Reservoir Characterization Catalog

July 23, 2017 | Author: Yamamoto_KZ | Category: Petroleum Reservoir, Hydraulic Fracturing, Geology, Earth & Life Sciences, Earth Sciences
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Core Lab. Reservoir Characterization. Case studies. Russia. Oman. Saudi Arabia....

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I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S CORE LAB

T

he Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories was created to conduct specialized projects involving the multiple disciplines and service capabilities of numerous Core Lab divisions. We are supported by our staff of senior-level geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and petrophysicists who apply proprietary and state-of-the-art techniques from the earliest phases of exploration through the final phases of production. Some of the products and services provided by our division include:

Regional Geological and Petrophysical Studies Over 100 major regional multi-company projects have been completed. These projects address regional distribution of depositional systems, definition and prediction of reservoir facies, reservoir quality evaluation, improved log evaluation and drilling/completion prognoses and recommendations.

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S D I V I S I O N O F F I C E S :

Core Laboratories 6316 Windfern Road Houston, TX 77040 Te l e p h o n e : 7 1 3 - 3 2 8 - 2 6 7 3 Fax: 713-328-2190

Integrated Reservoir Solutions Bay13, 19 Aero Drive NE C a l g a r y, A l b e r t a , C a n a d a T 2 E 8 Z 9 Canada Te l e p h o n e : 4 0 3 - 2 9 5 - 3 2 8 4 Fax: 403-295-3159

INTEGRATED RESERVOIR SOLUTIONS DIVISION

U.S. & CANADA

Rock Property Databases

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact; [email protected]

Rock-Log Calibration and Petrophysics Well log calibration using measured and analog rock properties data is the first step toward development of “trained” logs and petrophysical models. Our petrophysical staff provides capillary pressure and saturation modeling, porosity and permeability cut-offs, identification of pay criteria, and assessment of production potential.

The geo-engineering staff uses analyses of rock-fluid compatibility, flow back efficiency, regained permeability, proppant embedment properties, and geomechanical laboratory testing to provide evaluation of borehole stability and recommendations for completions and fracture stimulation optimization. 2014

w w w. c o r e l a b . c o m / i r s

Integrated Studies Our geoscientists provide expert reservoir characterization through reservoir description, rock and fluid analyses and completion/stimulation technology. Factors controlling reservoir quality and performance are identified and scaled upward from the microscopic scale, to the zone of interest, to the well bore, to the regional setting.

Completions and Stimulations

I N T E R N AT I O N A L Core Laboratories Unit 23, Ormside Way R e d h i l l , S u r r e y, R H 1 2 L W United Kingdom Te l e p h o n e : + 4 4 - 1 7 3 - 7 8 5 - 9 6 6 0 Fax: +44-173-785-9661

Several rock catalogs specific to formations, trends, or regions have been compiled. These catalogs provide analog geological, petrophysical and engineering data for a spectrum of rock types in searchable digital databases. The most comprehensive of these catalogs is the 35-member company Worldwide Rock Catalog,™ which is the largest systematic rock properties database in the world.

Database Management – RAPID The Reservoirs Applied Petrophysical Integrated Data (RAPID™) service is a web-enabled database application for organizing, archiving, retrieving, and summarizing geological and petrophysical data. Initially developed to provide a method of delivering large volumes of data from regional geological studies, RAPID database technology provides centralized, consistent, and accessible data storage in a secure format. When coupled with Core Lab’s Worldwide Rock Catalog, RAPID can be used to search for reservoir analogs when conventional core material is unavailable. Many of our past reservoir characterization projects are currently available in RAPID and all currently active projects utilize RAPID as their method of data delivery.

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S CORE LAB

T

he Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories was created to conduct specialized projects involving the multiple disciplines and service capabilities of numerous Core Lab divisions. We are supported by our staff of senior-level geologists, geophysicists, engineers, and petrophysicists who apply proprietary and state-of-the-art techniques from the earliest phases of exploration through the final phases of production. Some of the products and services provided by our division include:

Regional Geological and Petrophysical Studies Over 100 major regional multi-company projects have been completed. These projects address regional distribution of depositional systems, definition and prediction of reservoir facies, reservoir quality evaluation, improved log evaluation and drilling/completion prognoses and recommendations.

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S D I V I S I O N O F F I C E S :

Core Laboratories 6316 Windfern Road Houston, TX 77040 Te l e p h o n e : 7 1 3 - 3 2 8 - 2 6 7 3 Fax: 713-328-2190

Integrated Reservoir Solutions Bay13, 19 Aero Drive NE C a l g a r y, A l b e r t a , C a n a d a T 2 E 8 Z 9 Canada Te l e p h o n e : 4 0 3 - 2 9 5 - 3 2 8 4 Fax: 403-295-3159

INTEGRATED RESERVOIR SOLUTIONS DIVISION

U.S. & CANADA

Rock Property Databases

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact; [email protected]

Rock-Log Calibration and Petrophysics Well log calibration using measured and analog rock properties data is the first step toward development of “trained” logs and petrophysical models. Our petrophysical staff provides capillary pressure and saturation modeling, porosity and permeability cut-offs, identification of pay criteria, and assessment of production potential.

The geo-engineering staff uses analyses of rock-fluid compatibility, flow back efficiency, regained permeability, proppant embedment properties, and geomechanical laboratory testing to provide evaluation of borehole stability and recommendations for completions and fracture stimulation optimization. 2014

w w w. c o r e l a b . c o m / i r s

Integrated Studies Our geoscientists provide expert reservoir characterization through reservoir description, rock and fluid analyses and completion/stimulation technology. Factors controlling reservoir quality and performance are identified and scaled upward from the microscopic scale, to the zone of interest, to the well bore, to the regional setting.

Completions and Stimulations

I N T E R N AT I O N A L Core Laboratories Unit 23, Ormside Way R e d h i l l , S u r r e y, R H 1 2 L W United Kingdom Te l e p h o n e : + 4 4 - 1 7 3 - 7 8 5 - 9 6 6 0 Fax: +44-173-785-9661

Several rock catalogs specific to formations, trends, or regions have been compiled. These catalogs provide analog geological, petrophysical and engineering data for a spectrum of rock types in searchable digital databases. The most comprehensive of these catalogs is the 35-member company Worldwide Rock Catalog,™ which is the largest systematic rock properties database in the world.

Database Management – RAPID The Reservoirs Applied Petrophysical Integrated Data (RAPID™) service is a web-enabled database application for organizing, archiving, retrieving, and summarizing geological and petrophysical data. Initially developed to provide a method of delivering large volumes of data from regional geological studies, RAPID database technology provides centralized, consistent, and accessible data storage in a secure format. When coupled with Core Lab’s Worldwide Rock Catalog, RAPID can be used to search for reservoir analogs when conventional core material is unavailable. Many of our past reservoir characterization projects are currently available in RAPID and all currently active projects utilize RAPID as their method of data delivery.

Index All S tu d ies :

Absaroka Geochemistry Study 50 Anadarko Basin Regional Study 36 Antler Basin Source Rock Study 50 Apalachicola Embayment Regional Study 20 Arkansas – Louisiana State Line Smackover Study 11 Arkansas – Louisiana Lower Cretaceous Study 10 Australia Shale 83 Avalon Wolfcamp Shale Regional Study 40 Bangladesh 73 Bolivia Sub-andean Basins 88 Bone Spring Sandstones Regional Study 41 Brazil – Central offshore Basins Petroleum Geology 89 Brazil – Cretaceous Carbonates of Se Margin 90 Brazil – Deepwater Campos Basin 90 Brazil – Equatorial Margins 91 Brazil – Santos Basin 91 Brushy Canyon Sandstones Study 42 Caballos 92 Codell Sandstone – Dj Basin 51 Côte D’ivoire – Regional Reservoirs and Seals 59 Côte D’ivoire – Regional Reservoirs and Seals: Update 59 Cotton Valley Regional Study 11 Deep Frio of South Texas Regional Study 21 Deep Frio Regional Study 20 Deep Shelf Gulf of Mexico Regional Study 17 Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Core Study 18 Delaware Mountain Group Regional Study 42 Denver Basin I and II Paleozoic Oil/Source Rock Study 50 Duvernay Regional Study 7 Eagle Ford Regional Study 21 Eaglebine Regional Study 22 East Texas Lower Cretaceous Regional Study 12 East Texas Smackover Regional Study 12 Gabon/North Congo Reservoirs 60 Gas Shales Reservoir Characterization and Production Properties of North America 2 Global Gas Shale 98 Global T ight Gas Sands 100 Granite Wash Regional Study 37 Gulf of Thailand – Cambodia and The OCA 79 Gulf of Thailand – Thailand and The OCA 78 Haynesville and Bossier Shale Study 13 Haynesville Core Study 22 Hydrocarbon Potentialof The Arbuckle Group – Oil and Gas Study 37 Indonesia – Coal 73 Indonesia – East Indonesia Foreland Basins 75 Indonesia – East Natuna 74 Indonesia – Shale Reservoirs 77 Indonesia – Tarakan Basin 76 Indonesia/Philippines – Deepwater Reservoirs Phase I 74 Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea 78 James Lime 13 Kenya – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase II 60 Libya – Pre-Upper Cretaceous Reservoirs of Onshore Sirt Basin 62 Libya – Reservoirs of offshore Basins-Phase II 61 Libya – Reservoirs of Onshore Basins-Phase I 61 Lobo Regional Study 23 Louisiana W ilcox Regional Study 24 Lower Smackover “Brown Dense” Exploration Reconnaissance Study 14 Lower Tuscaloosa Formation Regional Study 25 Mafla Smackover Regional Study 26 Marcellus Shale Study 4 Mississippi Lime 38 Missourian T ight Oil Reservoirs – Anadarko Basin 39 Montney Regional Study 8 Morrow Regional Study 43 Morrow Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Study 44 Mozambique – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase Iv 63 Namibia and The Orange Basin Reservoirs and Seals – South Atlantic Margin 63 Niger Delta Geochemistry Study 64 Niger Delta Reservoir Study 65 Niobrara Regional Study 51 Norphlet Reservoir Study 27 North Slope Alaska Source Rock Study 56 Offshore/Texas Louisiana – MioceneCore Study 19 Oklahoma Geochemistry Study 39 Oligocene Regional Study 27 Onshore South Louisiana Miocene Regional Study 28 Paradox Basin Regional Study 52 Pearsall Group Reservoir Evaluation 28 Peru – Reservoirs and Seals 93 Post Salt Reservoirs and Seals of The South Atlantic Margin 67

Prairie Du Chien Regional Study and Rock Catalog 35 Pre-Salt South Atlantic, Phase III: Pre-Salt Carbonates West 66 Queen Sandstones Regional Study 45 Rapid™ Spotfire Analytics 101 Relative Permeability Database 102 Sakhalin Island Miocene and Oligocene Geochemistry Study 85 Sakhalin Reservoir Study 85 San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Regional Study 56 San Juan Basin Regional Study 53 San Juan Basin Rock Catalog 54 Senegal, Agc and Guinea Bissau – Central Atlantic Margins West Africa – Phase I 67 Smackover Reservoir Study 29 South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt – Phase I West Africa 68 South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt – Phase II Brazil 94 Southern California Oil Study 56 Stevens Reservoir Study 57 Sub-andean Basins Oil Geochemistry 95 Tanzania – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase I 69 Tanzania – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase I Update 68 Tatum Basin Regional Study 45 Temblor Regional Study 57 Thanksgiving Field Study 29 T ight Gas Sands Fracture Optimization 3 T ight Oil Reservoirs of The Midland Basin“Wolfberry”, Strawn, and Mississipian 46 Transform Margins – Reservoirs and Seals II: The Equatorial Basins of Brazil 96 Travis Peak- Hosston Sandstones 14 Uganda – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase III 71 Upper Cretaceous T ight Oil Reservoirs Powder River Basin 53 Upper Devonian Shales 5 Utica Regional Study 4 V icksburg Regional Study and Rock Catalog 30 V ietnam – Reservoirs and Seals of The Cuu Long, Nam Con Son and Malay Tho Chu Basins 80 West Africa Geochemistry Study 70 West Siberia Reservoir Rock Catalog 86 W ilcox Provenance Study 19 W ilcox Regional Study In South Texas 31 W ilcox Reservoir Study 32 W illiston Basin Regional Study 55 W ilrich – Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin 8 Wolfcamp Regional Study 47 Wolfcamp Reservoir Study 48 15 Woodbine Regional Study 46 Woodford Shale – Midland Basin Woodford Shale – Oklahoma 48 Worldwide Rock/Pore Catalog 103 Yegua Regional Study 33 Yemen Rock Catalog 81

CONTENTS NORTH AMERICA North America

Gas Shales Reservoir Characterization and Production Properties of North America Tight Gas Sands Fracture Optimization

Appalachian Basin Marcellus Shale Study Utica Regional Study Upper Devonian Shales

Canada

Duvernay Regional Study Montney Regional Study Wilrich – Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

2 3 4 4 5 7 8 8

East Texas/Northern Louisiana/Southern Arkansas Arkansas – Louisiana Lower Cretaceous Study Arkansas – Louisiana State Line Smackover Study Cotton Valley Regional Study East Texas Lower Cretaceous Regional Study East Texas Smackover Regional Study Haynesville and Bossier Shale Study James Lime Lower Smackover “Brown Dense” Exploration Reconnaissance Study Travis Peak – Hosston Sandstones Woodbine Regional Study

Gulf of Mexico Offshore

Deep Shelf Gulf of Mexico Regional Study Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Core Study Offshore/Texas Louisiana – Miocene Core Study Wilcox Provenance Study

Gulf of Mexico Onshore

Apalachicola Embayment Regional Study Deep Frio Regional Study Deep Frio of South Texas Regional Study Eagle Ford Regional Study Eaglebine Regional Study Haynesville Core Study Lobo Regional Study Louisiana Wilcox Regional Study Lower Tuscaloosa Formation Regional Study Mafla Smackover Regional Study Norphlet Reservoir Study Oligocene Regional Study Onshore South Louisiana Miocene Regional Study Pearsall Group Reservoir Evaluation Smackover Reservoir Study Thanksgiving Field Study Vicksburg Regional Study and Rock Catalog Wilcox Regional Study in South Texas Wilcox Reservoir Study Yegua Regional Study

Michigan Basin

Prairie Du Chien Regional Study and Rock Catalog

Mid Continent

Anadarko Basin Regional Study Granite Wash Regional Study Hydrocarbon Potentialof The Arbuckle Group – Oil and Gas Study Mississippi Lime Missourian Tight Oil Reservoirs – Anadarko Basin Oklahoma Geochemistry Study

Permian Basin

Avalon Wolfcamp Shale Regional Study Bone Spring Sandstones Regional Study Brushy Canyon Sandstones Study Delaware Mountain Group Regional Study Morrow Regional Study Morrow Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Study Queen Sandstones Regional Study Tatum Basin Regional Study Tight Oil Reservoirs of The Midland Basin“Wolfberry”, Strawn, and Mississipian Woodford Shale – Midland Basin Wolfcamp Regional Study Wolfcamp Reservoir Study Woodford Shale – Oklahoma

Rocky Mountains

Absaroka Geochemistry Study Antler Basin Source Rock Study Denver Basin I and II Paleozoic Oil/Source Rock Study Codell Sandstone – DJ Basin

10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 17 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 33 35

36 37 37 38 39 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 48

Niobrara Regional Study Paradox Basin Regional Study Upper Cretaceous Tight Oil Reservoirs Powder River Basin San Juan Basin Regional Study San Juan Basin Rock Catalog Williston Basin Regional Study

West Coast

North Slope Alaska Source Rock Study San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Regional Study Southern California Oil Study Stevens Reservoir Study Temblor Regional Study

51 52 53 53 54 55 56 56 56 57 57

I N T E R N AT I O N A L Africa

Côte D’ivoire – Regional Reservoirs and Seals Côte D’ivoire – Regional Reservoirs and Seals: Update Gabon/North Congo Reservoirs Kenya – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase II Libya – Reservoirs of Onshore Basins – Phase I Libya – Reservoirs of offshore Basins – Phase II Libya – Pre-Upper Cretaceous Reservoirs of Onshore Sirt Basin Mozambique – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase IV Namibia and The Orange Basin Reservoirs and Seals – South Atlantic Margin Niger Delta Geochemistry Study Niger Delta Reservoir Study Pre-Salt South Atlantic, Phase III: Pre-Salt Carbonates West Post Salt Reservoirs and Seals of The South Atlantic Margin Senegal, AGC and Guinea Bissau – Central Atlantic Margins West Africa – Phase I South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt – Phase I West Africa Tanzania – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase I Update Tanzania – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase I West Africa Geochemistry Study Uganda – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase III

Asia

Bangladesh Indonesia – Coal Indonesia/Philippines – Deepwater Reservoirs Phase I Indonesia – East Natuna Indonesia – East Indonesia Foreland Basins Indonesia – Tarakan Basin Indonesia – Shale Reservoirs Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea Gulf of Thailand – Thailand and The OCA Gulf of Thailand – Cambodia and The OCA Vietnam – Reservoirs and Seals of The Cuu Long, Nam Con Son and Malay Tho Chu Basins Yemen Rock Catalog

Australia

Australia Shale

Commonwealth of Independent States

Sakhalin Island Miocene and Oligocene Geochemistry Study Sakhalin Reservoir Study West Siberia Reservoir Rock Catalog

South America

Bolivia Sub-Andean Basins Brazil – Central offshore Basins Petroleum Geology Brazil – Cretaceous Carbonates of Se Margin Brazil – Deepwater Campos Basin Brazil – Equatorial Margins Brazil – Santos Basin Caballos Peru – Reservoirs and Seals South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt – Phase II Brazil Sub-Andean Basins Oil Geochemistry T r a n s f o r m M a r g i n s – Reservoirs and Seals II: The Equatorial Basins of Brazil

GLOBAL

Global Gas Shale Global Tight Gas Sands Rapid™ Spotfire Analytics Relative Permeability Database Worldwide Rock/Pore Catalog

59 59 60 60 61 61 62 63 63 64 65 66 67 67 68 68 69 70 71 73 73 74 74 75 76 77 78 78 79 80 81 83 85 85 86 88 89 90 90 91 91 92 93 94 95 96 98 100 101 102 103

50 50 50 51

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact: IRS[email protected]

north america North America particular play, but also on other operator’s wells in other gas shale formations. The project will be focused on evaluating numerous different gas shales in a variety of North American basins. Specific project objectives include: • Geologically characterize the cored gas



• •



GAS SHALES RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF NORTH AMERICA



R E S E R VO I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D P R ODUCT ION PR O PE R T I ES O F GA S SHA LES



Understanding the similarities and differences



in gas shales is key to optimized exploitation. Therefore the primary objective of this project is to provide operators with measured geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties of numerous gas shales in order to improve their formation evaluation and to optimize stimulation and production. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores taken from multiple gas shale formations. Gas shale reservoirs are being analyzed for their geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data are integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. The resulting database and complete case histories will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells in a

• •





shales in terms of depositional facies environment of deposition, and rock types Characterize and classify gas shales in terms of their lithology, mineralogy, clay content, clay types, and pore structure including macro- and micro-fractures Measure and characterize the various petrophysical properties Measure and characterize the organic content of gas shales in terms of total organic content (TOC), Rock Evaluation, pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance Determine the gas desorption associated with kerogen and adsorption isotherm for gas storage capacity as a function of reservoir pressure Measure and profile the key geomechanical properties Core-log calibration of open-hole logs for the development of petrophysical models to determine gas shale properties Integrate the core data with well logs, fracture stimulation techniques, and production test results to aid companies in their evaluation and exploitation of gas shale reservoirs Utilize and integrate the core and production data to perform production forecasts Develop relationships from the database to aid in evaluating and comparing various gas shale rock properties Develop a “Gas Shale Rock Catalog” in order to aid in the evaluation of gas shale properties from drill cuttings and logs Provide operators with a searchable database for various gas shales and their associated properties that can be used as analogs to aid in the appraisal and exploitation of “unknown or newly discovered” gas shales

2

AS SHA LE CHARACTERIZATIO N & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR T CA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS – LOU

north america North America test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of these reservoirs and reduce finding and development costs. Core Laboratories is conducting a major industry study of the reservoir characteristics and fracture stimulation response of tight gas sands. This project provides member companies with a comprehensive database consisting of laboratory rock property measurements, well log and production information from contributed wells, and case histories of production response to fracture stimulation from numerous formations and basins throughout North America. From the pore system through the 3-D Frac design and post-frac evaluation this project relates reservoir facies, reservoir quality, petrophysical properties and geomechanical properties to stimulation methods and production performance in tight gas sands. Major objectives of the project include the following:

TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION G E O L O G I CA L, P ETRO P HYSI CA L & GEO MECH ANICAL PR O PE R T I ES O F TI GHT GA S SA N D S – A DATABASE F O R R E S ER VO I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A ND F R A C T UR E STI MU LATI O N O P TI MI ZATI O N

Currently, numerous oil and gas companies

are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of tight gas sand reservoirs. These reservoirs have proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies do not have key rock property data that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs and for designing optimal fracture stimulations. Many treatment options are available and operators are often left with very expensive “trial and error” field testing of various fracture stimulation techniques. No hydraulic fracture design can be optimized, or in many cases, successfully performed or pumped in the field without the rock property data. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and exploit tight gas sands, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production

• Geologically characterize tight gas reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, environment of deposition, and rock types • Characterize and systematically classify the rock types and factors controlling reservoir quality • Describe and characterize fractures • Provide laboratory measured petrophysical properties for log calibration and pay recognition criteria • Develop saturation and permeability models • Determine the rock-fluid compatibility, regained gas permeability, and “water block” susceptibility • Measure the key geomechanical properties required for 3-D Frac design • Facilitate calibration of open-hole geomechanical logs with static geomechanical laboratory data • Integrate core data with well logs, fracture stimulation techniques and production test results

3

SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH A TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUISIAN

north america Appalachian Basin PENNSYLVANIA

MARCELLUS SHALE STUDY RESER VO I R CHA RA CTER IZAT ION A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER T IES

WEST VIRGIN I A

N

umerous oil and gas companies are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of the Marcellus Shale. This gas shale reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that is crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore the Marcellus Shale, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Marcellus Shale and reduce finding and development costs.

