Road Divider ReportL

February 4, 2019 | Author: Krina Parekh | Category: Traffic Congestion, Ductility, Traffic, Road, Hardness
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movable traffic lane divider...

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A PROJECT REPORT ON STUDY AND FABRICATION OF

FLEXIBLE ROAD DIVIDER SUBMITTED BY

---------------------------------------------------------------

PROJECT GUIDE PROF. PROF. ------------------------------------- --

H.O.D. PRINCIPAL PROF PROF.---------------------

SHRI.SHRI.------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .

---------------------------

200----200---

1

-------------------------------200----200--C E R T I F I C A T E

Cert Certif ifie ied d that that this this Repor eportt subm submit itte ted d by Shri/Ku  -------------------R!""/S#$% N!. ----------------------------a student of FINAL FINAL YEAR of the course in ---- IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING as a part of Seminar / Project work as prescribed by the B!$r& !' T#(h)i($" E*$i)$%i!)   for the subject -------------------------------- And that I

hae instructed/!uided him for the said work from time to time and I found him to be satisfactori"y pro!ressie# And that fo""owin! students were associated with him for his work. $oweer his Contribution was proportionate % 1. ------------------------------------------------- --------------

&.------------------------&.-------------------- -----

'.---------------------------------

(.-------------------------

).--------------------------------And that the said work has been assessed by me and I am satisfied that the same is upto the standard enisa!ed for the "ee" of the course. And that the said work may be promoted to the *+terna" *+aminer.

+NAME OF GUIDE , SIGN

,A*----------------,A*-----------------

+NAME OF H.O.D , SIGN

,A*-------------------,A*--------------------

+NAME OF PRINCIPAL PRINCIPAL , SIGN

,A*--------------------,A*---------------------

'

-------------------------------200----200--C E R T I F I C A T E

Cert Certif ifie ied d that that this this Repor eportt subm submit itte ted d by Shri/Ku  -------------------R!""/S#$% N!. ----------------------------a student of FINAL FINAL YEAR of the course in ---- IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING as a part of Seminar / Project work as prescribed by the B!$r& !' T#(h)i($" E*$i)$%i!)   for the subject -------------------------------- And that I

hae instructed/!uided him for the said work from time to time and I found him to be satisfactori"y pro!ressie# And that fo""owin! students were associated with him for his work. $oweer his Contribution was proportionate % 1. ------------------------------------------------- --------------

&.------------------------&.-------------------- -----

'.---------------------------------

(.-------------------------

).--------------------------------And that the said work has been assessed by me and I am satisfied that the same is upto the standard enisa!ed for the "ee" of the course. And that the said work may be promoted to the *+terna" *+aminer.

+NAME OF GUIDE , SIGN

,A*----------------,A*-----------------

+NAME OF H.O.D , SIGN

,A*-------------------,A*--------------------

+NAME OF PRINCIPAL PRINCIPAL , SIGN

,A*--------------------,A*---------------------

'

--------- -------------------------- ( -- ) 200-----200--------

SUBMISSIO N I  0u"" ame2 Shri /Ku -----------------------R!""/ S#$% N!.-------------------- a student of  FINAL YEAR of the course in DIPLOMA IN  MECHANICAL  MECHANICAL ENGINEERING humb"y submit

that I hae comp"eted comp"eted from the Seminar Seminar / Project work as described described in this Report from from time to time by usin! my own ski"" ski"" and study between between the period period 0rom AUGUST 200 TO APRIL 200 as per the instruction / !uidance of ame of eacher2---------------------------------And that fo""owin! students were associated with me for this work. $oweer the teacher has appro approed ed 3uant 3uantum um of my contr contribu ibuti tion. on. And that that I hae hae not copied copied the Repor Reportt or it4 it4s an appreciab"e part from any other 5iterature in contraention of the academic ethics. 1. ------------------------------------------------- --------------

&.------------------------------------&.-------------------- -----------------

'.---------------------------------

(.-------------------------------------

).---------------------------------

,ate%--------------------- Si!nature of the Student2

)

------DEFINATION OF PROJECT------

 P =>  Planning before carring carring o!" "#e $or%  R => O =>

 Ra$ &a"erial re'!ire( for for "#e $or% 

Organi)a"ion of "#e $or% 

 J

=>

 E

=>  E,"i&a"ion of &a"erial &a"erial re'!ire( in "#e $or%+

 Join" effor" effor" *!" in "o "#e $or%+

C => Co,"ing of "#e $or%+ T

=> Tec#ni'!e, !,e( in *erfor&ing+

&

Acknowledgement 6e e+press esteemed !ratitude and sincere thanks to our worthy "ecturer  !uide PROF. -------------- our ocabu"ary do not hae suitab"e words benefitin! to hi!h standard at know"ed!e and e+treme sincerity deiation and affection with they hae re!u"ar"y encoura!ed us to put heart and sou" in this work. 6e are a"so thankfu" to our H.O.D. PROF. ----------- whose adices and kind co-operation wrou!ht out throu!h discussion proide for comp"etion of this project and a"so thanks to our workshop superintendent and a"" the Assistants who he"ped a "ot for comp"etion of this project. 6e a"so coney !reat thanks to our $onorab"e Pri)(i$" ---------------- who he"ped a "ot for comp"etion of this project. 7ur parents and re"aties who a"ways bear with us in ery critica" situation hae contributed a !reat dea" in makin! this for us. As we !ie e+pression to our  "oe and appreciation for them our heart infi"".

hankin!.

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INDE  N$# %h# %!i(

Sr.N!

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FIGURES SR NO. 1 2 3  ! " # $ % 1& 11 12 13

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO

Set up flow diagram

CHAPTER-01 ABSTRACT

?

