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July 19, 2017 | Author: JulieVee Octaviano Tangog | Category: Ballistics, Cartridge (Firearms), Fingerprint, Polygraph, Gun
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CRIMINALISTICS Criminalistics - is the forensic science of analyzing and interpreting evidence using the natural sciences. Forensic science pertains to all sciences applied to legal problems. - application of scientific techniques in collecting and analyzing physical evidence in criminal cases. Hans Gross - (1847-1915) An Austrian criminalist who in 1891 first used the term criminalistics. Father of forensic publications. Wrote the book on applying all the different science disciplines to the field of criminal investigation. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle - sci-fi author in late 1800. Popularized scientific crime detection methods through his fictional character "Sherlocke Holmes". Mathiew Orfila - (1787-1853) father of toxicology. Wrote about the detection of poisons and their effects on animals. Alphonse Bertillon - (1853-1914) father of anthropometry. Developed a system to distinguish one individual person from another based on certain body requirements. Francis Galton - (1822-1911) father of fingerprinting. Developed fingerprinting as a way to uniquely identify individuals. Leone Lattes - (1887-1954) father of blood stain identification. He developed a procedure for determining the blood type (A,B,AB or O) of a dried stain. Calvin Goddard - 1891-1955) father of ballistics. Developed the technique to examine bullets using a comparison microscope to determine whether or not a particular gun fired the bullets. Albert Osborn - (1858-1946) father of document examination. His work led to the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by the courts. Walter McCrone - (1916-1915) father of microscopic forensics. He developed and applied his microscopic techniques to examine evidence in countless court cases. Edmond Locard - (1877-1966) father of the crime lab. In 1910, he started the first crime lab in an attic of a police station. Founded the institute of criminalistics in France. His most important contribution was the "Locards Exchange Principle". Locard Exchange Principle 1. Every contact leaves a trace 2. Every criminal can be connected to a crime by particles carried from the crime scene 3. When a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross transfer of evidence occurs. J. Edgar Hoover - father of the FBI. Director of the FBI during the 1930s. His leadership spanned 48 years and 8 presidential administration. Organized a national laboratory to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the US. Goals of Forensic Science - to determine the cause, location, and time of death. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION



Forensic photography - sometimes referred to as police photography, forensic imaging or

Photography - is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording ligh

Photograph - is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface usually photog

Sir John Herschel - made the word photography known to the world in a lecture before the Camera - is a device that records and stores images. History of camera 

Mo Ti - 5th century BC Chinese philosopher who noted that a pin hole can form an in

Aristotle - in 4th century BC, described observing a partial solar eclipse in 330 BC by

Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) - an Egyptian scientist who wrote about observing a sola

Roger Bacon - English philosopher and Franciscan friar who in his study of optics, inc

Johannes Kepler - a German mathematician and astronomer who applied the actual

Robert Boyle - a British scientist who, with his assistant Robert Hooke developed a p

Johann Zahn - in 1685, built the first camera obscura that was small enough for prac

Joseph Nicephore Niepce - was a french inventor who is noted for producing the fir

1920 - the electronic video camera tube was invented, starting a line of development

William Henry Fox Talbot - a British inventor and pioneer of photography. He was th

Lumiere Brothers - introduced the autochrome, the first commercially successful co

Kodachrome - the first modern integral tripack color film, was introduced by Kodak in



camera obscura

Camera obscura - obscura means dark or darkened chamber room, is an optical device tha

Basic Modern Camera Parts 1. Lens - the light enters through the lens, this is where photo process begins. 2. View Finder - is what the photographer looks through to compose and in many cases to fo the picture. 3. Body - the basic most part of a camera. It is the box that holds the film and the camera co 4. Shutter Release - is a button found on many cameras used to take the picture. 5. Aperture - is a hole or an opening thorough which light travels. The aperture affects the im exposure by changing the diameter of the lens opening which control the amount of light the image sensor. 6. Image Sensor - converts the optical image to an electronic signal. 7. Memory Card - stores all the image information. 8. LCD Screen - typically replaced the view finder. 9. Flash - provide extra light during dim, low light situations. 10. User Control

Exposure - total amount of light allowed to fall on the photographic medium during the pro Film Speed - is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light.

Shutter Cycle - is the process of the shutter opening, closing and resetting to where it is re

Shutter - is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period of time for the purpos

Red Eye Effect - is the common appearance of red pupils in color photographs of eyes. It o

Photographic Emulsion - is a light sensitive colloid such as gelatin, coated into a substanc Personal Identification Fingerprint - is an impression left by the friction ridge of a human finger.

Friction ridge - is a raised portion of the epidermis on the fingers and toes, the palm of the Dermatoglyphics - scientific study of fingerprints. Type of Prints

1. Exemplar - "known prints" - fingerprints deliberately collected from a subject. 2. Latent - means chance or accidental impression left by the friction ridge skin on a sur 3.Patent - chance friction ridge impressions which are obvious to the human eye and w 4. Plastic Print - is a friction ridge impression left in a material that retains the shape of 5. Electronic Recording - example, a man selling stolen watches sending images of the CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Notes:  Plantar - refers to feet and toes.  Palmar - refers to finger and palm. Personalities who significantly contributed to the science of fingerprint.

1. Jan Evangelista Purkinje (1787 - 1869) - a czech physiologist and professor of anat 2. Georg Von Meisner (1829 - 1905) - German anatomist who studied friction ridges.

3. Sir William James Herschel - initiated fingerprinting in India. In 1877 at Hoogly nea

4. Henry Faulds - a Scottish surgeon who in 1880, in a Tokyo hospital, published his firs

5. Juan Vucetich - an Argentine chief of police who created the first method of recordin

6. Alphonse Bertillon - created in 1879 a system to identify individuals by anthropome

7. Edward Richard Henry - UK home secretary who conducted an inquiry into identific

8. Azizul Hague and Hem Chandra Bose - Indian fingerprint expert who have been c

9. Henry P. deForrest - used fingerprinting in the New York civil service in 1902 and by

10.Nehemiah Grew -(1641 - 1712) - in 1684, this English physician, botanist and micros

11.Marcelo Malphigi - an anatomy professor at the university of Bologna, noted in his t

12.Mark Twain - in his memoir life on the Mississippi 1883, it mentioned a melodramatic

Fingerprint Sensor - is an electronic device used to capture a digital image of the fingerpr

Biometrics (Biometric Authentication) - refers to the identification of humans by their c

Latent Print - (known as dactyloscopy or hand print identification) - is the process of comp The Most Popular Ten Print Classification System. 1. Roscher System - developed in Germany. Implemented in Germany and Japan. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. Juan Vucetich System - developed in Argentina. Implemented through out South Ame 3. Henry Classification System - developed in India. Implemented in most English speak

In the Henry System of Classification. There are 3 basic fingerprint patterns.

1. Loop - constitute 60% to 65% of all fingerprint. Kinds of Loop 1)ulnar Loop 2)radial Loop

2. Whorl - constitute 30% to 35% of all fingerprints. Kinds of Whorl 1)plain Whorl 2)accidental Whorl 3)double Loop whorl 4)central Pocket Loop Whorl.

3. Arch - constitute 5% of all fingerprints. Kinds of Arch 1)plain Arch 2)tented Arch The Basic Fundamentals of Fingerprints are: 1. Permanence - fingerprints never change. 2. Individuality - no two fingerprints are alike. Characteristics of a Ridge (minutia Features) 1. Ridge Ending - the end of a ridge. 2. Bifurcation - the Y-shaped split of one ridge into two. 3. Dot - is a very short ridge that looks like a dot.

When is fingerprint ridges formed? ans. formed during the third to fourth month of fetal

Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) - is the process of automatically m

What is a Loop? ans. the ridges enter from one side of the finger, form a curve and then e



What is a whorl? ans. ridges form circularly around a central point on the finger.

What is an Arch? ans. the ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise in the center formin

What does a Minutiae Include? ans. It includes the following: 1. Ridge Ending - the abrupt end of a ridge. 2. Ridge Bifurcation - a single ridge that divides into two ridges. 3. Short Ridge or Independent Ridge - a ridge that commences, travels a short distance and 4. Island - a single small ridge inside a short ridge or ridge ending that is not connected to a ridges. 5. Ridge Enclosure - a single ridge that bifurcates and reunites shortly afterward to continue ridge. 6. Spur - a bifurcation with a short ridge branching off a longer ridge. 7. Crossover or Bridge - a short ridge that runs between two parallel ridges. 8. Delta - a Y-shape ridge meeting. 9. Core - A U-turn in the ridge pattern.

Forensic Anthropology - forensic discipline that studies human skeletal remains for identi

Forensic Odontology - study of dental features to identify a victim when the body is other

FORENSIC MEDICINE Forensic medicine - the science that deals with the application of medical knowledge to legal question. Clinical Forensic Medicine - involves an application of clinical methods for the administration of justice. Paulus Zacchias - father of legal medicine as well as father of forensic psychiatry. Medical Ethics - deals with the moral principles which should guide members of the medical profession in their dealings with each other, their patients and the state. Medical Etiquette - deals with the conventional laws of courtesy observed between members of the medical profession.A doctor should behave with his colleagues as he would have them behave with himself. Hippocrates - father of medicine, discussed lethality of wounds and formulated medical ethics. Forensic Pathology - deals with the study and application of the effects of violence or unnatural disease in its various forms in or on the human body, in determining the cause and manner of death in case of violence, suspicious, unexplained, unexpected, sudden, and medically unattended death. Pathology - is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. Pathologist - a medical doctor who conducts an autopsy.



Autopsy - post mortem examination of a corpse. Other names of an autopsy 1. post-mortem examination 2. necropsy -particularly as to non human body 3. autopsia cadavarem 4. obduction Objectives of Autopsy 1. To find out the time of death. 2. To find out the cause of death. 3. To find out the manner of death, whether accidental, suicidal or homicidal. 4. To establish the identity of the body. 5. In new born infants, to determine live birth or viability. Exhumation - is the digging out of an already buried body from the grave. Cadaver - also called corpse, is a dead human body. Carcass - dead body of an animal. Injury - is damage to a biological organism which can be classified on various bases. Wound - is a type of injury in which the skin is torn, cut, or punctured or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion. Classification of wound 1. open wound - is a break in the skin's surface resulting in external bleeding. 2. closed wound - the skin is not broken open and remains intact. Classification/ Categories of open wounds 1.

incised wound - caused by a clean, sharp edged object such as a knife, razor or a glass splinter.

2. laceration - irregular tear like wound caused by some blunt trauma. 3. abrasion - (grazes) - superficial wound in which the top most layer of the skin is scraped off. Are often caused by a sliding fall into a rough surface. 4. puncture wound - caused by an object puncturing the skin such as nail. 5. penetration wound - caused by an object such as a knife entering and CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


coming out from the skin. 6. gunshot wound - caused by a bullet or similar projectile driving into or through the body. There may be two wounds, one at the site of entry and one at the site of exit generally referred to as through and through. Classification/Categories of closed wound 1. contusions - commonly known as bruises, caused by a blunt force trauma that damages tissue under the skin. 2. hematoma - called blood tumor, caused by damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin. 3. crush injury - caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a long period of time.

Ante Mortem - before death. Post Mortem - scientific term for after death. Cadaver tag - an identification tag attached to the cadaver containing tag number, name if identified, date/time and place of recovery, date/time of incident, gender, other pertinent information and name of the investigator. In articulo mortis - at the point of death. Rigor mortis - stiffening of the body after death. lividity - process through which the body's blodd supply will stop moving after the heart has stopped pumping it around the inside of the deceased. Necrophagus - this type of organism feeds directly on decomposing tissue. 37 degrees celsius or 98 degrees fahrenheit - average body temperature. 4 Categories of Death



1. natural causes 2. homicide/killing 3. accidental death 4. suicide Vital signs -are measures of various physiological statistics often taken by health professionals in order to assess the most basic body functions. 1. body temperature 2. pulse rate/heart rate 3. blood pressure 4. respiratory rate Death - cessation of all biological functions that sustains a living organism. Causes of death: 1. old age 2. predation - biological interaction where a predator (organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). 3. malnutrition 4. disease 5. accidents 6. injury Signs of death 1. cessation of breathing 2. cardiac arrest - no pulse 3. livor mortis - settling of the blood in the lower dependents of the body. 4. algor mortis - reduction in body temperature following death. 5. rigor mortis - the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move. 6. decomposition - reduction into simple form of matter accompanied by



strong unpleasant odor. Cadaveric Spasm - sudden rigidity of the muscle immediately after death. A rare form of muscular stiffening that occurs at the moment of death,persists into the period of rigor mortis and can be mistaken for rigor mortis. Other Names of cadaveric Spasm 1. Instantaneous rigor 2. Cataleptic rigidity 3. Instantaneous rigidity 4. Death grip 5. Post Morten spasm When does the stiffness of death begin to disappear? after 36 hours. What is the rate of temperature change to a body after death? after one hour,body temperature drops 1 to 1 1/2 degrees per hour. Dying Declaration - is a testimony that would normally barred as hearsay but may nonetheless be admitted as evidence in certain kinds of cases because it constituted the last words of a dying person. Nemo Morituros Praesumitur Mentiri - a dying person is not presumed to lie. Zombie - an animated corpse brought back to life by mystical means such as witchcraft. Coffin Birth - (post Morten fetal extrusion) - is the expulsion of a non viable fetus though the vaginal opening of the decomposing body of a pregnant woman as a result of the increasing pressure of the intra abdominal gases. Code of Hammurabi - King of Babylon (4000 to 3000 BC) is the oldest known medico legal code. Bologna, Italy - where the first medico-legal autopsy was done. Bartolomeo de Varignana - conducted the first medico-legal autopsy in Italy in 1302. Fortunato Fedele - an Italian physician who in 1602 published the first book on forensic medicine. Inquest - is the legal or judicial inquiry to ascertain a matter of fact. Euthanasia - (mercy killing) - it means producing painless death of a person suffering from hopelessly incurable and painful disease. It is not allowed by law in the Philippines. Malingering/Shamming - means conscious, planned feigning or pretending disease for the sake of gain. The Rule of Haase - is used to estimate age of fetus.The length of the fetus in cm. divided by five, is the duration of pregnancy in months. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Forensic Entomology - is the use of insects and their arthropod relatives that inhabit decomposing remains to aid in legal investigations. What are the 5 stages of insect development? 1. Eggs 2. Larvae 3. Prepupae 4. Pupae 5. Adult fly What are the 2 methods of biological forensics are concerned with? entomology and DNA. Residence time - this defines how long an insect colony has been at a corpse. The body farm - used for entomological experiment.This place exists at the University of Tennessee. LIE DETECTION AND INTERROGATION (POLYGRAPH)

Polygraph - popularly referred to as lie detector. - measures and records several psycholog - literally means "many writings". - is derived from two Greek words "Poly"which means many and "Graphos"which means writing. 

blood pressure - is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of bloo

pulse - represents the tactile arterial palpitation of the heartbeat by trained fingertip

respiration - the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues a

skin conductivity - also known as Galvanic sin response - is a method of measuring

ohmmeter - is an electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance, the oppo

galvanometer - an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current.

stimuli - is applied to sensory receptor, it influences a reflex via stimulus transductio

Personalities who contributed to the development of the polygraph machine.  Cesare Lombroso - he invented in 1895 a device to measure changers in blood pres  John Augustus Larson - a medical student at the University of California at Berkeley  Leonarde Keeler - was the co-inventor of the polygraph. He developed the so called  William Marston - an american who used blood pressure to examine german prisone  John Reid - In 1948, developed a device which recorded muscular activity accompan Two types of present day polygraph instrumentation 1. analog



2. computerized - most polygraph examiners now used this.

Types of Questions in a Polygraph Test 1. Control Question - preliminary information question 2. Irrelevant Question 3. Relevant Question - In a polygraph test, the types of questions alternates, the test is passed if the ph responses during the probable lie control questions are larger than those during question. Lie Detection - is the practice of determining whether someone is lying. Three Basic Approaches To The Polygraph Test

1. The Control Question Test (CQT) - this test compares the physiological response to relevan

2. The Directed Lie Test (DLT) - this test tries to detect lying by comparing physiological resp

3. The Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) - this test compares physiological responses to multiple c

3 Phases Of A Polygraph Examination 1. Pre-Test Phase - the examiner discusses with the subject the test issue, review the tes that will be ask during the test and assess the subjects emotional and physiological su undergo the polygraph test. 2. Testing Phase - subjects physiological responses are recorded as the subject answers questions reviewed earlier. 3. Post Test Phase - examiner reviews test data obtained and interprets the polygraph ch Conclusions That A Polygraph Examiner May Reach 1. Subject is telling the truth 2. Subject is not telling the truth 3. The result is inconclusive * A polygraph test normally lasts between one and a half hours to two and a half hours.

* Polygraph test result in the philippines is not admissible in evidence as proof of the gu accused. * Polygraph test is voluntary. * The accuracy of polygraph test is about 90% provided the examiner is competent and polygraph machine is in good working condition. * Polygraph is an investigative tool.

* The principle behind a lie detection test is that when the subject hears a questions wh Who Uses The Polygraph 1. Law Enforcement Agencies 2. Legal Community 3. Private Sector CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Kinds of Errors in a Polygraph Test 1. False Positive - occurs when a truthful examinee is reported as being deceptive. 2. False Negative - when a deceptive examinee is reported as truthful. Causes of Polygraph Errors 1. Failure of examiner to properly prepare the examinee for the examination. 2. Misreading of the physiological data on the polygraph charts. 3. Defective polygraph machine. Reactions - changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing and sweat activity.


Forensic ballistics - is the science of analyzing firearms usage in crimes. It involves analys

Ballistics -(ballein "to throw") - is the science of mechanics that deals with the flight, behav

Ballistic missile - is a missile, only guided during the relative brief initial powered phase of Flight - is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere by generating aero

Firearms identification - the identification of fired bullets, cartridge cases or other ammun

Rifling - is the process of making helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or firearm which imp Projectile - is any object projected into space by the exertion of a force. Trajectory - is the path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time.

Firearm - is a weapon that launches one or many projectiles at high velocity through confin

Ballistic fingerprinting - involves analyzing firearm, ammunition and tool mark evidence i

Gun ballistic - is the work of projectile from the time of shooting to the time of impact with Four categories of gun ballistics

1. Internal/interior ballistic - the study of the processes originally accelerating the projec

2. Transition/intermediate ballistic - the study of the projectiles behavior when it leaves t

3. External/exterior ballistic - the study of the passage of the projectile through a medium 4. Terminal ballistic - is the study of the interaction of a projectile with its target. Colonel Calvin Hooker Goddard - father of forensic ballistic. Some Factors to be Considered in designing a Firearm 1. reliability of firing 2. accuracy of projectile 3. force of projectile 4. speed of firing CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Characteristics of a Muzzle Loader Firearm 1. powder and bullet loaded from top of the barrel 2. smooth bore with a round lead ball. 3. limited range and accuracy Accuracy is Increased 1. by longer bore or length of metal tube 2. putting spiral grooves in the bore (riffling)

Breech loading firearm - is a firearm in which the cartridge or shell is inserted or loaded in Sir Hiram Maxim - an American inventor of the machine gun or the maxim gun.

Richard Gatling - inventor of the Gatling gun, a machine gun with a six barrel capable of fi Gatling Gun - a hand driven, crank operated multi barrel machine gun.

note: velocities of bullets are increased with the use of a jacket of a metal such as copper or Fouling - deposits of unburned powder residue in the bore of a gun. What is the indispensable tool of the firearm examiner? comparison microscope. Firearms Terminology

1. Action - the part of the firearm that loads, fires, and ejects a cartridge.Includes lever act 2. Barrel - the metal tube through which the bullet is fired.

3. Black Powder - the old form of gun powder invented over a thousand years ago and con of nitrate,charcoal,and sulfur. 4. Bore - the inside of the barrel. 5. Breech - the end of the barrel attach to the action

6. Bullets - is a projectile propelled by firearm,sling, airgun. They are shaped or composed d 

round nose - the end of the bullet is blunted.

hollow point - there is a central cavity in the bullet nose not covered by a metal jac

action 4 - hollow point projectile made of non fragmenting brass with radiopaque pla

hydra-Shock - hollow point projectile with soft deformable anterior and hard posterio

Jacketed - the soft lead is surrounded by another metal, usually copper, that allows t

wad-cutter - the front of the bullet is flattened.

semi-wad-cutter - intermediate between round nose and wad-cutter.