Core Laboratories is conducting a multi-company, geo-engineering study of the Marcellus Shale. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Marcellus Shale. Specifically, the Marcellus Shale will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. The data is integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells within the Marcellus Shale, but also on other operators’ wells. The project will be focused on evaluating numerous different Marcellus Shale wells in the Appalachian Basin located in Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia and Ohio. • On goin g study with over 120 committed we l l s

NEW YORK

PENNSYLVANIA

WEST VIRGIN I A

UTICA REGIONAL STUDY RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERIZAT ION A N D P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER T IES

The Utica Shale is an upper

Ordovician-aged, calcareous, black shale that extends across the Appalachian Plateau from New York and Quebec, Canada, south to Tennessee. It therefore, underlies the Marcellus and extends farther west providing another shale reservoir target in Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. The Utica Shale produces oil in Ohio and gas in the deeper portions of the basin to the east. In the near term, most activity is expected to be in the liquids-rich portion of the play in Ohio and western Pennsylvania. The Utica Shale has very different reservoir properties than the Marcellus and should be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data

that are crucial for understanding this reservoir. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore this resource, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Utica Shale and reduce finding and development costs. The primary objective of this project is to provide operators with measured geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties of the Utica Shale in order to improve their formation evaluation and to optimize stimulation and production. Our work suggests that understanding the similarities and differences in these shales on a regional basis is the key to successful exploration and exploitation. The resultant database will be an invaluable tool to operators in evaluating, comparing, and designing completion and stimulation methods for the Utica Shale.

4

AS SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH MERICA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS –

north america Appalachian Basin PENNSYLVANIA

OHIO

WEST VIRGIN I A

UPPER DEVONIAN SHALES RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERIZAT ION A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER T IES

S

everal members of our successful Marcellus Shale Project have encouraged Core Lab to initiate a similar project in organic-rich, Upper Devonian black shales in the gas and liquidsrich maturity windows in the vicinity of northwest Pennsylvania and possibly in New York State. The sequence of Upper Devonian shales include, (in ascending stratigraphic order) the Burket, Geneseo, Middlesex, Rhinestreet, and Huron. Numerous companies are evaluating the Upper Devonian shales for oil, condensate, and gas production; and have either drilled — or are planning to drill — pilot wells with the acquisition of cores.

The Upper Devonian shales are variable in terms of reservoir properties; displaying similarities and gross differences when compared to Marcellus shale. These Upper Devonian shales are challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding this reservoir. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and exploit this resource, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Upper Devonian shales and reduce finding and development costs.

5

SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH A TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUISIAN

CANADA

north america BRITISH

Canada

COLUMBIA

DUVERNAY REGIONAL STUDY

provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Duvernay Shale and reduce finding and development costs. The Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories is conducting a multi-company, geo-engineering, regional study of the Duvernay Shale. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores and rotary sidewall cores samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Duvernay Shale. Specifically, the prospective section will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information.

SA

SK

AT

CH

EW

AN

ALBERTA

RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERI ZAT ION A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER T IES

C

urrently, numerous oil and gas companies are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of the Duvernay Shale following extensive lease sales in 2009 and 2010. Many companies are beginning pilot programs to acquire core, logs, and conduct preliminary stimulation operations. Companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding this potential reservoir. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore the Duvernay Shale, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will

7

AS SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH A TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUIS

north america Canada

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

BRITISH

MONTNEY REGIONAL STUDY

COLUMBIA

KA

TC

HE

W

AN

ALBERTA

reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore these gas shales and mudstones, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Montney, thereby, reducing finding and development costs. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous new conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Montney. Specifically, these prospective shale and mudstone sections will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells within these shale and mudstone sections, but also on other operator’s wells. The project will be focused on evaluating numerous Montney wells in British Columbia and Alberta.

RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER TIES

C

urrently, numerous oil and gas companies are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of the Triassic Montney Formation in northeastern British Columbia and western Alberta. Major facies include fine-grained shoreface sandstones, shelf siltstones and shales, fine-grained turbidites and organic-rich phosphatic shale. This project focuses on the evaluation of gas shale and mudstones (shales and siltstones) in this formation. Both the B.C. and Alberta governments have performed limited studies of the Montney, but these studies have been directed at estimating the size and potential of the resource play in terms of original-gas-in-place. In contrast, this project is designed to improve 1) reservoir characterization, 2) development of core-calibrated petrophysical log models, 3) prediction of potential producibility, and 3) optimizing fracture stimulation techniques in order to maximize production. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding these BRITISH COLUMBIA ALBERTA

WILRICH - WESTERN CANADIAN SEDIMENTARY BASIN

SA

SK

AT

CH

EW

AN

ALBERTA

RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERI ZAT ION A N D P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER T IES

N

umerous oil and gas companies in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of gas and liquids-rich gas from the sandstone and siltstone of the Wilrich Member in the Lower Cretaceous Spirit River Formation. The Wilrich play ranks as one of the most economic natural gas plays in North America. Core Lab has been conducting

highly successful joint industry projects evaluating analogous tight reservoirs for over 20 years. Several companies have cored and evaluated the Wilrich potential on their leases over the years, with a marked increase in interest the last year. In order to properly evaluate and exploit this target, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation and reduce finding and development costs.

8

S SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH A TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS LOUISIA

NORTHERN LOUISIANA SOUTHERN ARKANSAS EAST TEXAS

north america E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

ARKANSAS – LOUISIANA LOWER CRETACEOUS STUDY

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI CA L STUDY OF THE LO WER CRETA CEO U S P ET T ET, J A MES, A N D RO D ESSA FA CI ES IN T H E S O UT H A RK A N SA S- N O R TH LO U I SI A NA AR EA

T

he south Arkansas-north Louisiana (Arkla) area has long been the site of active exploration for structural and structural-stratigraphic traps. As most known structures have been extensively drilled, the focus is now centered on oil and gas to be found in subtle, stratigraphically controlled traps in the Pettet, James, and Rodessa. Study members are provided with the only available exploration and producing oriented study of the Arkla area that; provides a practical database which can be utilized for local prospect generation and regional trend evaluation, relates lithofacies and diagenesis to reservoir development, developed the depositional models needed to discover and evaluate similar stratigraphic and structural-stratigraphic traps, and assess completion and production techniques for these Lower Cretaceous carbonates and sandstones.

The analytical techniques utilized to characterize and evaluate nineteen (19) conventionally cored wells in the Pettet, James, and Rodessa consisted of conventional core description with continuous core color photography and extensive thin section petrology (including “whole” thin section photomicroscopy). Scanning electron microscopy (including pore cast analysis), mercury injection capillary pressure, and X-ray diffraction were done on selected “reservoir rock type” samples. Porosity, air permeability, and grain density were measured for all core plugs geologically analyzed. Results from these detailed geological characterizations were correlated to logs in the cored wells. Numerous other wells were integrated into the study using existing logs and this information was then used as an aid to correlate between cored and uncored wells. Facies and isopach maps, cross sections, depositional models, etc. were constructed and formulated by utilizing the core-to-log and log-to-log correlations. The study contains individual well reports and a final report which synthesizes the data in terms of the geological and petrophysical implications for reservoir quality trends in the study area. • Nin eteen ( 19) con ven tion ally cor ed wells • Well logs f r om n on -cor ed sur r oun din g wells • Pettet, James an d R odessa For mation s

The south Arkansas - north Louisiana (Arkla) area has long been the site of active exploration for structural and structural-stratigraphic traps.

10

AS SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH MERICA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS –

north america E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

• Determine the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks for improved formation evaluation.

ARKANSAS – LOUISIANA STATE LINE SMACKOVER STUDY

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STU DY AND RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N O F T H E SMA CK O VER FO RMATI O N A RKANSASLO U I SI A N A STATE LI N E TREN D

T

he Arkansas-Louisiana State Line Trend Smackover Core Study provides a synthesis of the observations and conclusions drawn from analysis of 1,546 feet of conventional core from twenty (20) wells. The objectives of this study are to completely characterize, geologically and petrophysically, Smackover reservoir rocks from conventional cores. Methodology included: • Describe and sedimentologically analyze the cored intervals, leading to the development of a depositional model with emphasis placed on improved delineation of Smackover reservoirs • Identify porous zones, pore types, pore system properties, and diagenetic alterations that affect reservoir potential

An individual report on each of the twenty (20) wells is included in this study. Each well report contains text sections that include descriptions, interpretations, and evaluations of reservoir potential, core-to-log and facies-to-log correlations, detailed core descriptions and core photography, whole thin section photographs, thin section and SEM photomicrographs, routine core analysis data for the entire cored interval, and a log-derived petrophysical evaluation of cored zones. The final report provides an executive summary of the study results, discussion on the geological setting and major facies and depositional environments encountered. There is a section that focuses on stratigraphic relationships and depositional models, diagenesis and controls on reservoir quality. A separate section addresses petrophysical properties and advanced rock properties from the twenty (20) wells. • Twen ty ( 20) wells • 1,546 f eet con ven tion al cor e

ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

reservoir quality, and integrates rock petrophysical properties and rock type information with well log evaluation to develop criteria for the recognition of pay intervals. The study consists of data generated on sixty (60) rotary sidewall sandstone samples from 12 wells located in Rusk, Panola, Harrison and Cass Counties, Texas and Bienville Parish, Louisiana. These wells represent nine (9) separate fields and all tested gas from one or more intervals. In addition to the petrographic and advanced rock property data, composite data files were created for measured and calculated well log curves covering approximately 10,000 feet of wellbore.

COTTON VALLEY REGIONAL STUDY

A STU D Y O F GEO LO GI C AL A N D P ETRO P HYSI CA L P RO P ER TI ES O F CO TTO N VA LLEY SA N D STO N ES I N EA ST T EXA S A N D N O R TH LO U I SI A N A

C

ore Laboratories completed a study of Cotton Valley Sandstones in east Texas and north Louisiana to identify and provide data on the spectrum of Cotton Valley reservoir rock types to be applied in the discrimination of commercially viable reservoirs. The study defines the rock properties which control the preservation and/or development of pore space, delineates rock types and their associated pore structure as they relate to

• • • •

Twelve ( 12) wells R otar y sidewall cor es R usk, Pan ola, H ar rison an d Cass Coun ties, Te x as Bien ville Parish , Louisian a

11

ARKANSAS – LOUISIANA LOWER STATE LINE SMACKOVER STUDY AM CA COTTON VALLEY REGIONAL STUDY EAST TEXAS LOWER CRETA

north america ARKANSAS

E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s In addition, selected cores from Alabama Ferry Field and Fort Trinidad Field (Upper Glen Rose Formation, Mooringsport Member) were included. The study contains geologically and petrophysically evaluated conventional cores from forty-six (46) wells, and electric logs from 358 wells. Regional facies maps and isopach maps were generated for each of the Lower Glen Rose Members. In addition, five (5) regional facies cross sections (three dip sections and two strike sections) were constructed, combining core and well log information. The data and interpretations for this study are presented in three comprehensive well summary reports. A two-volume final report provides a summary and regional synthesis of geological and petrophysical aspects of the various producing formations.

EAST TEXAS LOWER L O U I S I A N A CRETACEOUS REGIONAL STUDY

TEXAS

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C A L ST UDY O F GLEN RO SE CA RBO N ATES A N D SI LI C I C LA STI C S I N THE EAST T EXA S BA SI N

P t

Core Laboratories completed a study of Glen

Rose strata in the East Texas Basin, to address problems related to exploration, reservoir evaluation, and exploitation of these Cretaceous Age reservoirs. The objective of the study is to provide participating companies with detailed geological analysis and well log evaluations of the Pettet, James and Rodessa members of the Lower Glen Rose Formation on both a local and regional scale.

• • • •

For ty -six ( 46) wells Logs f r om 358 wells Con ven tion al cor e Pettet, James an d R odessa For mation s

ARKANSAS

LOUISIANA TEXAS

pore types, pore system properties, and diagenetic alterations that affect reservoir potential, and 3) determine the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks for improved formation evaluation. These objectives were met through a combination of detailed core description, thin section petrography, special core analysis (resistivity measurements and air-mercury injection capillary pressure tests), scanning electron microscopy, and through the construction of a combined facies/diagenetic cross section. Observations and conclusions derived from the analyses of these wells are provided in a five (5) volume final report that synthesizes and integrates the geological and petrophysical data.

EAST TEXAS SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY

GEO LO GI C STU D Y A N D RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N O F THE EA ST TEXA S BA SI N S M A C K O VER FO RMATI O N

C

ore Laboratories is offering a completed study of Jurassic Smackover Formation strata in east Texas. The study area includes Rains, Limestone, Van Zandt, Freestone, Henderson and Wood Counties with sixteen (16) conventionally cored wells. The objectives of this study are to: 1) describe and sedimentologically analyze the cored intervals, leading to the development of a depositional model with emphasis placed on improved delineation of Smackover reservoirs, 2) identify porous zones,

• Sixteen ( 16) wells • Con ven tion al cor e • R ain s, Limeston e, Van Zan dt, Fr eeston e, H en derson an d Wood Coun ties, Texas

12

EAST TEXAS SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY EAST TEXAS LOWER CR WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS – LOUISIANA LOWER CRET

north america E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s

TEXAS

HAYNESVILLE AND BOSSIER SHALE STUDY

LOUISIANA

RESER VO I R CHA RA CTERIZAT ION AND P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER TI ES

N

umerous oil and gas companies are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of the Haynesville and Bossier Shale in East Texas and Northern Louisiana. This gas shale reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that is crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore these gas shales, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case

LOUISIANA

JAMES LIME

TEXAS

REGI O N A L, P ETRO P HYSI CAL AND P RO D U CTI O N STU D Y FO R IM PR OV ED FO RMATI O N EVA LU ATI O N AND OPT IMA L W ELL C O MP LETI O N S

T

his project is designed to optimize operators’ exploration and exploitation of James Lime reservoirs in the East Texas and North Louisiana areas, with a possible extension to south Mississippi. This play is maturing with mixed results from the horizontal wells in tight sections and a general poor understanding of what makes a good well. Recent discussions with several operators in the trend indicate that many operators are having common problems in locating the “sweet spots” for production in the trend and in their formation evaluation and reservoir characterization. These technical issues that the project addresses include but are not limited to the following: • What is controlling production in the James Lime? Is it depositional facies, natural fractures, thin permeable “sweet zones”, or a combination?

histories provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Haynesville and Bossier Shale and reduce finding and development costs. Core Laboratories is conducting this multi-company, geo-engineering study of the Haynesville and Bossier Shale. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Haynesville and Bossier Shale. Specifically, these prospective shale sections will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. This data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells within these shale sections, but also on other operator’s wells. The project will be focused on evaluating numerous Haynesville and Bossier Shale wells in East Texas and Northern Louisiana. • On goin g pr oject with over 100 wells

• How can we differentiate good reservoirs and areas from the non-commercial areas? • What are pay recognition criteria from logs for the James Lime and how much gas is in place? Where is the water coming from? • If production is related to natural fractures, what are the fracture spacing, orientation and areas favorable for development? • What is the optimal fracture stimulation design(s) to maximize production? • How can production performance be predicted to aid in completion decisions?

These problems can only be solved from the geological, petrophysical and completion/stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with either conventional cores or rotary sidewall cores. The resultant data is used to calibrate open-hole logs in order to better predict rock types and petrophysical properties essential for formation evaluation and proper well completion and stimulation designs. The rock types and their measured petrophysical properties can also serve as analogs when evaluating new reservoirs in wildcats or field step outs.

13

COTTON VALLEY WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS – LOUISI EAST TEXAS LOWER CRETACEOUS REGIONAL STUDY WOODBINE REG

north america E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s

ARKANSAS

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

LOWER SMACKOVER “BROWN DENSE” EXPLORATION RECONNAISSANCE STUDY

O

ne of the most prolific source rocks in the Gulf Coast Basin area is the Lower Smackover “Brown Dense” section. It is the source rock for the overlying Upper Smackover carbonate-shoal conventional reservoirs. This organically-laminated, carbonate mudstone section rims the Gulf Coast Basin from Florida to East Texas. It may contain liquid hydrocarbons that might be economically produced with horizontal drilling and fracture stimulation. Several companies are currently

TEXAS

LOUISIANA

evaluating the potential of the Lower Smackover looking to become a first mover in the play. This project is offered to interested companies who are interested in a reconnaissance project involving the screening of reservoir properties from legacy cores. This project consists of the reservoir characterization of several cores that Core Lab has obtained from the public domain. The primary area of interest is the Arkansas-Louisiana State Line Trend, but other areas in Texas and Alabama are included. The primary objective of this project is to provide operators with geological, petrographic, geochemical, and pore space properties of the Lower Smackover section by the analysis of conventional cores.

• What are pay recognition criteria for the Travis Peak – Hosston and how do these criteria change regionally? • What are the optimal completion and stimulation fluids? • What is the optimal fracture stimulation design(s) to maximize production? • How can production performance be predicted to aid in completion decisions?

TRAVIS PEAK – HOSSTON SANDSTONES

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL A N D C O MP LETI O N S STU DY FOR I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVALUAT ION A N D O P TI MA L WELL C O MP LET IONS

This project was designed to optimize

operators’ exploitation of Travis Peak - Hosston reservoirs in the East Texas and North Louisiana areas. Many operators have common problems in the formation evaluation, well completion, stimulation and production aspects of Travis Peak - Hosston reservoirs. Technical issues addressed in the project include: • What are the various reservoir rock types and their petrophysical properties, and how do they vary regionally? • What is Rw and the appropriate water saturation model for the reservoir and does it change by zone and/or regionally?

These problems are solved from the geological, petrophysical and completion/stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with either conventional cores or rotary sidewall cores. The resultant data is used to calibrate open-hole logs in order to better predict rock types and petrophysical properties essential for formation evaluation and proper well completion and stimulation designs. The rock types and their measured petrophysical properties can also serve as analogs when evaluating new reservoirs in wildcats or field step-outs. • Nin eteen ( 19) wells • Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor e

14

EAST TEXAS SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY EAST TEXAS LOWER CR WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS – LOUISIANA LOWER CRET

north america ARKANSAS

E a s t Te x a s / N o r t h e r n L o u i s i a n a / S o u t h e r n A r k a n s a s

LOUISIANA

TEXAS

Core Laboratories strongly feels that oil companies will benefit in both an exploration and production sense by acquiring the Reservoir Evaluation of the Woodbine Formation Study. A study which geologically and petrophysically characterizes conventional cores and cuttings from forty-four (44) wells will enable members to:

WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STUDY A N D RESER VO I R EVA LU AT ION O F THE WO O D BI N E FO RMAT ION EA ST TEXA S

The Woodbine of upper Cretaceous Age has

been one of the most prolific oil and gas targets in the East Texas Basin. Exploration for Woodbine production in east Texas has been intensive since the first discovery was made at Mexia in October of 1920. The majority of Woodbine exploration and production has been confined to an area north of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure and the Edwards reef trend. Production from the Woodbine interval in this area has been from depths of between 3,000 to 6,000 feet. Recent discoveries of Woodbine gas, however, south of the Angelina-Caldwell flexure have extended the area of exploration. The Woodbine in this area is encountered at depths of 10,000 to greater than 15,000 feet. For purposes of this study, these two areas are referred to as the shallow and deep Woodbine of East Texas. The Late Cretaceous continental shelf and the beginning of the continental slope in east Texas are marked by the Angelina-Caldwell flexure and Edwards reef trend. The shallow Woodbine, therefore, represents deposition north of the shelf edge and the deep Woodbine represents deposition south of the shelf edge. This regional geologic study encompasses both areas of Woodbine deposition. Exploring for Woodbine production within the East Texas Basin is complex. Depositionally, the formation is complex. The sand bodies that form reservoirs are erratically distributed in the section and represent various environments from fluvial to marine. No single, simple, depositional model can be used for exploring for Woodbine traps. A regional study of the depositional environment for Woodbine clastics within the East Texas Basin provides valuable information to the petroleum explorationists.