A road is an identifiab"e route way or path between p"aces. Roads are typica""y smoothed paed or otherwise prepared to a""ow easy trae"# thou!h they need not  be and historica""y many roads were simp"y [email protected]"e routes without any forma" construction or maintenance. raffic f"ows on the ri!ht or on the "eft side of the road dependin! on the country. In countries where traffic f"ows on the ri!ht traffic si!ns are most"y on the ri!ht side of the road roundabouts and traffic circ"es !o counter-c"ockwise and pedestrians crossin! a two-way road shou"d watch out for traffic from the "eft first. In countries where traffic f"ows on the "eft the reerse is true. About )& of the wor"d by popu"ation drie on the "eft and >> keep ri!ht. 8y roadway distances about 'B drie on the "eft and ?' on the ri!ht een thou!h ori!ina""y most traffic droe on the "eft wor"dwide.

Road construction re3uires the creation of a continuous ri!ht-of-way oercomin! !eo!raphic obstac"es and hain! !rades "ow enou!h to permit ehic"e or foot trae". and may be re3uired to meet standards set by "aw or officia" !uide"ines. he process is often be!un with the remoa" of earth and rock by di!!in! or b"astin! construction of embankments brid!es and tunne"s and remoa" of e!etation this may ino"e deforestation2 and fo""owed by the "ayin! of paement materia". A ariety of road bui"din! e3uipment is emp"oyed in road bui"din!. After desi!n approa" p"annin! "e!a" and enironmenta" considerations hae been addressed a"i!nment of the road is set out by a sureyor  he Radii and !radient are desi!ned and staked out to best suit the natura" !round "ee"s and [email protected] the amount of cut and fi"". L



ransit-oriented dee"opment are residentia" and commercia" areas desi!ned to [email protected] access to pub"ic transport.

Supply and demand 

See a"so% ransportation ,emand Dana!ement

6idenin! works underway on the D'( motorway to increase the number of "anes. Con!estion can be reduced by either increasin! road capacity supp"y2 or by reducin! traffic demand2. Capacity can be increased in a number of ways but needs to take account of "atent demand otherwise it may be used more stron!"y than anticipated. Critics of the approach of addin! capacity hae compared it to Gfi!htin! obesity by "ettin! out your be"tG inducin! demand that did not e+ist before2.

K?LKBL

1E

Reducin! road capacity has in turn been attacked as remoin! free choice as we"" as increasin! trae" costs and times. Increased supp"y can inc"ude% •

Addin! more capacity at bott"enecks such as by addin! more "anes at the e+pense of hard shou"ders or safety @ones or by remoin! "oca" obstac"es "ike brid!e supports and widenin! tunne"s2



Addin! more capacity oer the who"e of a route !enera""y by addin! more "anes2



Creatin! new routes



raffic mana!ement improements see separate section be"ow2

Reduction of demand can inc"ude% •

Parkin! restrictions makin! motor ehic"e use "ess attractie by increasin! the monetary and non-monetary costs of parkin! introducin! !reater  competition for "imited city or road space. KEL Dost transport p"annin! e+perts a!ree that free parkin! distorts the market in faour of car trae" e+acerbatin! con!estion.K1FLK11L



Park and ride faci"ities a""owin! parkin! at a distance and a""owin! continuation by pub"ic transport or ride sharin!. Park-and-ride car parks are common"y found at metro stations freeway entrances in suburban areas and at the ed!e of sma""er cities.



Reduction of road capacity to force traffic onto other trae" modes. Dethods inc"ude traffic ca"min! and the shared space concept.



Road pricin! char!in! money for access onto a road/specific area at certain times con!estion "ee"s or for certain road users 'F

o

GCap and tradeG in which on"y "icensed cars are a""owed on the roads. K1'L

 A "imited 3uota of car "icences are issued each year and traded in a

free market fashion. his !uarantees that the number of cars does not e+ceed road capacity whi"e aoidin! the ne!atie effects of shorta!es norma""y associated with 3uotas. $oweer since demand for cars tends to be ine"astic the resu"t are e+orbitant purchase prices for the "icenses  pricin! out the "ower "ee"s of society as seen Sin!apores Certificate of *ntit"ement scheme.K1)L o

Con!estion pricin! where a certain area such as the inner part of a con!ested city is surrounded with a cordon into which entry with a car  re3uires payment. he cordon may be a physica" boundary i.e. surrounded by to"" stations2 or it may be irtua" with enforcement  bein! ia spot checks or cameras on the entry routes. Dajor e+amp"es are Sin!apores e"ectronic road pricin! the 5ondon con!estion char!e system and the Stockho"m con!estion ta+.



Road space rationin! where re!u"atory restrictions preent certain types of  ehic"es from driin! under certain circumstances or in certain areas. o

 umber p"ate restrictions based on days of the week as practiced in seera" "ar!e cities in the wor"d such as AthensK1&L De+ico City and So Pau"o.K1(L In effect such cities are bannin! a different part of the automobi"e f"eet from roads each day of the week. Dain"y introduced to combat smo! these measures a"so reduce con!estion. A weakness of  this method is that richer driers can purchase a second or third car to circument the ban. Kcitation needed L

o

Permits where on"y certain types of ehic"es such as residents2 are  permitted to enter a certain area and other types such as throu!h'1

traffic2 are banned. K1(L  0or e+amp"e 8ertrand ,e"anoe the mayor of  Paris has proposed to impose a comp"ete ban on motor ehic"es in the citys inner districts with e+emptions on"y for residents businesses and the disab"ed. K1>L •

Po"icy approaches which usua""y attempt to proide either strate!ic a"ternaties or which encoura!e !reater usa!e of e+istin! a"ternaties throu!h  promotion subsidies or restrictions. o

Incenties to use pub"ic transport increasin! moda" shares. his can be achieed throu!h infrastructure inestment subsidies transport inte!ration pricin! strate!ies that decrease the mar!ina" cost/fi+ed cost ratiosK1?LK1BL and improed timetab"in!.K1ELK'FL

o

Cyc"in! promotion throu!h "e!is"ation cyc"e faci"ities subsidies and awareness campai!ns.K'1L he ether"ands has been pursuin! cyc"e friend"y po"icies for decades and around a 3uarter of their commutin! is done by bicyc"e. K''LK')L

o

e"ecommutin! encoura!ed throu!h "e!is"ation and subsidies. K'&L

o

7n"ine shoppin!  promotion K'(LK'>L potentia""y with automated de"iery  booths he"pin! to so"e the "ast mi"e prob"em and reduce shoppin! trips made by car.K'?L

