Review of Related Literature

November 12, 2017 | Author: sigfridmonte | Category: Tobacco Smoking, Cigarette, Nicotine, Adolescence, Determinants Of Health
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Review of Related Literature The review of related literature for this study focuses more on the smoking bans on other countries and its effects on the perceptions and smoking behavior of people. The review includes both local and international studies. The researchers believe that the following studies are very much related to the problem; thus providing other possible additional effects of the smoking ban to the smoking behavior to the target respondents: UST students. Household smoking bans and adolescents’ perceived prevalence of smoking and social acceptability of smoking Household smoking bans are recommended to decrease the visibility of cigarette smoking, and also to initiate nonsmoking social patterns and parental attitudes towards the sector of youth, which may serve as mediators to reduce smoking initiation. Measures of tobacco-related social norms such as perceived smoking prevalence [14– 23] and the perceived social acceptability of smoking have been shown to be strong predictors of adolescent smoking or smoking initiation. Furthermore, recent studies also show that peer and parental smoking as well as parental antismoking patterns and disapproval of smoking are directly related to adolescent smoking behavior. With those studies being present as an additional guide to this study, this paper aims to assess the relationships of household smoking bans on adolescents’ perceived prevalence of adult and youth smoking, as well as their perception of adult disapproval of adult and youth smoking. The method used for this study is a telephone survey. A random sample of 3831 Massachusetts adolescents (between 12–17 years old) are being assessed by the

interviewers regarding their perceptions of smoking prevalence and attitudes about the social acceptability of smoking in their community. The findings show that a household smoking ban is strongly associated to youth’s perception of smoking. That is, the fewer the smokers and the stronger the disapproval of smoking, the lower smoking prevalence that the youth perceive. Restaurant owner perceptions of the effects of a smoking ban This study is directed to restaurant sector business owner and their expectations regarding revenue changes due to a general smoking ban. A number of studies conducted in the past show that the economic effects of smoking bans has no clear evidence as to how the restaurant sector is affected by tighter smoking regulations. But, there are other studies regarding smoking bans on restaurants and establishments focused on the revenue and financial capacity. In a study conducted by Dunham and Marlow, results report that revenues would be expected to decrease by 39% for restaurants and by 83% for bars and taverns if smoking bans were implemented. This also directs attention to the fact that the distribution of the effects of a smoking ban is not uniform among different types of establishments. In this study, the researcher analyzes business owner expectations regarding revenue effects of a general smoking ban, using a survey mailed to restaurants, bars, and cafés in Gothenburg, Sweden. The method being used was a questionnaire, which is being sent out to the owners of each of the 642 restaurants, bars, cafés, and nightclubs in downtown Gothenburg, Sweden, in the fall of 2000. The results show that the dependence on smoking customers and the beliefs regarding how the whole restaurant sector would be affected are, in terms of size and statistical significance, the most important variables for explaining expectations

of changes in revenues. Establishments that are smoke-free are less likely to expect negative economic effects from a smoking ban compared to those that currently allow smoking. The results also show that the larger the share of smoking customers, the more likely the owner is to expect somewhat lower revenues, and the expected effect in the category “much lower revenues or bankrupt” is even stronger. Hence, the general pattern is that establishments that have smoking bans or have a relatively small proportion of smoking customers are less likely to expect financial loss from an introduction of a smoking ban. One last puff? Public smoking bans and smoking behavior This study examines the effects of the introduction of smoking ban to individual smoking behavior in Germany, a country with relatively high smoking rates among industrialized countries (Tobacco Atlas, 2009). This study is much closely related to the researchers’ current study because this study also tackles state-level smoking bans, much like the Manila Ordinance and the Republic Act 9211. Researchers of this study used data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), an annual ongoing household panel of roughly 20,000 individuals in around 11,000 households (Wagner etal, 2007). Respondents were asked whether they currently smoked, and also how many cigarettes they are smoking on a daily basis. With the gathered data, results show that the introduction of smoke-free policies in Germany did not change the respondents’ average smoking behavior in the short term; that is, following the introduction of smoking bans, individuals were neither less likely to smoke on average, nor did they smoke fewer cigarettes. However, individuals who were reported going to bars and restaurants regularly did adjust their smoking habits due to higher exposure to public

smoking bans. The findings of this study further suggests that the implementation of smoking bans can be an effective tobacco control policy that provides health benefits aside from reducing the exposure of non-smokers to second hand smoke, especially in a country with a high overall smoking prevalence, like the Philippines. The effects of a prison smoking ban on smoking behavior and withdrawal symptoms This study examined nicotine dependence as predictors of nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Nicotine withdrawal has received increased attention over the last several years, as smoking has come to be recognized as an addictive disorder (Hughes & Hatsukami, 1986). This study further investigated these effects with participants who were not seeking to quit smoking but who were being forced to quit due to a strict implementation of statewide smoking ban. Data used for this study included 188 male smokers as the respondents during a mandated smoking ban in prison settings. Participants were assessed at three time periods: baseline (1 week prior to the smoking ban), Time 2 (4 days after the smoking ban), and Time 3 (1 month after the smoking ban). Participants were required to answer a smoking history questionnaire and measures of nicotine dependence, withdrawal, cravings, and distress before the ban and two follow-up times. Results derived from the study show that 76% of participants continued to smoke following the implementation of the smoking ban. Smokers after the ban were more nicotine dependent than were the participants who reported quitting. Thus, it appears that the smoking ban was not well enforced. One possible implication would be the depression of the inmates; thus, smoking is one way of them coping with

depression and stress. Thus, it is important to understand the withdrawal effects that inmates would suffer in response to these smoking bans. Cross Cultural Attraction and Cigarette Consumption among college students This study investigates the youth as well as their knowledge, attitude and experiences about tobacco intakes. Furthermore, the study aims to understand the cultural elements attached to the country of origin of a product as context or one of the multiple and interactive factors contributing to the cigarette consumption of the youth sector. The study used descriptive and correlation method among 1,521 college students coming from five selected higher education institutions in Metro Manila. Data gathering is done through pre-tested questionnaires. In turn, results gathered significantly show that majority of the college students were attracted to American culture; thus contributing to their habit of smoking. Most of the respondents perceive that cigarette smoking is an integral part of their American peers’ way of life. Finally, based on the statistical test conducted among the variables, it indicates that there is a significant relationship between the attraction of respondents to American culture and their cigarette consumption. This validates the findings of earlier foreign studies based on theories on consumer behavior. Consumption practices play a role in image experimentation, image management, social affiliation and expression of group and individual




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