• Select drilling fluids which are compatible with the reservoir conditions and minimize formation damage • Define reservoir units within the Woodbine based on depositional patterns, reservoir geometries, and reservoir continuity • Define the regional distribution of various types of sandstone mineral, textural, and pore space properties in Woodbine reservoir rocks, particularly those associated with diagenetic clay phases • Properly locate development wells within a Woodbine field • Effectively interpret hydrocarbon-bearing Woodbine sandstones which appear “wet” on electric logs due to the presence of diagenetic clays in the pore network • Design proper well stimulation and/or fracturing treatments to efficiently produce hydrocarbons from Woodbine reservoirs • Aid in lease acquisition and in overall exploration and exploitation efforts for Woodbine wells • Assist in the selection of the number and location of injectors, composition of enhanced recovery fluids, and the treatment of injection and production wells for Enhanced Recovery programs within Woodbine fields

The study contains individual well reports and a final report which summarizes the results. • For ty -f our ( 44) wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d drill cuttin gs

15

COTTON VALLEY WOODBINE REGIONAL STUDY ARKANSAS – LOUISI EAST TEXAS LOWER CRETACEOUS REGIONAL STUDY WOODBINE REG

OFFSHORE

GULF OF MEXICO

ONSHORE

north america LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Offshore

TEXAS

DEEP SHELF GULF OF MEXICO REGIONAL STUDY RESER VO I R Q U A LI TY RESER V OIR Q U A LI TY P RED I CTI O N A N D SEA L RO C K EVA LU ATI O N , D EEP SHELF GU LF O F MEXI C O

Operators in the Gulf of Mexico are directing

their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of deep reservoirs in the shelf area of the Gulf of Mexico. These reservoirs range in depth from 15,000 to 30,000 feet and are primarily Pliocene, Miocene, and Oligocene in age. These reservoirs present a challenge to operators and have an inherently high risk and cost. Traditional AVO seismic methods have yielded mixed results for identifying prospective target reservoirs. Explorationists must currently rely on identifying and evaluating prospects by projecting sand distribution from regional well control, identifying structural traps seismically, assessing the risk of reservoir quality, and evaluating the risk of seal integrity. All are challenging and aid significantly to the risk in drilling these wells. Our project focus is on three key areas to help reduce operator risk and increase success rates. Characterize the reservoir quality and petrophysical properties of deep shelf reservoirs: As

geological characterization of deep shelf reservoirs is critical to effective exploration, exploitation and reservoir quality prediction. Data on depositional facies, environment, rock types, mineralogy, pore structure, clay types, and petrophysical properties

will be determined on conventional, rotary and percussion sidewall cores and/or cuttings as applicable. Seal rock evaluation: Seal and potential seal rock material from conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, percussion sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples will be evaluated in terms of seal rock properties. Methods used to determine seal capacity are: mercury injection capillary pressure, thin section, x-ray diffraction, and SEM analysis. An evaluation of seals in terms of lithology, log response, pressure regime, thickness, facies, areal extent, etc. from multiple wells and horizons will provide critical information needed to evaluate seal risk. Predict reservoir quality of deep shelf reservoirs in prospective (undrilled) areas: Geocosm will work

with the Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division to provide reservoir quality predictions using the Touchstone™ reservoir quality analysis and prediction system. Touchstone™ incorporates an integrated suite of diagenetic and petrophysical models that simulate sandstone reservoir properties through geologic time and can be used to predict reservoir quality away from well control. Important controls on model results include sandstone depositional texture and composition and subsequent temperature, depth, and fluid overpressure histories. Touchstone™ incorporates process models that are calibrated using petrographic, core analysis, and burial history data for analog samples. Calibration model development will be included as part of the project and will be performed by Core Laboratories.

Our project focus is on the three key areas to help reduce operator risk and increase success rates.

17

EEP SHELF GULF OF MEXICO DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO WILCO ROVENCE STUDY OFFSHORE TEXAS/LOUISIANA – MIOCENE CORE ST

north america Gulf of Mexico Offshore

LOUISIANA

TEXAS

DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO CORE STUDY REGI O N A L C O RE A N D BI O STRATI GRA P HI C STU D Y O F THE D EEP WATER BLO C KS GU LF O F MEXI CO

C

ore Laboratories is conducting one of the largest regional geological and petrophysical studies of conventional core wells in the deepwater blocks of the Gulf of Mexico available to the industry. This study focus is on determining the depositional facies of slope and deepwater sandstone reservoirs, along with their petrographic and petrophysical properties in the deepwater blocks of the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, detailed paleontological analysis is performed on core and drill cutting samples in order to place the cored intervals into a stratigraphic framework. These types of data and interpretations, integrated into a regional database, significantly enhance operators’ understanding of these deepwater reservoirs for improved exploration and exploitation efforts. All of this data, besides being provided in individual well reports, can be accessed in an Oracle™ database application via the Internet.

CHANDELEUR AREA

BRETON SOUND AREA

MAIN PASS AREA

The study area encompasses the blocks extending from the East Breaks Area to the Desoto Canyon Area. Participants in the project are required to contribute conventional cores from four (4) wells located within these deepwater areas. Conventional cores from existing wells may be contributed, as well as cores that are taken from exploration and exploitation wells that will be drilled in the near future. Newly-cored wells provide material suitable for the measurement and determination of an extensive array of petrophysical properties. The spectrum of deepwater reservoir rock types and their geological and petrophysical properties have been compiled into a catalog format to serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters when evaluating non-cored reservoir intervals. Frequent core workshops and a series of technical talks are conducted so that the participants can meet with Core Laboratories’ deepwater team and examine, firsthand, the cores and associated data. In addition to the geological and petrophysical evaluation of cored reservoir intervals, this project also examines the seal characteristics of a spectrum of Deepwater GOM fields. The objective of this component of the study is to enhance evaluation of seal rock quality and aid in the calculation of seal capacity. The resulting database aids operators in their risk assessment of hydrocarbon columnar heights. Samples have been taken from fifty (50) deepwater fields from cores in the study. Data used to evaluate these deepwater seals are: high pressure mercury injection capillary pressure, thin-section petrography, x-ray diffraction, SEM analysis and Laser Particle Size analysis. These data along with reservoir parameters are used to determine seal capacity of the underlying reservoirs and will provide critical parameters for determining seal capacity of deepwater oil and gas seals in their depositional context. In addition, Core Lab has compiled a Wilcox provenance dataset from our Texas and Louisiana Wilcox Regional Studies and from Mexican outcrop samples. This dataset will allow operators to conduct proprietary sandstone provenance studies in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico for Paleocene to Lower Eocene sandstone reservoirs expected to be CONVENTIONAL CORES encountered in the Alaminos Canyon and Walker Ridge areas. Tahoe

Petronius

Virgo

Neptune

Nile

Marlin

Ram Powell

VIOSCA KNOLL

EAST CAMERON AREA

WEST CAMERON AREA

S. PELTO AREA

SOUTH MARSH ISLAND AREA HIGH ISLAND AREA

WEST DELTA AREA

VERMILION AREA

EUGENE ISLAND AREA

HIGH ISLAND AREA

Pompano

SOUTH PASS AREA

GRAND ISLE AREA

Amberjack

Kings Peak

Horn Mtn

Cognac Matterhorn

Camden Hills Gemini

SHIP SHOAL AREA SOUTH TIMBALIER AREA

Rigel

Fourier

S. S. 208

Zia Anstey Medusa

East Anstey GALVESTON AREA

Andouin

Devils Tower Gomez

Midway E. C. 332

Goose

S. S. 331

Tanzanite Mohogany

Sunrise

S. V. 362

BRAZOS AREA

Mars

Lobster Morpeth EWING BANK

MISSISSIPPI CANYON

G. C. 60

GB 70 Shasta GB 147

Champlain

G. C. 154

Enchilada

Snapper

REA

Lorien

Merganser

Genesis

Jolliet

Tick

Aspen

Bald Pate

Front Runner

S. Front Runner Llano GB 387

Lost Ark

Cooper

Fuji

Auger

K-2

Dawson Deep Falcon

Nansen

Neptune Gunnison

Marco Polo Constitution Atlantis

Magnolia

Ticonderoga Diana

PUS CHRISTI AREA

EAST BREAKS

Rockefeller

GARDEN BANKS

GREEN CANYON

Thunder Hawk

ATWATER

Hoover South Diana

INDEX MAP OF

DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO Regional Study

LEGEND

PROJECT WELLS RELEASED

PROJECT WELLS IN PROGRESS

PORT ISABEL AREA

ALAMINOS CANYON

Trident

KEATHLEY CANYON

CORES ON DISPLAY (11-10-2005)

WALKER RIDGE

18

DEEP S HELF GULF OF MEXICO REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF MEXICO OFFSHORE TEXAS/LOUISIANA – MIOCENE CORE STUDY W

north america LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Offshore

TEXAS

• High-resolution foram and calcareous nannofossil paleontology • Define and evaluate Miocene sandstone reservoir quality in terms of texture, mineralogy, diagenesis, and pore system properties • Log-derived petrophysical properties were determined for cored Miocene sandstones and correlated and calibrated to measured core data • The spectrum of Miocene reservoir rock types and their geological and petrophysical properties are compiled in a catalog format to serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters, when evaluating non-cored reservoir intervals. • Regional synthesis of all data in terms of reservoir quality and architecture

OFFSHORE/TEXAS LOUISIANA – MIOCENE CORE STUDY

Galveston

REGI O N A L C O RE A N D BI O STRATI GRA P HI C STU D Y O F THE MI O CEN E O FFSHO RE T E X A S A N D LO U I SI A N A

Core Laboratories conducted one of the

industry’s most comprehensive regional geological and petrophysical study of the offshore Miocene from over one hundred wells with conventional cores in the Gulf of Mexico. This large project consists of two separate, but compatible, studies of the Miocene divided between offshore Texas and offshore Louisiana. These studies are focused on determining the depositional environment(s), along with petrographic and petrophysical properties of productive and potentially productive reservoir sandstones. In addition, paleontological analysis has been performed on core and cuttings in order to place the cored intervals into a stratigraphic framework. The study provides participants with the following analyses, data, and interpretations:

The various geological and petrophysical data generated on the Miocene conventional cores (wells) are compiled, interpreted, and presented in well data reports and in a final report. Individual offshore Texas and Louisiana well reports are available for each project well. A final report summarizes the data and provides a regional overview of the Miocene section in terms of significant aspects and conclusions regarding improved exploration and exploitation activities.

• Core description, core photography, and sedimentological interpretation of depositional environments

• 101 wells • Con ven tion al cor e • Of f sh or e Texas an d Louisian a

TEXAS Galveston

MEXICO

WILCOX PROVENANCE STUDY WI LC O X P RO VEN A N CE DATABASE FO R SO U RCE I D EN TI FI CATION

Core Laboratories compiled a Wilcox prove-

nance dataset from our Texas and Louisiana Wilcox Regional Studies. This dataset will allow operators to conduct proprietary sandstone provenance studies in the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. This dataset consists of Paleocene to Lower Eocene sandstone reservoirs expected to be encountered in the Alaminos Canyon and Walker Ridge areas. These sandstones have several possible fluvial-deltaic sediment source areas along the Texas and Louisiana coeval shelf, with Mexico also being a candidate. Some 19

of the possible source areas are the Rio Grande, Carrizo, Corsair, Houston, Red River and Mississippi depositional axes. The database contains the quantitative petrographic analysis of selected sandstone thin sections from twenty-two (22) wells located in the onshore shelf rimming the Gulf of Mexico. The composition of deepwater sandstones can then be compared and contrasted (i.e., matched) with the shelf (onshore) sandstones to determine the most likely source area(s) for similarly aged deepwater sandstones, using this database. In addition, thirty-seven (37) Mexican outcrop samples from the La Popa, Tampico/Misantla, and Burgos Basins have been collected and added to the Texas and Louisiana dataset. Shale samples were collected for age verification on these outcrop samples.

FFSHORE TEXAS/LOUISANA – MIOCENE CORE STUDY DEEPWATER G WILCOX PROVENCE STUDY DEEP SHELF GULF OF MEXICO EMBAYME

north america Gulf of Mexico Onshore GEORGIA

ALABAMA

FLORIDA

APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT REGIONAL STUDY

A GEO LO GI CA L STU D Y O F T H E SM ACKO VER, N O RP HLET, EA GLE MI LLS A N D HAYN ESVI LLE FO RM AT IONS I N THE A PA LA CHI C O LA A REA

Conventional core and drill cuttings from

ten (10) wells in the Apalachicola Embayment area of northwestern Florida were examined and petrographically described to determine lithological properties, reservoir quality, and exploration potential in the Smackover Formation. The report contains detailed geological analysis of conventional

TEXAS

core and drill cutting samples from the Jurassic Smackover and associated sandstone (Norphlet, Eagle Mills, Haynesville) Formations in the Apalachicola Embayment. The final report contains complete descriptive and interpretive well reports for each of the ten (10) wells studied. The report also presents a “Results and Interpretation” section summarizing the data collected from the ten (10) study wells. Included in this section are two cross sections schematically illustrating the Smackover/Sandstone intervals studied and a plan view map of the Apalachicola Embayment which delineates the general trends of the more favorable Smackover Reservoir potential. • Ten ( 10) wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d drill cuttin gs • Smackover, Norph let, Eagle M ills an d H ay n esville For mation s

LOUISIANA

These data are provided in a graphic core description, along with core and depositional facies correlated to open-hole logs. In addition, all cores were photographed in color to provide a permanent reference of the cored sequence. • Define and evaluate Frio sandstone reservoir quality in terms of texture, mineralogy, diagenesis, and pore system properties. Conventional core, sidewall core, and drill cutting samples from productive and potentially productive sandstones were subjected to thin section petrographic characterization, point count modal analysis (conventional core and rotary sidewall cores only), and color photomicroscopy. In addition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify diagenetic clays and characterize pore systems. X-ray diffraction analysis was utilized to determine bulk and clay fraction mineralogy. • A series of petrophysical measurements were performed on conventional core samples to determine important parameters for formation evaluation. The sample suite represented the spectrum of Frio reservoir rock types. These rock types and associated data serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters when evaluating non-cored reservoir intervals.

DEEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N O F D EEP FRI O SA N D STO N ES A LO N G THE SO U THEA ST T EXA S C O A ST

Core Laboratories conducted a geological and

petrophysical study of Deep Frio sandstones on the southeast Texas coast. The study is directed at analyzing conventional cores from multiple wells located primarily in Brazoria and Galveston counties. The technical objective of this study is to provide each participating company with detailed geological and petrophysical characterization and evaluation of productive and/or potentially productive Frio sandstones. The study also provides companies with a strong database and understanding of the Deep Frio sandstones, to aid in their exploration and exploitation efforts, and it contains conventional core from 6 (six) wells. The analytical program consisted of the following: • Core description, core photography, and sedimentological interpretation of depositional environments. All conventional cores were described in detail in terms of lithology, grain size, physical and biogenic sedimentary structures, contacts, and vertical sequence.

• Six ( 6) wells • Con ven tion al cor e • Brazoria an d Galveston Coun ties, Texas

20

EEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT REGIONAL AYNESVILLE CORE STUDY THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY LOBO REGI

north america Gulf of Mexico Onshore TEXAS

Galveston

DEEP FRIO OF SOUTH TEXAS REGIONAL STUDY SO U TH TEXA S FRI O SA NDST ONES GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL, AND GEO MEC HA N I C A L P RO P ER TIES FOR I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVA LUAT ION A N D O P TI MA L W ELL C O MP LETIONS

MEXICO

This project was designed to optimize operators’

exploitation of down-dip, geopressured, Frio gas reservoirs in south Texas. Operators in this trend indicate that are having problems in the formation evaluation, well completion, stimulation and production aspects of down-dip Frio gas wells. These problems include but are not limited to the following: • Recognition of pay versus non-pay (lowresistivity contrast) as a result of pore system clays, shaly bioturbated reservoirs, and/or thin-bedded reservoirs • Petrophysical evaluation and reserve estimates • Prediction of permeability for the assessment of formation damage and production performance

• Casing collapse associated with rock compressive strength failure after fracture stimulation and drawdown • Rock-fluid compatibility, well completion and stimulation designs • Reduced permeability and porosity associated with pore volume compressibility during production

These problems have cost companies millions of dollars and can only be solved from the geological, petrophysical and geomechanical analysis and evaluation of either conventional cores or rotary sidewall cores. Cores from sixteen (16) wells were thoroughly analyzed in this fashion. The resultant data was used to calibrate open-hole logs and dipole sonic logs (e.g. MAC) in order to better predict rock types and properties essential for formation evaluation and proper well completion and stimulation designs. These rock types and their measured petrophysical and geomechanical properties serve as analogs when evaluating new reservoirs in wildcats or field step-outs. • Eigh teen ( 18) wells • Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor e

TEXAS Galveston

EAGLE FORD REGIONAL STUDY

RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERI ZAT ION MEXICO

A N D P RO D U CTI O N P RO P ER TIES

T

his gas and oil producing shale reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore these gas and oil producing shales, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information.

These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Eagle Ford Shale and reduce finding and development costs. The primary objective of this project is to provide operators with measured geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties of the Eagle Ford Shale in order to improve their formation evaluation and to optimize stimulation and production. Understanding the similarities and differences in these shales on a regional basis is the key to successful exploration and exploitation. The resultant database will be an invaluable tool to operators in evaluating, comparing, and designing completion and stimulation methods for the Eagle Ford Shale.

21

AYNESVILLE CORE STUDY LOBO REGIONAL STUDY YEGUA REGIONA EEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY HAYNESVILLE CORE STUDY OLIGOCENE

north america Gulf of Mexico Onshore

LOUISIANA

TEXAS Galveston

recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore these gas and oil producing reservoirs, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the “Eaglebine” and reduce finding and development costs.

EAGLEBINE REGIONAL STUDY

RESER VO I R CHA RA CTERI ZAT ION A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO P ER TI ES

T

he “Eaglebine” section is the interval in East Texas from the base of the Austin Chalk to the top of the Buda limestone. It consists of the Woodbine sandstones and the underlying Eagle Ford Shale both of which are targets for horizontal completions. These liquids-rich reservoirs have proved to be challenging in terms of drilling, reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate

ALABAMA ISSISSIPPI

HAYNESVILLE CORE STUDY STU D Y O F THE N O R TH FR ISCO CI TY A N D N O R TH RO ME FIELDS – HAYN ESVI LLE CO RE STU D Y

The Haynesville core study focuses is on two

fields. The Frisco City Member of the Jurassic Haynesville Formation at North Frisco City Field and North Rome Field in Alabama. Project components include detailed sedimentology on 680 feet of core from eight (8) wells. Mineralogy, texture, grain fabric and pore system properties were described and documented from thin sections, X-ray diffraction and SEM analyses. These data provided the basis for a discussion on diagenetic alterations and their effect on reservoir potential.

