RNAV System Requirements for airplanes

February 7, 2019 | Author: vishwaask | Category: Aerospace, Aviation, Aerospace Engineering, Aeronautics, Navigation
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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class RNAV System Requirements (1) ‡ FMS database issues ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ FMS architect...

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements (1)

EUROCONTROL

 FMS database issues  FMS architecture  FMS database production  What RNAV can do  FMS limitations

 Aircraft owner  ow ner   Aircraft manufacturer   FMC manufacturer   Database supplier  1

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements (2)

EUROCONTROL

 Navigation Performance  Accuracy, Integrity, Availability & Continuity  Need for accurate data in WGS 84  Need for appropriate tools

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

FMS Architecture  System Architecture  Main elements:  Fl Flig ight ht Man Manag agem emen entt Compu Compute ter( r(s) s)  Cont ntrrol Dis Disp pla lay y Un Unit  Navigat atiion Di Disp spla lay y  Na Navi viga gati tion on se sens nsor or (m (mix ix))

 Additional elements  Up Upda date te se sens nsor ors s (DME (DME/G /GPS PS/I /IRS RS))  Navigat atiion dat database 3

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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FMS Database production  Every 4 weeks w eeks a new navigation database  Double cycle system: old and new version stored and retrievable by the crew  Navigation data provided by the database supplier   Non tailored (AIP) and tailored (company routes) data compiled  Engine and Airline Policy data added and navigation data  Update closes 2 weeks before the effective date 4

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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FMS Database production (2)  Diskettes produced by the FMC manufacturer  (Honeywell) or licensee (Racal/Jepp (Racal/Jeppesen) esen)  changes checked by the navigation database diskette producer   Shipment of navigation diskettes/data-transfer diskettes/data-transfer to the Aircraft Operator   Data available ~1 week before the effective date  Loading via Nav Database loader before the effective date 5

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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FMS Database production (3)  Nav Database capacity  96 Kb/ Kb/19 192K 2Kb/ b/50 500K 0Kb/ b/1M 1Mb/ b/.. .... .... .... ..

 Nav Database structure  Sub-files:   Airways  Na Navi vigat gatio ion n faciliti facilities es (IL (ILS/ S/VO VOR/ R/DM DME/ E/ND NDB) B)  W ay points  Airports  Runways  Gate po positions  TMA pr procedures 6

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

FMS Database production (4)  Coding rules according AIRINC AIRINC 424 specification  Path and Terminator concept  Flight Flight pa paths ths nor norma mally lly desi designe gned d for non RNAV RNAV aircraft  ~20 diff differen erentt µtools¶ µtools¶ for for µtra µtranslat nslation¶ ion¶ of of writte written n text text for coding the flight path  Com Comple plex x rou routes tes >>> >>>Com Comple plex x codin coding g  TMA pro proced cedure ures s consum consumes es hal halff the the datab database ase capacity 7

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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FMS Database production (5)  At present, responsibility for coding rests with the database supplier   Future: coding advise by the State Authority?

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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What RNAV can do (1)  Highly accurate lateral navigation during straight segments when within Radio update mode  Assistance in vertical navigation  Certified VNAV VNAV control emerging  Random tracking  Smooth track intercepting

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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What RNAV can do (2)  Controlled turn  RF leg is emerging, but will not give all answers to the open loop turn problems

 Fly-by turn  FMS-friendly, FMS-friendly, but requires significant freedom to start and end the turn

 Fly-over turn  Unstable intercept next leg  Requires long stabilisation distance 10

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

FMS limitations (1)  Minimum distance between waypoints  Limitations for SID coding (often tight turns desired)  Speed control required (dominant factor)  Speed control may affect aircraft performance

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

FMS limitations (2)  Limitations direct after take-off   First fly-by way point minimum distance from Departure End of the Runway Runw ay (DER)  Turn delay when fly-over is programmed  Turn delay when turn at an altitude is programmed  Destabilised route in case of fly-over coding, unless DF leg is applied 12

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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FMS limitations (3)  Limited in general speed constraints  Only one general speed limit per airport (e.g 250 kt below 10.000 ft)

 Limited in procedure designation  Only one approach type per runway codable (unless officially designated separately)  Only one missed approach per approach type per runway codable 13