Traffic management 

:se of so-ca""ed Inte""i!ent transportation system  which !uide traffic% •

raffic reportin! ia radio or possib"y mobi"e phones to adise road users



;ariab"e messa!e si!ns insta""ed a"on! the roadway to adise road users



 ai!ation systems possib"y "inked up to automatic traffic reportin! ''



raffic counters permanent"y insta""ed to proide rea"-time traffic counts



Coner!ence inde+in! road traffic monitorin! to proide information on the use of hi!hway on-ramps



Automated hi!hway systems a future idea which cou"d reduce the safe intera" between cars re3uired for brakin! in emer!encies2 and increase hi!hway capacity by as much as 1FF whi"e increasin! trae" speeds Kcitation needed L



Parkin! !uidance and information systems proidin! dynamic adice to motorists about free parkin!

%ther associated  •

Schoo" openin! times arran!ed to aoid peak hour  traffic in some countries  priate car schoo" pickup and drop-off traffic are substantia" percenta!es of   peak hour traffic2. Kcitation needed L



Considerate driin! behaiour promotion and enforcement. ,riin! practices such as tai"!atin! and fre3uent "ane chan!es can reduce a roads capacity and e+acerbate jams. In some countries si!ns are p"aced on hi!hways to raise awareness whi"e others hae introduced "e!is"ation a!ainst inconsiderate driin!.



;isua" barriers to preent driers from s"owin! down out of curiosity often ca""ed Grubberneckin!G in the :nited States2. his often inc"udes accidents with traffic s"owin! down een on roadsides physica""y separated from the crash "ocation. his a"so tends to occur at construction sites which is why some countries hae introduced ru"es that motorway construction has to occur behind isua" barrier

')



Speed "imit reductions as practiced on the D'( motorway in 5ondon. 6ith "ower speeds a""owin! cars to drie c"oser to!ether this increases the capacity of a road. ote that this measure is on"y effectie if the intera"  between cars is reduced not the distance itse"f. 5ow intera"s are !enera""y on"y safe at "ow speeds.



5ane sp"ittin!/fi"terin! where space-efficient ehic"es usua""y motorcyc"es and scooters ride or drie in the space between cars buses and trucks. his is howeer i""e!a" in many countries bein! perceied as a safety risk. K'BL

 &y country  'ustralia

raffic durin! peak hours in major Austra"ian cities such as 8risbane Sydney and De"bourne is usua""y ery con!ested and can cause considerab"e de"ay for  motorists. Austra"ians re"y main"y on radio and te"eision to obtain current traffic information. > mi"es '>> km2 of accumu"ated 3ueues out of ('' mi B)( km2 bein! monitored. K)1L ,espite imp"ementation since 1EE? of road space rationin! by the "ast di!it of the p"ate number durin! rush hours eery weekday traffic in this 'F mi""ion city sti"" e+periences seere con!estion. Accordin! to e+perts this is due to the acce"erated rate of [email protected] occurrin! since 'FF) in So Pau"o the f"eet is !rowin! at a rate of ?.( per year with a"most 1FFF new cars bou!ht in the city eery day and the "imited capacity of  pub"ic transport. he subway has on"y )B mi"es >1 km2 of "ines thou!h '' further mi"es are under construction or p"anned  by 'F1F. *ery day many [email protected] spend between three up to four hours behind the whee". In order to miti!ate the a!!raatin! con!estion prob"em since 9une )F 'FFB the road space rationin! pro!ram was e+panded to inc"ude and restrict trucks and "i!ht commercia" ehic"es. K)'LK))L ! edit   " New *ealand 

 ew Oea"and has fo""owed stron!"y car-oriented transport po"icies since after 6or"d 6ar II especia""y in the Auck"and  area where about one third of the countrys  popu"ation "ies2K)&L and current"y has one of the hi!hest car-ownership rates per  capita in the wor"d after the :nited States. K)(L  8ecause of the ne!atie resu"ts con!estion in the bi! centres is a major prob"em. Current measures inc"ude both the construction of new road infrastructure as we"" as increased inestment in pub"ic transport which had stron!"y dec"ined in a"" cities of the country e+cept 6e""in!ton.

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#nited +ingdom

In the :nited Min!dom the ineitabi"ity of con!estion in some urban road networks has been officia""y reco!nised since the ,epartment for ransport set down po"icies  based on the report Traffic in Towns  in 1E>)%  ,ven when everything that it is possi$ly to do $y way of $uilding new roads and  e-panding pu$lic transport has $een done. there would still $e. in the a$sence of  deli$erate limitation. more cars trying to move into. or within our cities than could   possi$ly $e accommodated/K)>L.

he ,epartment for ransport sees !rowin! con!estion as one of the most serious transport prob"ems facin! the :M. K)?L 7n 1 ,ecember  'FF> Rod *ddin!ton  pub"ished a :M !oernment-sponsored report into the future of 8ritains transport infrastructure. he *ddin!ton ransport Study set out the case for action to improe road and rai" networks as a Gcrucia" enab"er of sustained productiity and competitienessG. *ddin!ton has estimated that con!estion may cost the economy of *n!"and Q'' bn a year in "ost time by 'F'(. $e warned that roads were in serious dan!er of becomin! so con!ested that the economy wou"d suffer. K)BL At the "aunch of  the report *ddin!ton to"d journa"ists and transport industry representaties introducin! road pricin! to encoura!e driers to drie "ess was an Geconomic no brainerG. here was he said Gno attractie a"ternatieG. It wou"d a""e!ed"y cut con!estion by ha"f by 'F'( and brin! benefits to the 8ritish economy tota""in! Q'B  bn a year.K)EL

7n 0ridays in Ca"ifornia Interstate ( is often con!ested as 5os An!e"es  residents trae" north for the weekend.