Laboratory measured permeability, porosity, saturations and electrical properties performed on the cored wells were tabulated to be used for improved formation evaluation using wireline logs and appear in individual well reports. Display panels are provided that illustrate core-to-log correlations that incorporate depositional environmental interpretations and core data. Stratigraphic cross sections summarize and illustrate lateral facies relationships across each field and exploration guidelines are presented based on the integration of a detailed depositional model with a paleogeographic reconstruction of the study area. • Eigh t ( 8) wells • Con ven tion al cor e • Nor th Frisco an d Nor th R ome f ields, Alabama

22

OBO REGIONAL STUDY MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY LOUI EGIONAL STUDY OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMB

north america Gulf of Mexico Onshore TEXAS

LOBO REGIONAL STUDY GEO LO GI C A L, P ETRO P HYSICAL, A N D EN GI N EERI N G STU DY OF THE LO BO (LO WER WI LC OX) SA N D STO N ES WEBB A N D ZAPATA C O U N TI ES, TEXA S

C

ore Laboratories initiated this study to address problems related to exploration, reservoir evaluation, exploitation and completion of Lobo sandstone reservoirs. The objective of the study was to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization, and evaluation of productive and potentially productive reservoir sandstones on both a local (field) and regional scale. There are twenty-four (24) project wells with the majority of these wells located in Webb County. Of the twenty-four (24) project wells, thirteen (13) contain conventional cores that comprised 2,117 feet of Lobo section. The Lobo sandstones in the remaining eleven wells were represented by either sidewall cores or drill cuttings. Cored Lobo sequences were analyzed in terms of lithology, sedimentary structures, vertical sequence, and depositional environments. Depositional environments for wells with only sidewall cores or drill cuttings are also interpreted based on gamma-ray log signatures, petrographic criteria, and comparison to conventional core analogs. Reservoir sandstone properties such as texture,

mineralogy, diagenesis and pore structure were determined petrographically. Special emphasis was directed at both depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality and the influence of clays on petrophysical properties and log response. Detailed petrophysical measurements and evaluations of sandstone reservoir parameters were performed. These include porosity, permeability, grain density, porosity and gas permeability as a function of overburden pressure, electrical properties, effective gas permeability, immobile water saturation, and capillary pressure. Each zone that was geologically evaluated in a particular well was also evaluated petrophysically by log analysis. Log-derived petrophysical properties were then compared to core analysis data where available. Each of the project wells was evaluated by a well completion engineer in order to assess drilling and completion procedures and potential formation damage problems. In addition several drilling, completion and fracturing fluids used by operators in the trend were tested for their “compatibility” with Lobo reservoir sandstones. The generated data and interpretations for the project wells are provided in three comprehensive well summary reports. A final report provides a summary and regional synthesis of the geological, petrophysical and engineering aspects of the Lobo Reservoir sandstones. • T h ir teen ( 13) wells – con ven tion al cor e • Eleven ( 11) wells – sidewall cor es or cuttin gs • Webb an d Zapata Coun ties, Texas

23

MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY LOUISIANA WILCOX REGIONA CE NE REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT NORPHLET RES

north america LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Onshore

S

LOUISIANA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY Galveston

REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL, ENGINEERING, AND PETROPHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF THE LOUISIANA WILCOX

The Louisiana Wilcox Regional Study contains a

complete geological, petrophysical, and engineering study from data on drill cuttings and conventional cores on thirty (30) wells. The conventional cores were used to describe, document, and interpret Wilcox sandstone lithology, vertical sequences, and the character of various lithofacies present within the cored intervals. Sandstone minerology, textural, and pore space properties for Wilcox pay and potential pay zones were defined, documented, and evaluated. Various rock-logging and fluid-flow parameters for selected Wilcox sandstone samples and zones representative of the spectrum of reservoir-quality rock types were measured in the laboratory.

The geological, petrophysical and engineering data were compiled and evaluated to provide a regional synthesis and summary of Wilcox rock properties significant to exploration and exploitation activities. The final report contains regional information and conclusions regarding: • Regional setting and stratigraphy • Depositional environments and models, log response, sand body geometry, and vertical/lateral relationships • Sandstone mineralogy, texture, and pore types • Quantification of Wilcox rock types • Petrophysical evaluation of Wilcox sandstones • Detailed drilling and completion evaluations and recommendations

• T h ir ty ( 30) wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs

24

LOBO REGIONAL STUDY MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY NOR LOUISIANA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY THANKSGIVING FIELD YEGUA

north america RKANSAS

MISSISSIPPI LOUISIANA

Gulf of Mexico Onshore AL

LOWER TUSCALOOSA FORMATION REGIONAL STUDY REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STU DY A N D RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N OF THE LO W ER TU SC A LO O SA F ORMATI O N I N SO U THW EST MI SSI SSI P P I A N D LO U I SI A N A

veston

T

he Lower Tuscaloosa Regional Study addresses problems related to the exploration, reservoir evaluation, and production of Lower Tuscaloosa sandstone reservoirs. Some of the major difficulties encountered by operators in the trend have been understanding and predicting the type, geometry, distribution, and stratigraphic trapping mechanism of Lower Tuscaloosa sandstone reservoirs. Differentiating pay from non-pay zones due to low resistivity contrasts and evaluating production characteristics and associated proper completion procedures, especially concerning potential water production, are also major difficulties. Therefore, the overall objective of this study has been to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of productive and potentially productive reservoir sandstones on both a local (field) and regional scale. The study contains approximately 6,000 feet of conventional core from ninety (90) project wells located in an 8,800 square mile area encompassing ten (10) counties in southwest Mississippi and six (6) parishes in Louisiana.

The cores were geologically evaluated with special emphasis placed on productive and/or potentially productive reservoir sandstones. All cores were slabbed, photographed in color, and described in detail in terms of lithology, grain size, physical and biogenic sedimentary structures, contacts, and vertical sequence in order to interpret depositional environments. Thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize such sandstone reservoir properties as texture, mineralogy, clay types, and pore space. Special emphasis was placed on the types and mode of occurrence of the various diagenetic minerals (especially clays) in the pore system and their influence on reservoir properties and log response. Productive and/ or potentially productive Tuscaloosa sandstone cores were also petrophysically evaluated. Porosity, permeability, and grain density were measured for all samples that were geologically analyzed and selected key samples were analyzed to obtain advanced rock property measurements. The generated data and interpretations for the individual project wells are provided. The wells are conveniently indexed on regional base maps. A final report was prepared that summarizes the results and conclusions pertaining to exploration and development on a regional scale. Included in the final report are nine regional facies cross sections that cover the entire area. • Nin ety ( 90) wells • Appr oximately 6,000 f eet of con ven tion al co r e • Louisian a an d M ississippi

25

MAFLA SMACKOVER REGION AL STUDY LOUISIANA WILCOX REGION OCENE REGIONAL STUDY APALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT NORPHLET RE

north america MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore ALABAMA

MAFLA SMACKOVER REGIONAL STUDY

Core Laboratories conducted a

study of the Jurassic Smackover Formation in the Mississippi-AlabamaFlorida (MAFLA Region). This study completely characterizes Smackover reservoir rocks from a geological and petrophysical evaluation of seventy-two (72) conventionally cored wells. Study objectives included: • Describe and document Smackover lithologies, textures, sedimentary structures, and interpret depositional environments • Delineate rock constituents, cements, and pore types, with special emphasis on therelationship between diagenesis, facies, and reservoir quality • Measure the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks for improved formation evaluation • Provide a regional overview of Smackover properties significant to current exploration and production activities

The results of this study provide operators with data and interpretations that have applications for exploration and exploitation activities in the MAFLA region. Ten (10) facies were identified within a sequence of interpreted depositional environments that relate reservoir quality to distance from the Paleozoic shoreline. Diagenetic events with positive and adverse effects on reservoir quality have been documented and summarized. Core-derived porosity values were compared with log-derived porosity values in order to establish the reliability of standard porosity logs in the Smackover. As a result of special core analysis tests that were conducted on fourteen (14) samples from reservoir facies, a water saturation equation was derived for saturation model development. Considerations for drilling and completion have been offered, along with techniques for stimulation. A final overview addresses exploration and production trends, noting trap types, facies distribution patterns and targeted reservoir facies. Our Smackover Regional Study compliments and can be combined with our Smackover Reservoir Study. • Seven ty -two ( 72) wells • Con ven tion al cor e

26

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY LOWER TUSCALOOSA FORMATION RE RESER VOIR WILCOX SMACKOVER RESER VOIR STUDY ONSHORE SOU

north america ALABAMA MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore NORPHLET RESERVOIR STUDY

N

orphlet Reservoir Study is a comprehensive stratigraphic and petrographic study utilizing thirty-six (36) wells that represent 3,800 feet of Norphlet section from onshore and offshore Alabama, eastern Mississippi, and the Florida panhandle. A total of 349 samples were studied in thin section, eighty-five (85) of which were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and by X-ray diffraction (XRD),

and incorporated with routine rock property measurements. Sample depths range from 9,430 feet near the updip limit to 21,960 feet. The objective of this study is to characterize the environments of deposition, petrology, rock types, and diagenetic features of the Norphlet Formation and to determine the extent of their effect on reservoir quality. Regional trends and local variations in reservoir quality are also delineated. Recommended precautions for drilling completion as well as well-log analyses are discussed. • T h ir ty -six ( 36) wells • 3,800 f eet of con ven tion al cor e

LOUISIANA

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY

EXAS

Galveston

D EEP O LI GO CEN E C O RE ST UDY O F SO U THW ESTERN LO U I SIANA

G

eological and petrophysical evaluations were conducted on conventional cores from thirtyone (31) wells, extending from Jefferson County, Texas, to St. Martin Parish, Louisiana. The entire Oligocene database is evaluated to provide facies relationships, petrographic data, and petrophysical properties characteristic of Oligocene sandstones – irrespective of biostratigraphic units. The study is based on the detailed examination of 2,595 feet of conventional core, representing over 3,000 feet of Oligocene section. Cores were provided from both the Frio and Anahuac Formations, with the major emphasis being on middle to upper Frio Strata. Conventional cores from each of the project wells were analyzed and evaluated to determine: • Core to log correlations, lithologies, sedimentary structures, vertical sequences, and depositional environments • Foraminifera and nannofossil content, age, and Paleozoic water depth • Sandstone reservoir quality in terms of texture, mineralogy, diagenesis, and pore system characteristics • Sandstone petrophysical properties based on log evaluations and conventional core analysis data

Individual well reports contain detailed core descriptions, core photographs, well logs through the zones of interest, and conventional core analysis data, as well as the results of micropaleontological evaluations, petrographic analyses, and log evaluations. The final report evaluates the compiled Oligocene database first with respect to individual biostratigraphic units and then in terms of the entire Oligocene section in southwestern Louisiana. Sections of the final report deal with a separate biostratigraphic unit, providing a concise summary of depositional environment, petrography, diagenesis, and petrophysical properties for eight (8) different target horizons. Each discussion incorporates a series of summary tables, figures including a type-log, type-section, and depositional model, and photographic plates. One chapter of the report is devoted to special core analysis and engineering recommendations. A total of fourteen (14) sandstones were selected to cover the spectrum of reservoir rock types throughout the examined Oligocene section. For each of these samples, a variety of petrophysical parameters were measured in the laboratory. A complete suite of petrographic, advanced rock properties, and fluid compatibility test results for each sample is provided in a rock catalog format. The last chapter is essentially an overview or regional synthesis of all data generated. • T h ir ty -on e ( 31) wells • 2,595 f eet of con ven tion al cor e • Jef f erson Coun ty, Texas to St. M ar tin Parish , Lousian a

27

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHO IELD HAYNESVILLE CORE OL IGOCENE REGIONAL APALACHICOLA EM

north america MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore

LOUISIANA

ONSHORE SOUTH LOUISIANA MIOCENE REGIONAL STUDY

Galveston

REGI O N A L C O RE STU D Y O F T H E MI O C EN E I N SO U TH LO U I SI ANA A N D CO A STA L WATERS

T

he reservoir quality of Miocene sandstones is highly variable and dependent on depositional environment and burial diagenesis, with the latter of these two factors being rather pronounced considering the wide range in burial depths (i.e., 2,000 to 23,500 feet). The depositional and reservoir quality aspects of the Miocene section can best be addressed by the analysis of conventional cores. The objective of this study is to provide operators with detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of the Miocene section of onshore and coastal waters in south Louisiana from specific biostratigraphic zones. The following analyses were conducted and evaluated on conventional cores from fifty (50) wells.

TEXAS

PEARSALL GROUP RESERVOIR EVALUATION

Galveston

REGI O N A L C O RE STU D Y OF T H E P EA RSA LL GRO U P I N SO U TH T EXAS

I

MEXICO

nitial results of the exploration and exploitation of the Pearsall Group in South Texas are very encouraging; with reported initial production rates ranging from 450 to 740 BOPD with 4 to 6 MMCFGPD of associated gas. The play appears to be expanding to the northeast in South Texas and underlies the Eagle Ford Shale. This mixed shale and carbonate reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or are starting to acquire rock property data that are crucial for understanding this reservoir, which is very different from the overlying Eagle Ford Shale. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore this reservoir, appropriate types of rock property data need to be

• Core description, core photography, and interpretation of depositional environments • Definition and evaluation of Miocene sandstone texture, mineralogy, diagenetic, and pore system properties • The calibration of log-derived petrophysical properties to core-derived data • Measure and evaluate, through a series of special core analysis tests, various log and fluid-flow petrophysical properties

Individual well reports are provided and a final report. The final report addresses the geological, petrophysical, and engineering data that have been compiled and evaluated to provide an overview and summary of Miocene rock properties significant to exploration and exploitation activities. Specific attention has been given to the definition and understanding of the spectrum of reservoir rock types and the factors that control reservoir quality, including lithofacies, depositional environments, and sandstone diagenesis. • Fif ty ( 50) wells • Con ven tion al cor e

measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Pearsall Group and reduce finding and development costs. This project is a follow-on study to our highly successful Eagle Ford Shale project and will allow operators to have consistent data sets for both of these reservoirs. The Pearsall project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores and rotary sidewall cores taken from multiple wells targeting the Pearsall Group. Specifically, this prospective mixed shale and carbonate section will be analysed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells within the Pearsall, but also on other operator’s wells. The project will be focused on evaluating numerous Pearsall wells in South Texas.

28

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHO ONSHORE SOUTH LOUISIANA MIOCENE REGIONAL STUDY SMACKOVE

north america MISSISSIPPI

Gulf of Mexico Onshore ALABAMA

SMACKOVER RESERVOIR STUDY SMA CK O VER RESER VO I R STU D Y – MA FLA A REA

Even though it is a major producer, drilling

costs to the Smackover Formation are considerable and success rates are often low. A major reason for the low completion rate of wildcat wells is the complexity of Smackover reservoirs which make porosity predictions difficult. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the geologic reservoir facies is required for exploration success. In addition, an understanding of reservoir petrophysical characteristics of these highly variable Smackover reservoirs is essential for exploitation. As a result, Core Laboratories initiated the Smackover Reservoir Study which is a regional, sedimentological, petrographic, and petrophysical study of Smackover reservoirs in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The Smackover Reservoir Study comprehensively defines the interrelationships of depositional environments, diagenesis, and reservoir quality.

MISSISSIPPI

LOUISIANA eston

Depositional environments were interpreted through detailed core description and thin section petrography. One-hundred (100) conventionally cored wells were selected according to location, quality, completeness, and client requests. Sedimentary facies were defined from the combination of core and thin section descriptions. Diagenesis was analyzed and evaluated through detailed petrographic analysis including x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Advanced rock property measurements performed on the selected core samples were used to further characterize reservoir quality by defining reservoir performance and petrophysical parameters according to pore type. The combination of petrographic analyses, conventional and advanced rock property data allows for improved evaluation and downhole electric log calibrations. The data is presented in individual well reports. The final report contains a synthesis of these data and detailed discussions of the controls on reservoir quality and trends of high reservoir within the study area. Our Smackover Regional Study compliments and can be combined with our Smackover Reservoir Study. • 100 wells • 11,099 f eet of con ven tion al cor e • M ississippi, Alabama an d Florida

AL

depositional environments, petrographic and mineralogical analysis and a petrophysical evaluation for each well was used to delineate trends of high reservoir quality and define what controls reservoir quality in this field. The documentation of diagenetic minerals, their geographic and stratigraphic distribution are discussed in the field summary report.

THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY

A

study of the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation in the Thanksgiving Field, Amite County, Mississippi was conducted consisting of seventeen (17) conventionally cored wells. Detailed core descriptions, interpretation of

• Seven teen ( 17) wells • Con ven tion al cor e • Tuscaloosa f or mation

29

LIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY SMACKOVER RESER VOIR STUDY THAN EGUA REGIONAL STUDY THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY NORPHLET R

north america TEXAS

Gulf of Mexico Onshore • Measurement, documentation, and interpretation in a catalog format, an extensive array of geological and petrophysical properties commonly used to evaluate the producibility of potential Vicksburg gas-bearing sandstones

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG

MEXICO

GEO LO GI C STU D Y A N D RESER V OIR EVA LU ATI O N O F THE VI C K SBUR G FO RMATI O N , SO U TH TEXA S

The data and interpretations for the individual project wells are provided as well as a final report that contains a regional summary derived from the evaluation and integration of data obtained from project wells. Results from special core analysis tests and rock-fluid compatibility tests are also included in the final reports with specific recommendations regarding drilling and completion practices. The Vicksburg Rock Catalog analytical program was designed to characterize the geological, petrophysical, and rock-fluid compatibility properties of the various Vicksburg reservoir types observed in the regional study wells. The rock catalog entries will serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters and producibility of non-cored zones of interest. The catalog data can be applied to many aspects of Vicksburg exploration and exploitation, some of which include:

T

his study was initiated to provide a detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of Vicksburg sandstones from conventional cores. This project is base on approximately 5,000 feet of core from thirty-nine (39) project wells with cores that span subsurface depths ranging from 6,100 feet to 16,200 feet. Thirty-eight (38) of the wells are located in the South Texas counties of Nueces, Kleberg, Jim Wells, Kennedy, Brooks, Starr and Hidalgo. One well is located in Chambers County in the Houston Embayment. The objectives of the study were to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterizations and evaluations of productive and potentially productive Vicksburg reservoir sandstones. More specifically, the study provides participants with data and interpretations regarding: • Sedimentary characteristics, depositional environments, vertical sequences, and lateral relationships of Vicksburg reservoir sandstones • The textural, mineralogical, diagenetic, and pore space properties of reservoir sandstones and the factors controlling reservoir quality and producibility • Integration of rock matrix and pore space properties with special core analysis test results and log properties to more accurately interpret and evaluate hydrocarbon-bearing sandstones from wireline logs in the Vicksburg Region • Rock-fluid compatibilities to better determine the most compatible completion and/or frac fluid to be used in stimulating the reservoirs • Regional geological data to aid in further exploration or production endeavors for the Vicksburg sandstones within the study area

• Selection of the least damaging fluids necessary for the various phases of well operations • Causes of formation damage in previously completed wells and suggested remedial action • Identification of damaged versus non-productive intervals • Assessment of post-completion/stimulation well performance • Evaluation of well test data (i.e., DST and pressure build-up) • Characterization of Vicksburg sandstone reservoir quality and expected producibility

Each Vicksburg rock type in the catalog is presented in a format which characterizes, as completely as possible, the rock types’ various geological and petrophysical properties. Other support data, such as open-hole logs, drilling and completion procedures, and production test data, are provided for each rock-type entry. • T h ir ty -n in e ( 39) wells • 5,000 f eet con ven tion al cor e • R egion al R ock Catalog

30

LIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHORE CKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG WILCOX PROVENC

north america Gulf of Mexico Onshore TEXAS Galveston

MEXICO

WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY IN SOUTH TEXAS

• • • •

REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C A L, P ETRO P HY SI CA L, A N D EN GINEER ING STU D Y O F THE “ D O W N D I P ” WILCOX GRO U P I N SO U TH TEXA S A N D R O C K CATA LO G

vertical/lateral relationships Sandstone mineralogy, texture, and pore types Quantification of Wilcox rock types Petrophysical evaluation of Wilcox sandstones Detailed drilling and completion evaluations and recommendations

The above geological, petrophysical and engineering data are compiled and evaluated to provide a regional synthesis and summary of Wilcox rock properties significant to current exploration and exploitation activities. The Wilcox Rock Catalog analytical program was designed to characterize the geological, petrophysical, and rock-fluid compatibility properties of the various Wilcox reservoir types observed in the regional study wells. The rock catalog entries will serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters and producibility of non-cored zones of interest. The catalog data can be applied to many aspects of Wilcox exploration and exploitation, some of which include:

F

ormation evaluation, recognition of pay versus not pay and completion challenges are inherent to this prolific south Texas formation. This project was to designed to address these issues and aid participating companies in their exploration and exploitation activities in the trend. A full spectrum of geological and petrophysical analyses have been performed on 171 wells with drill cuttings and conventional cores. The major objectives of this study are as follows: • Describe, document, and interpret Wilcox sandstone lithology, vertical sequences, and the character of various lithofacies present within conventional cores • Define, document, and evaluate sandstone mineral, textural, and pore space properties for Wilcox pay and potential pay zones • Measure and evaluate various rock logging and fluid-flow parameters for selected Wilcox sandstone samples and zones representative of the spectrum of reservoir-quality rock types

• Selection of the least damaging fluids necessary for the various phases of well operations • Causes of formation damage in previously completed wells and suggested remedial action • Identification of damaged versus non-productive intervals • Assessment of post-completion/stimulation well performance • Evaluation of well test data (i.e., DST and pressure build-up) • Characterization of Wilcox sandstone reservoir quality and expected producibility

The above geological, petrophysical and engineering data are compiled and evaluated to provide a regional synthesis and summary of Wilcox rock properties significant to current exploration and exploitation activities. Individual well reports for each well are provided. The final report combines, correlates, and evaluates all of this information on a regional basis and contains information and conclusions regarding:

Each Wilcox rock type in the catalog is presented in a format which characterizes, as completely as possible, the rock types’ various geological and petrophysical properties. Other support data, such as open-hole logs, drilling and completion procedures, and production test data, are provided for each rock-type entry. • 171 wells • Con ven tion al cor e, per cussion sidewall cor es an d cuttin gs • Fr om V ickbur g R egion al Substitute W ilcox • R egion al R ock Catalog

• Regional setting and stratigraphy • Depositional environments and models, log response, sand body geometry, and

31

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO OFFSHO THANKSGIVING FIELD STUDY WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY IN SOUTH TE

north america Gulf of Mexico Onshore TEXAS Galveston

WILCOX RESERVOIR STUDY RESER VO I R C HA RA C TERIZAT ION STU D Y THE W I LC O X FO RM AT ION O F SO U TH TEXA S

MEXICO

Recent drilling activity in the Wilcox

Formation has demonstrated that this prolific horizon continues to offer new exploitation opportunity. Opportunity comes with inherent risks in a formation where “pay” is not obvious on well logs and prediction of potential productivity from logs with limited core analysis data leaves the engineer or geologist with uncertainty. The objective of this project is to generate a large database of laboratory measured rock properties, critical to expensive pipe setting decisions, on a systematically selected group of samples which might be expected to be encountered in Wilcox drilling activity throughout the South Texas region. The samples tested will serve as a collection of analogs with supplied petrographic and petrophysical data for use as comparators with similar rock samples or cuttings that have no measured data. Log response associated with each analog rock type will be provided. The database can then serve as a tool to assess production potential in a time frame required for completion decisions. The project scope requires rotary sidewall samples or plug samples obtained from conventional core from multiple wells in the region,

along with associated log data (both standard logging suites and NMR tools) to comprise the inputs into the study. Rotary sidewall cores provide the operator with the freedom to extract representative samples from the wellbore after logging has been completed. A comprehensive series of tests designed to extract the maximum amount of information from the cores is designed to specifically address the following: • Fluid saturations • Porosity and Klinkenberg permeability as a function of net overburden stress • Pore geometry variability through hydraulic unit analysis • Mineralogic variability through thin section and X-ray diffraction • Location and morphology of clay minerals through scanning electron microscopy • Water salinity estimation for Rw from core water extraction (where appropriate) • NMR T2 variability and calibration with pore geometry • Formation resistivity factor and resistivity index for cementation and saturation exponents, “m” and “n” • Permeability to gas at initial water saturation • Capillary pressure characteristics as a function of pore geometry • Creation of an NMR log based permeability model • Twen ty -eigh t ( 28) wells • R otar y sidewall cor es

Opportunity comes with inherent risks in a formation where “pay” is not obvious.

