laudatory

16. S

14. inarticulate

17. S ™





Answer Keys Chapters 16-20 Review

Chapter 21 Quiz

1. b

1. a

2. c

2. e

3. a


4. d

4. g

5. d

5. c

6. b

6. g

7. c

7. d

8. a

8. f

9. d

9. S

10. b

10. D

11. a

11. Y

12. b

12. N

13. c

13. Y

14. c 15. d

Chapter 22 Quiz

16. a

1. covet

17. apotheosis – (n.) 1. elevation to divine status. 2. (n.) a glorified example

2. affluent

18. colloquial – characterized by the use of informal language

4. austere

19. diffident – shy due to lack of confidence 20. quiescent – quiet; still; at rest 21. diffident 22. diminutive, polemic 23. sacrosanct 24. garrulous

3. avarice 5. opulent 6. benefactor 7. destitute 8. derelict 9. emaciated 10. cupidity 11. chron — time 12. ex, e — out, out of 13. pre — before 14. trans — across, over, through





Answer Keys Chapter 23 Quiz

12. N

1. h

13. G

2. d

14. S

3. a 4. b

Chapters 21-24 Review

5. f

1. a

6. c

2. b

7. g

3. b

8. e

4. a

9. ad

5. c

10. fac, fea, fect

6. a

11. flu, flux

7. c

12. ex

8. a

13. B

9. a

14. F

10. c

15. B

11. d

16. B

12. c

17. F

13. a 14. b

Chapter 24 Quiz

15. d

1. e

16. c

2. g

17. b

3. b

18. a

4. a

19. d

5. c

20. c

6. d

21. morose, prescient

7. f

22. opulent

8. h

23. contrite

9. S

24. abandon, wistful

10. S 11. G


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