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#nited States

he e+as ransportation Institute estimated that in 'FFF the ?( "ar!est metropo"itan areas e+perienced ).> bi""ion ehic"e-hours of de"ay resu"tin! in (.?  bi""ion :.S. !a""ons '1.> bi""ion "iters2 in wasted fue" and >?.( bi""ion in "ost  productiity or about F.? of the nations B ?)

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,ener  Co"orado is one of the first imp"ementations of Du"ti-moda" "anes in  orth America. In ,ener  5i!htrai" is run manua""y to preent any accidents. he second iteration of "i!ht rai" ca""ed the -R*U Project successfu""y imp"emented 1? mi"es of dua"-track "i!ht rai" bike path and a"so widened conentiona" roadways a"on! most major arteries in the ,ener Detro Area 8i! Idea for ransportation in 8an!a"ore - P"an for on [email protected] ransportation in 8an!a"ore 6hen peop"e refer to 8an!a"ore they immediate"y isua"ise the chaotic traffic scenario. A "ot of concern has been e+pressed oer the years on the con!estion issue with !oernment "aunchin! seera" schemes to improe its traffic 8ui"din! seera" Roads 0"yoers etc2 but a"as no so"utionVV Prob"em 8an!a"ore has appro+imate"y >.B mi""ion trips dai"y. :rban spraw" in years has increased the trip "en!ths which has resu"ted in decreasin! mode share of pub"ic transportation and increase in priate automobi"es. he prob"em is not insufficient roads as made out by the authorities but the priority !ien to improe ehicu"ar f"ow rather than improin! peop"e moements. he transportation share is near"y 'F of the 8an!a"ores "anduse which simu"ates internationa" practice. han why so much con!estionW )(

As per my estimate 8an!a"ore "oses out near"y 'FB mi""ion Rs per day due to con!estion A ery Conseratie *stimate2. he root cause for con!estion can be known from the fact that the BB of tota" ehic"es constitute on"y two whee"ers and four whee"ers which contribute on"y )E of tota" rips. So"ution It is ery surprisin! to know that near"y '( of trips are made in ran!e of 1-( km.  ear"y &F of those trips are made by motorised share Cars/8ikes2. 6e need to e"iminate those trips by usin! non motorised transportation such as by wa"kin! cyc"in! etc. Proide Pedestrian 0aci"ities. 8an!a"ore "acks !ood pedestrian faci"ities. Pedestrians hae to compete with ehic"es hawkers and encroachment to !ain space. It is fact that near"y &F of   peop"e ki""ed in accidents in 8an!a"ore are pedestrians. Improin! footpaths are ery economica" way of sustainab"e transportation which we often ne!"ect. he  pedestrian crossin!s are ery rare to find in 8an!a"ore roads. In fact you may find more number of f"yoers in 8an!a"ore than !rade separated pedestrian faci"ities. Authorities need to improe footpaths/ proide pedestrian faci"ities at war footin!. Proide Cyc"in! 0aci"ities Cyc"in! as a mode of transport is irtua""y non-e+istent in 8an!a"ore "ess than '2. 8an!a"ore has near"y &??B() cyc"es. Such a "ar!e number of cyc"es does not transform into trips on roads basica""y due to "ack of faci"ities "ess than 1( operationa" trips2. If proper faci"ities such as cyc"e tracks are proided by the authorities than the mode share has the potentia" to improe in 8an!a"ore. It can a"so be dee"oped as a feeder to pub"ic transportation by proidin! sma"" parkin! faci"ities near prominent bus stops. Internationa""y the City-8ike System is the new )>

 bi! thin!. It ino"es proision proision of city bikes with proper infrastructure infrastructure month"ymonth"yannu annua" a""y "y-f -fee ees2 s2 with with see seera ra"" park parkin in! ! "ots "ots pro proid ided ed by the the pri priat atee part party y. It is considered to be the best option to demotorise thus hain! a sustainab"e city. raffic con!estion is a condition on networks that occurs as use increases and is [email protected] by s"ower speeds "on!er trip times and increased 3ueuein! 3ueuein!.. he most common e+amp"e is the physica" use of roads roads by  by ehic"es. 6hen traffic demand is !reat enou!h that the interaction between ehic"es s"ows the speed of the traffic stream con!estion is incurred. As demand approaches the capacity of a road or of  the intersections a"on! the road2 e+treme traffic con!estion sets in. 6hen ehic"es are fu""y stopped for periods of time this is co""o3uia""y known as a traffic jam. Con!esti Con!estion on caused caused by eacuees f"eein! $urricane Rita. Rita. raffic in a"" "anes of the hi!hway is trae"in! in the same direction. raffic con!estion occurs when a o"ume of traffic or moda" sp"it !enerates sp"it  !enerates demand for space !reater than the aai"ab"e road capacity. here are a number of specific circum circumsta stance ncess which which cause cause or a!!ra a!!raate ate con!es con!estio tion# n# mo most st of them them reduce reduce the the capacity of a road at a !ien point or oer a certain "en!th or increase the number  of ehic"es re3uired for a !ien throu!hput of peop"e or !oods. About ha"f of :.S. traffic con!estion is recurrin! and is attributed to sheer wei!ht of traffic# most of  the rest is attributed to traffic incidents road works and weather eents. K1L Speed and f"ow can a"so affect network capacity thou!h the re"ationship is comp"e+ raffic research sti"" cannot fu""y predict under which conditions a Gtraffic jamG as opposed to heay but smooth"y f"owin! traffic2 may sudden"y occur. It has been found that indiidua" incidents such as accidents or een a sin!"e car brakin! heai"y in a preious"y smooth f"ow2 may cause ripp"e effects a cascadin! fai"ure2 fai"ure 2 which then spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when otherwise norma" f"ow mi!ht hae continued for some time "on!er. K'L

)?