32

OLIGOCENE REGIONAL STUDY WILCOX RESER VOIR STUDY TEXAS/LO SANA MIOCENE THANKSGIVI NG FIELD VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUD

north america LOUISIA

TEXAS

Gulf of Mexico Onshore • Paleontological data for both age determination and paleo water depth • Sandstone properties, such as texture, composition, mineralogy, pore system characteristics, and diagenesis from the analysis of thin section petrography, SEM, and X-ray diffraction • Petrophysical data that includes porosity, permeability, grain density, porosity as a function of confining stress, specific gas permeability as a function of stress, specific brine permeability at stress, formation factor, cementation exponent, resistivity index, saturation exponent, effective gas permeability, immobile water saturation, capillary pressure, and cation exchange capacity • Log evaluation with a comparison and calibration of log-derived petrophysical properties to core petrophysical properties • A review of engineering and completion practices along with recommendations for such procedures in light of pore system properties, diagenetic clays, and compatible completion fluids

YEGUA REGIONAL STUDY Galveston

GEO LO GI C A L A N D P ETROPH YSICAL EVA LU ATI O N O F D O W N D IP Y EGU A SA N D STO N ES TEXAS A N D LO U I SI A N A

The focus of the study is on the geological,

petrophysical, engineering and completion aspects of Yegua sandstones. A total of 3,668 feet of conventional core from thirty-four (34) wells were analyzed and evaluated with respect to 1) depositional environments, 2) paleontology, 3) reservoir petrography and mineralogy, 4) diagenesis, 5) petrophysical properties, 6) log evaluation and 7) engineering and completion. These data and interpretations are compiled for each well and are included along with an overview of the study’s findings in a final report. The results of this study will significantly aid geologists, petrophysicists, and engineers in their Yegua exploration and exploitation activities. The study provides detailed geological, petrophysical, and engineering characterization and evaluation of Yegua sandstones. Specifically, the following data and interpretations are provided:

A regional overview and summary of the study’s findings with emphasis directed towards application to current exploration and exploitation activities in the trend is included in the study.

• Core description, core photography and interpretation of depositional environments along with the construction of depositional models for predicting sandstone geometries and trends

• T h ir ty -f our ( 34) wells • Con ven tion al cor e • Jackson Co., T X to Calcasieu Parish , LA

33

EGUAs REGIONAL STUDY DEEP FRIO REGIONAL STUDY LOBO REGION PALACHICOLA EMBAYMENT REGIONAL STUDY HAYNESVILLE CORE ST

MICHIGAN BASIN

MID-CONTINENT

PERMIAN BASIN

north america Michigan Basin N

Study results are as follows:

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG

MICHIGAN

The objective of the study is

O H I O

to address problems related to the exploration, reservoir evaluation, and production of PdC sandstone reservoirs in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. A total of thirty (30) wells with conventional core were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 3,428 feet of PdC conventional core has been geologically described and depositional environments have been interpreted. Particular attention is also directed at defining lithofacies which are mappable stratigraphic units identifiable both in conventional cores and on well logs. In addition to conventional core descriptions some 250 samples were selected from productive and or potentially productive PdC sandstone units for detailed mineral, texture and pore space analysis utilizing thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Particular emphasis was placed on the types and mode of occurrence of various diagenetic minerals and pore space types with respect to their influence on reservoir quality and log response. Representative productive Prairie du Chien reservoir rock types were also analyzed and evaluated utilizing various advanced rock property techniques to formulate the Prairie du Chien Rock Catalog which contains geological and petrophysical properties used to evaluate the producibility of potential Prairie du Chien gas-bearing sandstones.

• Mappable Prairie du Chien stratigraphic units have been established and defined on the basis of conventional core lithology and wireline log character. • Regional cross sections have been constructed incorporating twenty-seven (27) of the thirty (30) project wells which correlate mappable PdC units, including Glenwood Clastics, St. Peter, Upper PdC (C), Upper PdC (B), Upper PdC (A), and Massive PdC. Included in these cross sections are depositional environment interpretations of lithofacies for each of the mappable units. • A depositional model for the various PdC lithofacies described and delineated in this study, as recognizable in cored intervals has been developed. • Sand body trends in the basin with respect to gross thickness, lithofacies changes, and porosity development have been identified for various PdC stratigraphic units in specific geographic areas. • A comprehensive, computerized data base of mineral, texture, and pore space properties (PdC Rock Catalog) for PdC reservoir and potential reservoir rock types has been developed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the use of these data to better understand controls on sandstone porosity, permeability, and log response. • In-situ PdC reservoir rock parameters (i.e., advanced rock property data) have been defined and evaluated to provide improved knowledge of reservoir performance and behavior and more accurate calibration of wireline logs will detail advanced rock property mearsurements. • T h ir ty ( 30) wells • R egion al R ock Catalog

35

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG GRANITE BRUSHY CANYON SANDSTONES STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY

north america Mid-Continent OKLAHOMA

environments are given along with thin section and SEM analyses. Mineral composition was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. A two-volume final report was prepared that combines, correlates, and evaluates on a regional basis all the information provided in the quarterly summary reports. This includes microscopic re-examination of thin section samples and obtaining visual estimates of the principal granular and intergranular material. The mineral, textural, and pore space properties which control reservoir quality are given in the appendices in the final report. From the large rock property database that was assembled, seven (7) major rock types were identified. Definitions of the rock types are based on detrital and diagenetic mineralogy, and the resultant pore space and reservoir quality properties. The rock types are presented in a catalog format to serve as reference analogs. Samples were also selected from conventional core material for cation exchange capacity (CEC) and capillary pressure tests (CPC). The geological data, in combination with the petrophysical measurements, provide a better understanding of the rock types and their physical characteristics for each of the six (6) major units. Engineering recommendations are also supplied as a result of the evaluation and integration of these data and interpretations.

ANADARKO BASIN REGIONAL STUDY TEXAS

CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D EVA LU ATI O N O F RO CK MAT R IX P RO P ER TI ES FO R MA J O R P RO D U C TI VE FO RMATI O N S (R ED F O RK , ATO K A , MO RRO W, SP RI N G ER , G OD D A RD ) I N THE A N A D A RK O BASIN, O KLA HO MA A N D TEXA S

C

ore Laboratories is offering a completed project that addresses specific problems and questions related to mineralogy, diagenesis, petrophysical, and engineering properties of the Pennsylvanian section in the Anadarko Basin. Data and evaluations are provided to aid in the exploration of the six clastic units, with emphasis on an understanding of variations in reservoir quality due to porosity variations, and the relationship of reservoir characteristics to completion and stimulation practices. Drill cuttings, conventional core, and core chips representing 101 wells were analyzed and interpreted. Data from all submitted wells were compiled into four (4) quarterly reports which were supplied to the member companies over the course of the study. Each quarterly report contains descriptions of the sandstones sampled for the different zones of interest along with a listing of sample intervals and their associated log response. Member companies also supplied drilling, completion and production histories. Where applicable, interpretations of depositional

• 101 wells • Con ven tion al cor e, cuttin gs an d cor e ch ips • R egion al R ock Catalog

36

ELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP REGIONAL STUDY ANADARKO BASIN R ND ROCK CATALOG OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY ANADARKO

north america S

XICO

OKLA

TEXAS

Mid-Continent maximize productivity. A systematic approach to well evaluation, pre-stimulation testing, treatment design and optimum production practices have been developed to optimize the exploitation of the Granite Wash reservoirs. The study data was also used to benchmark well performance in terms of completion efficiency and reservoir quality in the study wells and serve as case histories for other Granite Wash potential plays.

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL A N D CO MP LETI O N S STU D Y FO R I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVA LU ATI O N A N D O P TI MA L W ELL C O MP LETI O N S

The objective of this project is to optimize

• • • •

operators’ exploitation of Granite Wash reservoirs in the Texas panhandle and Oklahoma areas. Common problems in the trend are: formation evaluation, well completion, stimulation and production aspects of Granite Wash reservoirs. These problems can only be solved from the geological, petrophysical and completion/stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with either conventional cores or rotary sidewall cores. Twelve (12) wells with core were thoroughly analyzed geologically and petrophysically, including competion/stimulation analysis. The resultant data has been used to calibrate open-hole logs in order to better predict rock types and petrophysical properties essential for formation evaluation and proper well completion and stimulation designs. The rock types and their measured petrophysical properties also serve as analogs when evaluating new reservoirs in wildcats or field step outs. This data has also been utilized to produce optimum fracture stimulation designs and to

Twelve ( 12) wells Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es Completion & stimulation evaluation Post Frac Evalutaion

OKLAHOMA

HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE ARBUCKLE GROUP – OIL AND GAS STUDY TEXAS

Hydrocarbon source rock potential

determined from cuttings, cores, and gases from ten (10) wells in the Arkoma Basin and source rock evaluation of cuttings and cores from fifteen (15) wells and correlations of seventy-five (75) oils. • G as s t udy – t en (10) wells • S o u r c e r ock eva lua t i on – fi ft een (15) wells w i t h s e vent y- fi ve (75) oi ls

37

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY BONE SPRING SANDSTONE REGIO HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE ARBUCKLE GROUP – OIL & GAS S

north america Mid-Continent KANSAS

MISSISSIPPI LIME

OKLAHOMA

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSCIAL A N D CO MP LETI O N S STUDY FOR I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N EVALUAT ION A N D O P TI MA L W ELL C O MPLET IONS

T

his project is designed to optimize operators’ exploitation of Mississippi Lime reservoirs in the Oklahoma and Kansas areas. The Mississippi Lime section is currently the target of horizontal drilling by numerous operators on the Anadarko Shelf. The primary productive interval in the section is the Mississippian “Chat”, which comprises the upper 50 to 100 feet in some areas. In this interval porosity has developed as a result of subareal erosion creating a complex mixture of rock types that include chert, limestone and dolomite. This results in lateral and vertical variations in reservoir properties. Production may be driven by matrix properties in some areas, whereas, in other areas fractures play a dominant role. These changes in reservoir properties may have a significant impact on horizontal completion strategies, such as horizontal well directions and the type of stimulation design. Also, water cuts vary regionally, as do initial production rates from horizontal wells (50 boepd to over 500 boepd). There does not seem to be any known oil-water contact.

esis or both? How do these change regionally? What are the various reservoir rock types and their petrophysical properties, and how do they vary stratigraphically and regionally? What is driving reservoir performance? Matrix permeability vs open natural fractures? If fractures are a key in understanding the reservoir, what are the fracture orientation, frequency, spacing, and contribution to permeability? With the complexity of this reservoir in terms of lithology and porosity development a log petrophysical model needs to be developed based on core data to determine more accurately porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbon pore volume, permeability, water cut (relative permeability), net pay and volumetrics. Will the Mississippi Lime and/or “Chat” sections be a candidate for water flood in the future? What primary and secondary recovery can be expected? What are the optimal completion and stimulation fluids? What is the optimal fracture stimulation design(s) to maximize production?

Where the “Chat” section is absent, operators are targeting the Mississippian Lime limestone section. This section has lower matrix reservoir quality but may contain natural fractures. This section requires hydraulic fracture stimulation of horizontal wells for commercial production.

How can production performance be predicted to aid in completion decisions?

Operators are currently in the process of actively coring the reservoir sections to understand the reservoir complexities. Reservoir characterization and improved formation evaluation techniques are required to optimize the exploitation of this reservoir. Some of the technical challenges to be solved are as follows: What is controlling reservoir quality development? Is it related to depositional facies, diagen-

These problems can only be solved from the geological, petrophysical and completion/ stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with conventional cores. The resultant data can be used to improve 1) reservoir characterization, 2) calibrate open-hole logs in order to better predict rock types and petrophysical properties essential for formation evaluation, 3) proper well completion and stimulation designs, and benchmark production performance. The resultant data sets can also serve as analogs when evaluating new areas in wildcats or field step outs.

38

LOUISA NA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY

i n toerr i oenra tn h aatm i cla Mid-Continent OKLAHOMA

Recent activity in the Missourian section has targeted the Cleveland, Checkerboard, Kansas City (Hogshooter), Lansing and Cottage Grove horizons. Initial horizontal wells from the Kansas City or Hogshooter section have produced at rates of 2000 to 5000 BOPD with significant NGL. The project will also entertain core contributions from the Tonkawa. These reservoirs have tremendous reserves and will be drilled for years to come.

MISSOURIAN TIGHT OIL RESERVOIRS – ANADARKO BASIN

TEXAS

T

his project is designed to optimize operators’ exploitation of liquids-rich, Missourian reservoirs in the Texas Panhandle Area and Oklahoma. It is a follow-up to our highly successful Granite Wash Study of the Desmoinesian section. OKLAHOMA

Oklahoma and far north Texas were analyzed using routine geochemical techniques. The oils are from Arbuckle, other Ordovician, Silurian-Devonian, Mississippian, Pensylvanian, and Cretaceous reservoirs. The possible source rock samples range in age from Cambro-Ordovician (Arbuckle) to Pennsylvanian.

OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY TEXAS

This study geochemically

characterizes crude oil reservoirs in the Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group of Oklahoma and determines their relationships with younger oils and potential source rocks. Ninety-five (95) crude oils, oil seeps, and 1,050 cuttings and cores from forty-one (41) wells in

• For ty -on e ( 41) wells • Nin ety -f ive ( 95) cr ude oils an d oil seeps • 1,050 cuttin gs an d cor es

39

KLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY NADARKO BASIN REGIONAL STUDY WOLFCAMP REGIONAL STUDY W

north america Permian Basin

OKLAHOMA

TEXAS

AVALON WOLFCAMP SHALE REGIONAL STUDY

D ELAWA RE BA SI N

I

n the Delaware Basin numerous oil and gas companies are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of “Tight Oil” from the Avalon – Wolfcamp, and Bone Spring Sandstones in the Delaware Basin. Production is from the Avalon – Wolfcamp, organic-rich mudstones above the 1st Bone Spring Sand. Companies are also targeting the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Bone Spring Sands. This study will focus on the Avalon – Wolfcamp intervals, although other Bone Spring, Wolfcamp and Penn intervals are also considered targets. This unconventional oil reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data

that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore the Avalon – Wolfcamp, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Avalon – Wolfcamp and reduce finding and development costs. This multi-company, geo-engineering, regional study of the Avalon – Wolfcamp consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Avalon – Wolfcamp. Specifically, the prospective section will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information.

40

LOUISA NA WILCOX REGIONAL STUDY

VICKSBURG REGIONAL STUDY

north america Permian Basin NEW MEXICO

BONE SPRING SANDSTONES REGIONAL STUDY GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL EVA LU ATI O N O F BO N E SPR ING SA N D STO N ES ED D Y A N D LEA CO U N TI ES, N EW MEXI CO

C

ore Laboratories has conducted a regional study of the Permian, Bone Spring Formation in Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico to provide geologic, petrographic and petrophysical data for improved formation evaluation of the Bone Spring sandstones. Included in this study are fourteen (14) wells from which both conventional and rotary sidewall cores were supplied. Production data suggests that wells completed in these horizons may have recoverable reserves of 200,000 to 500,000 BO and 0.5 to 3.0 GCFG. In order to properly exploit the vast potential of these reservoirs, improved formation evaluation techniques are required. Standard log evaluation techniques may

fail to consistently identify Bone Springs pay sands which commonly have low resistivities, low permeabilities, and high calculated water saturations. As a result, the primary objective of this study is to improve formation evaluation by providing operators with key formation evaluation parameters measured from numerous cores and by correlating these data to log response. The extensive database created for this study includes: detailed core descriptions, core photographs, routine and sidewall core analysis reports, petrographic data, basic rock property measurements, special core analysis test results, rock-fluid compatibility test results, and digital well log files. In this fashion, pay and non-pay criteria are established, resulting in improved formation evaluation. The comprehensive final report includes all generated and supplied data, as well as an interpretation and synthesis of the data directed specifically towards improving formation evaluation. • Four teen ( 14) wells • Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es • Lea an d Eddy Coun ties, New M exico

41

BONE SPRING SANDSTONE REGIONAL STUDY BRUSHY CANYON TA QUEEN SANDSTONES REGIONAL STUDY OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY

north america Permian Basin NEW MEXICO

advanced rock property data were measured and integrated with log and well test information from each well in order to establish sets of pay and non-pay criteria for the represented rock types. Where available, conventional cores approximately sixty (60) feet in length from each of the fields represented in the study, were photographed in color and sedimentologically analyzed to determine depositional facies. Core description panels were provided that directly correlate core description, depositional facies and core analysis data to openhole logs. These provide reference type-sections of the reservoirs for the member companies. The establishment of this database in the area will allow for improved formation evaluation and result in:

BRUSHY CANYON SANDSTONES STUDY EVA LU ATI O N O F LO W RESIST IV IT Y BRU SHY CA N Y O N SA N D STONES ED D Y A N D LEA C O U N TI ES, N EW MEXI CO

T

he Brushy Canyon sandstones are commonly difficult to petrophysically evaluate in terms of differentiating pay from non-pay zones using standard log evaluation techniques. The sandstones often exhibit low resistivity and low contrast pay and have high calculated water saturations. In addition, the sandstones generally have low permeabilities and are sensitive to formation damage. As a result, formation evaluation is a major problem for operators in the trend. Based upon interest expressed by operators in solving the aforementioned reservoir evaluation problems, Core Laboratories has conducted a geological and petrophysical study for improved formation evaluation of Brushy Canyon sandstones. Using conventional and rotary sidewall cores appropriate rock types where chosen in which

• Limiting bypassing of productive intervals • Minimize the unnecessary testing of wet zones • Differentiate skin-damaged pay zones from non-pay zones • Provide more accurate reserve calculations • Twen ty -six ( 26) wells • Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es • Lea an d Eddy Coun ties, New M exico

Permian Basin NEW MEXICO

study were to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical, and associated engineering characterization and evaluation of DMG sandstones cored in the Delaware Basin. The project contains conventional cores and cuttings from fifty-three (53) wells from the Bell Canyon, Cherry Canyon, Brushy Canyon, Yates, Queen and San Andres formations. Yates, Queen and San Andres formations.

DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP REGIONAL STUDY REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STUDY RESER VO I R RO C K P RO P ER T IES O F D ELAWA RE MO U N TA I N GR OUP SA N D STO N ES, D ELAWA RE BASIN

T

he Delaware Mountain Group Study was designed to geologically study and evaluate Delaware Mountain Group sediments in the Delaware Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico. The objectives of the regional

• Fif ty -th r ee ( 53) wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs • Bell Can y on , Ch er r y Can y on , Br ush Can y on , Yates, Queen an d San An dr es f or mation s

42

RANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP OK OMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY BRUSHY

north america Permian Basin NEW MEXICO

• Select drilling fluids and procedures which are most compatible with various Morrow reservoir types in order to minimize formation damage • Design well completion and/or stimulation treatments for more successful and efficient production of hydrocarbons • Optimize development well locations within a particular Morrow field • Provide an overall geological database for both lease acquisition and exploration/exploitation efforts for Morrow sands within the general study area

MORROW REGIONAL STUDY REGI O N A L GEO LO GI C STUDY RESER VO I R EVA LU ATI O N OF THE MO RRO W SA N D STO N E, D ELAWA RE BA SI N

T

he Morrow Regional Study was designed to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical and engineering characterization and evaluation of reservoir rock samples from 128 wells with conventional core or cuttings penetrating the Morrow Clastic Section within the Delaware Basin. The results of this study provide participating companies with data to: • Better define sandstone reservoir units from the standpoint of depositional patterns, reservoir geometries, and vertical/lateral reservoir continuity • Define the regional distribution of various types of sandstone mineral, textural, and pore space properties for reservoir-quality Morrow rocks, particularly those associated with cements and diagenetic clay components • More accurately interpret and evaluate hydrocarbon-bearing Morrow sandstones from wireline logs

43

A final summary report contains a complete compilation, synthesis, and regional interpretation of all geological, petrophysical, and engineering data generated. This final report provides a comprehensive database yielding significant observations and conclusions concerning Morrow sandstone reservoir properties applicable to improved exploration, exploitation, and drilling, completion and stimulation activities. • 128 wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs • M or r ow Clastic Section – Delawar e Basin

PRAIRIE DU CHIEN REGIONAL STUDY AND ROCK CATALOG GRANITE MORROW SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY & PETROPHYSICAL STUDY REG

north america Permian Basin NEW MEXICO

productivity of Morrow Sandstones by integrating the core-measured petrophysical properties, well log data, and well production test data • Evaluate current drilling and completion methods and determine the compatibility of the various drilling and completion fluids with Morrow Sandstones

MORROW SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROPHYSICAL STUDY SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROPHYSICAL STUDY FOR THE MORROW SANDSTONES DELAWARE BASIN

T

his study was designed to address current problems that operators are encountering in the exploration, development, and formation evaluation of these complicated Morrow sandstone reservoirs in Lea and Eddy Counties. The project provides operators with important geological, reservoir rock property data and interpretations gathered from recent drilling activity and incorporates technological advancements that the industry has experienced during the last two decades. The project objectives are as follows:

The project has been divided into two separate but concurrent studies. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC STUDY

This portion to the study utilizes the sedimentological analysis of numerous conventional cores in identifying depositional facies, parasequences, and major stratigraphic surfaces. These data are correlated to well logs and presented in cross sections to define the sequence stratigraphy of the Morrow Formation on a regional basis.

• Develop a regional sequence stratigraphic model of the Morrow Formation to aid companies in identifying the regional distribution of the various Morrow sandstone reservoirs • Develop a depositional and reservoir architectural model of Morrow Sandstones for an improved success rate of delineation wells • Improve formation evaluation by identifying the various Morrow reservoir rock types in core and measuring the petrophysical properties • Improve operator’s ability to predict the

RESERVOIR PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES

This portion focuses on identifying the various reservoir rock types, measured petrophysical properties, and integrating these data with well logs and well test data. Companies may participate in the Sequence Stratigraphy Database and/or in the Reservoir Petrophysical Properties Database. • For ty -th r ee ( 43) wells • Con ven tion al cor e • Lea an d Eddy Coun ties, New M exico

44

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP HOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY BRUSH

north america Permian Basin database that is integrated with log and well test information in order to establish sets of pay and non-pay criteria for the various Queen Sandstone rock types. Besides improving formation evaluation, this study provides participating companies with data and interpretations for a better understanding of geological concepts, and prediction of reserves and producibility. Reservoir rock types from conventional and rotary sidewall cores and their measured petrophysical properties are correlated to log parameters and production test data. With this approach, pay and non-pay criteria is established resulting in improved formation evaluation. Additionally, rock-fluid compatibility tests are performed on selected samples to determine which drilling, completion, and/ or injection fluids can be safely utilized without causing formation damage.

QUEEN SANDSTONES REGIONAL STUDY TEXAS

Q

ueen Sandstones have recently been the target of new drilling programs, especially along the southern margins of the Central Basin Platform. This activity, coupled with continued development of the more established Queen Fields, indicates that the Queen Sandstones deserve the focus of this integrated formation evaluation study. The Queen Sandstones are very fine-grained, arkosic, and contain variable amounts of anhydrite, dolomite, and problematic clay minerals making them difficult to petrophysically evaluate. Consequently, operators need to acquire and utilize rock property data to aid them in their formation evaluation. This integrated formation evaluation approach consists of establishing a rock property

• Eigh teen ( 18) wells • Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es

NEW MEXICO

TATUM BASIN REGIONAL STUDY

A regional geologic and petro-physi-

cal study of Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Wolfcampian (early Permian) carbonate rocks within the Tatum Basin of New Mexico was conducted with special emphasis placed on the Bough “A”, “B”, “C”, and “D” zones and the informal Lower Wolfcamp Members of the Cisco and Hueco Formations. The study area includes the northern part of Lea County and the southern portion of Roosevelt County in New Mexico. This basin is bounded on the north by the Roosevelt Uplift and on the south by the Artesia-Vacuum Trend which coincides with the northern edge of the Delaware Basin. Project results include: • The description, documentation and delineation of the carbonate facies in the Permo Pennsylvanian strata of the Tatum Basin of southeastern New Mexico in developing a depositional model for the study area

• The characterization of porous intervals and the delineation of depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity • The production and refinement of conventional core to wireline correlations • A lithologic data base to be utilized by the exploration and/or development geologists, along with participating company’s own structural data and stratigraphic correlations, to aid in prospect delineation

Over 1,800 feet of conventional core has been geologically described and photographed. Thin section petrographic analysis, routine core analysis (porosity, permeability, and grain density) and special core analysis (stressed porosity and permeability at confining pressure), effective oil permeability, electrical properties and mercury capillary pressure were performed. The samples analyzed by special core analysis techniques were also examined with the scanning electron microscope and through X-ray diffraction. A final report summarizes the geological observations and petrophysical results from the analyses performed on the conventionally cored wells in this study. • 1,800 f eet con ven tion al cor e • Late Pen n sy lvan ian – Early Per mian • Cisco an d H ueco f or mation s

45

TATUM BASIN REGIONAL STUDY QUEEN SANDSTONES REGIONAL STUDY WOLFCAMP RESER VOIR STUDY OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY

north america Permian Basin NEW MEXICO

TEXAS

TIGHT OIL RESERVOIRS OF THE MIDLAND BASIN “WOLFBERRY”, STRAWN, AND MISSISSIPIAN

MEXICO

R E S E R V O I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D PR O DUC T I O N P RO P ER TI ES

O

il and gas companies active in the Midland Basin are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of “Tight Oil” from the Spraberry, Dean, Wolfcamp, Strawn and deeper Paleozoics in the Midland Basin. Production is co-mingled from these zones following multistage, hydraulic fracture stimulation of siltstones, carbonates and organic-rich mudstones spread out over a 2000 to 4000 foot depth range. Activity is centered in 10 counties in the Midland Basin and will spread to adjacent areas. These unconventional oil reservoirs have proved to be challenging in terms of 1) reservoir characterization, 2) identifying the many potential pay intervals that are interbedded in long intervals of indistinguishable shale, organic mudstone, siltstone

NEW MEXICO

TEXAS

WOODFORD SHALE – MIDLAND BASIN

The exploration and

exploitation of “Tight Oil” reservoirs from the Spraberry, Dean, Wolfcamp, Strawn, Cline, and deeper Paleozoics in the Midland Basin has been a recent focus of many oil and gas companies. Core Lab has been conducting a highly successful joint industry project evaluating these reservoirs for 39 member companies over the past two years. However, the underlying Woodford Shale is also in the liquids window across the majority of the Midland Basin and has been relatively under explored even though it ranges in

MEXICO

and carbonate, 3) predicting producibility potential, 4) optimizing fracture stimulation techniques for maximum production, and 5) estimating ultimate recovery. Due to the thick section, many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and exploit the thick section, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation and reduce finding and development costs. The primary objective of this project is to provide operators with measured geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties of the prospective formations in order to improve their formation evaluation and to optimize stimulation and production. Understanding the similarities and differences in the section on a regional basis is the key to successful exploration and exploitation. The resultant database will be an invaluable tool to operators in evaluating, comparing, and designing completion and stimulation methods.

thickness from 50 to 200 feet. This stratigraphic section is not included in the current Midland Basin consortium. Several companies are starting to core and evaluate the Woodford Shale potential on their leases in the Midland Basin, Central Basin Platform, and Eastern Shelf. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and exploit the Woodford Shale section, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation and reduce finding and development costs.

46

GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP HOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY BRUSH

north america Permian Basin TEXAS

WOLFCAMP REGIONAL STUDY

MEXICO

GEOLOGICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL EVALUATION OF WOLFCAMP SANDSTONES PECOS AND TERRELL COUNTIES,TEXAS

T

he Wolfcamp Sandstones in the Val Verde Basin have recently been the target of new drilling programs, especially in Pecos and Terrell Counties, Texas. This activity, coupled with continued development extensions of the more established fields, indicates that the Wolfcamp Sandstones warrant a focused and integrated formation evaluation study. Opportunities abound for increasing Wolfcamp Sandstone productivity through an improved understanding of the controls on permeability distribution, water saturation, and relative pay contribution, which will reduce risk and increase the success of their exploration and development programs. This approach to accomplishing these goals consists of establishing a rock property database that are integrated with log and well test information in order to establish sets of pay and non-pay criteria for the various Wolfcamp Sandstone rock types. Besides improving formation evaluation, this study will provide participating companies with data and interpretations for a better understanding of geological concepts, prediction of reserves and producibility. The project is designed to augment and coincide with operators’ Wolfcamp drilling programs by

providing them with formation evaluation data on their own wells, as well as data from other operators’ wells. Participating companies supply either rotary sidewall cores or conventional core samples from two wells, along with open-hole logs for analysis and inclusion in the study. Conventional cores are sedimentologically described in detail and interpreted for depositional environments. White light (color) photographs of the conventional cores and rotary sidewall cores are provided. Selected samples are analyzed by thin section petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Additional advanced rock property tests will determine porosity, specific gas permeability, Klinkenberg gas permeability, grain density, formation factor (F), cementation exponent (m), resistivity index (RI), saturation exponent (n), capillary pressure, and effective permeability to gas at immobile water saturation. Acoustic measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities will allow determination of Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and shear and bulk moduli. Reservoir rock types and their specific petrophysical properties are correlated to log parameters and production test data. With this approach, pay and non-pay criteria are established resulting in improved formation evaluation. Additionally, rockfluid compatibility tests are performed on selected samples to determine which drilling, completion, and or frac fluids can be safely utilized to minimize formation damage. • T h ir ty -th r ee ( 33) wells • Con ven tion al an d r otar y sidewall cor es • Pecos an d Ter r ell Coun ties, Texas

47

OKLAHOMA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY WOLFCAMP REGIONAL STUDY GRANITE WASH REGIONAL STUDY HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE

north america Permian Basin TEXAS

from thirty-four (34) wells. Petrographic thin section description analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were incorporated in the geological portion of the study. Routine core analysis, brine capillary pressure, electrical properties, steady-state relative permeability, and high-pressure mercury-injection capillary pressure were performed on representative samples. The project results were delivered in two volumes. Volume I contains lithologic description logs, thin section photomicrographs with description, XRD data, core analysis data, and advanced rock properties data. Volume II provides discussions, conclusions, and recommendations with figures including photo plates, plots, cross-sections, maps, and block diagrams.

WOLFCAMP RESERVOIR STUDY

C

ore Laboratories has conducted a comprehensive sedimentological, petrographic, and petrophysical study of Wolfcamp Reservoirs of west Texas. The study area includes Yoakum, Terry, Borden, Scurry, Glasscock, Howard, Upton, Pecos, Ector, Andrews, Gaines, Garza, and Reagan Counties. The objective of the study is to define the interrelationships of depositional environments, diagenesis, and reservoir quality and to quantify petrophysical properties according to porosity type. The analytical program includes detailed core descriptions on 2,900 feet of conventional core MEXICO

• T h ir ty -f our ( 34) wells • 2,900 f eet con ven tion al cor e

OKLAHOMA

Laboratories is proposing to interested companies participation in a multi-company (operators’ consortium), geo-engineering, regional study of the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Woodford Shale. Specifically, the prospective Woodford section will be analyzed for geological, geochemical, petrophysical, geomechanical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells, but also on other operator’s wells.

WOODFORD SHALE – OKLAHOMA ARKANSAS

TEXAS

This play began in the Cano field area LOUISIANA

and has recently expanded to the South Central Oklahoma Oil Province (“SCOOP”). The play may also expand to the north to include the Woodford on both sides of the Nemaha Ridge. Exploration and exploitation of the Woodford is expect to continue for several years and there has not been a comprehensive regional study of the Woodford that links reservoir properties to well performance. The Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core

48

BONE SPRING SANDSTONE REGIONAL STUDY QUEEN SANDSTONES R GIONAL WOLFCAMP RESER VOIR STUDY MORROW REGIONAL STUDY

WEST COAST

ROCKY MOUNTAINS

north america Rocky Mountains

MONTANA

ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY WYOMING

H H H H C C H H

ABSAROKA BASIN NORTHWESTERN WYOMING

Hydrocarbon source rock potential

determined from cuttings from fifteen (15) wells and oils from fifteen (15) fields.

NEVADA

H H C H H

H H H H H H C C C C H H C H H H H

ANTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY

UTAH

Mississippian rocks from the

Antler Basin in the eastern Great Basin of Nevada and Utah were evaluated for their hydrocarbon source rock potential. A total of 306 outcrop samples from forty-three (43) sections and 191 subsurface samples from fifteen (15) wells were utilized in this study. The objective of the study was to assess the organic richness, organic facies, depositional environment, and thermal maturity of the Mississippian sediments, and to determine favorable geographic areas for these potential source rocks.

H H

H C

H C H C C H C H H H H

N

DENVER BASIN I AND II PALEOZOIC OIL/SOURCE ROCK STUDY COLORADO

DBI contains hydrocarbon

source/rock potential determined from cuttings and cores from twelve (12) wells and nine (9) oils. DB II contains Geochemical characterization and oil/source correlation using cuttings and cores from fifteen (15) wells and four (4) oils.

50

BSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY DENVER BASIN I – PALEOZIC OIL/ OURCE ROCK S TUDY ANTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY SAN JU

north america Rocky Mountains WYOMING

NEBRASKA

CODELL SANDSTONE – DJ BASIN

UTAH

COLORADO

GEO LO GI CA L, P ETRO P HYSICAL A N D C O MP LETI O N S STUDY FOR I MP RO VED FO RMATI O N E VALUAT ION A N D O P TI MA L W ELL P ERFOR M ANCE

I

n exploring for and developing the Niobrara oil reservoirs operators have also been taking a look at the potential of horizontal wells in the Codell. The Codell ranges from 20 to 100 feet thick in the DJ Basin and consists of three marine depositional facies. Porosity is generally less than 10% and permeability is typically less than 1md. The oil in the Codell is typically light and may be sourced from the overlying Niobrara. An integrated study of the Codell is warranted and should be directed at geology, formation evaluation and stimulation-production techniques to maximize exploitation. Some of the issues to be addressed in this project include the following: 1 . W h at a r e t he fa ct or s cont r olli ng r eser voir q u al i t y ? A r e t hey deposi t i ona l fa ci es or d i ag e n et i c?

2. Wh at is th e r elation sh ip between th e Niobrara h y dr ocarbon kitch en an d th e Codell? 3. Wh at ar e th e various r eser voir r ock ty pes and th eir petr oph y sical pr oper ties, an d h ow do the y var y r egion ally ? 4. Wh at ar e pay r ecogn ition criteria an d th e appr opriate water saturation model f or th e r eser voir an d does it ch an ge r egion ally ? 5. Wh at ar e th e optimal completion an d stimu l atio n f luids? 6. Wh at is th e optimal f ractur e stimulation design ( s) to maximize pr oduction ? 7. H ow sh ould th e r eser voirs be pr oduced in o r d e r to maximize liq uids pr oduction ? 8. Can r eser voir q uality be cor r elated or ben ch marked to pr oduction per f or man ce?

These questions can only be solved from the geological, petrophysical and completion/ stimulation analysis and evaluation of wells with conventional cores. The resultant data can be used to calibrate open-hole logs in order to better predict rock types and petrophysical properties essential for formation evaluation and proper well completion and stimulation designs. The rock types and their measured petrophysical properties can also serve as analogs when evaluating new reservoirs in wildcats or field step outs.

WYOMING NEBRASKA

NIOBRARA REGIONAL STUDY

UTAH

RESER VO I R CHA RA CTER IZAT ION A N D P RO D U C TI O N P RO PER T IES

COLORADO

KANSAS

N

umerous oil and gas companies are directing their efforts toward the exploration and exploitation of the Niobrara Formation in several basins in the Rocky Mountain region. Production is from organic-rich, calcareous mudstones and chalk which locally have a fracture component. This unconventional oil and gas reservoir has proved to be challenging in terms of reservoir characterization, predicting producibility potential, estimating ultimate recovery, and optimizing fracture stimulation techniques. Many companies either do not have or have limited rock property data that are crucial for understanding these reservoirs. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate and explore the Niobrara, appropriate types of rock property data need to be measured and integrated with log data, stimulation techniques, and production test information. These integrated data sets and case histories will

provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of the Niobrara and reduce finding and development costs. The Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories is conducting a multi-company, geo-engineering, regional study of the Niobrara. This project consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, public domain cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting the Niobrara. Specifically, the prospective section will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells within the Niobrara section, but also on other operator’s wells. The project will be focused on evaluating numerous Niobrara wells in the DJ, Piceance, Powder River, North Park, Sand Wash, Raton, San Juan, and Green River basins.

51

ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY DENVER BASIN I – PALEOZIC OIL STUDY ANTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY SAN JUAN BASIN RO

north america Rocky Mountains UTAH

COLORA

PARADOX BASIN REGIONAL STUDY

Historically much of the geologi-

N Ecal W

knowledge of the Paradox Basin has been based on petrologic studies conducted in the late 1940’s and 50’s. Major advances in the understanding of continental tectonism during Paleozoic times have aided in deciphering the buried structural history of the Paradox Basin. Although advances in recent years in both carbonate and evaporite sedimentology have been made, many operators in the Paradox Basin have been employing sedimentological concepts developed over thirty (30) years ago. This Study has explained many of the geological ambiguities of the basin by placing the Paradox Basin in an accurate global and regional tectonic and glacioeustatic setting, whereby specific diagenetic events and subtle depositional environmental changes have been defined and placed in a predictive model. This Study has analyzed and interpreted Paradox Formation lithology, depositional environments and geological, petrophysical, and engineering properties gathered from conventional core analysis of fifty-six (56) wells. These wells contain approximately 4,800 feet of cored interval. Detailed facies characterization of productive and nonproductive intervals are provided utilizing thin section petrology, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cathodoluminescence

analytical techniques. Particular attention has been directed toward diagenetic variations in relation to well productivity within specific lithofacies, including their associated log signatures. In addition, new stratigraphic terminology is introduced in this Study which clarifies depositional environments and their relationship to associated structure. The regional stratigraphy of the Paradox Formation, including the Desert Creek and Ismay stages, has been evaluated in this study through the correlation of over 1,500 wildcat and development wells drilled to the Paradox or deeper zones. Various stratigraphic correlations and relationships are incorporated into numerous structure maps, isopachs/lithofacies maps, and cross-sections. Facies zonation, which was established from detailed core studies, has been tied to well logs and correlated within the various cross-sections and maps, providing a basin-wide distribution of facies. The geological and engineering data generated and the interpretations presented in this study represent the crux of information necessary for a owell integrated exploration/development play in the Paradox Basin. Particular emphasis has been placed on the uppermost carbonate cycles (Desert Creek, Lower Ismay and Upper Ismay stages) of the Paradox Formation because of their known economic importance as major oil and gas reservoirs in the Four Corners area. • Fif ty -six ( 56) wells • 4,800 f eet of con ven tion al cor e • Stratigraph y utilizin g logs f r om 1,500 wells

52

PARADOX BASIN REGIONAL STUDY ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STU DENVER BASIN I – PALEOZOIC OIL/SOURCE ROCK STUDY SAN JUAN

north america NOR

Rocky Mountains

MONTANA

SOUT

WYOMING

UPPER CRETACEOUS TIGHT OIL RESERVOIRS POWDER RIVER BASIN

T

his project is designed to optimize operators’ exploitation of low-permeability, liquids-rich, Upper Cretaceous reservoirs in the Powder River Basin. Initial activity in the basin for unconventional reservoirs focused on the Niobrara with mixed results. Several operators are becoming bullish on other formations such as the Teapot, Parkman, Sussex, Shannon, and Frontier/Turner sandstones. The conventional reservoirs of these formations are the target of a previous 83 well core study carried out in the 1980s by Core Laboratories, which will be included in this project. The earlier Powder River Basin Regional Study was designed to provide participating companies with detailed geological, petrophysical, and associated engineering characterization and evaluation of Muddy-Newcastle, Minnelusa-Leo, Dakota-Fall River and Frontier-Turner sandstones. The primary objectives for this study are as follows: • Describe, document, and interpret sandstone lithology, vertical sequences, and the character of various lithofacies present within

conventional cores • Describe, document, and interpret sandstone lithology, vertical sequences, and the character of various lithofacies present within conventional cores • Define, document, and evaluate sandstone mineralogy, textural, and pore space properties for pay and potential pay identification • Measure and analyze rock logging and fluidflow parameters for samples representative of the spectrum of reservoir quality rock types from each of the four formations studied • Correlate the basin-wide distributions of formations and zones of interest studied from normalized depth shifted wireline logs • Analyze geological and petrophysical data from each formation in order to provide a better understanding of initial production performance for wells with DST’s in the zones of interest and recommend revised or improved will completion and stimulation procedures

In addition to the objectives stated above, the Upper Cretaceous Tight Oil Reservoirs study will include detailed completion recommendations, completion and production analysis for all new wells.

