Sample Chapter II - Related Literatures
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This chapter discusses the gathered information, important facts, and reviewed materials that are relatively significant to the proposed topic. This chapter also introduces the proponents to other significant writings and it can reveal sources of data that may not have existed. Furthermore, it can help the proponents to evaluate their own research and provide new ideas and approaches that may not occurred to them. Related Literature In the present time, many people have their own car for their daily transportation and considering the cost of a car is exceptional, in some ways it is considered luxury. In terms of car system, security is a big concern that’s why many car lock security was developed. This study introduced a new device to control a car lock system operated by a mobile phone using its Bluetooth as an alternative or support to the Radio Frequency (RF) Keyless System. The Mobile Phones act as the transmitter that will throw the signal to the device using Bluetooth that will lock or unlock the car. Ways that can be used to lock and unlock the car doors Many cars manufacturer come with a security feature called the PASS-key theft deterrent system. The key’s shaft has a small black module embedded in it with contacts on either side of the key. It is common to assume that there is some sort of chip or computer embedded in the key but what is embedded in the key is a precision resistor. When the key is inserted to the ignition, the resistor becomes part of a simple circuit involving three other resistors. If the key does not have a resistor or if the resistor has the
wrong value, the circuit disables a part of the car’s electrical system to prevent the car from starting. Having a resistor in a key is simply adding a layer of difficulty to duplicating the key. Another way of locking and unlocking car is by using the combination lock on the outside door. Combination lock is a type of lock in which a sequence of numbers or symbols are used to open the lock. The sequence may be entered using a combination dial which interact with several wheel and drive cam, by using a set of wheel that work together called wheel pack. It determines how many numbers are in the combination, each number has corresponding wheel.
Keyless entry systems, which are common in motor vehicles, rely on a keychain fob that contains a remote-control unit consisting of an integrated circuit and a radio transmitter. The fob sends a low-powered radio signal to a receiver in the motor vehicle, and, if the received code is the correct one, the receiver in the vehicle relays the signal to a microprocessor, which opens the lock. The acceptance of such entry systems has led to devices that allow additional functions within the vehicle to be activated remotely (www.cc.columbia.edu/cu.cup/.09 August 2006, 30 July 2008). Nowadays, 70% of the vehicles comes with a Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) system either standard or as an option. RKE systems are also a high volume after- market accessory.
Remote Keyless Entry system usually uses to alarm the vehicles against theft
and lock and unlock the doors and trunk. Remote Keyless systems consist of a key transmitter and a receiver inside the vehicle. RKE most commonly use a frequency of 315MHz in the U.S and Japan, and 433.92 MHz in Europe. Europe has also opened up the 868MHz band to accommodate the growing demand for remote keyless entry system (Paña M.S. February 2007). Several types of door locks that are used today Single Wire Systems. There may be one, two, or three wires in the harness not counting the illumination wire/s, if any, and only changes in voltage and / or resistance on one wire to lock and unlock. Some of these will open a circuit to lock and ground a
wire to unlock. Others will show a difference in resistance to ground or positive 12 V DC during lock or unlock or both. Vacuum type locks will change polarity on a single wire to lock and unlock. 3 Wire Negative. There are three wires in the harness not counting the illumination wire(s), if any. One wire has continuity to ground at all times. Another wire only shows continuity to ground during lock and (+) 12 V DC at rest. The last wire only shows continuity to ground during unlock and (+) 12 V DC at rest. 3 Wire Positive. There are three wires in the harness not counting the illumination wire(s), if any. One wire has constant (+) 12 V DC at all times. Another wire only shows (+) 12 V DC during lock and ground at rest. The last wire only shows (+) 12 V DC during unlock and ground at rest. 4 Wire Reversal. There are four wires in the harness not counting the illumination wire(s), if any. One wire has constant (+) 12 V DC at all times. Another wire has continuity to ground at all times. A third wire reads nothing at rest, and (+) 12V DC during lock and continuity to ground during unlock. The fourth wire reads nothing at rest, and ground during lock and (+) 12V DC during unlock. 5 Wire Alternating (+) 12 V DC. There are four, five, or six wires in the harness not counting the illumination wire(s), if any. One or two of the wires has constant (+) 12 V DC at all times. One or two of the wires has continuity to ground at all times. Another wire reads continuity to ground at rest, and (+) 12V DC during lock. The last wire reads continuity to ground at rest, and (+) 12V DC during unlock. Vacuum Type. There is no external switch (switch is contained in the drivers door lock actuator) or it has three wires not counting the illumination wire(s), if any. One wire always shows continuity to ground. Another always shows constant (+) 12 V DC. The third wire changes, reading continuity to ground or (+) 12 V DC depending on the position of the door locks. Added Actuator(s). The two wires of the actuator(s) will normally rest at ground, if wired as shown in this diagram, but may rest at (+) 12 V DC. Polarity changes on one
(http://www.the12volt.com/doorlocks/doorlocks.asp, 28 July 2008).
