Reviewer in Correction 1

April 25, 2018 | Author: Mae Anthonette B. Cacho | Category: Parole, Prison, Probation, Pardon, Crimes
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Reviewer in Correction 1...





Basic Definition of Terms:

PENOLOGY defined: - The study of punishment for crime or of criminal offenders. It includes the study study of cont control rol and and preve preventi ntion on of crime crime throu through gh puni punishm shment ent of crimin criminal al offenders. - The term is derived from the Latin word “POEN! which means pain or  suffering. - Penology is otherwise "nown as Penal #cience. It is actually a division of  criminology that deals with prison management and the treatment of offenders$ and concerned itself with the philosophy and practice of society in its effort to repress criminal activities. - Penology has stood in the past and$ for the most part$ still stands for the poli policy cy of infl inflic icti ting ng puni punish shme ment nt on the the offe offend nder er as a cons conse% e%ue uenc nce e of his his wrongdoing. Pena Mana!ement: - &efers to the manner or practice of managing or controlling places of confinement as in 'ails or prisons. CORRECTION defined: -  (ranch of the )riminal *ustice #ystem concerned with the custody$ supervision and reha(ilitation of criminal offenders. - It is that field of criminal 'ustice administration which utili+es the (ody of "nowledge and practices of the government and the society in general involving the processes of handling individuals who have (een convicted of offenses for purposes of crime prevention and control. - It is the study of 'ail,prison management and administration as well as the reha(ilitation and reformation of criminals. - It is a generic term that includes all government agencies$ facilities$ programs$ procedures$ personnel$ and techni%ues concerned with the investigation$ inta"e$ custody$ confinement$ supervision$ or treatment of alleged offenders. Correction as a Process:

- &efers to the reorientation of the criminal offender to prevent him or her from repeating his deviant or delin%uent actions with out the necessity of ta"ing punitive actions (ut rather the introduction of individual measures of reformation. Correctiona Administration: - The study and practice of a systematic management of 'ails or prisons and other institutions concerned with the custody$ treatment$ and reha(ilitation of criminal offenders. II. Correction and t"e Crimina #$stice S%stem

The )riminal *ustice #ystem is the machinery of any government in the control and prevention of crimes and criminality. It is composed of the pillars of  'ustice such such as the the Law Enforcemen Enforcementt Pillar Police/ Police/$$ the Prosecution Prosecution Pillar$ Pillar$ the )ourt Pillar$ the )orrection Pillar$ and the )ommunity Pillar. )orrection as one of the pillars of )riminal *ustice #ystem is considered as the wea"est pillar. This is (ecause of its failure to deter individuals in committing crimes as well as the reformation of inmates. This is evident in the increasing num(er of inmates in 'ails or prisons. 0ence$ the need of prison

PO1 Howard G Castro


management is necessary to reha(ilitate inmates and transform them to (ecome law-a(iding citi+ens after their release. )orrection is the fourth pillar of the criminal 'ustice system. This pillar ta"es over once the accused$ after having (een found guilty$ is meted out the penalty for the crime he committed. 0e can apply for pro(ation or he could (e turned over to a non-institutional or institutional agency or facility for custodial treatment and reha(ilitation. The offender could avail of the (enefits of parole or e1ecutive clemency once he has served the minimum period of his sentence. 2hen the penalty is imprisonment$ the sentence is carried out either in the municipal$ provincial or national penitentiary depending on the length of the sentence meted out. III. &istorica Pers'ecti(e on Corrections Im'ortant Dates and E(ents in t"e &istor% of Corrections: )*t" Cent$r% + Sec$rin! Sanct$ar% In the 34 th )$ a criminal could avoid punishment (y claiming refugee in a church for a period of 56 days at the end of which time he has compelled to leave the realm (y a road or path assigned to him. ),- /En!and0  7 Torture as a form of punishment (ecame prevalent. )-t" Cent$r% 7 Transportation of criminals in England$ was authori+ed. t the end of the 38 th )$ &ussia and other European )ountries followed this system. It partially relieved overcrowding of prisons. Transportation was a(andoned in 394:. )1t" C to ate ) t" C 7 ;eath Penalty (ecame prevalent as a form of punishment. Reasons 2"% Deat" Penat% 3ecame t"e $s$a P$nis"ment d$rin! t"is 'eriod and t"ereafter:

3. ;eath of outlaws (ecame a “protection for the English people!. It is (ecause the people during this period did not totally (elieve yet in the a(ility to a strong police force to com(at criminals. th century. These were a(andoned warships converted into prisons as means of relieving congestion of prisoners. They were also called “floating hells!.

PO1 Howard G Castro




T"e Primar% Sc"oos of Penoo!%

3. The )lassical #chool 7 it maintains the “doctrine of psychological hedonism! or “free will!. That the individual calculates pleasures and pains in advance of action and regulates his conduct (y the result of his calculations. 5- 3FF9/ 0e was the most versatile of all philosophers during this period. 0e (elieves that fear of shame was a deterrent to crime. 0e fought the legality-sanctioned practice of torture. 5. )esare Bonesa$ Aarchese de Beccaria 3F49-3F>5/ - 0e wrote an essay entitled “n Essay on )rimes and Punishment!$ the most e1iting essay on law during this century. It presented the humanistic goal of law. :. *eremy Bentham 3F59-394
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