COLORADO UTAH

SAN JUAN BASIN REGIONAL STUDY

ZONA

NEW MEXICO

A REGIONAL GEOLOGIC STUDY OF CARBONIFEROUS SANDSTONE AND CARBONATE INTERVALS IN THE SAN JUAN BASIN, NORTHWESTERN NEW MEXICO, NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA, AND SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO

This study assesses the potential for reservoir-

quality facies within Carboniferous (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) rocks of the deeper San Juan Basin. The numerous wells drilled on the Four Corners platform, including those from proven producing areas such as Tocito Field, plus outcrop exposures of equivalent facies, provide an excellent framework from which to develop exploration models and exploitation data for deeper portions of the San Juan Basin. In order to provide this geological information Core Laboratories did the following: • Correlate the Carboniferous intervals and

analyze available rock information from approximately 600 wells drilled in the San Juan Basin and Four Corners platform, and generate a series of maps, crosssections, and correlation nets for equivalent Carboniferous facies in the basin • Study and evaluate available conventional cores, core chips, and drill cuttings from wells both on the Four Corners platform and in the central portions of the San Juan Basin • Measure, describe, and interpret outcrop sections of equivalent Carboniferous sandstone and carbonate facies located on the northern (San Juan Mountains) and southeastern (Nacimiento Mountains) edges of the San Juan Basin • Systematically analyze individual rock samples to characterize rock properties (e.g., mineralogy, pore space properties, logging

53

SAN JUAN BASIN REGIONAL STUDY POWDER RIVER BASIN BASIN LOG A NTLER BASIN SOURCE ROCK STUDY SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

north america Rocky Mountains parameters) important in evaluating the presence of reservoir-quality facies and, if present their respective formation evaluation properties for the deeper San Juan Basin areas • Present the results to participating companies via quarterly summary reports and a final project report containing completed maps, cross-sections, rock property data and other pertinent geological information which may be applied to San Juan Basin exploration and/or exploitation endeavors

This study entails information which can be utilized for improved exploration and exploitation activities that; (1) provide a set of working maps and cross-sections depicting sandstone/carbonate facies and associated paleogeographic trends; and (2) generate rock geological/petrophysical/engineering data for these facies that defines and characterizes productive and potentially productive rock. • Well cor r elation s usin g 600 wells • R ock pr oper ty data • M aps an d cr oss section s

COLORADO UTAH

with analog data and parameters for modeling reservoir behavior and making reservoir management decisions. The San Juan Basin Rock Catalog systematically classifies and characterizes rock types encountered in these major producing formations based on the Worldwide Rock Catalog™ classification scheme. The objectives of the San Juan Basin Rock Catalog are:

SAN JUAN BASIN ROCK CATALOG

ZONA

NEW MEXICO

SAN JUAN BASIN ROCK CATALOG – A C ATA LO G O F GEO LO GICAL A N D EN GI N EERI N G P RO P ER T IES FO R THE MESA VERD E, P I CTUR ED C L I FFS A N D D A K O TA FO RMATI O N IN T HE SA N J U A N BA SI N

T

he project includes measurement, documentation, and interpretation in a catalog format of the geological and petrophysical properties of rock types identified in the Mesa Verde, Pictured Cliffs, and Dakota Formations. The analyses were performed on twenty conventional core entries selected to represent a spectrum of reservoir rock types encountered in producing and potentially producing horizons. The various rock types and associated data in the San Juan Basin Rock Catalog serves as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters, producibility and reservoir behavior of non-cored reservoir intervals. The Catalog also supplies geologists and engineers

• Provide a reference manual containing “analog” sandstone and carbonate rock types for more accurate estimates of formation parameters • Establish a comprehensive geological and engineering data base over a spectrum of rock types • Define relationships and correlations between an extensive array of laboratory measured petrophysical data on each entry and estimates of reservoir rock properties from visual observations of core, sidewall, and/or rock cuttings material

54

DENVER BASIN I – PALEOZOIC OIL/SOURCE ROCK STUDY PARADOX BASIN REGIONAL STUDY SAN JUAN BASIN ROCK CATALOG WILLIS

north america Rocky Mountains • Evaluation of electrical parameters for log interpretation • Evaluation of capillary pressure relationships of each producing region • Evaluation of gas-oil and water-oil relative permeability relationships • Determination of pore size distributions • Evaluation of acoustic transit times to aid in log calibration in the subject zones

WILLISTON BASIN REGIONAL STUDY MONTANA

U P P ER D EVO N I A N D U P ER OW

N O R T H D A K A N D BI RD BEA R (N I SK U )

RESER VO I RS O F THE W I LLIST ON BA SI N STU D Y

T

his report constitutes the results of a geological and engineering evaluation of the Upper Devonian Duperow and Birdbear (Nisku) formations of eastern Montana and western North Dakota. The principle objectives of the project are to:

• 105 wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d outcr op samples

• Define and document the depositional facies of the stratigraphic sequence spanned by the two formations • Describe the diagenetic features and sequences characteristic of the two formations, particularly with respect to porosity evolution and destruction • Illustrate structural, stratigraphic and petrophysical characteristics pertinent to exploration for these carbonate reservoirs

This report contains a data base generated from more than 2,500 wells, including description of cored intervals from 105 wells and outcrop sections. Wireline logs were acquired and used for control points with the basin with supplemental logs and production data being obtained from public domain sources. Three case histories comprise the engineering portion of this project. Each well represents major producing reservoir lithotypes of the Williston Basin. The engineering parameters evaluated include: • Porosity and permeability relationships within the producing zones • Overburden pressure effects on porosity and permeability

55

SAN JUAN ROCK CATALOG WILLISTON BASIN REGIONAL STUDY PO BA SIN ROCK CATALOG WILLISTON BASIN REGIONAL POWDER RIVER

north america West Coast geochemical study. A final report is provided that integrates the geochemical data into the regional geologic framework of the study area. An understanding of the location and quality of potential source rocks in the study area provides a key to future exploration efforts in the North Slope.

NORTH SLOPE ALASKA SOURCE ROCK STUDY ALASKA

M

ississippian through Tertiary rocks from the North Slope of Alaska were evaluated for the hydrocarbon source rock potential. Cuttings and core samples from thirty-four (34) wells, which provide both regional and stratigraphic coverage, were utilized in this

• T h ir ty -f our ( 34) wells • Alaska – Nor th Slope

CALIFORNIA

The final report discusses the source rock potential of Pliocene through Cretaceous sediments in the San Joaquin Basin. The source rock data is compared with the geochemical data used to characterize the crude oils to establish possible crude oil/source rock relationships. In addition, the generation history is reconstructed for source rocks in the study area. Lopatin time-temperature plots indicate the timing of crude oil generation and migration. From these the distances and directions of oil migration can be evaluated. Maps and crosssections constructed from geochemical data were used to determine the locations and volumes of effective source rocks. These volumes were then used to calculate the quantities of petroleum generated from respective source facies.

SAN JOAQUIN BASIN PETROLEUM POTENTIAL REGIONAL STUDY

T

he purpose of this regional study was to evaluate the petroleum potential of the San Joaquin Basin by analyzing oils and potential source rocks from the study area. A total of fifty-nine (59) oils from thirty-eight (38) fields that represent Pliocene to Cretaceous sediments were analyzed. The oils were characterized and discussed in the San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Study – Crude Oil Report. Sedimentary sections from the wells were analyzed to evaluate their hydrocarbon source rock potential. The analytical data for each of the fifty-eight (58) wells are provided in the individual well reports.

CALIFORNIA

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA OIL STUDY

A

total of ninety-eight (98) oils representing fifty (50) fields in the Santa Maria, San Joaquin, Cuyama, Salinas and Ventura Basins including the Santa Barbara Channel area were characterized in the Southern

California Oil Study. The main objective was to determine the major factors controlling oil quality and to recommend geologic settings favorable for the occurrence of high quality oil in the study area. The ninety-eight (98) oils are from Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene sandstone and fractured shale reservoirs ranging in depth from 460 feet to 20,270 feet • Fif ty ( 50) f ields • Nin ety -eigh t ( 98) oils

56

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA OIL STUDY DENVER BASIN I – PALEOZOIC O SOURCE ROCK STUDY NOR TH SLOPE ALASKA SOURCE R OCK STUDY

north america CALIFORNIA

West Coast A total of 200 samples from forty-eight (48) wells representing both upper and lower Stevens sandstones were analyzed. Interpretation of reservoir quality, controls on reservoir quality, and areas favorable for exploration are provided in this study. Recommendations concerning precautions for drilling, completion, and enhanced recovery methods as well as wireline-log analysis are also provided.

STEVENS RESERVOIR STUDY

T

he primary purpose of this study was delineate trends of high reservoir quality and define the petrographic controls of reservoir quality. Additional objectives include the identification of pay and non-pay zones of interest. The documentation of diagenetic minerals, their effect on reservoir quality, and their geographic and stratigraphic distribution are also discussed.

• For ty -eigh t ( 48) wells • 200 samples

• Mineral, texture and pore space properties of upper and lower Temblor sands pertinent to recognition of pay and important for proper formation evaluation • Determination of fluid flow and logging parameters such as electrical property measurements for wireline log calibration, completion and stimulation techniques for a spectrum of Temblor rock types • Geochemistry of the Temblor and equivalent units for organic richness, source rock potential and thermal maturity

TEMBLOR REGIONAL STUDY

CALIFORNIA

S

ince 1940 the OligoceneMiocene Temblor Formation in the central portion of the San Joaquin Valley has yielded more that one billion barrels of oil and trillions of cubic feet of gas from the general study area. With renewed interest in the Temblor sands as a petroleum producer this study provides a base of information with direct exploration and exploitation applications. The principle topics of investigation are as follows:

Regional rock control is provided by 2,289 feet of conventional whole core from seven (7) wells, 3,181 feet of core chips from seven other wells, and 35,011 feet of cuttings from fifteen (15) wells. The study contains individual well summary reports that allow operators to utilize analytical data for individual wells, and a final report that integrates numerous geological variables to provide the regional perspective needed to successfully explore for and exploit Temblor reservoirs.

• Biostratigraphy of the Temblor and equivalent units for age determination, time lines, and chronologic correlations • Identification of lithofacies, their geological properties, vertical and lateral distribution. These are defined by available conventional core, cuttings, and wireline logs. • Depositional environments and plaeobathymetry of the Temblor and their relationship to the distribution and geometry of productive and non-productive lithofacies

• Twen ty -two ( 22) wells • Con ven tion al cor e an d cuttin gs

57

ABSAROKA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY STEVENS RESER VOIR STUDY TE TEMBLOR REGIONAL STUDY SAN JOAQUIN BASIN PETROLEUM POTE

international Africa COTE D’IVOIRE

GHANA

coast, while subsequent offshore exploration of the shallow shelf, yielded numerous oil and gas accumulations, such as the Lion, Panthere, Kudu, Eland, Ibex and Baobab fields. Despite the large number of wells in the shallow offshore, the complex geological history of the Côte d’Ivoire Transform Basin is not well understood and there are many questions to answer regarding the controls on sand distribution, the lateral extent of multiple unconformities, the variations in reservoir quality and the oil and gas migration pathways in the region. The deepwater province of the Deep Ivorian Basin is largely undrilled but available public domain data from ongoing seismic evaluation and prospect delineation projects suggest that there is a high possibility of encountering turbidite plays similar to the Late Cretaceous reservoirs discovered in the adjacent Tano Basin, Ghana. The key components of the study are as follows:

CÔTE D’IVOIRE – REGIONAL RESERVOIRS AND SEALS

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ore Laboratories is pleased to announce the first phase of a series of rock-based, geological studies across the West African Transform Basins, providing dataset generation and detailed evaluation of reservoir and seal rocks across the region; Phase I – Côte d’Ivoire was completed in early 2011. The study was undertaken in partnership with Petroci who have provided access to national archives of cuttings, conventional cores, fluids, electric logs and technical geological well reports for study purposes. Approximately 60 wells were selected for detailed analysis. The Transform Margin Basins of West Africa are attracting considerable industry interest because of well-documented large discoveries within Ghana and a more recent new oil discovery in Sierra Leone. This provides renewed hope of exploiting a large deepwater oil province (700 miles) across four countries in West Africa. The offshore Côte d’Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin with high potential for large volume hydrocarbon discoveries. The shallow water province of the basin has been documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D and 3-D seismic grid and several productive fields. Exploration drilling began in the 1890s to evaluate the extensive oil seeps known along the

COTE D’IVOIRE

GHANA

• Biostratigraph y /Seq uen ce Stratigraph y of study wells • Reservoir Description and Rock Property Evaluation of all major reservoir units • R ock Ty pin g of un cor ed section s • Seal Atlas of major seal lith ologies • Fluid ch aracterization • Paleogeograph ic M aps ( illustratin g sediment tran spor t path way s an d depocen tr es) • Laboratory and well data loaded to RAPID database • H T M L br owser of th e study dataset an d r epo r t

CÔTE D’IVOIRE – REGIONAL RESERVOIRS AND SEALS: UPDATE

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uring 2013, Petroci and Core Laboratories extended our 2011 Regional Reservoir and Seal study by the addition of a further thirteen wells and four shallow boreholes across the region, including a number of recently drilled deepwater wells. The primary objective of this study update was to undertake fully integrated reservoir, seal and source rock evaluation of the full drilled succession in these additional wells in

order to assess the reservoir quality of downdip and deepwater facies and to extend the regional geology interpretation and paleogeographic mapping. High resolution cyclostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, combined with detailed sedimentological and petrographical analysis of core and cuttings material, provides valuable new information regarding the controls on sand deposition and reservoir and seal quality preservation in the deeper water zones. The study also includes additional geochemical analyses of source rocks to provide further information on the petroleum systems of the Ivorian Margin.

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international Africa

GABON

CONGO

GABON/NORTH CONGO RESERVOIRS

I

n response to increased activity in West Africa by both Majors and Independents, Core Laboratories is pleased to announce a significant update and expansion of its Gabon and Northern Congo database. In 1994 Core Laboratories presented a predominantly pre–salt reservoir study of the area containing twenty-four (24) cored wells (c.900 meters). The expanded study presented in this proposal will contain core/cuttings from a further c.34 wells, enabling description/property studies on both the pre and post salt reservoirs. Additionally, a SEAL and Rock Typing analytical program together with high resolution biostratigraphic analyses has extended the scope of the study. The key components of the expanded and updated study are as follows:

ETH O P I A description and properties of • IReservoir pre and post salt reservoirs

UGANDA

KENYA

KENYA – EAST AFRICA RESERVOIRS AND SEALS PHASE II

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orking in cooperation with National Oil Company, Kenya (NOCK), in 2012, Core Laboratories completed a second phase of regional geological evaluation in East Africa focusing on the major basins of Kenya. NOCK have provided access to national archives of cuttings, conventional cores, fluids, electric logs and technical geological well reports for study purposes. Over 20 wells have been selected for detailed analysis. All four major basins in Kenya (Anza Basin, Mandera Basin, Lamu Basin and the Western Kenya Rift Basins) are included in the study. In addition to wells, outcrop sections have been logged and sampled together with the inclusion of shallow boreholes and seeps. The Lamu Embayment includes depocentres both onshore and offshore southeast Kenya. Potential reservoirs range in age from the Permian to the Tertiary. The northwest-southeast trending Anza Basin extends across much of

• • • •

Rock typing of uncored sections Additional thirty-four (34) study wells SEAL Atlas of major seal lithologies Biostratigraphy/Sequence Stratigraphy of key wells • LAS files of electric logs • HTML browser of the study

The study was completed in January 2004. Participating companies in the study will receive the following: • The various geological and petrophysical data generated on the conventional cores and cuttings samples will be compiled, interpreted, and presented to each participating company in a final report. • All project figures, maps and image data will be provided to participating companies in browser (HTML) format. • All project figures, maps and data will be provided on a DATA DISC. • A project website is available for participants to download data/images.

eastern and northern Kenya. Reservoir targets include continental deposits of the PaleozoicMesozoic Karroo, Lower Jurassic carbonates and Cretaceous-Tertiary fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine sandstones. Only the western flank of the Mandera Basin extends into (northeastern) Kenya and is relatively unexplored. Potential reservoirs are likely to occur as either Jurassic carbonates or sandstones of the Karroo. As with Phase I (Tanzania), the key components of the study are as follows: • Biostratigraph y /Seq uen ce Stratigraph y of s tu d y wells • R eser voir Description an d R ock Pr oper ties Evaluation of all major r eser voirs • R ock Ty pin g of un cor ed section s • Seal Atlas of major seal lith ologies • R egion al Sour ce R ock evaluation an d th er m al maturity • Fluid ch aracterization an d cor r elation • H T M L br owser of th e study dataset an d r ep o r t; digital data loaded to R APID

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international Africa

LIBYA

L I B YA – R E S E R V O I R S OF ONSHORE BASINSPHASE I

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eservoir characterization data pertaining to reservoirs in fields and basins of Libya is critical to many companies’ evaluation of opportunities in Libya. This data is generally not available to companies other than NOC. With much of the archived data of 1960’s and 70’s vintage; a new consistent and compatible dataset, and evaluation of that dataset has not been previously con-ducted on a regional scale. Core Laboratories and Petroleum Research Center, NOC have obtained approval to describe, sample and analyze cores and cuttings samples from approximately seventy (70) wells from producing fields and exploration wells in all of the onshore basins in Libya. All the major reservoir formations will be evaluated in this study. The proposed study will focus on determining the sedimentological and fracture characteristics of the reservoirs, along with their petrographic and petro-

LIBYA – RESERVOIRS OF OFFSHORE BASINSPHASE II LIBYA

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ore Laboratories and Petroleum Research Center present the second phase of the Regional Reservoir Study of Libya – the Offshore Basins. We have obtained approval to describe, sample and analyze cores and cuttings samples from approximately thirty-three (33) wells from producing fields and exploration wells in the study area. All the major reservoir formations will be evaluated in this study. The proposed study will focus on determining the sedimentological and fracture characteristics of the reservoirs, along with their petrographic and petrophysical properties. In addition, high resolution, quantitative biostratigraphical analyses will be performed on drill cutting samples in order to place the reservoir intervals into a regional stratigraphic framework. The analysis of seal rocks and their

physical properties. In addition, high resolution, quantitative biostratigraphical analyses will be performed on drill cutting samples in order to place the reservoir intervals into a regional stratigraphic framework. The analysis of seal rocks and their hydrocarbon column capacity will compliment the reservoir description. These types of data and interpretations, integrated into a regional evaluation, will significantly enhance participating companies’ understanding of these reservoirs for improved exploration and exploitation efforts. The final report will be available in hard copy and HTML formats.The project has been divided into two phases which are available separately: • West Libya (Ghadames and Murzuq Basins) • East Libya (Sirt Basin)

The primary objective of the project is to provide each participating company with detailed geological, biostratigraphical, and petrophysical characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional reservoir and seal cores taken in all major basins of Libya. This large database will significantly improve participating companies’ understanding of the reservoirs and result in more successful exploration and exploitation of these fields.

hydrocarbon column capacity will compliment the reservoir description. These types of data and interpretations, integrated into a regional evaluation, will significantly enhance participating companies’ understanding of these reservoirs for improved exploration and exploitation efforts. The final report will be available in hard copy and HTML formats. The primary objective of the project is to provide each participating company with detailed geological, biostratigraphical, and petrophysical characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional reservoir and seal cores taken in all major basins of Libya. This large database will significantly improve participating companies’ understanding of the reservoirs and result in more successful exploration and exploitation of these fields. Participating companies in the study will receive the following:

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international Africa • The various geological and petrophysical data generated on the conventional cores and cuttings samples will be compiled, interpreted and presented to each participating company in a final report. The final report will summarize the data and provide a regional overview of the reservoirs in terms of significant aspects and conclusions regarding improved exploration and exploitation concepts. Each participating company will receive one copy of all reports for the study.