CHAPTER 4 MATERIAL MATERIAL SELECTION SELECTIO N

he proper se"ection of materia" for the different part of a machine is the main objectie in the fabrication fabrication of machine. machine. 0or a desi!n en!ineer it is must that he be fami"iar fami"iar with the effect effect which the manufacturin! process and heat treatment hae on the properties of materia"s. he Choice of materia" for en!ineerin! purposes depends upon the fo""owin! factors% 1. Aai"ab ai"abi"i i"ity ty of the materia materia"s. "s. '. Suitabi"ity Suitabi"ity of of materia"s materia"s for the the workin! workin! condition condition in serice. ). h hee cost cost of of mat mater eria ia"s "s.. &. Physica Physica"" and chemi chemica" ca" prope properti rties es of mater materia". ia". (. Dechanic Dechanica" a" properti properties es of materia materia". ". he mechanica" properties of the meta"s are those which are associated with the abi"ity of the materia" to resist mechanica" forces and "oad. 6e sha"" now discuss these properties as fo""ows% 1. Stren!th Stren!th % It is is the abi"ity of of a materia" materia" to to resist resist the e+terna""y e+terna""y app"ied forces '. Stre Stress% ss% 6itho 6ithout ut break breakin! in! or yie"d yie"din! in!.. h hee inte interna rna"" resist resistanc ancee offe offere red d by a part part to an e+terna""y app"ied force is ca""ed stress. ). Stiffn Stiffness% ess% It is the abi"ity abi"ity of materia materia"" to resist resist deformatio deformation n under stresses. stresses. he he modu"es modu"es of  e"asticity of the measure of stiffness. &. *"asti *"asticity city%% It is the property property of a materia" materia" to re!ain its ori!ina ori!ina"" shape after after deformati deformation on when the e+terna" forces are remoed. remoed. his property is desirab"e for materia" materia" used in too"s and machines. It may be noted that stee" is more e"astic than rubber. (. P"astic P"asticity ity%% It is the property property of a materia" materia" which which retain retain the deforma deformation tion produce produced d under  "oad permanent"y. his property of materia" is necessary for for!in! in stampin! ima!es on coins and in ornamenta" work. )B

>. ,ucti ,ucti"i "ity ty%% It is the the prope propert rty y of a mate materia ria"" enab"i enab"in! n! it to be drawn drawn into wire wire with with the app"ication of a tensi"e force. A ducti"e materia" must be both stron! and p"astic. he ducti"ity is usua""y measured by the terms percenta!e e"on!ation and percent reduction in area. he ducti"e materia"s common"y used in en!ineerin! practice are mi"d stee" copper a"uminum nicke" @inc tin and "ead. ?. 8ritt"eness% 8ritt"eness% It is the property property of materia" materia" opposite opposite to ducti"e. It is the Property of breakin! of a materia" with "itt"e permanent permanent distortion. 8ritt"e materia"s materia"s when subjected to tensi"e "oads snap off without !iin! any sensib"e e"on!ation. Cast iron is a  britt"e materia". B. Da""e Da""eab abi"i i"ity ty%% It is a speci specia" a" case case of ducti ducti"i "ity ty which which permit permitss mate materia ria"" to be ro""e ro""ed d or  hammered hammered into thin sheets a ma""eab"e materia" shou"d be p"astic but it is not essentia" to  be so stron!. he ma""eab"e materia"s common"y used in en!ineerin! en!ineer in! practice are "ead "ead  soft stee" wrou!ht iron copper and a"uminum. E. o ou!hn u!hness% ess% It is the propert property y of a materia materia"" to resist the fractu fracture re due to hi!h impact impact "oads "oads "ike hammer hammer b"ows. b"ows. he tou!hness tou!hness of the materia" materia" decreases decreases when it is heated. heated. It is measured by the amount of absorbed after bein! stressed up to the point of fracture. his  property is desirab"e desirab "e in parts subjected to shock an impact "oads. "oads . 1F. Resi"ience% Resi"ience% It is the property of a materia" to absorb ener!y ener!y and to resist rock and impact "oads. It is measured by amount of ener!y absorbed per unit o"ume within e"astic "imit. his property is essentia" for sprin! materia". 11. Creep% 6hen 6hen a part is subjected to a constant stress at hi!h temperature temperature for "on! period of  time it wi"" under!o a s"ow and permanent deformation ca""ed creep. his property is considered in desi!nin! interna" combustion en!ines boi"ers and turbines. 1'. $ardness% It is a ery important important property property of the meta"s and has a wide erity erity of meani meanin!s n!s.. It embra embrace cess many many diff differe erent nt prope properti rties es such such as resis resista tance nce to wear  wear  scratchin! deformation and mach inabi"ity etc. It a"so means the abi"ity of the meta" to cut another meta". he hardness is usua""y e+pressed in numbers which are dependent on the method of makin! the test. he hardness of a meta" may be determined by the fo""owin! test. a2 8rin 8rine" e""" hardn hardnes esss test test  b2 Rockwe"" hardness test c2 ;icker ;ickerss hardness hardness a"so a"so ca""ed ca""ed diamond diamond pyramid2 pyramid2 test and and d2 Shar Sharee sca" sca"er eros osco cope pe..

)E

he science of the meta" is a specia"[email protected] and a"thou!h it oerf"ows in to rea"ms of know"ed!e it tends to shut away from the !enera" reader. he know"ed!e know"ed!e of materia"s materia"s and their properties is of  !reat si!nificance for a desi!n en!ineer. he machine e"ements shou"d be made of such a materia" which has properties suitab"e for the conditions of operations. In addition to this a desi!n en!ineer  must be fami"iar with the manufacturin! processes and the heat treatments hae on the properties of the materia"s. In desi!nin! the arious part of the machine it is necessary to know how the materia" wi"" function in serice. 0or this certain characteristics or mechanica" properties most"y used in mechanica" mechanica" en!ineerin! practice are common"y determined determined from standard tensi"e tests. In en!ineerin! practice the machine parts are subjected to arious forces which may be due to either one or more of the fo""owin!. 1. *n *ner er!y !y tran transm smit itte ted d '. 6ei!ht i!ht of mach machin inee ). 0ric 0ricti tiona ona"" resis resistan tance ce &. Inert Inertia ia of rec recipr iproca ocati tin! n! part partss (. Chan Chan!e !e of of tem tempera peratu ture re >. 5ack 5ack of of ba"a ba"ance nce of moi moin! n! parts parts he se"ection of the materia"s depends upon the arious types of stresses that are set up durin! operation. he materia" se"ected shou"d with stand it. Another criteria for se"ection of meta" depend upon the type of "oad because a machine part resist "oad more easi"y than a "ie "oad and "ie "oad more easi"y than a shock "oad. Se"ection of the materia" depends upon factor of safety which in turn depends upon the fo""owin! factors. 1. Re"i Re"iab abi"i i"itie tiess of prop propert ertie iess '. Re"i Re"iab abi"i i"ity ty of of app" app"ie ied d "oad "oad ). he certaint certainty y as to to e+act e+act mode mode of of fai"ur fai"uree &. he e+tent e+tent of of simp" simp"ify ifyin! in! assum assumpti ptions ons (. h hee e+te e+tent nt of of "oca "oca"i "[email protected] @ed d >. he e+ten e+tentt of initia" initia" stresse stressess set up durin! durin! manufa manufactur cturin! in! ?. he e+tent e+tent "oss "oss of "ife "ife if fai" fai"ure ure occur occurss B. he e+ten e+tentt of "oss "oss of prope property rty if if fai"ure fai"ure occurs occurs