These types of door locks were significant for the proponents in a way that it will give information and familiarity to the different types of wiring system.
Power Lock The remote use to open the garage door is actually a small radio transmitter. When you push a button on the fob, you turn on the transmitter and it sends a code to the receiver Inside
to the frequency that the transmitter is using (300 or 400 MHz is typical for modern systems). The transmitter is similar to the one in a radio-controlled toy (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/remote-entry1.htm). In some cars that have power door locks, the lock/unlock switch actually sends power to the actuators that unlock the door. But in more complicated systems that have several ways to lock and unlock the doors, the body controller decides when to do the unlocking. The body controller is a computer in your car. It takes care of a lot of the little things that make your car friendlier -- for instance, it makes sure the interior lights stay on until you start the car, and it beeps at you if you leave your headlights on or leave the keys in the ignition. In the case of power door locks, the body controller monitors all of the possible sources of an "unlock" or "lock" signal. It monitors a door-mounted touchpad and unlocks the doors when the correct code is entered. It monitors a radio frequency and unlocks the doors when it receives the correct digital code from the radio transmitter in your
inside the car. When it receives a signal from any of these sources, it provides
(http://auto.howstuffworks.com/power-door-lock1.htm, 28 July 2008).
The power lock that is presently used in most of the vehicles was significant for the researcher’s project since the construction of this system was similar to the project only that the means of controlling the doors will be Bluetooth. Bluetooth Wireless Technology as an Alternative Control Bluetooth Wireless Technology is one of the most common technologies today. It allows computers, phones, and other devices to communicate with each other over a short distance (approximately 10 meters). It is an inexpensive way of connecting a wireless devices and it also designed for security. Mobile phone is the common gadget nowadays, and most of the mobile devices are equipped with Bluetooth technology. Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a wireless personal area network (PAN). It provides limited range wireless connectivity for voice and data transmissions between information appliances. Bluetooth wireless technology eliminates the need for interconnecting cables. Unique for most wireless communications systems, Bluetooth enables ad hoc networking among devices without the need for infrastructure such as base stations or access points (http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/59883760EN.pdf, 29 July 2008). Bluetooth can connect up to eight devices simultaneously. With all of those devices in the same 10-meter (32 feet) radius, one might think would interfere with one another, but it's unlikely. Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping that makes it rare for more than one device to be transmitting on the same frequency at the same time. In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range, changing from one to another on a regular basis. In the case of Bluetooth, the transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second. This means more devices can make full use of a limited slice of the radio spectrum. Since every Bluetooth transmitter uses spread-spectrum transmitting automatically, it is unlikely that two transmitters will be on the same frequency at the same time. This same technique minimizes the risk that portable phones or baby monitors will disrupt Bluetooth devices, since any interference on a particular frequency will last
only a tiny fraction of a second (http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth2.htm, 02 August 2008). The information provided in this part has helped the proponents in knowing the capabilities of the Bluetooth, its way of connecting to other devices, and the limitations of this technology. Bluetooth Pairing Methods and Security A common task that involves Bluetooth security for most users is the "pairing" of devices. By default Bluetooth communication is not authenticated, and thus almost any device can freely connect to another. However, to access a particular service such as a dial-up account, a voice gateway, or to do a file transfer, some sort of authentication is usually required. The process of authentication is usually done during the pairing process by entering identical PIN codes (passkeys) on both devices, Once users have entered their correct PIN codes, both devices will generate a link key, which can be stored in the device's memory and will allow it to skip the authentication and authorization process every time it attempts to communicate with the other paired device in the future. Several Bluetooth devices are set on discoverable mode, they all have the ability to search for and locate each other, so long as they remain within range. Every device has its own address, a unique 48-bit identifier with six bytes of information that might look like this: 01:23:45:67:89.10. The first three bytes (01:23:45) are assigned to the specific manufacturer of the device, while the last three bytes (67:89:10) are assigned by the manufacturer. device
surveillance1.htm, 23 September 2008).