7. Butt or Buttstock - the portion of the gun which is held or shouldered.

8. Caliber - the diameter of the bore measured from land to land , usually expressed in hun CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


9. Cartridge - also called a round - packages the bullet, propellant and primer into a single a containing metallic case that is precisely made to fit within the firing chamber of a firea Parts of a cartridge a. bullet b. case/shell c. powder d. primer 10. Centerfire - the cartridge contains the primer in the center of the base where it can be firing pin of the action. 11. Chamber - the portion of the action that holds the cartridge ready for firing.

12. Choke - a constriction of a shotgun bore at the muzzle that determines the pattern of th shot. 13. Double Action - Pulling the trigger both cocks the hammer and fires the gun.

14. Double Barrel - two barrels side by side or one on top of the other usually on a shotgun

15. Gauge - refers to the diameter of the barrel on a shotgun in terms of the number of lead size of the bore it would take to weigh one pound (10 gauge,12 gauge etc) "410" gauge to caliber,but it is worded as such to refer to a shotgun.

16. Hammer - a metal rod or plate that typically drives a firing pin to strike the cartridge pr detonate the powder.

17. Ignition - the way in which powder is ignited. Old muzzle loading weapons used flintlock percussion caps.Modern guns use primers that are rimfire or centerfire. 18. Lands and Grooves - lands are the metal inside the barrel left after the spiral grooves produce the rifling.

19. Magazine - this is a device for storing cartridges in a repeating firearm for loading into t

20. Magnum - for rifles and handguns, an improved version of a standard cartridge which u same caliber and bullets, but has more powder, giving the fired bullet more energy. For s loads,magnum shells have more powder and may have increased length with more shot 21. Muzzle - the end of the barrel out of which the bullet comes. 22. Pistol - synonym for a handgun that does not have a revolving cylinder.

23. Powder - modern gun cartridges use smokeless powder that is relatively stable,of unifo and leaves little residue when ignited. For centuries black powder was used and was qui (ignited at low temperature or shock),was composed of irregularly sized grains,and left a heavy residue after ignition,requiring frequent cleaning of bore.

24. Primer - a volatile substance that ignites when struck to detonate the powder in a cartr 

Rimfire cartridges - have primer inside the base.



Centerfire cartridges - have primer in a hole in the middle of the base of the cartrid

25. Revolver - handgun that has a cylinder with holes to contain the cartridges. The cylinde bring the cartridge into position to be fired. This is a single action when the hammer mu before the trigger can fire the weapon. It is double action when pulling the trigger both c fires the gun.

26. Riffling - the spiral grooves cut inside a gun barrel that give the bullet a spinning motion metal between the grooves is called a land. 27. Rimfire - the cartridge has the primer distributed around the periphery of the base. 28. Safety - a mechanism of an action to prevent firing of the gun. 29. Shotgun - a gun with a smooth bore that shoots cartridges that contain "shot" or small pellets of lead or steel as the projectiles. 30. Smoothbore weapons - have no riflings, typically shotguns. Most handguns and rifles riflings. 31. Sights - the device on top of the barrel that allow the gun to be aimed.

32. Silencer - a device that fits over the muzzle of the barrel to muffle the sound of a gunsh work by baffling the escape of gases. 33. Single Action - the hammer must be manually cocked before the trigger can be pulled gun

34. Smokeless Powder - refers to modern gun powder which is not really powder but flake nitrocellulose and other substances. Not really smokeless but much less so than black po

35. Stock - a wood,metal,or plastic frame that holds the barrel and action and allows the gu firmly. Composition of Gunpowder 1. Sulfur 2. Charcoal 3. Saltpeter (potassium nitrate) - gun powder first appeared in china but used primarily in firecrackers.

Different Firing Mechanisms of Firearm 1. Matchlock - employed a burning wick on a spring that was "locked" back and released in powder upon pulling a trigger. The powder in the pan then ignited, sending flame throug hole into the barrel chamber of the weapon, igniting a larger powder charge in the cham sending the projectile (bullet) forward. 2 Wheellock - in the early 16th century, improvement included the wheellock mechanism in spinning wheel against a metal plate showered sparks into the pan holding the priming p 3. Flintlock - developed in the early 17th century, flint is released by the trigger mechanism strikes a steel plate to shower sparks into the pan filled with powder. 4. Percussion - evolved in the 19th century, consisted of a hammer that was locked and wh released, struck a cap containing a volatile"primer" that ignites on impact, sending a flam through a small tube into the barrel chamber.




Questioned Document - is any signature, handwriting, typewriting or other mark whose so Graphology - study of the handwriting to determine personality traits. Simulation - an attempt to disguise one's handwriting or copy someone Else's. The following trait are considered in handwriting analysis: 1. letter form which includes curve, connections, slants, size and angle. 2. line quality which indicated the amount of pressure used by the author. 3. Arrangement which refers to spacing, formatting and alignment. Characteristics which indicate that a handwriting sample has been forge. 1. shaky lines 2. dark, thick starts and finish 3. numerous pen lifts 

But they may also be the result of nervousness, alcohol impairment or other factors.

The content of what a person writes is analyzed by handwriting expert. Grammatical,

The speed or how fast a person write is not considered in handwriting analysis though

Calligraphy - decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering. The art of producing decorat

Three Stages in the Process of Handwriting Examinations 1. Analysis - the questioned and the known items are analyzed and broken down to directly characteristics. 2. Comparison - the characteristics of the questioned item are then compared against the kn standard. 3. Evaluation - similarities and differences in the compared properties are evaluated and this determines which ones are valuable for a conclusion. This depends on the uniqueness an frequency of occurrence in the items.

Handwriting Exemplar - known standards - is a piece of writing that can be examined fore

Two Types of Handwriting Exemplars 1. Request Writings - obtained from individual specifically for the purpose of conducting a ha comparison. 2. Collected Writings -samples the individual produced for some other unrelated reason gene course of their day to day activities. Common Questioned Documents 1. Forgery 2. Counterfeiting CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


3. Mail Fraud 4. Kidnapping 5. embezzlement 6. Theft 7. Robbery 8. Sex Crime 9. Murder 10.Homicide

Historical Dating - work involving the verification of age and worth of a document or objec Indicators of Forgery 1. Blunt starts ans stops 2. Pen lifts and hesitations 3. Tremor 4. Speed and Pressure 5. Patching FORENSIC CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY

Forensic chemistry - is the application of chemistry to criminal investigation. Focuses on

Forensic Science - is the use of science and technology to enforce civil and criminal laws.

Blood - a specialized body fluid that circulates in the arteries and veins of vertebrate anima Semen - the male reproductive fluid containing spermatozoa in suspension.

Moulage - is the art of applying mock injuries for the purpose of training emergency respo

Methods of Identifying Unknown Substance 1. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer - useful method for the simultaneous separatio identification and quantization of one or more individual components of an unknown su mixture. 2. Spectroscopy - is the study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. Spectrophotometer - instrument used to aide in the identification of compound.

Gas Chromatograph - a chemical analyzer and instrument for separating chemicals in a c

Mass Spectrometry - is the analytical technique that measures the mass to charge ratio o Amino Acid - the building blocks of protein coded by triplets of bases of DNA blue print.

Ammonia - a colorless gaseous alkaline compound that is very soluble in water, has charac Anemia - any condition in which the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin Aplasia - failure of an organ or tissue to develop normally.

Autolysis - the destruction of cells after death due to lack of ability to metabolize oxygen n

Hair - any of the fine threadlike strands growing from the skin of humans,mammals, and so



What are the 3 stages of hair growth?

1. Anagen phase - the growth phase. It begins in the papilla and can last up to 8 years. The which the hair remains in this stage is determined by genetics. The longer the hair stays in

2. Catagen Phase - also known as the transitional phase, allows the follicle to renew itself. D time which last about 2 week, the hair follicle shrinks due to disintegration and the papilla

3. Telogen phase - or resting phase, the hair and follicle remain dormant anywhere from 1 t begins again when this phase is complete. The root is club shaped. Shedding - the process of normal hair loss.

Alopecia - a hair loss disease that causes the hair to spontaneously fall out.It is mainly cha Medulla - inner most layer of the hair shaft.

From which part of the body are most often used for hair comparison? Either head How to determine the likely race of the person from which a hair originated? 1. Caucasian - evenly distributed, fine pigmentation Wavy with round cross section. 2. Mongoloid - Continuous medullation. 3. Negroid - dense, uneven pigmentation. Rate of speed of hair growth - 1.25 cm or .05 inches per month or about 6 inches or 15

What aspect of the hair is the criminalist interested in matching? 1. matching color 2. Length 3. Diameter 4. presence or absence of medulla 5. distribution, shape, and color intensity of the pigment granules in the cortex. What types of evidence found at the crime scene are most likely to provide evide Hair from different parts of the body vary significantly in its physical characteristics.

Forensic Toxicology - deals with the medical and legal aspects of the harmful effects of ch Forensic - comes from the Latin word "forensis" meaning forum. Toxicology - from the Greek word toxicos - "poisonous" and "logos". - it is the study of the symptoms, mechanisms and treatments and detection of

Poison - a substance that when introduced into or absorbed by a living organism causes de

Toxin - an antigenic poison or venom of plant or animal origin especially one produced by o - poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain micro or some higher plant and animal species.

Venom - poisonous fluid secreted by animals and typically injected into prey by biting or sti Acute Poisoning - is exposure to poison on one occasion or during a short period of time.

Chronic Poisoning - is long term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symp CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Antidote - a medicine taken or given to counter act a particular poison. - a substance which can counteract poisoning.

Mathieu Orfila - is considered to be the modern father of toxicology, having given the subj

Dioscorides - a Greek physician in the court of Roman emperor Nero, made the first attemp

Jean Stas - a belgian analytical chemist who in 1850 gave the evidence that the Belgian co Celsus - a roman physician from the first century, considered the father of toxicology. He is

Paracelsus - "Theophrastus Phillipus Aureleus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541) - be LD50 - is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified

Dose - a quantity of medicine or drug taken or recommended to be taken at a particular tim

Overdose - the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater th Carcinogen - any substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.

Corrosive substance - is one that will destroy or irreversibly damage another surface or su

Law Enforcement Administration (L.E.A.)

Law Enforcement Administration - the process involved in ensuring strict compliance, pr

Law - the system of rules that a particular country or community recognizes as regulating th Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.

Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objective Sir Robert Peel - considered a "father of law enforcement". Sir Robert Peels Nine Principles of Policing:

1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of polic 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to secure and maintain the respect of the public. 4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to t necessity of the use of force. 5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to re only when the expertise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficien 7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the his tradition; the police are the public and the public are the police. The police being o individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear the powers of the judiciary. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder not the visible evidence action in dealing with it.

Administration of Police Organization

Police - one of the pillars of the criminal justice system that has the specific responsibility o

Administration - an organizational process concerned with the implementation of objective Organization - a group of persons working together for a common goal or objectives.

Police Organization - a group of trained personnel in the field of public safety administrati Enforcement - means to compel obedience to a law, regulation or command.

Law Enforcement Agency - pertains to an organization responsible for enforcing the laws.

Objectives - refer to the purpose by which the organization was created. Refer to the goals

Supervision - means the act of watching over the work or tasks of the members of the orga

Management - the process of directing and facilitating the work of people organized in form supplies and time).

Hierarchy - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any giv

Authority - the right to command and control the behavior of employees in lower positions A particular position within the organization. Carries the same regardless of who occupies th Management/Administrative Functions 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Directing 4. Controlling 5. staffing 6. Reporting 7. Budgeting Principles of efficient Management

* Division of work - work specialization can increase efficiency with the same amount of effo

* Authority and Responsibility- authority includes the right to command and the power to req obedience. One cannot have authority without responsibility. * Discipline - necessary for an organization to function effectively, however, the state of th disciplinary process depends upon the quality of its leaders. * Unity of Command - subordinate should receive orders from one superior only.

* Scalar Chain - the hierarchy of authority is the order of ranks from the highest to the lowe CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


units from top to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority. Organizational Units in the Police Organization 1. Functional Units

Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a large department; comprised of seve Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau. Section - functional unit within a division that is necessary for specialization.

Unit - functional group within a section or the smallest functional group within an organiza 2. Territorial Units Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned for duty. Route - a length of streets designated for patrol purpose, also called line beat. Beat - an area designed for patrol purposes whether foot or motorized. Sector - an area containing two or more beat, route or post.

District - a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol purposes, usually with its own sta

Area - a section or territorial division of a large city each comprised of designated district EVOLUTION OF THE POLICING SYSTEM ORIGIN OF THE WORD “POLICE” POLITEIA – Greek word which means government of the city POLITIA – Roman word which means condition of the state or government POLICE – French word which was later adopted by the English language THEORIES OF POLICE SERVICE

1. HOME RULE THEORY - policemen are regarded as servants of the community, who rely for the efficiency of thei upon the express needs of the people. - policemen are civil servants whose key duty is the preservation of public peace and secu 2. CONTINENTAL THEORY - policemen are regarded as state or servants of the higher authorities - the people have no share or have little participation with the duties nor connection with organization. CONCEPTS OF POLICE SERVICE

1. OLD CONCEPT - police service gives the impression of being merely a suppressive machinery - this philosophy advocates that the measurement of police competence is the increasing arrests, throwing offenders in detention facilities rather than trying to prevent them from CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


committing crimes 2. MODERN CONCEPT - regards police as the first line of defense of the criminal justice system, an organ of crim prevention - police efficiency is measured by the decreasing number of crimes - broadens police activities to cater to social services and has for its mission the welfare o individual as well as that of the community in general. EARLY POLICING SYSTEM

1. KIN POLICING - the family of the offended individual was expected to assume responsibility for justice - the family of the victim was allowed to exact vengeance 2. EGYPT - ancient rulers had elite unit to protect them - created the MEDJAYS, a form of police force whose duties include guarding of the tombs apprehending thieves - introduced the use of dogs as guards and protectors. 3. ROME - created the first organized police force called VIGILES OF ROME, or VIGILES URBANI (wat the city), which had the primary task of firefighting and policing - the Vigiles acted as night watch, apprehendinng thieves, keeping an eye out for burglars hunting down runaway slaves, and were on occasion used to maintain order in the stree - the Vigiles dealt primarily with petty crimes and looked for disturbances of the peace wh patrolled the streets - created a special unit called PRAETORIAN GUARDS, a special force of guards used by Rom Emperors as the Emperors' personal guards - as personal guards of the Emperor, their primary duty was to protect the Emperor from assassination and other forms of attack against the Emperor. 4. ENGLAND a) FRANKPLEDGE SYSTEM/MUTUAL PLEDGE SYSTEM - required all males aged 12 and above to join a group of nine to form a TYTHING - members of the tything are called a TYTHINGMEN - a CONSTABLE served as a leader of ten tythings - the primary task of the things was to protect their village from thieves and animal - tythings were later organized into SHIRES - a shire was headed by a leader called SHIRE REEVE, which is the origin of the wor - their duty was to apprehend offenders b) PARISH CONSTABLES - a parish official charged with controlling crimes - appointed to serve for one year - duties included organizing watchmen to guard the gates - during trouble, the watchman would raise a “HUE AND CRY”, a call to arms where th the parish would stop what they were doing and come to the aid of the constable MODERN POLICING SYSTEM

1) ENGLAND a. BOWSTREET RUNNERS - a group of men organized to arrest offenders. - organized by Henry Fielding, a magistrate in London, in 1749 in London, England. - the name was adopted from the name of the street where the office of Henry Fielding w located. - when Henry Fielding retired as magistrate, he was replaced by his blind brother, John Fi b. METROPOLITAN POLICE OF ACT 1829 - the law that created the first modern police force in London England, called the Metrop CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Police Service. - this law was passed through the initiative of Sir Robert Peel, a member of the Parliamen - the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service is the Scotland Yard, now known as Scotland Yard SIR ROBERT PEEL - recognized as the father of modern policing system. 2. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA a. NEW YORK POLICE DEPARTMENT - created in 1845 in New York, USA - recognized as the first modern style police department in the US. - the largest police force in the world - modelled after the Metropolitan Police Service of London b. BOSTON POLICE DEPARTMENT - the oldest police department in the US - the first night watch was established in Boston in 1631. - formally founded in May, 1854.

AUGUST VOLLMER - recognized as the Father of Modern Law Enforcement for his contribut - author of the book, Police Administration, which served as the basic guide in the admin the police organization in the US - was the first police chief of Berkeley, California. Important Personalities in the Evolution of Philippine Policing Brig.Gen. Rafael Crame - the first Filipino Chief of the Philippine Constabulary in 1917.

Col. Antonio Torres - the first Filipino Chief of Police of the Manila Police Department in 1935.

Col. Lambert Javalera - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department after the Phi Dir.Gen. Cesar Nazareno - the first chief of the Philippine National Police.

HIGHLIGHTS OF RA 6975 – THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVER 1990, RA 8551 – THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE REFORM AND REORGANIZATION 1998 and RA 9708 A. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT (DILG) - formerly Department of Local Government (DLG) - reorganized under RA 6975 ORGANIZATION: - consist of: a) the Department proper b) existing bureaus and offices of the DLG c) local government units (LGU) 1) provincial governors 2) city and municipal mayors d) the National Police Commission e) the Philippine Public Safety College f) Philippine National Police g) Bureau of Fire Protection h) Bureau of Jail Management and Penology

- the PPSC, PNP, BFP and BJMP were created under RA 6975 - headed by the Secretary to be appointed by the President and who shall serve at the plea CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


President - the Secretary shall be assisted by two (2) Undersecretaries and three (3) Assistant Secret a) Undersecretary for Local Government b) Undersecretary for Peace and Order - No retired or resigned military officer or police official may be appointed as Secretary with (1) year from date of retirement or resignation - the Secretary is also the ex officio chairman of the National Police Commission

POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE DILG 1. Assist the President in the exercise of general supervision over local governments; 2. Advise the President in the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations and other issuance general supervision over local governments and on public order and safety; 3. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuance's implementing laws on pub and safety, the general supervision over local governments and the promotion of loca and community empowerment and monitor compliance thereof; 4. Provide assistance towards legislation regarding local governments, law enforcement and safety; Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and projects to promote peace ensure public safety and further strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal cap local government offices and personnel; 5. Formulate plans, policies and programs which will meet local emergencies arising from na man-made disasters; Establish a system of coordination and cooperation among the cit executives and the Department, to ensure effective and efficient delivery of basic servi public; 6. Organize, train and equip primarily for the performance of police functions, a police force is national in scope and civilian in character.


- under RA 6975, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) was in charge with external secu - under RA 8551, the Armed Forces of the Philippines is now in charge with both internal and security with the PNP as support through information gathering and performance of ordinary functions. NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION - an agency attached to the DILG for policy coordination - shall exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the PNP.

VISION OF THE NAPOLCOM "We envision the National Police Commission as a highly dynamic, committed and responsiv MISSION OF THE NAPOLCOM "To administer and control the Philippine National Police with the end in view of maintaining professional, competent, disciplined, credible and trustworthy PNP” POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NAPOLCOM

A. Exercise administrative control and operational supervision over the Philippine National Po which shall mean the power to:

1. Develop policies and promulgate a police manual prescribing rules and regulations for effi 2. Examine and audit, and thereafter establish standards for such purposes on a continuing 3. Establish a system of uniform crime reporting;

4. Conduct annual self-report surveys and compile statistical data for accurate assessment o CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


situation and the proper evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of all police units in th

5. Approve or modify plans and programs on education and training, logistical requirements

6. Affirm, reverse or modify, through the National Appellate Board, personnel administrative

7. Exercise appellate jurisdiction through the Regional Appellate Boards, over administrative

8. Prescribe minimum standards for arms, equipment, and uniforms and, after consultation w Philippine Heraldry Commission, for insignia of ranks, awards, medals of honor;

9. Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum in matters pertaining to the discharge of its o

10. Inspect and assess the compliance of the PNP on the established criteria for manpower a

11. Monitor the performance of the local chief executives as deputies of the Commission; a 12. Monitor and investigate police anomalies and irregularities. B. Advise the President on all matters involving police functions and administration;

C. Render to the President and to Congress an annual report of its activities and accomplishm

D. Recommend to the President, through the Secretary, within sixty (60) days before the com

E. Perform such other functions necessary to carry out the provisions of R.A. 6975, as amend

COMPOSITION OF NAPOLCOM 1. One chairperson 2. Four regular commissioner 3. The Chief PNP as ex officio member Note: * shall serve a term of office of six (6) years without reappointment or extension * three of the four regular commissioners shall come from civilian sector and not former m the police or military * the fourth regular commissioner shall come from the law enforcement sector either acti * at least one (1) of the four regular commissioners shall be a woman * from among the three regular commissioners from the civilian sector, the Vice Chairper chosen * the Vice Chairperson shall act as the Executive Officer of the Commission * refer to the organizational structure of the NAPOLCOM Important dates in the history of modern Philippine Policing 

1901 - ACT no. 175 of the Philippine Commission established the Philippine constabul

1905 - the Philippine constabulary school was established at the sta.lucia barracks in

1908 - the Philippine constabulary school was transferred to Baguio City.