M$%#ri$" u#&

&F

Mi"& %##" R#$!);

1. Di"d stee" is readi"y aai"ab"e in market '. It is economica" to use ). It is aai"ab"e in standard [email protected] &. It has !ood mechanica" properties i.e. it is easi"y machinab"e (. It has moderate factor of safety because factor of safety resu"ts in unnecessary wasta!e of  materia" and heay se"ection. 5ow factor of safety resu"ts in unnecessary risk of fai"ure >. It has hi!h tensi"e stren!th ?. 5ow co-efficient of therma" e+pansion PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL;

D.S. has a carbon content from F.1( to F.)F. hey are easi"y wie"dab"e thus can be hardened on"y. hey are simi"ar to wrou!ht iron in properties. 8oth u"timate tensi"e and compressie stren!th of these stee" increases with increasin! carbon content. hey can be easi"y !as we"ded or  e"ectric or arc we"ded. 6ith increase in the carbon percenta!e we"d abi"ity decreases. Di"d stee" sere the purpose and was hence was se"ected because of the aboe purpose BRIGHT MATERIAL;

It is a machine drawned. he main basic difference between mi"d stee" and bri!ht meta" is that mi"d stee" p"ates and bars are for!ed in the for!in! machine by means is not for!ed. 8ut the materia"s are drawn from the dies in the p"astic state. herefore the materia" has !ood surface finish than mi"d stee" and has no carbon deposits on its surface for e+trusion and formation of  en!ineerin! materia"s thus !iin! them a !ood surface finish and thou!h retainin! their meta""ic  properties

&1

C'APTER (&% -AC'INE DESIGN

Machine design INTRODUCTION

he subject of DAC$I* ,*SI.( - m /s Rpm of motor X 1BFF rpm 7ut put rpm re3uired X '&rpm Da+ "oad X 1FF k! X 1FF + E.B1 X EB1  Da+ "oad transported X 1'Fk! X 1'F+ E.B1 X 11??   umber of sta!e in !ear bo+ X ' Ratio of !earin! X1 % ?&.B

CA5C:5AI7 07 0IA5 SP**, H 7RN:* 70 S=S*D

Power of motor

X

P

X

1B>.( watt.

'Z   P X ---------------->F 6here [ Rpm of motor

X

1BFF

 [or3ue transmitted 'Z + 1BFF +  1B>.( X --------------------->F 

X F.EBE-m



X EBE.E -mm



X EEF -mm &>

CA5C:5AI7 70 7RN:* 78AI 8=  Fr ? F

As out put force is more than re3uired force a"ue so desi!n of transmission system is safe.

DESIGN OF CHAIN DRI9E (F

6e know  RASDISSI7 RAI7 X O' / O1 X '/1 X )F/)FX 1 0or this transmission ratio number of teeth on pinion sprocket is in the ran!e of )( to '(  so we se"ect number of teeth on pinion sprocket as )F teeth. So  O1 X O' X )F teeth S,L,CT2%N %3 42TCH %3 S4R%C+,T 

he pitch is dicided on the basis of RPD of sprocket. RPD of pinion sprocket is aeiab"e in norma" condition it is X ?' rpm 0or this rpm a"ue we se"ect pitch of sprocket as 1'.?mm from tab"e. P X 1'.?mm CA5C:5AI7 70 DIID:D C**R ,ISAC* 8*6** SPR7CM*S

$* RASDISSI7 RAI7 X O' / O1 X )F/)F X 1 which is "ess than ). So from tab"e MINIMUM CENTER DISTANCE  X C4 J )F to (F mm 2

6here C4 X

,c1 J ,c' '

C4 X

11' J 11' '

C4 X 11' mm

DIID:D C**R ,ISAC* X 11' J )F to (F mm 2 DIID:D C**R ,ISAC* X 1(F mm

CALCULATION OF 9ALUES OF CONSTANTS  ./ .0 .1 .2 .3 .4 

5oad factor M1 X 1.'(  5oad with mi"d shock 2 (1

F$(%!r '!r &i%$)(# r#u"$%i!) K2 = 1.24 @ Fi*#& (#)%#r &i%$)(#

0actor for center distance of sprocket M) XF.B 0actor for position of sprocket M& X 1 5ubrication factor M( X 1.( periodic2 Ratin! factor M> X 1.F sin!"e shift2

C'LC#L'T2%N %3 0'L#, %3 3'CT%R %3 S'3,T5

0or pitch X 1'.? H speed of rotation of sma"" sprocket X ?' rpm 0AC7R 70 SA0*= X B.(( CA5C:5AI7 70 ;A5:* 70 A5576A85* 8*ARI< SR*SS 0or pitch X 1'.? H speed of rotation of sma"" sprocket X ?'rpm A5576A85* 8*ARI< SR*SS X '.B? k! / cm ' X '.B? ] EB1 / 1FF X'B  /mm'