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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FMS limitations (4)  Limited in procedure designation  5 characters for waypoint names  6 characters for airway airw ay designators designators  6 characters for SID/STA SID/STAR R designators  Transition concept applied for SIDs/STARs may not match with w ith Source Documentation Documentation

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

AIRCRFAFT Owner   Aircraft owner  ow ner responsible responsible for:  na nav v da data taba base se co cont ntra ract ct  ai airl rlin ine e pol polic icy y dat data a  ti timel mely y loa loadi ding ng curr curren entt data data  assura assurance nce of inte integri grity ty critic critical al RNAV RNAV dat data a (requirement for RNAV)  pilot pilot train training ing/ch /check ecking ing proce procedu dures res for  for  RNAV  commu communi nicat cation ion via the the data databa base se suppli supplier  er  15

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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AIRCRAFT Manufacturer   Aircraft manufacturer   End res respo ponsi nsibil bility ity for for µsubcon µsubcontra tracto ctors¶ rs¶ (avionica manufactu m anufacturers) rers)  Involveme Involvement nt in modif modificati ication on of soft softwa ware re and and hardware of any system in the aircraft  Addition Additional al aircr aircraft aft perf performan ormance ce dat data a adde added d to the database disk

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

FMC Manufacturer   FMC manufacturer responsible manufacturer responsible for:  data data tran transla slatio tion n ARINC ARINC 42 424 4 into into FMC FMC language  compat compatibi ibilit lity y with with all all FMC¶s FMC¶s (all (all upda update te versions)  Qu Qual alit ity y assu assura ranc nce e pro proce cess ss  FM FMC C so soft ftw war are e up upda date tes s

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

DATABASE Supplier   Database supplier responsible supplier responsible for:  conve conversio rsion n source source da data ta into into ARINC ARINC 42 424 4 µlanguage¶  ve veri rifi fica cati tion on of co codi ding ng  quali quality ty assur assuran ance ce (ED (ED 76 76 complia compliant nt for  for  RNAV)  communi communicat cation ion/ve /verif rifica icatio tion n with with sou source rces s of  the data 18

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

Navigation Performance (1)  RNAV performance aims are: 1 Repeatabil Repeatability ity of the lateral path 2 Flig Flight ht path path accura accuracy cy

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

Navigation Performance (2) 1 Repeatability of the Lateral Path  Safety asp aspe ect  rema remain in withi within n the prot protected ected airs airspace pace  Ob Obst stac acle le cle clear aran ance ce  Tr Traf affi fic c sep separ arat atio ion n

 Ca Cap paci city ty asp spe ect  ATC react reaction ion to navi navigati gation on µsurprise µsurprises¶ s¶ : >>>> >>>> increase of separation minima

 Ec Eco onomi mica call asp aspect  No Nois ise e abat abatem emen entt

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

Navigation Performance (3) 2 Flight Path Accuracy  Sig Signif nifica icant nt in incre crease ase in acc accura uracy cy  Accura Accuracy cy hig highl hly y depen dependa dant nt on cod coding ing applied  Sig Signif nifica icant nt fre freed edom om duri during ng turn turns s  May cause miti mitigati gating ng reaction reaction by ATC ATC

 RF le leg g eme merg rgin ing g

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

Accuracy, Integrity, Continuity & Availability

 General  His Histor tory y: ICAO ICAO RGCS RGCSP>>R P>>RNP NP Con Concep ceptt  Four Four paramet parameters ers to cont control rol the safet safety y of of the the total system  Man Many y change changes s in defi definiti nition on over over the the year years s  Now als also o used used for for sensor sensor spe specifi cific c syste systems ms  Responsib Responsibility ility for adh adhere erence nce rests wit with h the the user  22

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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ACCURACY (1)  Accuracy The degree of conformance between the estimated, measured, or desired position and/or the velocity of a platform at a given time, and its true position or velocity. µWhere the system is¶

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

ACCURACY (2)  Position Update Components  DME old/new (provides radio update position) and/or   GPS/GLONASS (provides satellite update  position) (Augmentation techniques emerging) and additionally -if any IRS(-es) (provides reference position), time related   ANP ANP/EP /EPU/E U/EPE PE wa warni rning ng syste system m (in (in case case of of RNP) RNP) 24