1916 - the Philippine constabulary school was renamed academy for officers of the Ph

1917 - on December 17, 1917, Brigadier General Rafael Crame from Rizal Province, b



1926 - the academy for officers of the Philippine constabulary was renamed Philippin

1936 - the Philippine Constabulary Academy became the present day Philippine Milita

1938 - The Philippine Constabulary became the existing and organized national police

1966 - congress enacted RA no. 4864, the police act of 1966. This law also created th

1972 - The POLCOM was reorganized as the National Police Commission.

1975 - PD 765 was enacted. This law is called the Police Integration Law of 1975. Th

1985 - The National Police Commission was returned to the office of the President pur

1989 - Executive order 379 placed the Integrated national Police directly under the co

1990 - RA 6975 was passed on December 13, 1990 establishing the Philippine Nation

1998 - congress passed into law RA no. 8551 on February 25, 1998, otherwise known


1. PRIMARY OR LINE FUNCTIONS - functions that carry out the major purposes of the organization, delivering the services and directly with the public - the backbone of the police department - examples of the line functions of the police are patrolling, traffic duties, crime investigation

2. STAFF/ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS - functions that are designed to support the line functions and assist in the performance of t functions - examples of the staff functions of the police are planning, research, budgeting and legal ad

3. AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS - functions involving the logistical operations of the organization - examples are training, communication, maintenance, records management, supplies and e management ORGANIC UNITS IN A POLICE ORGANIZATION

1. OPERATIONAL UNITS - those that perform primary or line functions - examples are patrol, traffic, investigation and vice control 2. ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS - those that perform the administrative functions examples are personnel, finance, planning training. 3. SERVICE UNITS - those that perform auxiliary functions - examples are communication, records management,supplies.



ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE - the systematic arrangement of the relationship of the members, positions,departments a or work of the organization - it is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities and authorities of individuals wit the organization KINDS OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

1. LINE - the oldest and simplest kind; also called military - defined by its clear chain of command from the highest to the lowest and vice versa - depicts the line functions of the organization - orders or commands must come from the higher l level of authority before it can be carried - involves few departments

2. FUNCTIONAL - structure according to functions and specialized units - depicts staff functions of the organization - responsibilities are divided among authorities who are all accountable to the authority abo

3. LINE AND STAFF - a combination of the line and functional kind - combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff departments that se advise, and support them - generally more formal in nature and has many departments ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOUR PRIMAL CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIZATION 1. AUTHORITY - the supreme source of government for any particular organization - the right to exercise, to decide and to command by virtue of rank and position 2. MUTUAL COOPERATION - an organization exists because it serves a purpose. 3. DOCTRINE - provides for the organization’s objectives - provides the various actions, hence, policies, procedures, rules and regulations of the based on the statement of doctrines 4. DISCIPLINE - comprising behavioral regulations

ELEMENTS OF POLICE ORGANIZATION 1. UNITY OF COMMAND - dictates that there should only be ONE MAN commanding the unit to ensure unifor execution of orders 2. SPAN OF CONTROL - the maximum number of subordinates that a superior can effectively supervise Factors affecting the span of control: a) Leadership qualities of the supervisors b) Nature of the job and work conditions

c) Complexity of task d) Education and skill of the employees

3. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY - conferring of an amount of authority by a superior position to a lower-level position CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


4. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY - the relationship between superiors and subordinates - serves as the framework for the flow of authority downward and obedience upward department

HIERARCHY - represents the formal relationship among superiors and subordinates in any g organization 5. SPECIALIZATION - the assignment of particular personnel to particular tasks

SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS (AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION) - the designation of certain activities or tasks as ones that must be performed in a high technological, scientific or precise manner - areas of police specialization include undercover works, crime scene operations, legal computer work, SWAT operations and others

SPECIALIZATION OF PEOPLE (SPECIALISTS) - the designation of particular persons as having expertise in a specific area of work - signifies the adaptation of an individual to the requirements through extensive trainin

6. CHAIN OF COMMAND - the arrangement of officers from top to bottom on the basis of rank or position and au

7. COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY - dictates that immediate commanders shall be responsible for the effective supervision control. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINE POLICING SYSTEM

The institution of police in the Philippines formally started during the Spanish period. The es Ancient Roots

The forerunner of the contemporary police system was the practice of barangay chieftains to able-bodied young men to protect their barangay during the night and were not required to in the fields during daytime.Among the duties of those selected were to protect the properti of the people in the barangay and protect their crops and livestock from wild animals. Spanish Period

Carabineros de Seguridad Publica – organized in 1712 for the purpose of carrying the re of the Department of State; this was armed and considered as the mounted police; years aft

Guardrilleros/Cuardillo – this was a body of rural police by the Royal Decree of 18 January

Guardia Civil – this was created by a Royal Decree issued by the Crown on 12 February 185 American Period

The Americans established the United States Philippine Commission headed by General How

ACT NO 175 – entitled “An Act Providing for the Organization and Government of an Insular Henry T. Allen - Captain of the 6th US cavalry, a graduate of West Point class 1882. Father CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


ACT NO 183 - created the Manila Police Department, enacted on July 31, 1901. CAPT GEORGE CURRY - the first chief of police of the Manila Police Department in 1901.

Act No 255 – the act that renamed the Insular Constabulary into Philippine Constabulary, e

Executive Order 389 – ordered that the Philippine Constabulary be one of the four service Post-American Period

RA 4864 – otherwise known as the Police Professionalization Act of 1966, enacted on Septem training and professionalization of the local police forces under the Office of the President; la Martial Law Period

PD 765 – otherwise known as the Integration Act of 1975,enacted on August 8, 1975; estab - transferred the NAPOLCOM from the Office of the President to the Ministry of National Defe Post Martial Law Regime

Executive Order No 1012 – transferred to the city and municipal government the operatio

Executive Order No 1040 – transferred the administrative control and supervision of the I

RA 6975 – otherwise known as the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology and the Philippine Public

RA 8551 – otherwise known as the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act

RA 9708 - law amending the provisions of RA 6975 and RA 8551 on the minimum education

- An Act extending for five (5) years the reglementary period for complying with the minimu

Patrol Organization and Operation Patrol - from french patrouiller - to paddle, paw about, patrol. - keep watch over an area by regularly walking or traveling around or through it. - a person or group of people sent to keep watch over an area.

Patrol officers - are uniformed officers assigned to monitor specific geographical areas, tha History of Patrol 1. Ancient China - law enforcement was carried out by prefect. Prefects were government

2. Ancient Greece - publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police.In Athens, a

3. Roman empire - the army rather than a dedicated police organization provided security. praetorian guard if necessary. 

praetorian guard - bodyguards used by roman emperors.



urban cohorts - were created by Augustus to counter balance the enormous power o

vigiles - (watchmen of the city) - were the firefighters and police of ancient Rome.

ward - a subdivision of a municipality.

4. Medieval England - the Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order since the Norm 

tithing - was a grouping of 10 households.

constable - is a person holding a particular office most commonly in law enforcemen

5. Spain - modern police in Europe has a precedent in the Hermandus or (brotherhood) - pe 6. France - The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of kin

7. Britain and Ireland - in England, a system of sheriffs, reeves and investigative juries t 

Sheriff - is a contraction of the term "shire-reeve" - designated a royal official respon

Reeve - a senior official with local responsibilities under the crown. ex., chief magistr

Shire - traditional term for a division of land in the UK and Australia.

Jury - is a sworn body of people convened to render impartial verdict officially submit

Thief taker - a private individual hired to capture criminal.

Bow street runners - London's first professional police force.

Henry Fielding - a magistrate educated at Elton college who founded the Bow street

Statute of Winchester - in 1285, obliged the authorities of every town to keep a wa

Sir Robert Peel - prime minister of England from Dec. 1834 to April 1835 and again

Patrick Colquhoun - (1745 - 1820) - a Scottish merchant and a magistrate who foun

8. In the US - the first city police services were established in Philadelphia in 1751, Boston 

August Vollmer - first police chief of Berkeley California. He is sometimes called the 1. He was the first chief to require that police officers attain college degrees. 2. First police chief to create a motorized force placing officers on they could patrol broader areas with greater efficiency . 3. He was also the first to use the lie detector in police work.

motorcycles an

O.W. Wilson - studied under August Vollmer. Became Chief of Police of the Fullerton

1. requires new policeman to have college education. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. use of police car for patrol, mobile radios and use of a mobile crime laboratory.

3. he believe that the use of a two way radio allowed better supervision of patrol officers

What are the 3 main task of supervision? 1. Organize - means planning the work of the department and of the personnel in an orderl 2. Delegate - means giving someone else the responsibility and authority to do something. 3. Oversee - means that the supervisor ensures that the work that has been organized and satisfactorily completed.

Community policing - is the process by which an organized group of citizens devoted a tim

Beat patrol - the deployment of officers in a given community, area or locality to prevent a

Sting Operations - organized groups of detectives who deceived criminals into openly com

Hotspots of Crime - the view that a significant portion of all police calls in cities typically r Models of Policing

1. Neighborhood Oriented Policing - a philosophy of police suggesting that problem solving i at the neighborhood level, where issues originate not at a far-off central headquarters. 2. Pro Active Policing - aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the init against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur. 3. Problem Oriented Policing - a style of police management that stresses pro active problem 4. Community Oriented Policing - programs designed to bring the police and the public close and create more cooperative working environment between them. 5. Reactive Policing - the opposite of Pro Active policing where the police wait for crime to oc

Blue Curtain - describes the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequ

Cynicism - the belief that most peoples actions are motivated solely by personal needs and

Civilian Review Board - ex. PLEB - organized citizen groups that examine police miscondu Watchman - style of policing characterized by an emphasis on maintaining public order. Fleeing Felon Rule - the oldest standard relating to the use of deadly force. Beats - designated police patrol areas.

Internal Affairs - unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct. Deadly Force - police killing of a suspect who resists arrest or presents a danger to an offic

Booking - the administrative record of an arrest listing the offenders name, address, physic

Line Up - placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a w

Stop and Frisk - the situation in which police officers who are suspicious of an individual ru

Foot Patrol - police patrol that takes officer out of cars and puts them in walking beat to str

Excited Delirium - an overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontation with th CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


* Patrol reduces crime by creating an impression of omnipresence.

Responding to Crime - total response time is comprised of four dimensions. 1. Discovery Time - interval between the commission of the crime and its discovery. 2. Reporting Time - interval between the discovery of the crime and when it is reported to 3. Processing Time - interval between receiving the call and dispatching the officers for s 4. Travel time - the amount of time it takes for the police to travel to the scene of the crim The Phantom Effect - "residual deterrence" most people believe that the police is present Sworn Date - the date that a sworn employee took the oath of office for their position. Advantages of Foot/Bicycle Patrol 1. Increased personal contact between the police and citizen. 2. Increased observation ability. 3. Increased ability to gather information 4. Economical Advantages of Motorized Patrol 1. Increased speed and mobility 2. Increased conspicuousness 3. Availability of additional equipment 4. Increased transportation capability 5. Deceased response time 6. Communications Basic Preventive Patrol Methods Utilized by an Officer 1. Frequent check and contact with business premises 2. Frequent check of suspicious persons 3. Fluctuating patrol patterns 4. Maintenance of visibility and personal contact 5. Daily individual patrol and community action plan Factors to be Considered in Becoming Familiar with the Community 1. General population information 2. Appropriate geographical information 3. Recent criminal activity 4. Specific factors that may influence patrol functions ex. location of hospitals, high crime areas, community habits. How to Prepare for a Normal Patrol Shift 1. Gathering information through crime reports and briefings 2. Gathering needed materials ex. report forms, citation books 3. Obtaining and checking equipment 4. Planning work around identified priorities 5. Preparing daily patrol and community action plan What an Officer on Night time Patrol Should be Looking for 1. broken glasses 2. open doors and windows 3. pry marks 4. suspicious vehicles 5. persons on foot 6. differences in normal lighting (on or Off) CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


7. unusual sounds 8. access to roof tops or upper floors Definition of Terms

1. Section - a primary subdivision of a bureau with a department wide responsibility for pro specific specialized functions. 2. Unit - a subdivision of a section usually small in size with personnel assigned to perform a specialized activity, one or two employees performing assigned work. 3. Squad - a subdivision of a unit. 4. Detail - a subdivision of a squad. 5. Precinct -the primary geographic subdivision of the patrol operation bureau. 6. Sector - the primary geographic subdivision of a precinct, supervised by a sergeant. 7. Beat - the primary subdivision of a sector. 8. Watch/Shift - one of several tours of duty. 9. Post - a fixed geographic location usually assigned to an individual officer. 10. Task Force - an adhoc work group normally established by bureau commander to respo specific incident or series of related incidents. Task Force assignment is temporary. 11. Chief of Police - overall commander of the department. 12. Chain of Command - a fundamental component of proper supervision. The chain of com requires that each employee reports and is accountable to only one direct supervisor.

Police Operational Planning

Police Operational Planning - the act of determining policies and guidelines for police act

Operational Planning - the use of rational design or pattern for all departmental undertak

Police Planning - an attempt by police administrators in trying to allocate anticipated reso

Planning - the determination in advance of how the objectives of the organization will be at

Plan - an organized schedule or sequence by methodical activities intended to attain a goal Strategy - a broad design or method or a plan to attain a stated goal or objective. Tactics - are specific design, method or a course of action to attain a particular objective in Procedures - are sequences of activities to reach a point or to attain what is desired.

Policy - a course of action which could be a program of actions adopted by an individual, group, organization or government or the set of principles 

case operational plan (COPLAN) - a definite target - specific activity conducted in

command post/holding area - area where case conferences, briefings and debriefin

dragnet operation - is a police operation purposely to seal off the probable exit poin

Management or Administrative Functions 1. Planning 5. Staffing 2. Organizing 6. Reporting CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


3. Directing 4. Controlling

7. Budgeting

Guidelines in Planning 1. What - mission/objective 2. Why - reason/philosophy 3. When - date/time 4. where - place 5. How - strategy/methods Characteristics of a Good Plan 1. A Plan must have a clearly defined objective 2. A Plan must be simple, direct and clear 3. A Plan must be flexible 4. A Plan must be attainable 5. A Plan must provide standards of operation 6. A Plan must be economical in terms of resources needed for implementation. Types of Plan 1. Procedural/Policy Plan 2. Operational Plan 3. Tactical Plan 4. Administrative/Management Plan 5. Extra-Departmental Plan

Intelligence and Secret Service Definition of Terms:

Intelligence Agency - is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis or ex

Intelligence Officer - is a person employed by an organization to collect, compile and anal

Counter Intelligence - refers to effort made by intelligence organizations to prevent hostil

Human Intelligence - category of intelligence derived from information collected and prov

Dead Drop/Dead Letter Box - is a method of espionage trade craft used to pass items bet Live Drop - 2 persons meet to exchange items or information.

Dead Drop Spike - is a concealment device used to hide money, maps, documents, microfi

Cut-Out - is a mutually trusted intermediary, method or channel of communication, facilitat

Espionage/Spying - involves a government or individual obtaining information that is cons

Agent Handling - is the management of agents, principal agents and agent networks by in

Case Officer - is an intelligence officer who is trained specialist in the management of agen



Agent - acts on behalf of another whether individual, organization or foreign government, w

Cryptography - is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the pr

Eaves Dropping - Is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others witho

Propaganda - is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a com Flip - apprehended criminals who turn informants. Snitches - jail house informants. Means of Information Gathering 1.Overt 2.Covert

Intelligence Cycle - is the process of developing unrefined data into polished intelligence f 1. Direction - intelligence requirements are determined by a decision maker to meet his/he 2. Collection - is the gathering of raw information based on requirements. 3. Processing - converting the vast amount of information collected into a form usable by a 4. Analysis - conversion of raw information into intelligence. It includes: (1) integrating (2) evaluating (3) analyzing data and preparing intelligence product. 5. Dissemination - is the distribution of raw or finished intelligence to the consumer whose initiated the intelligence requirement. 6. Feedback - is received from the decision maker and revised requirement issued.

Evaluation - systematic determination of merit, worth and significance of something or som Collation - is the assembly of written information into a standard order. Crime Triangle 1. the offender 2. the victim 3. the location

Crime Intelligence - information compiled, analyzed and/or disseminated in an effort to an

Strategic Intelligence - information concerning existing patterns or emerging trends of cri

Tactical Intelligence - information regarding a specific criminal event that can be used imm

Open Source - refers to any information that can be legitimately obtained e. free on reques Source - the place or person from which information is obtained.

Intelligence Assessment - is the development of forecasts of behavior or recommended c

Intelligence Analysis - is the process of taking known information about situations and en Cryptanalysis - from the Greek word Kryptos-hidden and Analyein-to loosen or to unite - is Industrial Security Management CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


RA no. 5487 - (as amended by PD no. 11) - Private security agency law.

Private Detective Agency - is any person who for hire or reward or on commission conduc

Private Detective - any person who is not a member of a regular police agency or armed f PADPAO - Philippine Association of Detective and Protective Agency Operators.

Watchmen/Security Guard - person who offers or renders personal service to watch or se Security Agency - any person, association, partnership or corporation who recruits, trains, Who May Organize Security Agency 1. Any Filipino Citizen or a corporation, partnership or association. 2. With a minimum capital required by law. 

In case of corporation, association, or partnership - must be 100 % owned and control

No person shall organize or have interest in more than one agency.

Qualification of an Operator or Manager of a Security Agency: 1. At least 25 years of age 2. College graduate and/or commissioned officer in the inactive service of the AFP 3. Good moral character 4. No previous record of any conviction of any crime/offense involving moral turpitude 5. Not suffering from any of the following disqualifications: 1. dishonorably discharged or separate from the AFP 2. mentally incompetent 3. addicted to the use of narcotic drugs 4. habitual drunkard 

An elective or appointive government employees who may be called upon on account

Basic Qualification of a security Guard 1. Filipino citizen 2. High school graduate 3. Physically and mentally fit 4. Not less than 21 nor more than 50 years old 5. At least 5'4" in height 6. Not suffering from any disqualification under RA 5487 

Veterans shall be given priority in employment as security guard or private detective.

Person convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude shall not be employed as sec



Private detective, detective agency, security guard, security agency must first obtain

Employees employed solely for clerical or manual work need not be licensed.

The license shall be displayed at all times in a conspicuous and suitable place in the a

The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the operation of all private detective

The City/Municipal Mayors has the power as director of the City/Municipal civil defens

A security guard or security agency is entitled to possess firearms.

Firearm must not be higher than .45 caliber.

Agency is entitled to possess firearm not exceeding one firearm for every security gua

Security guard is entitled to possess not more than one riot gun or shotgun.

Firearms shall be carried by the security guard only during his tour of duty in proper u

The Chief PNP shall prescribe the uniform, ornaments, equipment and paraphernalia t

Uniforms must be different from the PNP/AFP.

Salary of security guard - not lower than the minimum wage prescribe by law.