C'LC#L'T2%N %3 C%,332C,NT %3 S'6 + 

0or [email protected]" position coefficient of sa! M X > CA5C:5AI7 70 DAUID:D *SI7 7 C$AI As we know ma+imum tor3ue on shaft X  ma+ X 1B + 1F) -mm 6here  1 X ension in ti!ht side ' X ension in s"ack side 717' X center distance between two shaft 0rom fi!. Sin ∝  X R1 - R'  

717'

Sin ∝  X 1FF - )F >>F Sin ∝ X F.1 ('

∝ X > T% 32ND θ  θ X 1BF ^'∝ 2 U ).1&/1BF θ X 1BF ^']> 2 U ).1&/1BF θ X '.E rad

we know that 1/' X eµθ 1/' X eF.)( + '.E 1 X 1.1 ' 6e hae  X  1 ^ ' 2 U R  1BFFF X  1.1 ' ^ ' 2 U 1FF ' X 1BFF  1 X 1.1 U 1BFF 1 X 1EBF  So tension in ti!ht side X 1EBF  6e know  Stress X force / area Stress induced X 1EBF/  ).1& ] B ' / & 2 Stress induced X )E.&1  /mm' As induced stress is "ess than a""owab"e desi!n of chain is safe .

CALC5LATION OF MINIM5M 6REA.ING LOAD OF CHAIN  Ca"cu"ation of chain e"ocity X ).1&]p2 / >FFFFSin 1BF / O12 2  X ).1&]?'2 / >FFFFSin 1BF / )F2  X F.F)(m / sec 6e know ()

 N X ]?(]n] Ms /  6here    X rpm of sma"" sprocket N X minimum breakin! "oad of chain ; X chain e"ocity .n X a""owab"e factor of safety Ms X M1]M']M)]M&]M(]M> N X ?']?(]B.((]1.B?( / F.F)( N X '&?))E'.B> k!f As minimum "oad bearin! capacity is much more than app"ied "oad so desi!n of chain is safe.

DESIGN OF SHAFT 8*,I>1 

Ra J Rb X 1BFFF akin! moment about A Rb + >'F X 1BFFF + (F( Rb X 1BFFF + (F( >'F

Rb X 1&>>1.'E  Ra J Rb X 1BFFF Ra X 1BFFF - Rb Ra X 1BFFF ^ 1&>>1 Ra X )))E  CA5C:5AI7 70 DAUID:D 8*,I< D7D* 6e see ma+imum bendin! moment occur at point C Da+ bendin! moment X Ra + (F( Da+ bendin! moment X )))E + (F( Da+ bendin! moment X 1>B>1E(  mm

(>

Da+imum bendin! moment X 1>B>1E( -mm Da+imum tor3ue X '&B>F -mm App"y !uest theory of fai"ure ma+ '  J Dma+ '

*3ua"ent tor3ue X

'&B>F '  J 1>B>1E( '

*3ua"ent tor3ue X

*3ua"ent tor3ue X

1>B>1E(  ^ mm

:sin! tortion formu"a e

X

Z/1> + ds) + fs

1>B>1E(X Z /1> + )F ) + fs induced fs induced X?>  / mm '

_ EF  / mm'

As induced stress is ery "ess in torsion desi!n of shaft is safe ,*SI(

6e know the channe" is subject to a+ia" compressie "oad In co"umn section the ma+imum bendin! moment occurs at channe" of section D X Rc + 5/' D X 1BFFF + ()F/' D X &??FFFF -mm 6e know fb X D/O O X t " + b J b '/>22 O X ( &F + >( J >( '/>22 (B

O X ))F& mm)  ow check bendin! stress induced in C section

fb induced X D/O fb induced X &??FFFF /))F& X 1&.&)  / mm ' As induced stress a"ue is "ess than a""owab"e stress a"ue desi!n is safe. fb X Permissb"e bendin! stress X 1'F  / mm fb induced _ fb a""owab"e $ence our desi!n is safe. DESIGN OF 6ELDED JOINT OF CHANNEL %

he we"ded joint is subjected to pure bendin! moment . so it shou"d be desi!n for bendin! stress. 6e know minimum area of we"d or throat area

A X F.?F? + s + " 6here

s X [email protected] of we"d " X "en!th of we"d

A X F.?F? + ( +  ?( J &F J )( J (B J)( 2

A X F.?F? + ( + '&)

A X B(E mm'

(E

8endin! stren!th of para""e" fi""et we"d

P X A + fb

fb X BF  / mm '

As "oad app"ied at the end of channe" joint is 1BFFF  . So moment !enerated at the we"ded joint is

D XP + 5 X 1BFFF+ ?( X 1)(FFFF  ^ mm

 we know fb X D /O

O X 8$) ^ bh) ----------------------

>$

&F + ?() ^ )( + (B ) OX

-----------------------------------

> + ?(

O X 'FEB'&

Ca"cu"atin! induce stress dee"oped in we"ded joint

fb induced

X 1)(FFFF / 'FEB'& >F

X >.&)  /mm ' As induce stress is "ess then a""owab"e stress the desi!n is safe.

C'APTER( 1& -AN0)ACT0RING  he process of conersion of raw materia" in to finished products usin! the three resources as Dan machine and finished sub-components. Danufacturin! is the term by which we transform resource inputs to create :sefu" !oods and serices as outputs. Danufacturin! can a"so be said as an intentiona" act of producin! somethin! usefu" . he transformation process is Shown be"ow-

Input out put

*"ement :sefu" product Dateria" Products ,ata Mnow"ed!e *ner!y Serices ;ariab"e cost

Conentiona" process

ransformation Dachines Interpretation Ski"" 0i+ed cost

Reenue

>1

It s the phase after the desi!n. $ence referrin! to the those a"ues we wi"" p"an he arious processes usin! the fo""owin! machines%i2

:niersa" "athe

ii2

Di""in! machine

iii2

ob to be m=ced +) ?haping operation

>?

If "en!th of cuttin! stokes breadth of job feed H cuttin! speed are known time re3uired to comp"ete job may be ca"cu"ated as#

 5 % @ + ( A m)=666 B C " ?. ob being studies , purpose for the record is re*uired.