The pairing method of the Bluetooth is an added security for the system the proponents would want to develop, by using a passkey; unwanted connections to the car’s receiver will be avoided in controlling the lock system of the car (http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1830,
01 August 2008).
Installing Remote Keyless Entry Installing Remote Keyless Entry is quite simple and need several “wire-tap” type side-by-side wire connectors to tap into the wires which connect to the trunk lock actuator. There is just tapping into wires. Power comes from the trunk lamp power wire. Using some adhesive-backed Velcro to attach the unit to the inside rear wall of the trunk behind the carpet. The module is a small plastic box that weighs next to nothing. It comes with a wire harness that unplugs from the module which makes install easy. There is red wiretap connectors which tap into the trunk actuator wires. There are two bundles of wires that run along the back wall of the trunk on the floor. One has about six wires, the other has many more. The wires are attached as follows (the first wire listed is the entry module wire): Green to yel/blk Yellow to grn/blk Black AND white to brn Connect the red wire to a constant power source. The trunk lamp is a convenient always-on source. Here is another shot of the unit – note the red wire running next to the spare tire. That is an extension which is long enough to reach the trunk lamp wire on the floor of the trunk below the driver’s side trunk hinge. Connect the red from the module harness to red/white. Cut off all the other wires on the module harness. There is also an antenna wire that comes out of the module. It is only about a foot long, and the system only works from
(http://home.insightbb.com/~todd.kenyon/keyless.htm, 30 July 2008). Related Studies Local Studies From a case study of “Bluetooth Application” by Cartagenes, J.L.(2007), Bluetooth is one of the fastest growing industries of its time. From here, we can establish the economical, psychological, social and technological effects it can do in the future.
Bluetooth has a variety of applications and is still learning more of its possible use. The availability of our data will be mainly coming from that mobile phone. PDA, laptop or even a personal computer with a Bluetooth enabled device is worldwide acceptance is success in most leading countries, its effects, latest news, newest development and its application are important for these research. Its full technical specifications are only available to the Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group).
According to the paper “Implementation of Microcontroller in the Activation and Deactivation of Devices” by Navarro (2008), the application of microcontroller in the activation and deactivation of devices aims to make it convenient for people to turn electrical devices on and off. The materials used in the design are composed of the PIC16877 Microcontroller that act as the main controller of the system; SC2004C (4 x 20 LCD) which displays the scheduled time and real time clock; DS1287 (Real Time Clock) which serves as the clock of the system; and the push buttons to set the real time and scheduled time for the appliances.
A project design by Bilang, J. C., entitled “Controlling Mobot using Mobile Phone through Bluetooth Technology” is a study that utilizes the Bluetooth hardware of a mobile phone to control a distant mobot. “From the Bluetooth hardware of the mobile phone, a link will be initialized with a Bluetooth module directly connected to the mobile robot’s data lines. The received information will be acted upon by the mobot microcontroller to identify the action it should perform. This design will help the robotics industry in controlling distant mobots to substitute humans in dangerous works.”
According to the project that entitled “Infrared Controlled Door-Lock System” by Paña M.S. (2007), infrared sensor is suitable to use in Infrared Door Locked System.
“The proponents know that infrared sensor is suitable to use in Infrared Door Locked System. Adding with delay program and incorporating vibration sensor and magnetic contact, the device may prevent false alarm and can transmit signal wirelessly. An infrared signal was successfully controlled the unlocking of door.The appropriate MCU for this type of application is PIC16F628. For reducing false alarms, the time delay program incorporated into the MCU unit enables the device to reduce false alarm.” The project design that entitled “An MCU based Automatic Chalkboard Cleaner” by Manjares, Talued, and Vicente (2005), uses a PIC microcontroller (PIC 16F84) to control the motor turn on the device.