Limitations and Prohibitions on a Security Agency 1. No agency operating in the City of manila and suburbs may employ more than 1000 watc security guards. 2. No agency operating in other cities & first class municipalities may employ more than 500 or security guards. 3. No agency operating in municipalities other than first class may employ more than 200 w security guards. 4. No person, corporation, partnership/ association may organize more than one agency in a or municipality. 5. No agency shall offer, render or accept services to gambling dens or other illegal enterpri 6. The extent of the security service being provided by any security agency shall not go bey whole compound or property of the person or establishment requesting the security servi when they escort big amount of cash.

Who can Issue rules and regulations to carry out the purpose of RA 5487? ans. the

What are the penal provisions for violation of RA5487 or its implementing rules? a 1. Suspension, fine or cancellation of license to operate with the forfeiture f bond filed with t Chief PNP. 2. Imprisonment ranging from 1 to 4 years and fine, in the discretion of the courts.

Physical security - describes the measures that are designed to deny access to unauthoriz

Security - the predictable state or condition which is free from harm, injury, destruction, int

Physical Security System - a barrier or system of barriers placed between the potential in CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Purpose/Goals of Physical security 1. deter potential intruders - ex. warning signs, perimeter markings 2. distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - ex. using pass card 3. delay or prevent intrusion attempt - ex. wall, door lock, safe 4. detect intrusion and monitor/record intruders - e. CCTV, intrusion alarm 5. trigger appropriate incident responses - ex. security guards How to deter potential intruders 1. install warning signs 2. build fences 3. put vehicle barriers 4. install vehicle height restriction 5. implement restricted access point 6. install sight lighting and trenches How to distinguish authorized from unauthorized people - access control at the 1. gates 2. doors 3. locks How to detect intrusion 1. install alarms 2. install intrusion detection monitor 3. install video monitoring system - ex. cctv

Vigiles (in Rome) - origin of the watchmen although their principal duty was as a fire brigad Notable security guards: 1.

Frank Wills - detected the Watergate burglars ultimately leading to the resignation o

Target hardening - the reduction in criminal opportunity, generally through the use of phy

Defensible Space - the range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment under CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Demography - the study of the characteristics of population groups.

Principles of Physical Security 1. An intruder must be able to acquire access to the property in order to benefit. 2. The type of access necessary will depend upon a number of variable factors and therefore achieved in a number of ways. 3. There is no impenetrable barrier. 4. Security is built upon a system of defense in depth resulting to accumulated delay time w lead to the apprehension of the intruder. 5. Each installation is different from the others. 2 Kinds of Barriers 1. Natural 2. Artificial 5 Types of Barriers 1. Human 2. Animal 3. Natural 4. Energy/Electrical/Electronic 5. Structural

3 Line of Defense 1. Perimeter Barrier - 1st line of defense. 2. Building Exterior - 2nd line of defense. 3. Interior Controls - 3rd line of defense. Perimeter Barrier - main purpose is to deny or impede access or exit of unauthorized pers Other Purposes 1. It defines the boundary of the property to be secured. 2. It creates a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry. 3. It delays intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders. 4. It assists in a more efficient and economical employment of guards. 5. It facilitates and improves the control of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Components: 1. Types of Fencing (solid/full view) 2. The top guard 3. Types of Protective Alarms Systems 4. Types of Protective and Emergency Lighting's 5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security Systems/Energy Barriers Building Exterior - Components: 1. walls 2. Doors 3. Windows 4. Roof Openings 5. Fire Escapes 6. Protective Alarm Systems 7. Protective and Emergency lightnings 8. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security Systems/Energy Barriers Interior Controls - Components: 1. ID Systems CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. Protective Alarm Systems 3. Protective Emergency Lighting's 4. Communication Systems 5. CCTV Cameras and other Electronic Security Systems/Energy Barriers 6. Restricted Areas (storage areas/utilities) 7. Access Control 8. Key Control 9. Emergency Plans 10.Guards

Natural barriers or features - such as cliffs, ravines, and rivers which delay or make more

Barriers - any line of boundary and separation, natural or artificial, places, or serving as lim

Structural barriers - features constructed by man regardless of their original intent that te

Human barriers - guards, charges of quarters, office personnel, shop workers etc. who stan

Animal barriers - usually guard dog. ex. trained German shepherds used as guards, goose Energy barriers - usually electrical or electronics devices used to provide assistance to gua

Full view fence - it is designed primarily to prevent physical access between two areas. Co

Physical Security Features: 1.Natural barriers - natural terrains features must be considered from the stand point of thei intruder as cover and concealment. Normally the first type considered very often we have and work around them. 2. Fences a. solid fence - one is constructed in such a way that visual access through the fenced stru denied. b. full view fence - constructed in such a way that usual access is permitted through the fe

Advantages of a full view fence 1. removing patrols and stationary guards are able to keep area surrounding of the installati observation. 2. it does not create shadows which would provide cover and concealment for the intruder.

Disadvantages of a full view fence 1. It allows visual access to the installation, its personnel, its guard and its activities. 2. It allows the intruders to become familiar with the movements and the time schedule of t patrols thereafter allowing him to pick the time for attempting penetration which would m advantageous to the intruder.

Advantages of solid fence 1. Denies visual access of the installation of the intruder. 2. Denies the opportunity for the intruder to become familiar with the personnel, activities a schedule of the movements of guards in the installations. Disadvantages of solid fence 1. It prevents the guards from observing the area around the installation. 2. It creates shadows which may be used by the intruder for cover and concealment.

Minimum acceptable requirements for fence used security barriers 1. Height - 8 feet at a minimum. 2. Slack at the bottom - not to exceed 2 inches. If the fences are not tight then it should exte CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


closer to the ground. 3. Wooden fence post - minimum horizontal dimension of 4X4 inches. 4. Steel fence post - the round type should at least be 2 inches at the smallest diameter. 5. Fence post - should be set in concrete or in firm soil using commercial drive anchors to a d feet and the maximum distance post is 10 feet. 6. Fence top (Top Guard) - there should be something on the top of the fence to deter person 7. Fence area - it should be declared trees and vegetation and debris of other materials whi would offer concealment of the intruder or would aid him in scaling the fence. 8. Fence Gates - gates should be limited to the no. necessary for efficient and sage operatio installation. 9. Fence Opening - all opening in the fence in excess of 96 inches must be locked barbed or such a way that they may be interlocked and opened from the inside and only by selecte 10. Multiple fence - is used should at least be 10 feet apart and the overhang on the top of 4 Basic functions that must be accomplished by the guard system 1. Detect intruders 2. Sound alarms 3. Apprehend unauthorized personnel 4. Identify authorized personnel Personnel Control Identification 2 Types of identification 1. Personal Recognition - is the most effective 2. Artificial Identification - badges, passes etc.

System of Employment of Personnel Control Identification 1. Pass system - a method used by security to screen visitors or person admitted into buildin 2. Single pass or Badge system - the least expensive and the least secure. 3. Group pass and Badge system - one ID for one group. 4. Multiple pass system - separate pass is required for access to various areas in need ex. co 5. Spot magnetized identification passes - a code may be placed in the device and when pas 6. Access list - it contains the names of authorized persons or personnel and is checked agai identification cards such as drivers licenses, draft registration etc.

Visitor control - the measures used would depend on the sensibility of the installation but 1. Escort - expensive but most secure 2. Time travelled - if there is a long delay or time lapse between the departure and arriva may be required to show cause for the delay. 3. Visitors logs - should contain identifying data, reasons of visit, time in and hour etc. 4. Visitors entrances - separate access for visitors and separate for employees .

Utility and maintenance personnel - escort system could be used. If these people visit the in

Package control - there should be provisions made to check packages being taken in and tak

Photography - extreme caution must be exercised in areas where classified information is di

Vehicular control and identification * Most common identification is for registering at the headquarters or gates and putting of s * For visitors, the following systems are used: 1. Escort 2. Driver pool - the most secure but the most expensive. In this system, car is driven by driver employed by the installation from the entrance to its destination and after the of the business of the visitor. The car is driven back to the installations entrance. 3. Time travel - used in less sensitive installations CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


4. Grid system - a very complicated system. The installation is divided into grid ad squares Each square is given a no. or letter designation. The visitor is then given a map and sh route to take to his destination and should not deviate from the prescribed route, othe could be stopped and questioned by the guards. 5. Search of vehicles - sign should be put at the entrance to the installation that any vehicl subject to search anytime.

Types of Protective Alarm Systems 1. Central station system - the control station is located outside the installations. When the a sounded by a subscriber, the central station notifies the police or protection agency. 2. Property system - the control system is located inside the installations with its own firefigh enforcer, ambulance, or bomb disposal unit. 3. Local alarm - the signalling is near the alarm itself. When the intruder enters the installati alarm goes off scaring the intruder. Purpose is just to scare not to apprehend intruder. 4. Auxiliary alarm - the installation owned the protective alarm with a unit in the nearest pol so that in case of need, direct call is possible.

Kinds of Alarms 1. Intrusion alarm - any detecting devices using electric and their combinations to signal an when actuated. 2. Laser beam alarm - a laser emitter floods the wall or fence with a beam so that when this disturbed by a physical object, an alarm is activated 3. Photocell alarm - an invisible or visible beam is emitted and when disturbed, it activates a or mechanical device that opens a door or lift movable barriers, activated by light.

Basic component of an alarm system 1. Annunciation - the heart of the system of the detecting device and is the component that the triggering unit. 2. Transmission - it transmit what is detected. 3. Triggering device - the one which emits those aural or visual signals or both.

Security Survey - The detailed check and audit of what an installation or plant does not ha

Security Inspection - a process where physical examination is conducted to determine com Purpose of security survey 1. To determine existing state or condition of security 2. To locate weaknesses and possible defense 3. To determine degree of protection required

Security hazards - an act or condition which result in a situation conductive to a breach of Hazards - exposure to loss or injury. Two General Categories of Security Hazards 1. Human hazard - caused by human action. Ex.sabotage, pilferage, theft 2. Natural Hazard - caused by natural phenomena. Types of Human Hazards 1. Human carelessness 2. Accident 3. Disaffection 4. Disloyalty 5. Subversion 6. Sabotage CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


7. Espionage 8. Pilferage 9. Theft 10.Vandalism

Protective Security - measures taken by an installation or unit to protect against sabotage

3 Aspects of Security 1. Physical Security - measures taken to prevent physical access or entry to an installation 2. Personnel Security - measures taken to insure that only authorized personnel have acce classified documents or information. 3. Document and Information Security

Types of Security 1. Physical Security - the most broad. 2. Industrial Security - security of business installations and industrial plants. 3. VIP Security - protection of high level officers and important personnel. 4. Bank Security - security of money and assets stored or in transit. 5. Hotel Security - security for hotel guest and their personal belongings and property as w properties of the hotel. 6. Document security - protection of vital records from loss or unauthorized access. 7. Communication Security - measures to prevent or delay the unauthorized person in gain information through communication.

Physical Security * Protective barrier - is the physical type of security. * Barrier - any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying illegal installations. * Perimeter barrier - a medium or structures which define the physical limits of an installati to restrict or impede access thereto. Any physical barrier used to supplement the protec inside perimeter. * Inside Perimeter - a line of protection adjacent to the protected area and passing through possible entry into the area. ex. doors and windows * Outside perimeter - a line of protection but somewhat removed from the protected area. Types of Perimeter Barrier Opening 1. Gates and Doors 2. Elevators 3. Air intakes,Exhaust tunnels 4. Clear Zone 5. Top Guard 6. Guard Control Stations 7. Tower 8. Barrier maintenance 9. Sign and Notices

Protective Alarms - supplemental physical barriers in a form of sound that cause alarm ins Types of Alarm Systems 1. Metallic foil wire 2. Ultrasonic Detection Device 3. Vibration Detection Device 4. Microwave Motion Detection Device 5. Audio Detection Device 6. Photo Electric or Electric Eye CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Kinds of Alarms 1. Bill Traps 2. Foot Rail Activator 3. Knee or thigh button 4. Foot button 5. Double squeeze button

Protective Lighting - provide illumination on areas to be secured that adds psychological d

Types of protective Lighting 1. Stationary luminary - consist of series of fixed luminaries to flood given area continuousl Example: glare protection type 2. Standby Lighting - provides continuous lighting through manual operations. 3. Movable Lighting - stationary or portable manually operated search lights. 4. Emergency Lighting - duplication of existing lighting system that is utilized in the event o failure.

Types of Lighting Equipment 1. Street lights - used in parking areas 2. Search Lights - highly focused incandescent lamps used to pinpoint potential trouble spo 3. Flood Lights - project light in a concentrated beam used in boundaries and fences. 4. Fresnel Lights - wide beam units primarily used to extend illumination in long horizontal protect approaches to perimeter barrier.

Protective Locks and Keys 1. Lock - a mechanical, hydraulic, electrical or electronic device designed to prevent entry building, room, container or hiding place and to prevent the removal of items without th of the owner. 2. Padlock - portable and detachable lock having or sliding hasp that passes through a stap 3. Peterman - A term used in England for lock picker, safe cracker and penetrators of restric or rooms. Types of Locks 1. Lever locks - used in cabinets, drawers, safe deposit box. 2. Disc-Tumble Locks - used in car doors. 3. Warded Locks - offer little security, used only to provide privacy. 4. Combination Locks 5. Card Operated Locks 6. Electromagnetic Locks 7. Code operated Locks

Types of Keys 1. Master Key - a special key of opening a series locks. 2. Grand Master Key - a key that will open everything in a system involving two or more groups. 3. Change Key - a key to a single lock within a master keyed system. 4. Sub Master Key - a key will open all lock with a particular area or grouping in a given Types of Security Cabinets 1. Safe 2. vault 3. File Room

Protective Cabinets - considered as the third line of defense against unauthorized persons CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Key Control - a system of controlling keys devised and regulated for disposal, storage and Close-in Security Formations 1. One Man Security - 360 degrees coverage. 2. Two Man Security - Each guard has 180 degrees coverage. 3. Three Man Security - has equal areas of coverage 4. Four Man Security 5. Five Man Security - modified diamond. 6. Six Man Security - (defensive circle) too much crowd requires arm lock formation. Note: Six Man Security is the most effective.

Defensive In Depth Barriers 1. Outer Ring - securing sidewalks, in front of quarters or offices, covering all entrances, fro center, side and rear. 2. Middle Ring - security covering inside quarters, office, residence, all stairways and eleva 3. Inner Ring - immediately outside the high risk personnel door or the one closest to the V

Criminal Jurisprudence and Procedure The Board of Examiners for Criminologists in the Philippines is created for the purpose of regulating the practice of Criminology. It has the power to issue, suspend, or revoke certificate of registration for the practice of criminology and to administer oath. All applicants for registration as criminologists shall be required to undergo and examination. The examination shall be in writing and shall cover the following subjects with their respective relative weights. Subjects

Relative Weight

Criminal Jurisprudence and Procedure Law Enforcement Administration Correctional Administration Criminalistics Criminal Sociology Ethics and Human Relations

20% 20% 15% 20% 15% 10%

Criminal Jurisprudence and Procedure is further subdivided into: 1. Criminal Law 1 - Study of the Revised Penal Code book 1, special criminal statutes, Presidential Decrees, and Letters of Instructions. 2. Criminal Law 2 - Study of the Revised Penal Code book 2 3. Criminal Procedure - Study of the Rules of Court and Criminal Procedure covering the law on arrest, search and seizure, Preliminary Investigation and the granting of bail to an accused person; Rights of the accused person during the trial and the manner of prosecution of criminal offenses; Procedures in arraignment and trial and discharge of one of several defendants as state witness; Rules governing arrest without warrant and the use of firearms in case of resistance to an arrest; Study of court decisions regarding arrest and search and seizure. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


4. Criminal Evidence - Study of the fundamental principle of criminal evidence as embodied in the rules of court. Civil Law 1. Filed by a private party.  

a corporation an individual person

2. Penalty: a guilty defendant pays the plaintiff for losses caused by their actions. 

no incarceration

Crimes are divided into 2 classes 1. Misdemeanors - less than one year of incarceration 2. Felonies - sentence of one year or more. During the times of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before the public. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story. The individual with the best argumentation would determine the outcome of the case. Criminal Law 1. Filed by the government 2. Penalty: a guilty defendant is punished by 

incarceration in jail or prison

fine paid to the government

execution (death penalty) Criminal law RPC (Book 1)

Criminal Law - a branch of municipal law which defines crimes, treats of their nature and provides for their punishment. Characteristics of Criminal Law 1. General 2. Territorial 3. Prospective General - binding on all persons who reside or sojourn in the Philippines. Exceptions: 1. Treaty Stipulation 2. Laws of Preferential Application 3. Principles of Public International Law ex. 1. Sovereigns and other chief of state 2. Ambassadors, Minister resident, and charges d' affaires

Note: Consuls, Vice Consuls, and other foreign commercial representatives cann privileges and immunities accorded to ambassadors and ministers. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Territorial - Penal laws of the Philippines are enforceable only within its territory. Exception: Art. 2 of the RPC - binding even on crimes committed outside the Philipp 1. Offenses committed while on a Philippine ship or airship. 2. Forging or counterfeiting any coin or currency note of the Philippines or ob securities issued by the government. 3. Introduction into the country of the abovementioned obligations and securi 4. While being public officers and employees, an offense is committed in the e their functions. 5. Crimes against the National Security and the Law of the Nations. Prospective - The law does not have any retroactive effect. Exception: When the law is favorable to the accused.

Exception to the Exception: 1. The New Law is expressly made inapplicable to pending actions or exist action. 2. Offender is a habitual criminal.

Theories of Criminal Law 1. Classical Theory - basis is man's free will to choose between good and evil, that is why mo

2. Positivist Theory - basis is the sum of social and economic phenomena which conditions m

3. Mixed Theory - combination of the classical and positivist theories wherein crimes that are Construction of Penal Laws 1. Liberally construed in favor of offender. Example: a. The offender must clearly fall within the terms of the law. b. An act is criminal only when made so by the statute. 2. In cases of conflict with official translation, original Spanish text is controlling. 3. No interpretation by analogy. Limitations on Power of Congress to Enact Penal Laws 1. Ex Post Facto Law 2. Bill of Attainder 3. Law that violates the equal protection clause of the constitution. 4. Law which imposes cruel and unusual punishments nor excessive fines.

Criminal Procedure Introduction: Etymology:

Krimea [Greek]: meaning, “to charge a wrongdoing”

Criminal Procedure The method prescribed by law for the apprehension and prosecution of persons accused of a

It is concerned with the procedural steps through which a criminal case passes, commencing

It is a generic term used to describe the network of laws and rules which govern the procedu CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Criminal Jurisdiction The authority to hear and decide a particular offense and impose punishment for it. It has th

Subject matter – cases of the general class where the proceedings in question belong as det

Territory – the geographical limits of the territory over which the court presides and where th

Person of the accused – acquired thru: a) arrest [with warrant or warrantless] or b) voluntary I. Prosecution of Offenses How instituted? By filing the:

1) Complaint, or 2) Information.

Complaint A sworn written statement charging a person with an offense executed and subscribed by th Information 1. An accusation in writing 2. Subscribed by the Prosecutor 3.Filed with the court

Both are: 1. In writing 2. In the name of the People of the Philippines 3. Directed against all persons who appear to be responsible for the offense involved. Elements of a complaint or information: 1. Formal elements, and 2. Substantive elements. It must be: 1. Sufficient in form, and 2. Sufficient in substance

Thus, under Section 14, of Rule 110, a complaint or information may be amended, in form an A complaint or information is sufficient in form if it states: [N.D.A.N.A.P.] 1. The Name of the accused 2. The Designation of the offense given by the statute 3. The Acts or omissions complained of as constituting the offense 4.The Name of the offended party 5. The Approximate date of the commission of the offense 6. The Place where the offense was committed.

A complaint or information is sufficient in substance if it doesn’t contain any of the defects w Note:

A motion to quash, once granted, is equivalent to dismissal (but not acquittal).