6A7 C'ARTS  Outli8e pro9e:: 9;art :low process chart $ man type :low process chart $ material type :low process chart $ e*uipment type 6+7 C'ARTS  u:i8g time :9ale i)

multiple activity chart

ii)

simo chart

iii)

&.3..?. chart

6 C7 DIAGRA-S INDICATING -OE-ENTS < -ODE,S i)

:low diagrams

ii)

?tring diagrams

iii)

8ycle graph

iv)

8hromo cycle graph

v)

ravel chart

(0) o compare between two or more alternative methods. (1) o select operations for a detailed study.

:ollowing chart shows the method study chart for manufacturing different ?)

9b>ects $-

?Y3+9%? 8ICIY

&B'93I' B?4%

9peration

It indicated main steps in a process method or procedure.

Inspection

Inspection is an act of checking for correctness of the *uantity or *uality of the items.

ransport

his indicates a movement of workers 3aterials or e*uipment from place to place. 'elay occurs when something stops the process , product waits for ne"t event.

'elay (temporary storage) ?torage

It indicates when any ob>ect is internationally retained in a state or location , removal of the ob>ect re*uires proper authori#ation.

8hange of operation

It indicates change of operation or process.

9peration cum ransportation

"ample J rticles are being painted as they are transported by the chain conveyor. Inspection "ample J  powder milk tin is being cum 9peration weighed.(inspection) s it is filed. +oth the events occur simultaneously.

FLO6 PROCESS CHARTS @MATERIAL TYPE

12 PART  M.S.Ch$))#"

SR.  7. 1 '

,ISCRIPI7 70 ACI;I= Inspection of raw materia" Raw materia" ?&

&

 purchasin! Darkin! and cuttin! of materia" Chan!e of operation

(

Chamferin! the ed!es

>

Inspection of finished an!"es Stora!e

)

?

 4'RT 7 D.S.P5A* 0RAD*

SIO* ^ AS P*R $* ,RA6I<

Sr.o.

Actiities

1. '. ). &. (. >. ?. B. E. 1F. 11. 1'. 1). 1&. 1(. 1>

Raw Dateria" Doed to m/c shop Cuttin! aken to we"din! m/c. 6eddin! Doed to surface !rinder   2

o determine standards of production performance that may be used to contro" costs.

B'

ELEMENTS OF COST ENCOUNTERED IN THE PROJECT ;

he cost encountered in this project are materia" cost "abour cost cost of  standard parts desi!nin! cost and cost of indirect e+penses.

1

DESIGN COST ; he desi!nin! cost is ca"cu"ated by considerin! the amount taken by the desi!ner if so2 and the cost of desi!nin! materia" +

2

MATERIAL COST ; he materia" cost can be ca"cu"ated by findin! the tota" o"ume of the materia" used and the wei!ht of the materia". 0or ca"cu"ation the a"ue and the wei!ht the fo""owin! procedure is adopted %

a2

In actua" procedure there are some ho"es and shapes cut. 8ut they are considered to be so"id whi"e ca"cu"ation the tota" o"ume of materia" used.

 b2

6hi"e ca"cu"ation the o"ume the trian!"e shaped parts and the  shaped parts are considerin! as rectan!u"ar or s3uare p"ates.

c2

he wei!ht of the parts is ca"cu"ation by mu"tip"yin! the tota" o"ume and the density of the materia" D.S.2 which is e3ua" to ?.?>>>(+1F  ^) M!/Cc.

d2

he tota" cost can be obtained by mu"tip"yin! the tota" wei!ht by the rate of materia".

B)

A

RA6 MATERIAL , STANDARD MATERIAL COST

SR NO

PART NAME

RATE



100>

4000

2

MOTOR

1800

1

1800



SHAFT

44/>

8

330

3

SPROKET

8/%##%h

72

475

4

CHAIN

00/ M

M

:00

5

PEDESTAL BEARING

40

3

1300

7

CHAIN SPROKET SET

300

1

300

8

CHANNEL

30/ >

4

200

:

SPRING

140

1

140

10

DI9IDER

200

1

200

11

ELASTOMER

240

1

240

12

NUT BOLT 6ASHER

--------

-------

240

1

12 9 CON9ERTOR

40

1

40

13

6ELDING ROD

4 /(

24

124

14

COLOUR

00/"i%

0.74 "i%

224

TOTAL

-----/-

B&

B  DIRECT LABOUR COST

Sr.)!. 1. 2. . 3. 4. 5. 7. 8. :. 10.

R$%# #r

O#r$%i!)

H!ur

Tur)i)

10

140

1400

Mi""i)

2

140

00

Dri""i)

7

100

700

6#"&i)

15

174

2800

Gri)&i)



50

180

T$i)



30

120

Cu%%i)

8

30

20

G$ (u%%i)

8

40

300

A#"

2

100

200

P$i)%i)

2

100

200

TOTAL

5720/-

h!ur

A!u)%

INDIRECT COST B(

Tr$)!r%$%i!) (!% = 400/C!!"#)% , "uri($)% = 100/Dr$i) (!%

= 400/-

Pr!#(% r#!r% (!%

= 2000/-

TOTAL INDIRECT COST = 2100/-

TOTAL COST R$ M$%#ri$" C!%  S%& P$r% C!%  Dir#(% L$!ur C!% I)&ir#(% C!% T!%$" (!% !' r!#(%

= -----  5720 2100

T!%$" (!% !' r!#(%

= ------ /-

B>

CHAPTER  14 PREACUTIONS , SAFETY MEASURES

:ollowing precautions and safety measures are taken to make our creation a grand success.

PRECA0TION$) the spring tension in the top plate of road divider plate should be ad>usted uniformly /) the alignment of chain drive arrangement should be properly done. 0) 'o not allow the vehicle to touch divider  1) he system should be robustly designed.

SA)ET -EAS0RES$-

) 'o not touch the top plate when the vehicle is passing by. /) 'o not touch the open wires of the transmission system.

C'APTER(1" B?

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