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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INTEGRITY (1)  Integrity The ability of a system to provide timely warnings to users when the system should not be used for navigation µTrusting the system that it is where it says it is¶

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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INTEGRITY (2)  Integr Integrity ity lev level el to preve prevent nt a cata catastr stroph ophic ic failure condition less than 1*10E-9 per  flight hour (JAR 25-1309)  Integr Integrity ity tro trough ugh (po (posit sition ion)) erro errorr detec detectio tion n and identification  Contr Contrary ary to acc accura uracy cy,, integ integrit rity y is not measurable 26

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

INTEGRITY (3)  Di Diffi fficu cult lt fo forr com compl plex ex sy syst stem ems s  Even Even mor more e diff difficu icult lt for hig highly hly sof softw tware are driven systems  Inte Integr grit ity y inc incre reas ased ed by mu mult ltip iple le independent system design and crosschecking between independent systems  Indepe Independe ndency ncy thr throug ough h dis dissim simila ilarr desig design n of multiple systems ?  E.g E.g.. inde indepe penden ndency cy of DME DME stat statio ion n selec selectio tion n

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

AVAILABILITY (1)  Availability  An indication of the ability of the system to provide usable service within the specified coverage area µIt¶s there or it¶s not there¶

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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AVAILABILITY (2)  Cover Covers s the the ris risk k of a lac lack k of gui guida danc nce e at at the start of the operation  Risk Risk mit mitig igat atio ion n throu through gh mul multi ti sens sensor  or  design  Provis Provision ions s ava availa ilable ble to give give tim timely ely alar alarm m in case of loss of navigation  Provis Provision ions s to rem remain ain wi withi thin n a spec specifi ified ed RNP level (RNP requirement only)

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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CONTINUITY of Function (1)  Continuity of Function. The capab capability ility of the the total total system system to perform perform its function without non-scheduled interruptions during the intended operation µIt will be there or it will not be there¶

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

CONTINUITY of Function (2)  The pro proba babil bility ity th that at the sy syste stem m will will be available for the duration of a phase of  operation (presuming that the system was available at the beginning of the operation)

 RAI RAIM M ho hole le che checks cks fo forr the the int inten ende ded d rout route e  Cont Continu inuity ity in incre crease ased d by mult multip iple le sy syste stem m design (back-up)  Cont Continu inuity ity con contro trolle lled d thro throug ugh h multi multi-se -senso nsor  r  system design 31

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

WGS 84 (1)  Need for accurate data in WGS 84  WGS 84 techn technica ically lly not not requ require ired d for grou ground nd based updating systems, however«..  Impleme Implementa ntatio tion n of of WGS 84 is also also a matt matter  er  of increased accuracy and quality control  Positi Position on det determi ermina natio tion n of FMS with withou outt GNSS sensor is relative to the ground station 32

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

WGS 84 (2)  Problems may occur when w hen station with a different reference datum is used  Large deviations however should be filtered out by the FMC update algorithm  Small differences could be accepted by the system>>Map shift  GNSS sensored systems:  WGS 84 datum is absolutely a requirement

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RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

TOOLS (1)  Need for appropriate tools  RNAV RNAV pro proced cedure ure de desig sign: n: cod coding ing complexity decreased  Pressu Pressure re for comp complex lexity ity in in route route desi design gn (noise driven)  Noise Noise aba abate temen mentt route routes s overover-comp complex lex compared to conventional design  Th Thor orou ough gh tes testi ting ng req requi uire red d 34

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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TOOLS (2)  Expert judgement for complex routes  Lap-top testing  Flight simulator check  Ma Maxi ximum mum and and mini minimum mum T/ T/O O wei weigh ghtt  Ma Maxi ximum mum wind wind in str stren engt gth h and and direc directio tion n

 Actual flight trials via trial periods p eriods using designated operators 35

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

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ADVISES 

In principle, adhere to the µminimum distance between betw een way points¶ tables of PANS-OPS



Cater for maximum assumed wind speed



Cater for different wind directions



Apply sufficient distance for first way point after DER



Use TF coding as much as possible



Apply Fly-over as alternative but...



use DF after Fly-over coding, airspace permitting



Cater for delayed turns



Check flight paths with different FMCs



Use S.I. PDT as initial check 36

RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Master Class

RNAV System Requirements

EUROCONTROL

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