Remedy if a complaint or information is defective: I. If defective in form a) court may dismiss the complaint or information motu propio or upon motion, or CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


b) accused may move for a BILL OF PARTICULARS

II. If defective in substance – No obligation is imposed on the judge to point out the duplicito

Note: For certain classes of Actions, it is the tribunal having jurisdiction which automatically

Examples: Articles of Impeachment in an impeachment proceedings Presidential Election Protes

This is not so in criminal proceedings. It is incumbent upon the accused to object on substan Query:

JP was charged for indiscriminate firing. He claimed that he has to fire his gun in self-defense

No. JP cannot claim that the information is defective in substance. This is so because “self-de Any explanation or defense which the defendant may want to invoke can be properly raised Distinction between Acquittal and Dismissal: 1. Acquittal is based on MERITS of the case (substantive) ex: accused A was found innocent 2. Dismissal is based on TECHNICALITY (procedural) ex: the crime has already prescribed.

Notes: 1. There are certain classes of offenses that cannot be prosecuted de officio – 1private offen 2. For some offenses, there are conditions precedents before plaintiff can repair to the court 3. All criminal actions, whether commenced by filing of complaint or information, are under Queries:

I. A, B, C, D were charged with homicide. Preliminary investigation was conducted

Under the Rules of Court, the fiscal cannot exclude D without court approval. It would be a g

Exception: Under the Witness Protection Act, the prosecutor has the discretion of discharging an accuse

II. Is designation of the offense an essential element of the complaint or informat

No. Because in case of conflict between the designation of the offense and the allegations, t

The exception is when the allegation is so ambiguous that it may be interpreted to mean eit II. Prosecution of Civil Action Basis: Art. 100, RPC - Every person criminally liable is also civilly liable

Generally, when a person commits a crime, he offends two entities, namely: 1) The State [whose laws he violated]; and 2) The individual [whose person, right, honor, chastity, or property was actually or di or damaged by the same acts or omissions]. Exception: CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


When the infraction falls under the class of offenses called victimless crimes like gambling, b

Sec. 1, Rule 111 - When a criminal action is instituted, the civil action for the recovery of c Waives the civil action; Reserves the right to institute it separately; or Institutes the civil action prior to the criminal action

Principle of preferrence of criminal action over civil action: After the criminal action has been commenced, the separate civil action arising therefrom ca If the criminal action is filed after the said civil action has already been instituted, the latter

Reason for the rule: Criminal action is based on an offense committed against the laws of the State while civil ac

Exception to the rule of preferrence of criminal action over civil action When the independent Civil Action is based on Articles 32, 33, 34 and 2176 of the Civil Code When there is a prejudicial question in the civil case that must be decided first before the cr

Elements of Prejudicial Question: The previously instituted civil action involves an issue similar or intimately related to the is the subsequent criminal action, and The resolution of such issue determines whether or not the criminal action may proceed. Queries:

1. Nobern married Armie on 2005. On 2006, Nobern married X. On 2007, Armie filed a crimin Is there a prejudicial question? Why?

2. Nobern married Armie on 2005. On 2006, Nobern married X because X threatened to kill h Is there a prejudicial question? Why? Note: Prejudicial question is subject to the principle that he who comes into court must come with III. Preliminary Investigation

- It is an inquiry or proceeding to determine whether there is sufficient ground to engender a When required? Before the filing of complaint or information for an offense where the penalty prescribed by When NOT REQUIRED: In cases where the penalty imposed by law is NOT at least 4 years, 2 month, & 1 day In case of a valid warantless arrest [shall proceed in inquest]

Officers authorized to conduct PI Provincial or City Prosecutors and their assistants; National and Regional State Prosecutors; and Other officers as may be authorized by law [COMELEC during Election Period, Ombudsma

Note: Effective 2004, judges of the lower court canno longer conduct Preliminary Investigatio CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION



1. The complaint must be sufficient in form [See notes in Prosecution of Offenses, sup 2. Supported by affidavits of the complainant and his witnesses 3. Numbers of copies are proportionate to the number of respondents plus 2 official c

1. Within 10 days after the filing, fiscal determines if there is prima facie case. If no – dismis 2. Within 10 days after receipt of subpoena with the complaint and supporting affidavits and 3. In case respondent cannot be subpoenaed or does not submit counter affidavit within 10

Clarificatory hearing – if there are facts and issues to be clarified from a party or witness Resolution – within 10 days after the investigation. Forwarding of fiscals’ resolution to superiors – within 5 days Superiors shall act on the resolution – within 10 days IV. Arrest

Defined: 1. [Based on Rules of Court] The taking of a person in custody in order that he may be boun

2. [Based on Jurisprudence] A restraint on person, depriving one of his own will and liberty, b How made: As to the manner of enforcement, by: 1) Actual restraint, or 2) Submission to the custody of the person making arrest As to the presence or absence of judicial order: 1) By virtue of a warrant, or 2) Warrantless arrest, in cases allowed by the Rules As to the person arresting: 1) Arrest by peace officer, or 2) Citizens arrest When warrantless arrests allowed: 1. Inflagrante Delicto arrest – when in his presence, the person to be arrested has: Committed Is actually committing an offense Is attempting to commit Translation: In flagrante delicto [latin] – Literally, “caught in the act of wrong”. 2. Hot Pursuit arrest – when an offense has just been committed and he has probable cause Tests in determining probable cause based on personal knowledge: Must be based on the senses, i.e.

1) Sight 2) Hearing 3) Smell



Notes: A. The arresting officer must have personal knowledge of the commission of the crime throu B. The term “personal knowledge” excludes hearsay as a basis for probable cause. C. There must first be a lawful arrest before any search may be conducted. The process cann D. For purposes of arrest – Officer may break into any building or enclosure where the perso E. For purposes of search and seizure – he cannot break into any building or enclosure witho

3. Arrest of fugitives from justice – persons who has escaped from a penal establishment, pla Methods of Arrest: I. With warrant, by officer: The officer shall inform the person of: 1) the cause of the arrest 2) fact that warrant exist Exception: 1) When he flees or forcibly resist before 1 & 2 is completed 2) When the giving of info will imperil the arrest II. Without warrant, by an officer and by private persons: Inform the person of

1) authority and cause of arrest [if person arresting is police officer] 2) intent to arrest and cause [if person arresting is private person]

Unless when the person to be arrested is either: 1) Engaged in the commission of the offense 2) Is pursued immediately after its commission 3) Has escaped, flees or forcibly resist before the officer or the private person making t the opportunity to inform him of 1 & 2, or 4) When the giving of info would imperil the arrest

Tests in determining lawfulness of USE OF LETHAL FORCE by the arresting officer: 1) Test of reasonability – conduct of the arresting officer is examined.

Where the precipitate action of the arresting officer resulted in the loss of a human life and t 2) Test of necessity – conduct of the person arrested is examined.

Where the arrested person attempts to flee, struck a policeman with his fists, draw a mess k

V. Bail Kinds of bail bonds: 1. cash bond 2. property bond 3. surety bond 4. recognizance

Defined: The security given for the release of a person in custody of the law, furnished by him or a bo CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Generally: The right to bail only accrues when a person is under custody. Court must have jurisdiction o

Exception: When the person under investigation cannot personally appear because he is hospitalized b Where to apply? In the court where the case is pending (if not yet filed, may be filed before any court). Conditions for bail: See Sec. 2, Rule 114

Bail, a matter of right: 1. Before or after conviction by MTC, MTCC or MCTC 2. Before conviction by RTC of an offense not punishable by death, reclusion temporal, or life

Bail, a matter of discretion: 1. Upon conviction of RTC of an offense not punishable by death, reclusion perpetua, or life i 2. Before conviction for capital offenses [punishable by death], or an offense punishable by r

Bail granted in capital offenses despite findings that evidence of guilt is strong (Cited in Cruz De la Rama v. Peoples Court, 77 Phil. 461 – accused was granted bail due to tuberculosis tha People v. Sison, GR 398, September 19, 1946 – humanitarian reasons considered by SC. Notes:

1. The right to bail flows from the presumption of innocence. This is so because accusation i

2. In deportation proceedings, bail is not a matter of right but of discretion on the part of the 3. Bail is not available to military facing court martial proceedings (Commendador v. De Villa

4. In extradition proceedings, bail may be granted provided the accused undertake to submi VI. Rights of the accused

Rights may be waived, unless the waiver is contrary to law, public order, public policy, mora In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be entitled to the following rights: Key:


P – resumed innocent I – nformed of the nature of the cause and accusation P – resent in person and by counsel T – estify in his own behalf E – xempt from being compelled to be a witness against himself C – onfront witnesses C – ompulsory process to secure attendance of witnesses and production of other evidence S – peedy, impartial and public trial A – ppeal 1) To be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved beyond reasonable doubt. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Hierarchy of proof [according to degree of persuasiveness]: Absolute certainty – ultimate truth [not required in any legal proceeding] Moral certainty – passed the test of human experience [i.e., guilt beyond reasonable doubt, Relative certainty – so called because a higher degree of proof exists [i.e., preponderance of

Notes: The starting point is the presumption of innocence (See: Section 3, Par. (a), Rule 131, RRC) It is incumbent upon the prosecution to demonstrate culpability. The burden of proof lies in t Burden of proof – the duty of the affirmative to prove what it alleges. (Africa, The Art of Argu Absolute certainty is not demanded by the law to convict but only moral certainty. 2) To be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him.

Essential to avoid surprise and to afford him the opportunity to prepare his defense accordin Arraignment serves this purpose by informing him why the prosecuting arm of the state is m An accused cannot be convicted of an offense unless it is clearly charged in the compliant o 3) To be present and defend in person and by counsel at every stage of the proceedings, fro

Express or Implied waiver is renunciation to be present on that particular date only. Escape of the accused is waiver by implication to be present on said date and all subsequen Right to counsel is right to effective counsel. It is not enough to simply appoint a counsel de When an accused is represented by a fake lawyer who pretended to be a member of the bar

4) To testify as a witness in his own behalf but subject to cross-examination on matters cove 5) To be exempt from being compelled to be a witness against himself. Right to testify in his own behalf: Once exercised, the accused is subject to limited cross-examination. If not exercised, no inference of guilt can be derived from his silence alone.

Right against self incrimination: Intended to shield the guilty & imprudent as well as the innocent & farsighted. Based on public policy and humanity, otherwise, the accused will be placed on the strong temptation to commit perjury.

Notes: A. Prohibition covers 1testimonial compulsion and 2the production of the accused of incrimin B. Does not include compulsion to 1submit fingerprints, 2photograph, 3blood or urine sampl 6) To confront and cross-examine the witnesses against him at the trial.

Reasons: To meet the witness face to face (Bill of Rights, 1987 Constitution) To enable the court to judge the truthfulness, deportment, and the appearance of the witnes

Effect of absence of right to cross examine: When there is express or implied waiver – no effect In the absence of waiver – testimony of the witness cannot be considered as complete and t

Effect when witness dies: Before he could take witness stand – inadmissible After giving his direct testimony but before cross examination – Gen. rule: inadmissible. Exception: where the adverse party was given adequate opportu failed to cross examine due to his own fault CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


After the defense conducted cross examination – admissible

7) To have compulsory process issued to secure the attendance of witnesses and production “Compulsory process” refers to the issuance of the court of: Sub-poena – for the attendance of witnesses Sub-poena duces tecum – for the production of documents

Notes: A. If a sub-poena or sub-poena duces tecum is issued and the person named in the sub-poen

B. The coercive powers of the court must be employed in order to give meaning to this right 8) To have speedy, impartial and public trial. Speed: Justice delayed is justice as denied

Impartiality: Every party litigant is entitled to nothing less than the cold neutrality of an impartial court (M

Public trial: So that the public may see that he is fairly dealt with and not unjustly condemned in case of So the public may know of the fact or the basis of his innocence in case of acquittal.

Note: “Public trial” and “Trial by publicity” are two different things. They are not the same. T 9) To appeal in all cases allowed and in the manner prescribed by law.

The right to appeal is a statutory right but withdrawal of this right, in the absence of a valid It is not a natural right or inherent one. The party who seeks to avail of the said right must c VII. Arraignment and Plea Arraignment:

The initial step in a criminal prosecution whereby the defendant is brought

Venue for Arraignment and Plea: Before the court where the complaint or information was filed or is assigned for trial. Purpose of arraignment [Key: FIG] (14 Am. Jur., p. 939, GV Jacinto, Crim. Proc.) 1) To fix the identity of the accused 2) To inform him of the charge 3) To give the accused an opportunity to plead

Note: In order for the Court to “acquire” complete jurisdiction over the person of the accused, arra Procedure: Arraignment must be made in open court by the judge or the clerk Accused must be furnished with a copy of the complaint or information Complaint or Information must be read in a language or dialect known to him Accused must be present Accused must personally enter his plea CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


I. If under preventive detention Raffle of case and transmittal of records – within 3 days Arraignment – within 10 days from the date of raffle Pre trial conference – within 10 days after arraignment II. If not under preventive detention General rule – within 30 days from the date the court acquires jurisdiction Exception – a shorter period is provided by special law or SC Circular

Rules in entering a plea: If accused refuses to plead or makes a conditional plea – a plea of not guilty shall be entere If accused enters a plea but presents exculpatory evidence – plea of guilty is withdrawn an not guilty shall be entered for him. Burden of proof shifts. If accused enters a plea to a capital offense – court shall conduct a searching inquiry into th voluntariness and full comprehension of the consequences of his plea and shall require prosecution to prove his guilt and the precise degree of culpability. Pre-trial Conference: Private offended party shall be required to appear for purposes of: 1) Plea-bargaining 2) Determination of civil liability 3) Other matters requiring his presence

In case of failure of the offended party to appear despite due notice – conformity of prosecut

Bill of particulars: The accused may, before arraignment, move for a bill of particulars to enable him properly t Scope of the Bill of Particular: Bill of Particulars is a remedy for formal defects and not substantive defects.

The remedy against an indictment that fails to allege the time of the commission of the offe

[See discussion in: Elements of Complaint and Information, remedy in case complaint or info Modes of discovery: Accused has a right against the suppression of evidence favorable to an accused which is m

Suppressed evidence must be of such nature as to affect the outcome of the trial (US v. Agu Notes:

1) Arraignment is important for notifying the accused of the cause he is required to meet. Th 2) The existence of a plea is an essential requisite to double jeopardy (People v. Balicas)

Evidence I. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATION: A. Importance of the study of Evidence in Law Enforcement:

As an element of our Criminal Justice System, it is the duty of every law enforcement agenci CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Every person is entitled to be presumed innocent of a crime or wrong, unless proven otherw B. Connecting the chain of events through Evidence during Trial:

Trial refers to “the examination before a competent tribunal, according to the laws of the lan

Evidence helps in the determination of Questions of Facts by helping the judge reconstruct t C. Factum Probandum and Factum Probans Factum Probandum – The ultimate facts to be proven. These are the propositions of law. Examples: • murder was committed thru treachery • robbery was made through force upon things Factum Probans – The evidentiary Facts. These addresses questions of fact. Examples: • •

exit wounds were in front indicating that victim was shot at the back destroyed locks indicative of force upon things

Thus, the outcome of every trial is determined by: • Propositions of law, and • Questions of fact. D. Proof and Evidence

Evidence – the means to arrive at a conclusion. Under the Revised Rules of Court, evidence

Proof – the result of introducing evidence. The establishment of a requisite degree of belief i Quantum of evidence – the totality of evidence presented for consideration Quantum of proof – refers to the degree of proof required in order to arrive at a conclusion. Burden of evidence – the duty of a party of going forward with evidence. Burden of proof – the duty of the affirmative to prove that which it alleges. Variations on degrees of proof based on type of action: 1. 2. 3.

Criminal Action – proof beyond reasonable doubt [that degree of proof which produces Civil Action – preponderance of evidence [evidence of greater weight or more convinci Administrative Action – sufficiency of evidence [that amount of relevant evidence wh

E. Exclusionary Rule. (Fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine)

Evidence ILLEGALLY OBTAINED are inadmissible for reasons of public policy. This is so becau

As a result, jurisprudence has evolved a rule that renders inadmissible any evidence obtaine F. Principle of Chain of Custody of Evidence CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


If the evidence is of a type which cannot be easily recognized or can readily be confused or The evidence is identified as the same object which was taken from the scene; It was not tampered with, or that any alteration can be sufficiently explained (i.e. d due to the application of ninhydrine solution, etc.); and The persons who have handled the evidence are known and may be examined in co regard to the object. II. GENERAL PROVISIONS: A. Concepts of evidence: 1. 2.

It is a means of ascertainment – used to arrive at a legal conclusion It is sanctioned by the rules of court – meaning, not excluded by the rules on rel admissibility 3. It is used in a judicial proceeding – there is a jural conflict involving different righ by different parties 4. It pertains to the truth respecting a matter of fact – evidence represents a “claim the prosecution or for the defense where issues (clashes of view) are presen Admissibility of Evidence: For evidence to be admissible, it must be: 1) relevant to the issue [relevancy test], and 2) not excluded by the law or rules of court [competency test]. Note: To determine the relevancy of any item of proof, the purpose for which it is sought to Test of relevancy of evidence:

Whether or not the factual information tendered for evaluation of the trial court would be he When is evidence relevant? When it has a relation to the fact in issue as to induce belief in it’s: 1) existence, or 2) non-existence In other words, evidence is relevant when it is: 1) material, and 2) has probative value What is meant by “probative value”? It is the tendency of the evidence to establish the proposition that it is offered to prove.

“Collateral Matters” not admissible except when it tend in any reasonable degree to establis

Collateral matters – matters other than the fact in issue and which are offered as a basis f

Collateral matters are classified into: 1. Antecedent circumstances – facts existing before the commission of the crime [i.e. h moral character of the offender, previous plan, conspiracy, etc.] 2. Concomitant circumstances – facts existing during the commission of the crime [i.e. presence of the accused at the scene of the crime, etc.] CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION



Subsequent circumstances – facts existing after the commission of the crime [i.e. flig extrajudicial admission to third party, attempt to conceal effects of the crime, pos stolen property, etc.]

Query: Is modus operandi an antecedent, concomitant or subsequent circumstance? B. Judicial Notice, basis of:

Judicial notice is based on necessity and expediency. This is so because what is known need Different kinds of judicial notices: 1. mandatory 2. discretionary 3. hearing required C. Confession and Admission, distinguished: Confession – an acknowledgement of guilt. Admission – an acknowledgment of facts. Different kinds of confession/admission: 1. Judicial 2. Extrajudicial 3. Oral 4. Written 5. Voluntary 6. Forced

Different kinds of evidence: 1. Relevant evidence – evidence having any value in reason as tending to prove any ma an action. 2. Material evidence – evidence is material when it is directed to prove a fact in issue as by the rules of substantive law and pleadings. 3. Competent evidence – not excluded by law. 4. Direct evidence – proves the fact in issue without aid of inference or presumptions. 5. Circumstantial evidence - the proof of fact or facts from which, taken either singly or the existence of a particular fact in dispute may be inferr or probable consequence. 6. Positive evidence – evidence which affirms a fact in issue. 7. Negative evidence - evidence which denies the existence of a fact in issue. 8. Rebutting evidence – given to repel, counter act or disprove facts given in evidence b party. 9. Primary/Best evidence – that which the law regards as affording the greatest certaint 10. Secondary evidence – that which indicates the existence of a more original source of 11. Expert evidence –testimony of one possessing knowledge not usually acquired by oth 12. Prima facie evidence – evidence which can stand alone to support a conviction unless 13. Conclusive evidence – incontrovertible evidence 14. Cumulative evidence – additional evidence of the same kind bearing on the same poin 15. Corroborative evidence – additional evidence of a different kind and character tendin same point as that of previously offered evidence. 16. Character evidence – evidence of a person’s moral standing or personality traits in a c based on reputation or opinion.

17. Demeanor evidence – the behavior of a witness on the witness stand during trial to be by the judge on the issue of credibility. 18. Demonstrative evidence – evidence that has tangible and exemplifying purpose. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


19. Hearsay evidence – oral testimony or documentary evidence which does not derive its from the credit to be attached to the witness himself. 20.Testimonial evidence – oral averments given in open court by the witness. 21. Object/Auotoptic proferrence/Real evidence – those addressed to the senses of the hearing, smell, touch, taste). 22. Documentary evidence – those consisting of writing or any material of written express proof of its contents containing letters, words, numbers, figures, symbols or

Best Evidence Rule: When the subject of the inquiry is the contents of a document, no evidence shall be admissi For exceptions, see Sec. 3, Rule 130, Revised Rules of Court.