“The proponents have used the PIC microcontroller (PIC 16F84). The DC motors, stepper motors, solenoid and fans of the receiver unit of their project are connected to the said microcontroller. Through this microcontroller the user were able to control there device”. The proponents have cited several information that can support the project. In the preceding related studies the projects uses a wireless technology as a method in controlling a device. One of these projects is controlling a mobot by the use of mobile phone through Bluetooth and it has supported the possibility that the Bluetooth can be used as a controller. Foreign Studies Identisafe-09 of United Linkers (Computer Security Company) is a fingerprint security system that recognizes the individual identification characteristic. It is mounted on a car dashboard or on door, and scanned the fingerprint within seconds when finger is placed in the centre of the scanner to start the car engine and lock or unlock the car. The fingerprint scanner compares the finger impression with the ones that stored in the memory when the system was first installed in the car. If the comparison is successful, the car system can be released for use such as locking or unlocking the door. The device has memory capacity of 6 to 300 fingerprints and the owner has the permission to add and delete fingerprints allowing other people to drive the car. Thru this device, the problem of losing key and forgetting passwords is eliminated and gives the best security available for protecting vehicles (http://www.automobile-security.com/, 29 July 2008).
According to the Essex Electronics, Inc. that introduced the “Essex keypad keyless entry”, touch-pad keyless entry can be used to lock or unlock car door lock without having to use a key or a remote control transmitter. “By simply entering your personalized 3 to 8 digit access code at the Keypad, the locks pop open and the interior dome light comes on to give you illuminated entry at night. Up to 5 secondary access codes can be easily programmed from the keypad to give permanent or temporary access to a friend, family member, employee or valet. Getting locked out of your car is a thing of the past” (http://www.a1electric.com/keypad.htm, 30 July 2008).
Another car security from United Linkers is an eyeball recognition called “Retinsafe-18” this product uses the unique eyeball pattern (Retina and Iris) to secure and start the car. It is installed on the dashboard or the door of the car and allows the owner to register up to 10 iris pattern. Retinal scans are a more recent biometric technology. Retinal scans shoot a beam of light into the eyeball and record the pattern of veins in the eye. Retinal vein patterns actually change over the course of a lifetime so iris scanning is also being done. The iris always stays the same. Iris scans video the eye's colored area and use it to verify ones identity, like fingerprints, no two individual iris's are alike (http://www.automobile-security.com/Retinasafe18product.htm, 03 July 2008).
The product "Voicesafe-36" introduced by United Linkers is another device use to secure car like locking and unlocking the door lock using voice recognition. Just like fingerprint, each person has a unique voice that can be used as key or password to a car. By making a person who wishes to drive the car to read a small sentence, voice is being stored to the device. Once the person’s voice is stored it then asks the user to verify his voice by saying any word to test if enrolment is successful. Voicesafe-36 then checks for live voice detection & it then verifies the voice with the voice sample it has stored. If both
voices match then the user is granted access & is termed as authorized user. He can now start
store 4 voice thus enabling 4 persons to drive the car (http://www.automobilesecurity.com/voicesafe36.htm, 01 August 2008). The proponents have cited new method that can be use to lock and unlock the car doors. New systems are applied in the preceding related studies like the use of finger prints, touch-pad keyless entry, eyeball recognition and voice recognition. By these studies, it can give a possibility that there can be other way to operate the locking and unlocking of a vehicle’s door.
Synthesis Through the research that the group had made, the information cited in this chapter has further supported the topic of the proponents. The presentation of ways in unlocking the car door contributed to the possibility that the design project of the group can be made. It is a remote control device because most of the present ways of manipulating the car door is made remotely. Various types of door locks had been also cited to help the proponents choose which door lock is best suited for the research the group is working on.
After giving various information regarding the present way of controlling the car’s door lock system, the proponents presented to use Bluetooth technology as an alternative way of controlling door locks. The connection procedure of this technology, its maximum range, the way of transmitting of data and its security factors is presented to support the research topic of the group.
The related studies show the other types of car lock system and the methods of controlling of a device that is similar and can support the design project. Like in this prototype, one project on the study had used Bluetooth as a controlling method. That project has supported the possibility that Bluetooth can be used as a controlling method.
Aside from the existing car lock system using RF as a connection, several types of car lock system have cited in the related studies like using a touch pad or by fingerprints. Those projects emphasized that there can be other ways to manipulate the car lock system of a vehicle.