A document is legally considered “Original” when: 1. It is the subject of an inquiry 2. When in two or more copies executed at or about the same time, with identical conte 3. When an entry is repeated in ordinary course of business, one being copied from ano near the time of the transaction. Question: May a “fake” document be considered as “original” or “authentic”?

Yes. A forged or spurious document when presented in court for examination is considered a Secondary Evidence When the 1. 2. 3.

original document has been: lost, destroyed, or cannot be produced in court.

The offeror without bad faith must: 1. prove its execution or existence, and 2. prove the cause of its unavailability. Secondary evidence may consist of: 1. a copy, 2. recital of its contents in some authentic document, or 3. by testimony of witnesses. When original document is in the custody of: 1. 2.

adverse party – adverse party must have reasonable notice to produce it. After such satisfactory proof of its existence, he fails to produce it, secondary evidence may b public officer – contents may be proved by certified copy issued by the public officer thereof.

III. TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE: Qualifications of witnesses: 1. can perceive 2. can make known their perception to others 3. not disqualified by reason of mental incapacity, immaturity, marriage, privileged communications, or “dead man’s statute”. “Res Inter Alios Acta” Rule CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


General Rule: The rights of a party cannot be prejudiced by an act, declaration, or om another. Exception: 1. admission 2. admission 3. admission 4. admission

by by by by

a co-partner or agent a conspirator privies silence

In the above cases, the admission of one person is admissible as evidence against another. Testimonial Knowledge:

General Rule: A witness can testify only to those facts which he knows of his personal knowl Exceptions: 1. Dying declarations (ante-mortem statements) 2. Declaration against interest 3. Act or declaration about pedigree 4. Family reputation or tradition regarding pedigree 5. Common reputation 6. Part of the res gestae 7. Entries in the course of business 8. Entries in official records 9. Commercial lists and the like 10. Learned treatises 11. Testimony or deposition at a former proceeding 12. Examination of child victim/witness in cases of child abuse IV. BURDEN OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTIONS:

Burden of proof – the duty of a party to present evidence on the facts in issue necessary t

Presumption – an inference as to the existence of a fact not actually known, arising from it

2 kinds of presumptions: 1. Conclusive presumptions [jure et de jure] – based on rules of substantive law whic overcome by evidence to the contrary. 2. Disputable presumptions [prima facie presumptions, rebuttable presumptions] – b procedural rules and may be overcome by evidence to the contrary.

Kinds of Conclusive Presumptions: 1. Estoppel by record or judgment – the preclusion to deny the truth of matters set forth in 2. Estoppel by deed – a bar which precludes a party to a deed and his privies from assertin 3. Estoppel in pais – based upon express representation or statements or upon positive ac 4. Estoppel against Tenant – the tenant is not permitted to deny the title of his landlord at

Note: For Kinds of disputable presumptions, see Sec. 3, Rule 131 of the Revised Rules of Cou

Presentation of Evidence: The examination of witnesses presented in a trial or hearing shall be done is open court, and

Rights and Obligations of witnesses: 1. To be protected from irrelevant, improper, or insulting questions, and from harsh or insulti demeanor. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. Not to be detained longer than the interest of justice requires. 3. Not to be examined except only as to matters pertinent to the issue. 4. Not to give an answer which will tend to subject him to a penalty for an offense unless oth provided by law. 5. Not to give an answer which will tend to degrade his reputation, unless it be to the very fa or to the fact from which the fact in issue would be presumed, but a witness must an facts of his previous final conviction for an offense. Order of Examination of individual witnesses: Direct examination by the proponent Cross examination by the opponent Re-direct examination by the proponent Re-cross examination by the opponent

Direct examination – the examination in chief of a witness by the party presenting him on th

Cross examination – the examination by the adverse party of the witness as to any matter s

Re-direct examination – second questioning by the proponent to explain or supplement answ

Re-cross examination – second questioning by the adverse party on matters stated on the re Different Types of Questions:

Leading questions –It is one where the answer is already supplied by the examiner into the m Misleading question – a question which cannot be answered without making an unintended a Compound question – a question which calls for a single answer to more than one question.

Argumentative question – a type of leading question which reflects the examiners interpreta

Speculative question – a question which assumes a disputed fact not stated by the witness a

Conclusionary question – a question which asks for an opinion which the witness is not quali Cumulative question – a question which has already been asked and answered. Harassing/Embarrassing question – [Ex. Are you a homosexual?] Classes of Documents: Documents are either public or private.

Public documents are: 1. The written official acts, or records of the official acts of sovereign authority, official bod tribunals, and public officers, whether of the Philippines, or a foreign country. 2. Documents acknowledged before a notary public except last wills and testaments. 3. Public records (1) kept in the Philippines, or private documents (2) required by law to b therein. All other writings are private. SOME USEFUL LATIN TERMS AND LEGAL MAXIMS:

Verba legis non est decendendum – from the words of the law there can be no departure CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Dura lex sed lex – the law may be harsh but it is the law. Ignorantia legis neminem excusat – ignorance of the law excuses no one. Ignorantia facti excusat – mistake of fact excuses. Praeter intentionem – different from that which was intended. Error in personae – mistake in identity.

Abberatio Ictus – mistake in the blow Nulum crimen, nulla poena sine lege – there is no crime when there is no law punishing

Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea – the act cannot be criminal where the mind is n

Actus mi invictu reus, nisi mens facit reum – an act done by me against my will is not m Mens rea – guilty mind. Actus reus – guilty act. Res ipsa loquitor – the thing speaks for itself. Causa Proxima – proximate cause which produced the immediate effect. Prima facie – at first glance. Locus Criminis – scene of the crime or crime scene.

Pro Reo – principle in Criminal Law which states that where the statute admits of several in Res Gestae – the thing itself. Falsus in unum, falsus in omnibus – false in one part of the statement would render the

Crime Detection, Investigation, and Prevention

Crime detection begins with the discovery of a crime scene and proceeds through the proce Crime prevention and detection is the major task of the police. In carrying out this task, the What are the goals of policing? 1. To protect life and property 2. To maintain peace and order 3. To enforce the law 4. To prevent and detect crimes 5. To assist the public in circumstances of personal emergency

Problem Oriented Policing - police patrol personnel look at causes of crime and potential Community Policing - crime prevention methods involving the wider community. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Deterrence by Example - a reactive form of policing and crime prevention through the sig

Crime Prevention - is the anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and the in

Whose responsibility is crime prevention? ans. everyone, however, law enforcement ag

Whose responsibility is crime detection? ans. police, though special law enforcement a

Whose responsibility is crime investigation? ans. police and other law enforcement age Crime Detection Falls Into 3 Phases 1. The discovery that a crime has been committed. 2. The identification of the suspect 3. The collection of sufficient evidence to indict the suspect before the court of justice. Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation

Investigation - an inquiry, judicial or otherwise for the discovery and collection of facts con - it is the process of inquiring, eliciting, soliciting and getting vital information, fa

Criminal Investigator - a public safety officer who is tasked to conduct the investigation o - a well trained, disciplined and experienced professional in the field of criminal

Custodial Investigation - investigation conducted by law enforcement officers after a pers

Neighborhood Investigation - one of the most crucial steps in kidnap for ransom cases w

Crime scene - a venue or place where the alleged crime/incident/event has been committe Corpus delicti - (latin for the body of the crime) - used to describe the physical or material

Confession - is an express acknowledgement by the accused in a criminal prosecution of th

Admission - refers to statement of facts not directly constituting an acknowledgement of g

Organized criminal group - a structured group of three or more persons existing for a per Organized crime - a combination of two or more persons who are engaged in a criminal or

Physical evidence - evidenced addressed to the senses of the court that are capable of be

Victimology/victim profiling - a detailed account of the victims lifestyle and personality, a

Miranda vs. Arizona - Ernesto Miranda had confessed to rape and kidnapping, after two ho

Waterboarding - refers to the practice of strapping a suspect to a board with his or her hea

Chinese water torture - interrogation technique, repeatedly dripping water on the forehea

Serial Killer - is someone who murders 3 or more people with "cooling off" periods in betwe

Police Blotter - is an 18" x 12" logbook with hard bound cover that contains the daily regis Actus Reus - proof that a criminal act has occurred. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Sketch - a rough drawing or painting, often made to assist in making a more finished pictur Types of Sketches 1. Floor plan (Birds Eye View) 2. Elevation Drawing 3. Exploded View 4. Respective Drawings

Allan Pinkerton - a Scottish american detective who created the Pinkerton National Detect

Rouges Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or photographs of criminals and suspects

Mugshot - is a photographic portrait taken after one is arrested. Criminal investigation - it is the collection of facts in order to accomplish the three fold ai 3 Fold Aims Of Criminal Investigation 1. To identify the guilty party 2. To locate the guilty party 3. To provide evidence of his guilt 6 Cardinal points of investigation 1. What specific offense was committed 2. How the offense was committed 3. Who committed it 4. Where the offense was committed 5. When it was committed 6. Why it was committed Tools of an investigator in gathering facts

1. Information - data gathered by an investigator and other person including the victim h 1. public records 2. private records 3. modus operandi file 2. Interview - skillful questioning of witness and suspects. 3. Instrumentation - scientific examination of real evidence, application of instruments an physical sciences in detecting crime. Phases of investigations 1.Phase 1 - identify the suspect through: 1. confession 2. eyewitness testimony 3. circumstantial evidence 4. associate evidence CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. Phase 2 - locate and apprehend suspect. 3. Phase 3 - gather and provide evidence to establish the guilt of the accused. Composition/Organization of an investigation team: 1. Team leader 2. Investigator/recorder 3. Photographer 4. Evidence Custodian 5. Composite illustrator/Artist Equipment of an Investigator 1. Police line 2. Video camera 3. Voice recorder 4. Camera 5. Measuring device 6. Gloves 7. Flashlight 8. Fingerprint kit 9. Evidence bag 10.Evidence tag 11.Evidence bottles/vials 12.Investigators tickler Investigators Tickler 1. Investigators checklist 2. Anatomical diagram form 3. Evidence Checklist 4. Turn-over receipt Standard Methods of Recording Investigative Data: CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


1. Photographs 2. Sketching crime scenes 3. Written notes (what you have seen/observed) 4. Developing and lifting fingerprints found at the crime scene. 5. Gathering physical evidence 6. Plaster cast 7. Tape recording of sounds 8. Video tape recording of objects 9. Written statement of objects and witnesses. 2 Kinds of Information 1. Regular sources - ex. citizen, company records 2. Cultivated sources - ex. paid informant 

Interrogation or questioning witness or suspect who is reluctant to divulge or reveal in

How the Suspect is Identified 1. Confession or Admission - is a declaration of an accused acknowledging his guilt. 2. Eyewitness testimony 3. Circumstantial evidence How circumstantial Evidence Obtained 1. Motive 2. Opportunity 3. Associative Evidence

Types of Interview 1. Informal (on the scene interview) - conducted by police/investigator at the crime scene t description of criminal if seen. 2. Formal - interview conducted by the investigator assigned to the case.

Types of Formal Interview 1. Normal - for willing or cooperative witness. 2. Group/Pretext Interview - for hostile witness or witness who refuse to cooperate. 3. Follow Up - additional interview in addition to vital points if necessary. Qualifications of Interviewer 1. Salesman 2. Actor 3. Psychologist Requisites of an Interview 1. Establish rapport CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. Forcefulness of personality 3. Breadth of interest

Setting of Interview 1. Background Interview - time and place of interview are not a consideration except for bu person. 2. Routine Criminal Cases - interview should be carefully planned. Busy person can be inter at night, privacy is important. 3. Important Criminal Cases - should be conducted in places other than the subjects home/ prevent him/her feeling confident. Investigator should get interviewees respect. 4. Appropriate Time - General rule - (ASAP) as soon possible while facts are fresh in the m interviewees.

Methods of Crime Scene Search 1. Strip method - the area is blocked out in the form of a rectangle. The searchers (3 person proceed slowly at the same pace along paths parallel to one side of the rectangle. 2. Double Strip Search Method - modification of the strip search method. The rectangle is tr first parallel to the base then parallel to a side. 3. Spiral Search Method - The searchers (3 person is good) follow each other along the path beginning on the outside and spiraling in towards the center. 4. Zone Search Method - one searcher is assigned to each subdivision of a quadrant and th quadrant is cut into another set of quadrants. 5. Wheel Search Method - the area is considered to be approximately circular. The searcher the center and proceed outward along radii or spokes. Procedure is repeated several tim depending on the size of the circle and the number of searchers.

Special Crime Investigation Special Crime Investigation - is a special study of modern techniques in the investigation of serious and specific crimes including murder, homicide, rape, abortion, robbery, arson kidnapping, blackmail, carnapping and criminal negligence. The emphasis is on physical evidence rather than an extra judicial confession. Special crime investigation focuses on specific crimes which by their nature are difficult and complex to investigate. The following are some example of cases subject to special crime investigation. 1. Robbery 2. Arson CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


3. Kidnapping 4. Abortion 5. Rape 6. Murder 7. Homicide 8. Carnapping 9. Criminal Negligence, Hit and Run cases 10.Drug Cases 11.Bombing 12.Swindling

Fire Technology and Investigation

Fire - exothermic reaction involving the oxidation of some substance (fuel) resulting in the r Fire Quadrangle 1. Fuel 2. Oxygen 3. Heat 4. Ignition energy Triangles of Fire 1. Fuel 2. Oxygen 3. Heat - removal of any of these results in the suppression of the fire. Some major products of combustion 1.


2. carbon dioxide 3. carbon monoxide 4. oxides of sulfur Definition of terms 1.

Vapor Density - the density of the vapor relative to the density of air and is calculat




Flash point - the lowest temperature at which liquid fuel produces a flammable vap


Fire point/flame point - the lowest temperature at which liquid fuel produces a flamm sufficient quantity such that if a source of ignition is introduced, the vapour will ignite a a few degrees above the flash point Ignition/auto-ignition temperature - the temperature at which a fuel will ignite on it any additional source ignition. Thermal inertia - the ease at which a material can be ignited. Heat release rate - is a measure of the amount of energy a specific type of fuel can co heat flux in a fire. Heat transfer - the mechanism in which fire can spread from its origin to other sources

4. 5. 6. 7.

Methods of heat transfer

1. Conductive/conduction heat transfer - heat is transferred by direct contact and th

2. Convective/convection heat transfer - transfer of heat through physical movemen

3. Radiative/radiation heat transfer - heat is transferred if the form of electromagne

8. Combustion - or burning - is the sequence of exothermic chemical reaction between fu oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species.T the heat can result in the form of either glowing or flame. 

Glowing combustion - occurs when solid fuels are not capable of producing sufficien

Flaming combustion -commonly recognized type of fire and occurs with gaseous fu

Spontaneous combustion - the ignition of organic matter with out apparent cause,

Explosive combustion - can occur when vapors, dust of gases, premixed with appro

Definition of Terms: Arson - intentional or malicious destruction of property by fire.

Fire analysis - the process of determining the origin, cause and responsibility as well as th

Fire cause - the circumstances or agencies that bring a fuel and an ignition source togethe Fire spread - the movement of fire from one place to another.

Flash fire - a fire that spreads with extreme rapidity such as the one that races over dust, o

Fuel load - the total quantity of combustible contents of the building, spaces or fire area, in

Point of origin - the exact physical location where a heat source and fuel comes in contact

Rekindle - a return to flaming combustion after incomplete extinguishment of a fire reigning Spalling - chipping or pitting of concrete or masonry surfaces.



Definition of terms - (RA no.9514) Abatement - any act that would remove or neutralize fire hazard.

Administrator - any person who acts as agent of the owner and manages the use of a build

Blasting Agent - any material or mixture consisting of a fuel and oxidizer used to set off ex

Cellulose nitrate or Nitro cellulose - a highly combustible and explosive compound prod

Cellulose nitrate plastic (Pyroxylin) - any plastic substance,materials or compound havi

Combustible/Flammable or Inflammable - Descriptive of materials that are easily set on

Combustible fiber - any readily ignitable and free burning fiber such as cotton,oakum,rags

Combustible liquid - any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 degrees Celsius or 10 Corrosive liquid - any liquid which causes fire when in contact with organic matter or with

Curtain board - a vertical panel of non-combustible or fire resistive materials attached to a

Cryogenic - descriptive of any material which by its nature or as a result of its reaction with

Damper - a normally open device installed inside an air duct system which automatically c

Distillation - the process of first raising the temperature to separate the more volatile from Duct system - a continuous passageway for the transmission of air.

Dust - a finely powdered substance which when mixed with air in the proper proportion and Electrical arc - an extremely hot luminous bridge formed by passage of an electric current

Ember - a hot piece or lump that remains after a material has partially burned and is still ox

Finishes - materials used as final coating of a surface for ornamental or protective purpose Fire - the active principle of burning characterized by the heat and light of combustion.

Fire Trap - a building unsafe in case of fire because it will burn easily or because it lacks ad

Fire Alarm - any visual or audible signal produced by a device or system to warn the occup

Fire door - a fire restrictive door prescribed for openings in fire separation walls or partition

Fire Hazard - any condition or act which increases or may cause an increase in the probabi

Fire Lane - the portion of a roadway or public way that should be kept opened and unobstru

Fire Protective and Fire Safety Device - any device intended for the protection of buildin

Fire Safety Constructions - refers to design and installations of walls,barriers,doors,wind

Flash Point - the minimum temperature at which any material gives off vapor in sufficient c CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Forcing - a process where a piece of metal is heated prior to changing its shape or dimensio Fulminate - a kind of stable explosive compound which explodes by percussion.

Hazardous operation/process - any act of manufacturing, fabrication, conversion etc., or

Horizontal exit - passage way from one building to another or through or around a wall in a

Hose Box - a box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and other equipment are stored and a Hose Reel - a cylindrical device turning on an axis around which a fire hose is connected.\.

Hypergolic fuel - a rocket or liquid propellant which consist of combinations of fuels and ox

Industrial Baking and Drying - the industrial process of subjecting materials to heat for th

Jumper - a piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to bypass a safety device in an ele

Occupancy - the purpose for which a building or portion thereof is used or intended to be u

Occupant - any person actually occupying and using a building or portions thereof by virtue

Organic Peroxide - a strong oxidizing organic compound which release oxygen readily. It c when in contact with combustible materials especially under conditions of high temperature

Overloading - the use of one or more electrical appliances or devices which draw or consum

Owner - the person who holds the legal right of possession or title to a building or real prop

Oxidizing Material - a material that readily yields oxygen in quantities sufficient to stimula

Pressurized or Forced Draft Burning Equipment - type or burner where the fuel is subje

Public Assembly Building - any building or structure where 50 0r more people congregate

Public Way - any street, alley or other strip of land unobstructed from the ground to the sky Pyrophoric - descriptive of any substance that ignites spontaneously when exposed to air.

Refining - a process where impurities and,or deleterious materials are removed from a mixt Self Closing Doors - automatic closing doors that are designed to confine smoke and heat

Smelting - melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so as to separate impurities from

Sprinkler System - an integrated network of hydraulically designed piping installed in a bu

Standpipe System - a system of vertical pipes in a building to which fire hoses can be atta Vestibule - a passage hall or ante chamber between the outer doors and the interior parts

Vertical Shaft - a enclosed vertical space of passage that extends from floor to floor as wel RA no.9514 - Revised Fire Code of the Philippines of 2008 (Dec. 19, 2008). CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


PD. 1185 - known as the fire code of the Philippines, was enacted into law 1977, repealed b

RA no. 9263 - Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Profes BFP Powers/Functions 1. Preventions and suppression of all destructive fires on a. buildings b. houses c. other structure d. forest e. land transportation vehicles f. ships/vessels g. petroleum industry installations h. plane crashes and similar incidents 2. Enforcement of the Fire Code of the Philippines 3. Investigate all causes of fire 4. File proper complaints with the prosecutors office 

note: Vessel/Ship must be docked at piers or wharves or anchored in major seaport.

BFP Organization 

Headed by a Chief who shall be assisted by a Deputy Chief. It shall composed of a Pro

In large provinces, district offices may be established to be headed by a district fire m

In large cities and municipalities, district offices may be established with subordinate

There shall be at least one fire station in every provincial, capital, city and municipalit

The local government unit shall provide the site of the fire station.

BFP Key Positions 

The Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Director.

The Deputy Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Chief Superintendent.

Assistant Regional Director for Fire Protection - rank is Senior Superintendent.

District Fire Marshall of NCR District Offices - rank is Senior Superintendent.

Provincial Fire Marshall - rank is Superintendent.

District Fire Marshall of Province - rank is Chief Inspector.

Chief of City/Municipal Fire Station - rank is Senior Inspector.

Key Positions - Qualifications 1. Municipal Fire Marshal - should have the rank of Senior Inspector. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


a. Must have finished at least 2nd year Bachelor of Laws or earned at least 12 units in a m degree program in public administration, management, engineering, public safety, c other related discipline. b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary training of career courses for such positio established by the fire bureau. 2. City Fire Marshal - should have the rank of Chief Inspector. a. Must have finished at least 2nd year Bachelor of Laws or earned at least 24 units in a m degree program in public administration, management, engineering, public safety, crim other related disciplines. b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary training or career courses for such positio may be established by the fire bureau. 3. District Fire Marshal/Provincial Fire Marshal Assistant Regional Director for Administrati Assistant Regional Director for Operations/ Chief of Directorial Staff - should have the rank Superintendent. a. Must be a graduate of Bachelor of Laws or a holder of a Masters degree in public admin management, engineering, public safety, criminology, or other related disciplines. b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary training or career courses for such positio established by the fire bureau. 4. District Fire marshal for the NCR/Regional Director for Fire Protection/Director of the D the National Headquarters Office - should have at least the rank of Senior Superintende a. Must be a graduate of Bachelor of Laws or a holder of masters degree in public adminis management, engineering, public safety, criminology, or other related disciplines. b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary training or career course for such position be established by the fire bureau. 5. Deputy Chief for Administration and Deputy Chief for Operation of the Fire Bureau - s rank of Chief superintendent. a. Must be a member of the Philippine Bar or must be a holder of a masters degree in pub administration, management, engineering, public safety, criminology or other related d b. Must have satisfactory passed the necessary training or career courses as may be esta fire bureau. 6. Chief of the Fire Bureau - should have the rank of Director. a. Must be a member of the Philippine Bar or a masters degree in public administration, management, engineering, public safety, criminology or other related discipline. b. Must satisfactory passed the necessary the training or career courses for such position established by the fire bureau. Traffic Operation and Accident Investigation

Traffic - may consist of pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, street cars and othe Traffic laws - laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles. Traffic signs/road signs - are signs erected at the side of the roads to provide information

Rules of the road - are the laws and the informal rules that may have developed overtime

Right of way - is a strip of land that is granted, through an easement or other mechanism f - the legal right, established by usage or grant, to pass along a specific route thro belonging to another. Traffic signal/Traffic light - a visual signal to control the flow of traffic at intersections. Highway - any public road. A main road especially one connecting major town or cities. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Speed limit - define the maximum, minimum or no speed limit and are normally indicated u Hit and run - is the act of causing a traffic accident and failing to stop and identify oneself

Traffic accident - occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, r

Mary Ward - worlds first road traffic death including a motor vehicle, is alleged to have occ Causes of traffic accidents 1. Human factors - ex. driver behavior, visual and auditory acuity, intoxication, decision 2. Motor vehicle speed.

3. Driver impairment - factors that prevent the driver at their normal level of skill. Comm 4. Road design 5. Vehicle design and maintenance 

seat belts - wearing seat belts reduces the risk of death by two thirds.

maintenance - a well designed and maintained vehicle with good breaks, tires and we

center of gravity - roll overs have become common due to increased popularity of tall

motorcycles - have little protection.

Skid mark - is the mark a tire makes when a vehicle wheel stops rolling and slides or spins 

skid marks are caused by rubbers deposited on the road.

one form of trace evidence, when their size and shape can reveal much about the veh

the length of the skid mark is closely related to the vehicle speed at the instant of bre

Locard exchange principle - was postulated by Edmong Locard in the 20th century wh

Skid mark are divided into:

1. acceleration marks - created on acceleration if the engine provides more power tha 2. braking marks - if the brakes "lock-up" and cause the tire to slide. 3. yaw marks - if the tire slide sideways. RA 4136 - Land Transportation and Traffic code of the Philippines.

Coefficient of Friction - is a dimensionless scalar value which describes the ratio of the for Rail Adhesion - grip wheels of a train have on the rails. Split Friction - dangerous condition arising due to varying friction on either side of a car. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Road Texture - affects the interaction of tires and the driving surface. Profilograph - devised used to measure pavement surface roughness. Tribometer - an instrument that measures friction on a surface.

Traffic Waves - "stop waves" "traffic Shocks" - are traveling disturbances in the distribution

Traffic Flow - the total number of vehicles passing a given point in a given time. Traffic flow Traffic Congestion - "traffic jam" - is a condition on roads, streets or highways that occurs Characteristics of Traffic Congestion 1. Slow speed of vehicles 2. Longer travel time 3. Increased vehicle queuing Classical Theories of Traffic Flow 1. Free flow 2. Congested traffic

Three-Phase Traffic Theory - is an alternative theory of traffic flow developed by Boris Ke 1. Free flow 2. Synchronized flow 3. Wide moving jam Pedestrian - is a person traveling on foot whether walking or running. Gridlock - a traffic jam so bad that no movement is possible.

China - (Beijing-Zhangjiakou province) - is considered the worlds worst traffic jam ever as tr Brazil - (Sao Paolo) - has the worlds worst daily traffic jams.

France - (A6 Auto-route) - between Paris and Lyon was considered the worlds longest traffic

Drug Education and Vice Control RA no. 9165 - Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002. RA no 6425 - Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972 - the law that was repelled by RA no. 9165. Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) - the policy-making and strategy-formulating body in the

Duties/Function of the DDB -To develop and adopt a comprehensive, integrated, unified a Composition of the DDB 1. 3 permanent members 2. 2 regular members CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


3. 12 ex officio members The 12 ex officio members are the following: 1. DOJ secretary or his/her representative 2. DOH secretary or his/her representative 3. DND secretary or his/her representative 4. DOF secretary or his/her representative 5. DOLE secretary or his/her representative 6. DILG secretary or his/her representative 7. DSWD secretary or his/her representative 8. DFA secretary or his/her representative 9. DECS secretary or his/her representative 10.CHED chairman or his/her representative 11.National Youth Commission chairman or his/her representative 12.PDEA director general 

The DDB is under the office of the President.

The Department Secretary's representative shall in no case be lower than Under Secr

The Two Regular Members of the DDB are: 1.

The President of The Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP)

2. The Chairman or President of a non-governmental organization involved in dangerous Permanent Consultants of the DDB 1. Director of the NBI 2. Chief of the PNP PDEA - implementing arm of the DDB.

Qualification of the 3 Permanent members of the DDB - at least 7 years training and experience in the field of dangerous drugs and in any of the fo 

The President shall designate a Chairman of the DDB from among the 3 permanent m



The Chairman of the DDB shall have a rank of Under Secretary.

Term of office of the permanent members of the DDB - 6 years and until their success

The PDEA shall be headed by a Director General with the rank of undersecretary.

The PDEA Director General shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines.

Duties/Functions of PDEA Director General 1. Responsible for the general administration and management of the agency. 2. Perform other duties that may be assigned to him/her by the President. 

The PDEA Director General and the 2 Deputy Director General must possess adequate

There are 2 PDEA Deputy Director General 1. One for Administration 2. One for Operation 

They shall have a rank of Assistant Secretary and both are appointed by the Presiden

Mandatory Services of the PDEA 1. Intelligence and Investigation 2. International Cooperation and Foreign Affairs 3. Preventive Education and Community Involvement 4. Plans and Operation 5. Compliance, Legal and Prosecution 6. Administrative and Human Resource 7. Financial Management 8. Logistic Management 9. Internal Affairs

PDEA Academy - Shall be established either in Baguio City or Tagaytay City and in such othe 

PDEA Academy shall be headed by a Superintendent with the rank of Director. He sha

3 Pronged Approached in the Solution of Drug Problems 1. Law enforcement activities 2. Preventive Drug Education and Information program in school and in communities. 3. Treatment and Rehabilitation programs for drug dependent. Classification of Drugs according to effect

1. Depressant - "downers" - a drug reducing functional or nervous activity. Lower the lev

2. Stimulants - "Uppers" - increase mental and/or physical function. A substance that ra

3. Hallucinogens - "psychedelics" - a drug that causes hallucinations. Psychoactive drugs Classification of Drugs according to Pharmacology 1. Depressants CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


2. Narcotics 3. Tranquilizers 4. Stimulants 5. Hallucinogens 6. Solvents/Inhalants Classifications of Drugs according to Legal Categories 1. Prohibited Drugs 2. Regulated Drugs 3. Volatile substances Golden Triangle of Drug Trafficking 1. Laos 2. Thailand 3. Burma The Golden Crescent 1. Afghanistan 2. Pakistan 3. Iran 4. India Classification of Drug user/Abuser

1. Situational user - those who use drugs to keep them awake or for additional energy to

2. Spree user - school age user who take drugs for "kicks", adventure, daring experience

3. Hardcore addicts - those whose activities revolves almost entirely around drug use an

4. Hippies - Those who are addicted to drugs believing that drug is an integral part of life Commonly abused drugs:

1. Sedatives - are depressant drugs which reduce anxiety and excitement such as barbit



2. Stimulants - are drugs which increase alertness and activity such as amphetamine, co

3. Hallucinogen/Psychedelics - drugs which affect sensation, thinking, self awareness an

4. Narcotics - drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep. This includes opium and its 5. Solvents - volatile substances which are found to be the most commonly abused. Primary causes of drug addiction: 1. Pride - excessive feeling of self worth or self esteem or sense of self importance. 2. Anger - against, himself, family, friends and society in general. 3. Lust - burning sexual desire can distort the human mind to drug abuse. 4. Gluttony - "food trip" in the lingo of junkies.

5. Greed - wealth, fame, recognition as exemplified by people under pressure in their wo 6. Envy - to get attention from someone as sign of protest.

7. Laziness - "i cant syndrome" incapacity to achieve is a breeding ground of drug abuse Warning Signs of Commonly Abused Drugs 1. Marijuana 

glassy red eye

loud talking

inappropriate laughter followed by sleepiness

loss of interest, motivation

weight gain or loss

2. Depressant 

contracted pupils


difficulty concentrating


poor judgement

3. Stimulants - ex. cocaine, amphetamines CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


dilated pupils





excessive talking followed by depression or excessive sleeping

may go long period of time without eating or sleeping

weight loss

dry mouth and nose

4. Inhalants - ex. glues, aerosols, vapors 

watery eyes

impaired vision, memory and thought

secretions from the nose or rashes around the nose and mouth

head aches and nausea

appearance of intoxication


poor muscle control

changes in appetite



lots of cans,aerosols in the trash

5 . Hallucinogens - ex. LSD, PCP 

dilated pupils

bizarre and irrational behavior including paranoia, aggression, hallucination

mood swings



detachment from people

absorption with self or other objects

slurred speech


6. Heroin 

contracted pupils

no response of pupils to light

needle marks

sleeping at unusual time



coughing, shiffling


loss of appetite

7. Alcohol 


difficulty walking

slurred speech


poor judgement

dilated pupils

possession of false ID cards

8. Tobacco/Nicotine  

smell of tobacco stained fingers or teeth

Analgesic - any drugs such as salicylates, morphine or opiates used primarily for the relief CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Police Report Writing (Technical English) Definition of Terms: 

Affidavit - summary judgment. The kind of affidavit necessary to support a summary (PNP definition).

After operation report - it is a report that may be rendered after any successful pol

After soco report - it is a report rendered by the team leader of the SOCO that cond

Agents report - it is a report rendered by a documented agent who answers an intel

Agreement - Proposal. A proposal remains an offer even if not answered and irrespec

Book of account - a book containing charges and showing a continuous dealing with

Case officer - the person responsible for and in charge of the investigation of the cas

Police blotter - a record or log where all types of operational and under cover dispat

Spot report - refers to an immediate initial investigative or incident report addressed

Tactical interrogation report - the report rendered by an interrogator which contai

Summary of information (SOI) - an intelligence report rendered regarding any illeg validated, countered checked, analyzed and evaluated.

Criminal Sociology

Criminal sociology - investigates the social causes of criminal behavior in an effort to ultim

Criminology Theories 1. Strain Theory - people has aspirations like wealth and education. There goals are blocke 2. Learning Theories - follow the lead of Sutherland's theory of differential association. Cri 3. Control Theories - focuses on the relationship of a person to their parents, teachers, offi 4. Labelling Theory - People who are branded as criminals will eventually criminal. 5. Conflict Theory - society is based on conflict between competing interests group. 6. Radical Theory - crime is seen as a reflection of class struggle.

7. Left Realism - people of the working class prey upon one another. Poor people victimize

8. Peacemaking Theory - making "war on crime" will not work. Making peace is the solutio 9. Feminism - crime cannot be understood without considering power is exercise by men

10. Critical Theory - Inequality in power and material well being create conditions that lead CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


11. Social Disorganization - disorganized communities cause crime because informal soc

12. Classical - crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the costs, when people pursue self

13. Positivist - Crime is caused or determined. Placed more emphasis on biological deficien

14. Individual Trait - criminals differ from non criminals on a number of biological and soc

15. Differential Association - crime is learned through associations with criminal definition

16. Anomie - the gap between a persons goal or economic success and the opportunity to

17. Rational Choice - Building on classical theory, crime is seen as a choice that is influen

18. Routine Activities - crime occurs when their is an intersection in time and space of a m 19. Developmental Life Course - crime causation is a developmental process that starts

20. Integrated - these theories use components from other theories, usually strain, control

Introduction to Criminology Criminology - the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior and law enforcement. 3 Main School of Thought 1. Classical school 2. Positivist school 3. Chicago school

Classical school - based on utilitarian philosophy developed in the 18th century. This schoo 1. That people have free will to choose how to act.

2. Deterrence is based upon the notion of the human being as a hedonist who seeks ple

3. Punishment of sufficient severity can deter people from crime as the cost (penalties) o

4. The more swift and certain the punishment, the more effective it is in deterring crimin Prominent Philosophers of Classical school 1. Cesare Becarria - author of crimes and punishment.

2. Jeremy Bentham - inventor of the panopticon - type of institutional building designe

Positivist school - presumes that criminal behavior is caused by internal and external fact Positivism can be broken in 3 segments which include: CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


1. Biological 2. Psychological 3. Social - - one of the largest contributors to biological positivism and founder of the Italian Italian School 

Cesare Lombroso - an Italian doctor and sometimes regarded as the father of crimin

Enrico Ferri - a student of Lombroso, believe that social as well as biological factors

Sociological positivism - suggest that societal factors such as poverty, membership

1. Adolphe Quetelet - made use of data and statistical analysis to gain insight into rela

2. Rawson W. Rawson - utilized crime statistics to suggest a link between population d

3. Joseph Fletcher and John Glyde - also presented papers to the statistical society o 4. Henry Mayhew - used empirical methods and an ethnographic approach to address

5. Emile Durkheim - viewed crime as an inevitable aspect of society with uneven distri

Chicago school - arose in the early 20th century, through the work of Robert Park, Ernest B 

Edwin Sutherland - suggested that people learn criminal behavior from older, more

2 Main difference between the classical and positivist schools of criminology Classical school Positivist school 1.Free will 1. Determinism 2. Philosophy 2. Scientific methods De minimis - is an addition to a general harm principle. The general harm principle fails to Thanatos - a death wish.

Tagging - like labeling, the process whereby an individual is negatively defined by agencies

Criminology Consists of 3 Principal Divisions 1. Sociology of Law - which is an attempt at scientific analysis of the conditions under which influences society. 2. Criminal Etiology - an attempt at scientific analysis of the study of causes or reasons for c 3. Penology - concerned with control crime by repressing criminal activities through the fear punishment. Crime - is a wrong doing classified by the state as a felony or misdemeanor. Felony - is a serious crime punishable by at least one year in prison. Misdemeanor - is a crime for which the punishment is usually a fine and/or up to one year *Crimes are defined and punished by statutes and by the common law. Etiology - study of causes and reasons for crime.

Atavism - the view that crime is due to a genetic throwback to a more primitive and aggres CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Elements Necessary For A Crime To Occur 1. Desire or motivation on the part of the criminal. 2. The skills and tools needed to commit the crime. 3. Opportunity.

Spree killer - is someone who embarks on a murderous assault on 2 or more victims in a sh

Spree killing - killings at two or more locations with almost no time break between murder

Spree murder - two or more murders committed by an offender/offenders without a cooling

Serial murder - two or more murders committed by an offender/offenders with a cooling off

Mass murderer - are defined by one incident with no distinctive time period between the m

Thrill killing - a premeditated murder committed by a person who is not necessarily sufferi Victimology -studies the nature and cause of victimization. Psychology - the scientific study of the human mind and its functions.

Psychiatry - the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental dis Ecology - the environment as it relates to living organisms.

Demography - the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human population Epidemiology - the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of

Anthropology - the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human Impulse - a sudden strong urge or desire to act. Kleptomania - is an irresistible impulse to steal in the absence of economic motive. Pathological - is caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition. Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice System - is the system of practices and institutions of governments direc Goals of Criminal Justice 1. to protect individuals and society 2. to reduce crime by bringing offenders to justice 3. to increase the security of the people Criminal Justice System consists of three main parts 1. legislative - create laws



2. courts - adjudication 3. corrections - jail, prison, probation, parole Participants of Criminal Justice System 1. police - first contact of offender since they investigate wrongdoing and makes arrest. 2. prosecution - proves the guilt or innocence of wrongdoers. 3. court - venue where disputes are settled and justice is administered. 4. correction - after accused is found guilty, he is put to jail or prison to be reformed.

5. community - where the convict after service of sentence comes back to be integrated

Community Policing - the system of allocating officers to particular areas so that they bec

Early History of Punishment 1. Early Greece and Rome a. most common state administered punishment was banishment and exile. b. economic punishment such as fins for such crime as assault on slave, arson, or hou 2. Middle 5th to 15th century a. blood feuds were the norm. b. law and government not responsible for conflict. 3. Post 11th century feudal periods a. fine system, punishment often consisted of payment to feudal lord. b. goals, public order and pacifying the injured. c. corporal punishment for poor who cannot pay. 4. 1500's a. urbanization and industrialization, use of torture and mutilation showed and punish to be more monetary based. b. use of gallery slaves - ship-rowers. c. shipped inmates to american colonies 5. 1700's - early 1800's a. increase in prison population b. gap between rich and poor widens c. physicality of punishment increases

Goals of Punishment 1. General Deterrence - the state tries to convince potential criminals that the punishment t certain, swift, and severe so that they will be afraid to commit an offense. 2. Specific Deterrence - convincing offenders that the pains of punishment is greater than th crime so they will not repeat their criminal offending 3. Incapacitation - if dangerous criminals are kept behind bars, they will not be able to repea illegal activities. 4. Retribution/Just Desert - punishment should be no more or less than the offenders actions must be based on how blameworthy the person is. 5. Equity/Restitution - convicted criminals must pay back their victims for their loss, the just for the costs of processing their case and society for any disruption they may have caused 6. Rehabilitation - if the proper treatment is applied, an offender will present no further threa 7. Diversion - criminals are diverted into a community correctional program for treatment to CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


stigma of incarceration. The convicted offender might be asked to make payments to the or participate in a community based program that features counseling. 8. Restorative Justice - repairs injuries suffered by the victim and the community while insur reintegration of the offender. Turn the justice system into a healing process rather than a of retribution and revenge. 3 Broad Categories of Crime 1. Sensational crime 2. Street Crime 3. Corporate Crime, White Collar Crime, and Organized Crime.

Sensational Crime - certain offenses are selected for their sensational nature and made in

Street Crime - includes a wide variety of acts both in public and private spaces including in Justice - the quality of being just, fair and reasonable.

Rule of law - is a legal maxim whereby governmental decisions be made by applying know

Judge - a public officer who presides over court proceedings and hear and decide cases in a

Prosecutor - the person responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an in Law - is a system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society Plaintiff - the person who brings a case against another in court of law. Respondent - the defendant in a lawsuit. Appellee - the respondent in a case appealed to a higher court.

Appellant - the party who appeals the decision of the lower court. A person who applies to Stare Decisis - the legal principle of determining points in litigation according to precedent

Miranda Doctrine - criminal suspect has the right to remain silent which means they have Pro Bono - legal work done for free. Writ - a form of written command in the name of the court or other legal authority to act or

Subpoena - writ issued by a court to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proce

Summon - a legal document issued by a court or administrative agency of government auth

Discretion - the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in th

What is twelve table? early Roman laws written around 450 BC which regulated family, re

What is the medical model of punishment? A view of corrections holding that convicted

What is the difference between Indeterminate sentence and Determinate sentenc 1. Indeterminate sentence a. a term of incarceration with a stated minimum and maximum length. ex. 3-10years b. prisoner is eligible for parole after the minimum sentenced has been served. c. based on belief that sentences fit the criminal, indeterminate sentences allow indivi CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


sentences and provide for sentencing flexibility. d. judges can set a high minimum to override the purpose of the indeterminate senten 2. Determinate sentence a. a fixed term of incarceration ex. 3 years b. these sentences are felt by many to be restrictive for rehabilitative purposes. c. offenders know exactly how much time they have to serve. Various Factors Shaping Length of Prison Terms 1. Legal Factors a. the severity of the offense b. the offenders prior criminal record c. whether the offender used violence d. whether the offender used weapons e. whether the crime was committed for money 2. Extra Legal Factors a. social class b. gender c. age d. victim characteristics What are the institutions of socialization? 1. Family 2. Religion 3. Schools 4. Media Family - is the primary institution of socialization in society.

Juvenile Delinquency PD 603 - Child and Youth Welfare Code RA 9262 - Anti Violence Against Women and their Children Act of 2004. RA 9344 - Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006 Youthful offender - over 9 years old but under 18 years old at the time of the commission

Crime Theories Applicable to Juvenile Delinquency 1. Rational Choice - causes of crime lie within the individual offender rather than in their ex environment. 2. Social Disorganization - absence or breakdown of communal institutions and communal that traditionally encouraged cooperative relationships among people. Communal Institutions 1. Family 2. School 3. Church 4. Social Groups

3. Strain Theory - crime is caused by the difficulty of those in poverty in achieving socially by legitimate means. 4. Differential Association - young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent pe learn criminal skills from them. CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


5. Labelling Theory - once a person is labeled criminal they are more likely to offend. Once deviant, a person may accept that role and more likely to associate with others who hav similarly labeled. 6. Social Control Theory - proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social le builds self control and can reduce the inclination to indulge in behavior recognized as an

Four Types of Control That Can Help Prevent Juvenile Delinquency 1. Direct - punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior and compliance is rew parents, family and authority figures. 2. Internal - youth refrains from delinquency through the conscience or super ego. 3. Indirect - by identification with those who influence behavior because his/her delinquent might cause pain and disappointment to parents and others with whom he/she has close relationships. 4. Control - through needs satisfaction, if all individuals needs are met, there is no point in criminal activity. Breed vs. Jones - A US court decision where it held that juveniles cannot be tried when acq

Juvenile Delinquency - is the participation in illegal behavior by minors who fall under a st Juvenile Delinquent - is a person who is typically under the age of 18 and commits an act Crimes Commonly Committed by Juvenile Delinquents 1.

Status offenses - is an action that is prohibited only to a certain class of people and m

2. Property crimes - is a category of crime that includes theft, robbery, motor vehicle the

3. Violent Crime in which the offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the vic

Age of Majority - is the threshold of adulthood as it is conceptualized, recognized or declar

Young Adult - a person between the ages of 20 and 40 whereas adolescent is a person bet Types/Categories of Juvenile Delinquency

1. Delinquency - crimes committed by minors which are dealt with by the juvenile courts 2. Criminal behavior - crimes dealt with by the criminal justice system.

3. Status offenses - offenses which are only classified as such because one is a minor, su Truancy - is any intentional unauthorized absence from compulsory schooling.

Vandalism - Ruthless destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or venerable. The term in

Graffiti - is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other sur

Defacement - refers to marking or removing the part of an object designed to hold the view Types of Offenders That Emerge in Adolescence

1. Repeat Offender - (life-course-persistent offender) - begins offending or showing anti-



2. Age Specific Offender (adolescence-limited offender) - juvenile offending or delinquen

Human Behavior and Crises Management

Crisis Management - is the process by which an organization deals with a major event tha

Crisis - is any event that is expected to lead to an unstable and dangerous situation affectin

Risk Management - involves assessing potential threats and finding the best ways to avoid

Crisis Management - dealing with threats after they have occurred. Crises Management is

Crisis Negotiation - is a technique for law enforcement to communicate with people who a

Forensic Psychology - forensic discipline that evaluates behavioral patterns and how they

Hostage Negotiation - a negotiation conducted between law enforcement agencies, diplom Crises Management Plan - crises management methods of a business or organization. 3 Elements of Crises Management 1. threat to the organization or public 2. element of surprise 3. short decision time Types of Crises 1. Natural Disaster 2. Technological Crises 3. Confrontation 4. Malevolence 5. Organizational Misdeeds 6. Work place violence 7. Rumors 8. Terrorist attacks/Man made disasters

Natural Disaster - considered acts of god - such as environmental phenomena as earthqua Technological Crises - are caused by human application of science and technology.

Confrontation Crises - occur when discontented individuals and/or groups, fight business, Common Type of Confrontation Crises 1. Boycott 2. Picketing 3. Sit-ins 4. blockade 5. Occupation of buildings 6. Resisting/Disobeying police 7. Ultimatums to those in authority CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Crises of malevolence - opponents or miscreants individuals use criminal means or other

Crises of Organizational Deeds - occurs when management takes actions it knows will ha 3 Types of Organizational Misdeeds 1. Crises of skewed management values 2. Crises of Deception 3. Crises of Management Misconduct

Human Behavior - refers to the range of behaviors exhibited by humans and which are infl Factors Affecting Human Behavior 1. Genetics 2. Attitude 3. Social Norms 4. Perceive behavioral control 5. Core faith 6. Survival instinct Psychiatric Disorders Associated with Criminal Behavior 1. Anxiety Disorders 2. Delirium 3. Delusional Disorder 4. Dementia 5. Impulse Control Disorder 6. Intoxication or withdrawal from medication or drugs 7. Malingering 8. Mood disorders such as major depression, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorders 9. Personality disorders, especially anti social personality disorder 10. Pervasive developmental disorder (autism) 11. Psychotic disorder 12. Schizophrenia 13. Schizo-afflective disorder 14. Schizophreniform disorder 15.Substance dependence and abuse 16.Traumatic brain injury

Mental Illness/Mental Disorder - a health conditions that changes a persons thinking, fee

Schizophrenia - a long term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation

Autism - a mental condition present from early childhood characterized by great difficulty in

Hypnosis - the induction of a state of consciousness in which a person apparently losses th

Stalking - is a term used to refer to unwanted and obsessive attention by an individual or g

Seminar on Contemporary Police Problem Contemporary Police Problem may be Classified into the following:



1. Police Misconduct - is a broad category.The term refers to a wide range of procedural, 2. Police Corruption - is the abuse of authority for personal gain.

Misconduct - is procedural when it refers to police who violate police department rules and Criminal - when it refers to police who violate the penal laws. Civil - when it refers to police who violate a citizens civil right. Common forms of Misconduct 1.

Excessive use of physical or deadly force

2. Discriminatory arrest 3. Physical or verbal harassment 4. Selective Enforcement of the law 5. False arrest and imprisonment 6. Perjured testimony about illegal searches Common Forms of Police Corruption 1. Bribery 2. Extortion 3. Receiving of Fencing Stolen goods 4. Selling drugs,theft of drugs and money from drug dealer 5. Malicious prosecution 6. Making false report and committing perjury 7. Protecting illegal gambling 8. Theft of seized property 9. Receiving discounts on purchases 10.Selling information about police operation What are the safeguards against police misconduct 1. Establish Code of conduct



2. Train new recruit ethically and properly 3. Investigate and Discipline violators 4. Establish independent body ex. Pleb 

Despite legal safeguards and well intentioned reforms, Police problems have continue

What can society do against the age-old problem of police misconduct and corruption

Trends in the forms of Police Corruption 1. Drugs - became the major driver of corruption replacing gambling, prostitution and a 2. Corruption is systemic in police departments. Systemic - affecting the entire system, group, body or society as a whole.

Standard strategies for reducing Police Corruption 1. Create permanent external oversight over the police with particular emphasis on monito officer behavior. 2. Holding supervisors responsible for the integrity of their subordinate. 3. Reforming merit promotion and assignment. 4. Changing police culture. 5. Creating training programs in integrity for recruits and in-service personnel particularly fi supervisors. 6. Creating an effective internal integrity monitoring unit. 7. Annually evaluating the integrity of all officers. 8. Making the Chief responsible for enforcing all disciplines. 9. Proactively investigate misbehavior. 10. Improving standards for recruitment and training. Information about Police corruption comes from several sources 1. Appointed commission/Body of investigation 2. Civil and Criminal investigations of police behavior 3. Investigations undertaken by the police themselves 4. Accounts by public media 5. Observations by outside witnesses 6. Surveys of police officers and the public 7. Accounts by people involved in corrupt activity

Being on the Pad - this phrase is associated with bribery and extortion, a category of polic

Police Brutality - actions such as using abusive language, making threats, using force or c

Most Common Types of Corruption in the PNP 1. Case Fixing - subjective imposition of penalties or downright sabotage of the investigation 2. Bribery - receipt of cash or a gift in exchange for past of future assistance in avoidance of 3. Extortion - common practice of holding "street court" where incidents such as minor traffi 4. Protection - taking of money or other rewards from vice operators or from legitimate comp 5. Recycling - use or sale of confiscated items and evidence, usually drugs or narcotics. 6. Selective Enforcement - occurs when police officer exploit their officer discretion e. areglo 7. Internal Pay-Offs - sale of work assignments, day offs, holidays, vacation period and even



Police Ethics and Community Relations PNP Philosophy 1. Service 2. Honor 3. Justice PNP Core Values 1. Makadios (God-Fearing) 2. Makabayan (Nationalistic) 3. Makatao (Humane) Ethical Acts to be Observed by PNP members 1. Morality 2. Judicious use of authority 3. Integrity 4. Justice 5. Humility 6. Orderliness 7. Perseverance Definition of Terms 

Customs - established usage or social practices carried on by tradition that have obt

Traditions - bodies of belief, stories, customs and usages handed down from generat

Courtesy - a manifestation of expression of consideration and respect for others.

Ceremony - a formal act or set of formal acts established by customs or authority as

Social Decorum - a set of norms and standard practiced by the members during soc

Police Community Relation - generally refers to the sum total of attitudes and behavior b

Public Relations - a collection of communication techniques used by individuals or organiz

Community Service - refers to the activities whereby police engage in pro-social activities Community Participation - involves members of the community taking an active role in tr Police Traditions 1. Spiritual beliefs 2. Valor 3. Patriotism 4. Discipline 5. Gentlemanliness 6. Word of Honor 7. Duty 8. Loyalty 9. Camaraderie

Spiritual Beliefs - can refer to an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality, an inner path e

Valor - great courage in the face of danger. Strength of mind or spirit that enables a person CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


Patriotism - love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it.

Discipline - the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behavior using punish Gentlemanliness - characteristic of or having the character of a gentleman. A man whose

Word of Honor - a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do or not to d Duty - a task or action that someone is required to perform. Loyalty - a strong feeling of support or allegiance. Is faithfulness or a devotion to a person,

Camaraderie - mutual trust and friendship among people who spend a lot of time together.

Correctional System of the Philippines

The Correctional System in the Philippines is composed of six agencies under thre 1. The Department of Justice 2. The Department of the Interior and Local Government 3. The Department of Social Welfare and Development

Bureau of Corrections - is an agency under the Department of Justice mandated to carry o Bureau of Correction Mandate - The rehabilitation of national prisoners. Bureau of Correction Slogan - bringing back the dignity of man.

Bureau of Correction Principles - accomplishing its mandated objectives and performing its assigned functions. 1. To confine prisoners by giving them adequate living spaces as the first conditions to be m 2. To prevent prisoners from committing crime while in custody. 3. To provide humane treatment by affording them human basic needs in the prison environ Bureau of Corrections Operating Institutions 1. New Bilibid Prisons - Muntinlupa City 2. Correctional Institution for Women - Mandaluyong City 3. Iwahig Prison and Penal Farm - Puerto Princesa City 4. Davao Prison and Penal Farm - Davao del Norte 5. Sablayan Prison and Penal farm - Occidental Mindoro 6. San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm - Zamboanga City 7. Leyte Regional Prison - Leyte

Institutional Programs 1. Inmate work program 2. Health care 3. education and skills training 4. Recreation and Sports 5. Religious guidance and behavior modification using the therapeutic community approa



Penal Management

Corrections - is typically carried out by government agencies and involves the punishment

Penology - The study of the punishment of crime and prison management. Is a section of c

Punishment - is the infliction or imposition of a penalty as retribution for an offense. "The p

Prison reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons and aiming a a more eff Prison - is a place in which people are physically confined and usually deprived of a range o Jail - is a short term detention facility.

Halfway house - also called recovery house or sober house - is a place to allow people to b

Rehabilitation - it came from latin word "habilis" literally fit or suitable. Its meaning was ex

Solitary confinement - is a special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is isolated fro Jail 

a place of detention; a place where a person convicted or suspected of a crime is de



holds people awaiting trial and people sentenced for a short duration.

Zebulon Reed Brockway - regarded as the father of prison reform in the United States. Be 1. a program of education 2. training in useful trades 3. physical activity 4. indeterminate sentence 5. inmate classification 6. incentive program.

Alexander Maconochie - (1787 -1860) - a Scottish naval officer, geographer and penal ref

1. as cruelty debases both the victim and society, punishment should not be vindictive b

2. a convicts imprisonment should consist of task, not time sentences with release depe Modern Form/Method of Punishment CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


1. Execution - for capital offenses. ex. death by lethal injection 2. Imprisonment/Incarceration 3. Fines 4. Probation and Parole

5. House Arrest - is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to his o Ancient Form/Method of Punishment 1. shame punishment 2. exile/banishment 3. payment to the victim

4. branding - (Stigmatizing) - is the process by which a mark is burned into the skin of a

5. flogging - (flagellation) - is the act of methodically beating or whipping the human bo

6. mutilation - (maiming) - is the act of physical injury that degrades the appearance o 7. burning 8. beheading 9. torture

* In the Philippines so far, 17 persons were executed by hanging, 84 persons were executed chair, 7 persons were executed by lethal injection.

* Majority of inmates confined in national prison did not finish high school, 6% never went to were illiterate and 3% earned a college degree.

Probation Law of the Philippines PD 968

What is Probation? ans.- is a disposition under which a defendant after conviction and sen Who can apply for Probation? ans. any first time convicted offender who is 18 years old

Is probation a right? ans. no, it is a mere privilege for adult offenders. Under RA 9344 (Juv

Where shall an application for Probation be filed? ans. the application shall be filed wi

What will happen if the application for Probation is denied? ans. the offender will be

When should an application for Probation be filed? ans. anytime before the offender s

May an offender be released from confinement while his application for Probation CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


How many times can one be granted Probation? ans. only once. RULES ON GRANT OF PROBATION

1. After having convicted and sentenced a defendant, the trial court may suspend the ex 2. Probation may be granted whether the sentenced imposed a a term of imprisonment

3. No application for probation shall be entertained or granted if the defendant has perfe 4. Filing of application for probation operate as a waiver of the right to appeal. 5. The order granting or denying probation shall not be appealable. 6. Accessory penalties are deemed suspended once probation is granted.

7. The convict is not immediately put on probation. There shall be a prior investigation b

Will Probation be automatically granted to one whose sentence is 6 years or less 1. The offender would be better rehabilitated if he/she is sent to prison to serve his/her se 2. There is undue risk that the offender will likely commit another crime. 3. Probation will depreciate the seriousness of the offense committed. 

Under section 70 of RA 9165, the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, the c

What will happen if a probationer violates the conditions of probation? ans. 1. The court may modify the conditions of probation or revoke the same. 2. If the violation is serious, the court may order the probationer to serve his prison senten 3. The probationer may also be arrested and criminally prosecuted if the violation is a crim  

The court order shall not be subject to appeal.

Probation is not coterminous with its period. There must be an order issued by the cou This shall have the following effects: a. case is deemed terminated. b. all civil rights suspended or lost are restored. c. offender's liability for any fine imposed is discharged.

Who are disqualified from the benefits of probation: ans. 1. Those sentenced to serve a prison term of more 6 years. 2. Those convicted of any crime against the national or the public order. 3. Those previously convicted of an offense which is punished by imprisonment of not 4. Those who have been placed on probation once. 5. Those serving sentence. 6. Those whose conviction is on appeal. 7. Those convicted of an offense against the omnibus election code, insurgency law, w There are two kinds of conditions imposed upon the offender under probation: 1. Mandatory or general – once violated, the probation is cancelled. 1) To report to the probation officer within 72 hours after he receives the order of CRIMINOLOGY REVIEWER COMPILATION


granting probation. 2) To report to his probation officer at least once a month. 3) not to commit any other offense while on probation.

2. Discretionary or special – additional conditions which the court may additionally How long is the period of probation? ans. 1. not more than 2 years if the sentence of the offender is 1 year or less. 2. not more than 6 years if the sentence is more than one year. 3. When the penalty is a fine only and the offender is made to serve subsidiary imprisonment, probation shall be twice the total number of days of subsidiary imprisonment

What is Parole? ans. it is the release of a prisoner from prison after serving the minimum p

Who cannot be granted parole? ans. generally, those sentenced to a term of imprisonme

Who may grant parole to a prisoner? ans. the board of pardon and parole, an agency un

When may a prisoner be granted parole? ans. whenever the board of pardon and parole

What happens if a parolee violates the conditions of his parole? ans. he shall be rea

What is executive clemency? ans. it refers to the commutation of sentence, conditional p

What is commutation of sentence? ans. it is the reduction of the period of a prison sent

What is conditional pardon? ans. it is the conditional exception of a guilty offender for th

What is absolute pardon? ans. it is the total extinction of the criminal liability of the indiv

Who may file a petition for conditional pardon? ans. a prisoner who has served at leas Who may grant commutation of sentence and pardon? ans. the president. Who may file a petition for commutation of sentence? ans. the board may review the petition of a prisoner for commutation of sentence if he/she meets the following minimum requirement: 

at least 1/2 ( one half) of the minimum of his indeterminate and/or definite prison ter

at least 10 years for prisoners sentenced to one reclusion perpetua or one life impriso

at least 12 years for prisoners whose sentences were adjusted to 40 years in accorda

at least 15 years for prisoners convicted of heinous crimes as defined in RA 7659 com

at least 17 years for prisoners sentenced to 2 or more reclusion perpetua of life impris



at least 20 years for those sentenced to death which was automatically commuted or

Who may file a petition for absolute pardon? ans. one may file a petition for absolute p

Is a prisoner who is released on parole or conditional pardon with parole condition

PD 968 - Probation law of 1976 - this is the title of the decree/law. It took effect July 24, 197 Purpose of the law

1. promote the correction and rehabilitation of an offender by providing him with individ 2. provide an opportunity for the reformation of a penitent offender which might be less 3. prevent the commission of offenses. Probationer - a person placed on probation.

Probation officer - one who investigates for the court a referral for probation or supervises  

The Probation administration shall be headed by the Probation administrator who sha

There shall be an assistant probation administrator who shall assist the administrator

Qualifications of the Administrator and Assistant Probation Administrator. 1.

at least 35 years of age

2. holder of a masters degree or its equivalent in either criminology, social work, correct

3. at least 5 years of supervisory experience or be a member of the Philippine bar with a

Regional Probation officer and Assistant regional Probation Officer - appointed by th

Provincial and City Probation officer - appointed by the Secretary of justice upon the rec

Qualifications of Regional, Assistant Regional, Provincial and City Probation office

1. Bachelors degree with a major in social work, sociology, psychology, criminology, pen

2. at least 3 years in work requiring any of the above mentioned disciplines or is a mem 

when practicable, the provincial or city probation officer shall be appointed from amon





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