• All project figures, maps and image data will be provided to participating companies in browser (HTML) format.

LIBYA – PRE-UPPER CRETACEOUS RESERVOIRS OF ONSHORE SIRT BASIN LIBYA

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he Libyan Petroleum Institute (LPI), a division of the National Oil Corporation (NOC) and Core Laboratories performed Reservoir Description and Property studies of over 130 wells from the offshore and onshore basins during 2004 and 2005. Following a phase of further work in the Sirt Basin, we are pleased to present a new evaluation of the Pdeep HILIPPINES plays in the Sirt Basin. This study encompasses M Aseal LAYSIA structural, stratigraphic, reservoir and Celebes Sea components focused on the Pre-Upper Cretaceous TANZANIA section and was completed in 4Q 2008. I N D O N E S I A LPI has utilized their in-house seismic/landsat/ field geology database, together with newly acquired data from operators and NOC, to establish the structural/tectonic framework for the study area. An extensive stratigraphic, petrographic and petrophysical program has been conducted on rock samples from forty (40) newly-evaluated wells.

The primary objective of the project is to provide participating companies with a detailed geological model of the deeper plays in the Sirt Basin, significantly improving their understanding of the petroleum geology. The study provides participants with the following analyses, data and interpretation: • Str uctur e/Tecton ics • New stratigraph ic f ramework based on ch e mostratigraph y, suppor ted by paly n ological age-datin g an d cy clostratigraph ic an aly sis • Cor e Description • Sedimen tological in terpr etation of cor ed an d un cor ed section s • R eser voir Quality of cor ed section s • An alog petr oph y sical pr oper ties of un cor ed section s usin g R ock Ty pin g • Log-based Petr oph y sical Evaluation • Seal an d poten tial seal r ock an aly sis • A digital version of th e r epor t an d suppor ting d ata on a DATA DISK an d pr oject website • R epor t text, f igur es an d ch ar ts in H T M L br o w s e r

VIETNAM

CAMBODIA

South China Sea

BRAZIL PERU

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international Africa ZAMBIA

MOZAMBIQUE

MOZAMBIQUE – EAST AFRICA RESERVOIRS AND SEALS: PHASE IV

ZIMBABWE

Recent major drilling successes have

resulted in renewed industry focus on East African Basins and the resurgent exploration effort has yielded interesting new seismic-based ideas regarding the evolution of basins along the Indian Ocean Margin. Following on from our recent rock-based regional studies in Kenya and Tanzania, this project aims to provide an overview of the geological datasets generated during the earlier and recent exploration cam-

NAMIBIA

NAMIBIA AND THE ORANGE BASIN RESERVOIRS AND SEALS – SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGIN

Renewed interest in the South

Atlantic Margin generated by recent successful drilling campaigns in Brazil, has led to Core Laboratories to extend its post/ pre salt West African dataset to Namibia. Core Laboratories is thus pleased to present an all-new and fully integrated multi-disciplinary study

paigns within the coastal basins of Mozambique, and aims to demonstrate that, although the number of wells drilled has been relatively low relative to the vast acreage in the region, the well log data and rock samples generated by these multiple drilling phases constitute a valuable source of geological information, that can still be closely investigated for clues to the tectonic evolution of the margin. The National Institute of Petroleum (INP) have provided access to cores, cuttings, sidewall cores, electric logs and technical geological well reports from these selected exploration wells. A total of c.40 wells have been released for inclusion in this new study.

of the basins of Namibia. This new geological sciences and petrophysical dataset incorporates stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology, seal rock analysis and petrophysics, based on core, cuttings, SWC, well log data and fluids from approximately 20 wells across Namibia including c. 20 wells from the Northern Orange Basin in South Africa, where a substantial core dataset is available together with fluid occurrences. Finally we have referenced DSDP and ODP wells to complete the dataset.

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• Estimation of the relative thermal histories of the various oil families and their source rocks based upon the crude oil molecular and physical properties • Determination of the number of effective source intervals responsible for the hydrocarbons found in the Niger Delta and to some degree in the Benin Embayment of Nigeria • Determination if the Akata Formation and/or the Agbada Formation, are the effective source facies in the offshore and onshore Niger Delta area, specifically, the western versus eastern delta area • Determination of the source paleoenvironments of the Tertiary reservoired (primary Agbada Formation) oils from the Niger Delta • Determination of the kerogen types of the Akata and Agbada shale source intervals • Determine the oil families from the Niger Delta are genetically related to the oils from offshore Cameroon • Determination if there are pre-Tertiary sourced oils present in the offshore and/or coastal onshore Niger Delta • Correlation of produced oils with their effective source areas to identify probable migration pathways

NIGER DELTA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY

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ore Laboratories has performed a non-exclusive oil and source rock study of the regional petroleum potential of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. This study of the Niger Delta involves detailed geochemical analysis and interpretation of 112 oils from the offshore and onshore Niger Delta, and offshore Cameroon in the Rio Del Rey area. A comprehensive analytical program was used to establish the genetic relationships of the oils. In addition, 870 rock samples from seventeen (17) well sections (and two outcrops) representative of potential source rocks from the offshore and coastal onshore Niger Delta were obtained, as well as one outcrop from the Upper Benue Trough, for geochemical evaluation . Acquisition of effective source rocks within the Niger Delta has been difficult due to the unconsolidation of sediments, non-penetration of effective source beds (in particular pre-Agbada formations), and the general lack of available well control in the Delta area. The regional geochemical study addresses several critically important questions, including the following:

Results of the study are presented in both analytical and interpretive formats to ensure that all findings are readily accessible to the explorationists and research personnel. Data are available in paper, digital and HTML formats.

• Determination of the character, distribution, and number of genetically distinct oil families in the Niger Delta area

The study of the Niger Delta involves detailed geochemical analysis and interpretation of 112 oils from the offshore and onshore Niger Delta, and offshore Cameroon in the Rio Del Rey area.

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international Africa NIGERIA

NIGER DELTA RESERVOIR STUDY

T

his study examines the Tertiary clastic sequence from the Niger Delta Basin containing sediments generally described as an upward and updip (south-to-north) transition from marine deep water and pro-delta sediments (Akata Formation), through alternating sand/shale paralic deposits (Agbada Formation), to continental deposits (Benin Formation) [Ejedawe, et al., 1984]. Production thus far has been principally from the Agbada Formation, which is at least 3,000 m thick. It is an alternating sequence of sands, silts and clays deposited principally in delta-front, tidal/estuarine, distributary channel, and delta-plain environments. Reservoir quality has been shown to be related to depositional environment (in association with lithology and geometry) and burial depth. The underlying and interbedded Akata Formation, which is reportedly up to 7,000 m thick, includes clays, silts and sands deposited in deeper water environments by slump/slide/debris flow, bottom current, turbidity current, and pelagic/hemipelagic processes, also locally exhibits reservoir potential (Shanmugam et al., 1995). The overlying and interfingering Benin Formation is composed of fluviatile sands and conglomerates, with local coaly deposits; and is about 2,000 m thick (Weber and Daukoru, 1975). The Benin Formation locally contains (heavy) oil and gas stringers, where the oil-bearing sands are associated with coal (Avbovbo and Ogbe, 1978). The sedimentological study, “Phase I: Sedimentology”, was completed by Core Laboratories in 1996. “Phase II: Petrophysics”, is the second phase of the sedimentological study that characterizes the reservoir properties of the Tertiary Niger Delta reservoirs. The reservoir quality of each lithofacies will be determined by analysis of petrophysical properties. Results of the study together with the Phase I report results will be integrated to characterize hydraulic flow units and enhance reservoir modeling program. Phase II was completed in June 1999. This reservoir study includes regional coverage of all of the lithofacies occurring in the Tertiary reservoirs of the Niger Delta region. More than 6,300 feet of conventional core from both onshore and offshore areas have been described in detail.

Each lithofacies has been sampled for petrographic, mineralogical, and grain size analysis. Lithofacies sequences were identified as an aid in interpreting depositional environment. In addition, a photographic atlas has been produced that exhibits the lithofacies present throughout the region, with their characteristics. The primary study objectives of Phase I are as follows:: • Description (using a newly created, industryapproved standardized stratigraphic nomenclature) and characterization of all lithofacies present in the Tertiary reservoirs • Relationships made between facies and depositional environments, diagenesis, and regional variations • Creation of a photographic atlas of lithofacies with core, thin section, and SEM photographs; x-ray diffraction and sieve analysis data; and wireline logs over cored intervals

Other objectives include the identification of certain formation damage problems, such as fines migration, clay swelling, water sensitivity, and sanding that are related to the studied lithofacies. Sequence stratigraphy will be applied to a limited degree to the studied cores to fit them into the regional stratigraphic framework: • Quantify petrophysical characteristics and reservoir quality for each facies and depositional environment both regionally and vertically • Select and characterize hydraulic flow units using porosity, permeability and capillary pressure data (pore throat attributes) • Compare horizontal to vertical permeabilities and obtain Kv/Kh relationships for lithofacies units • Determine degree of compaction with burial and effects on reservoir quality • Determine the Archie a, m and n values and CECs for each of the main lithofacies • Illustrate reservoir characteristics with plug and thin section photographs

A secondary objective of the study is to compare porosity-permeability measurements made during this study with those measured immediately following coring to examine the possibility of core-shed diagenesis.

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international Africa PRESENTATION OF RESULTS: Phase I

Results of the study is presented in seven volumes. Volumes one (1) through four (4) will include the analytical database, with a rock catalog page for each sample, organized by well. XRD data will be available on CD. Volume five (5) and six (6) will include the detailed core descriptions, in log format, showing lithofacies designations, depositional environment interpretation and wireline logs. This information will all be available on CD. Volume six (6) will contain the interpretation with integration of all analytical results. It will include a photographic atlas of lithofacies, summary of

BRAZIL

PRE-SALT SOUTH ATLANTIC, PHASE III: PRE-SALT CARBONATES WEST

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he deepwater Pre-Salt carbonates represent a new play type for the South Atlantic Margin and since little geological data has been released from the new deepwater wells, it seems imperative to ensure maximum utilization of legacy subsurface datasets, in order to fully understand the controls on carbonate development and reservoir quality preservation along the margin. This study integrates previously evaluated well log and rock data with a comprehensive suite of newly acquired log, cuttings and key core material. The main advantages of our study are (1) that it provides access to core material from key wells (Abacaxi-1 and Denden-1) in Block 9, Kwanza basin - cores through the Barremian-Aptian

observations, and recommendations pertaining to exploration objectives and strategies for enhanced production. Phase II

Results of the study will be presented in rock catalog data volumes that include the petrophysical data as well as thin section and plug photographs. All of the data will also be supplied that correlates the petrophysical results with the lithofacies from the Phase I study. The hydraulic flow unit results will be summarized and illustrated in this volume as well. Both Phase I and II are now available in HTML formats.

‘Toca’ carbonate which we have analysed in great detail with petrography, stable isotopes, CL, fluid inclusions etc. It provides a review of the Vembo Member Gabon, the carbonate-rich sequence which separates the sandy Gamba unit from the main salt. The presence of highenergy oolitic shoals and suite of associated lagoonal dolomites and evaporites seen in core from onshore/shallow offshore Gabon wells in this unit does present the possibility of Aptian (Tupi age) carbonates being preserved on the Outer High in deepwater, offshore Gabon. This extension to our Pre-Salt, West African Margin Study Report (2006), provides a detailed and fully integrated regional assessment of the sedimentological and diagenetic characteristics of Pre-Salt carbonates and also evaluates the complex relationship between tectonic and igneous activity and sedimentation patterns within the syn-rift basins from this region.

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international Africa GABON

POST SALT RESERVOIRS AND SEALS OF THE SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGIN

CONGO

ANGOLA

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enewed interest in the West African Atlantic Margin generated by recent and upcoming Deep Water license rounds in Gabon, Congo, Angola and also further north in Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon, has led to many requests to extend Core Laboratories existing studies in the Pre-Salt (Gabon to Angolan margin) and Regional Study of the Gabon/North Congo Margin to include the full Post-Salt succession across the entire margin. Therefore Core Laboratories is pleased to present a new study of the South Atlantic West African Margin. This new and updated geological sciences and petrophysical dataset incorporates stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology, seal rock analysis and petrophysics, based on core cuttings, SWC, well log data and fluids

SENEGAL, AGC AND GUINEA BISSAU – CENTRAL ATLANTIC MARGINS WEST AFRICA – PHASE I

P

revious studies across the Transform Margin include Cote d’Ivoire Reservoir and Seals which was completed in 2011 and Cote d’Ivoire - Deep Water extension, an ongoing study scheduled for completion early 2014. A regional study of the Transform Basins on the conjugate Equatorial Margin of Brazil is also underway and due for completion in 2014. The study region across the Central Atlantic Margin, extending from Guinea-Bissau to the northern margin of Senegal, displays many of the complex structural and stratigraphic characteristics typical of the main Cretaceous Transform Margin further south, but this (early rifted) margin also

from approximately 50 wells across the margin from Equatorial Guinea to South Angola. Concession rates are available for previous licensees of Core Laboratories’ Gabon/N Congo and/or Pre- Salt West Africa Studies. The primary objective of the Post Salt West African study was to undertake a full evaluation of all major Post-Salt reservoir intervals penetrated in the study wells, combined with an evaluation of associated seal rock lithologies and evaluation of regional source units and thermal maturity. In addition 40+ post salt sourced fluids are presented and correlated across the South Atlantic to Brazil. A key finding of the study was the identification, through high resolution biostratigraphy, of an additional Mid to Late Aptian Post-Salt depositional package in the Kwanza Basin, Angola, which is not present across the Gabon-Congo margin.

incorporates a number of additional reservoir targets, trap styles and play types not encountered south of the Guinea Transfer Fault Zone, including extensive thick Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate reservoir targets on intrabasinal highs, significant salt accumulations which form local hydrocarbon traps and also local oil-bearing Tertiary sandstone reservoirs. The study has been undertaken in partnership with Petrosen, Petroguin and AGC who have provided access to national archives of cuttings, conventional cores, fluids, electric logs and technical geological well reports from over 40 wells for study purposes. In addition several operators have also made available additional wells currently under exclusivity. The study will include detailed sedimentological and petrographical evaluation of >1000m of core, in addition to analysis of cuttings material and well log data.

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international Africa

GABON

CONGO

SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS PRE-SALT – PHASE I WEST AFRICA

C

ore Laboratories has now built up extensive expertise in the regional petroleum geology of both the Brazilian and West African Atlantic Margin Basins. Our recent geological studies of nine (9) Brazilian basins (Core Laboratories non-proprietary studies, 2001 - 2003) have established an integrated geological model for the shelfal and deepwater areas of the eastern Brazilian Margin. In the mid-1990’s Core Lab completed two land mark geochemical and reservoir evaluations of the Pre Salt of West Africa. The Gabon/Congo areas were substantially updated and expanded during 2003. Recent hydrocarbon discoveries in pre-salt reservoirs have rekindled international interest within the clastic and carbonate rift and pre-rift plays along both the Brazilian and West African Margins. The study was undertaken on ditch cuttings, cores, sidewall cores and fluids from a suite of wells and oils. The primary technical objective of the study is to extend the geological model of pre-salt plays established for the shelfal parts of the Atlantic Margin Basins to establish a high-resolution, fully integrated, geological model for the rift and

TANZANIA

pre-rift reservoirs and source horizons. The study will primarily focus on sediments of Berriasian to Aptian age which include a range of fluvialcontinental, shallow lake and re-sedimented deep lake facies. Interpretation of data will include high-resolution biostratigraphy, geochemistry and detailed analysis of depositional environments, reservoir and seal geometries. Besides the well-documented fluvial and shallow lacustrine facies of the Atlantic Margin Basins, data from our Atlantic Margin studies (Core Laboratories, 2002/3) suggests the presence of some deeper water lake turbidite or debris flow deposits and local pre-rift Aeolian sandstones with considerable reservoir potential. In addition to detailed sedimentology, the project will include full evaluation of reservoir quality and reservoir fracturing as appropriate through detailed petrographic analysis of thin sections and macroscopic analysis of any core fracture systems. Detailed regional evaluation of the Berriasian to Aptian succession will provide the integrated geological dataset required for geological modeling and optimum reservoir description of all rift plays. Five (5) bound interpretive volumes of each margin will be provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps and cross sections. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretative program will be synthesised into regional interpretations.

Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) have provided access to the cuttings, sidewall core data, geochemistry data, electric logs and technical geological well reports from these selected exploration wells. A total of 11 wells have been released for inclusion in this new study. The primary objective was to undertake a full evaluation of reservoir quality of all major reservoir intervals that are penetrated in the study wells, integrated with an evaluation of associated seal rock lithologies, together with analysis and regional overview of source rocks and thermal maturity.

TANZANIA – EAST AFRICA RESERVOIRS AND SEALS: PHASE I UPDATE

C

ore Laboratories is pleased to present a significant new addition to our series of rock based geological studies in East Africa, which provides new dataset generation and detailed evaluation of reservoir, source and seal rocks from recent wells across the coastal basin region of Tanzania, in addition to a number of wells from the Rukwa Graben in the Interior Tertiary Rift System. This study presents an extended database integrated with data from the 2009 Report.

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TANZANIA

Jurassic, are best represented in the Selous, Ruvu, Mandawa, and Ruvuma basins of eastern Tanzania, and in the Rukwa Basin in the southwest. In the Selous Basin, reservoir targets occur within the Karoo Group which comprises approximately 10 km of fluvial, deltaic, continental and lacustrine deposits. In the Mandawa Basin, the reservoir targets include pre-rift, syn-rift and post-rift clastic and carbonate sediments. The coastal basins were established from Middle Jurassic onwards as the continental shelf of a passive margin. These basins formed major depositional depocenters in the Mesozoic and Tertiary, accumulating greater than 8,000m of deltaic and marine sediments that provide multiple reservoir intervals with proven oil-prone sources and seals. The key components of the study are as follows:

TANZANIA – EAST AFRICA RESERVOIRS AND SEALS PHASE I

Core Laboratories is pleased to

announce a significant series of rock based, geological studies in East Africa, providing dataset generation and detailed evaluation of reservoir, source and seal rocks across the region. Our Tanzania study is the first of a series in the East Africa region in cooperation with Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) and was completed in mid 2009. TPDC provided access to national archives of cuttings, conventional core, fluids, electric logs and technical geological well reports for study purposes. Twenty-seven (27) were selected for this study from national archives. All major coastal basins in Tanzania are covered in the study, including the Selous and Ruvu Basins, the oastal Basins (Mandawa, Ruvuma, Rukwa and offshore basins) and the deepwater basins. Reservoir targets include continental deposits of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Karroo Group, Lower Jurassic clastics, evaporates and carbonates and Cretaceous-Tertiary fluvial, deltaic, lacustrine and marine sediments. The pre-rift and synrift stratigraphic units, from the top of basement to the end of Early

• Biostratigraph y /Seq uen ce Stratigraph y of study wells • R eser voir Description an d R ock Pr oper ties Evaluation of all major r eser voirs • R ock Ty pin g of un cor ed section s • Seal Atlas of major seal lith ologies • R egion al Sour ce R ock evaluation an d th er mal maturity • Fluid ch aracterization an d cor r elation • H T M L br owser of th e study dataset an d r ep o r t; digital data loaded to R APID

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E BASINS – PH ASE I YEMEN ROCK CATALOG NIGER DELTA GEOCHEM RGINS PRE-SALT – PHASE I WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMIST

international Africa GABON CONGO

ANGOLA

WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY

D

rilling activity in the Aptian Salt Basins of equatorial West Africa has grown substantially during the past decade. Interest and activity have been encouraged by a series of significant oil discoveries in both the onshore and offshore. To help evaluate exploration opportunities Core Laboratories has developed a comprehensive geochemical database for both crude oils and source rocks. The regional geochemical study of the Aptian Salt Basins addresses several critically important questions including the following: • Where are the depocenters of effective pre-salt source rocks located? • How many oil families are there and what is their distribution? • What are the migration conduits connecting effective sources and related oils? • How extensive are mature post-salt source beds? • Where has pre-salt generated oil migrated into the post-salt section and how? • How far updip has post-salt oil migrated from mature post-salt source? • What factors are most important in controlling oil composition within the region?

This study covers the Gabon, Congo, and Cuanza Basins of West Africa and the northern extension of this trend into offshore Cameroon. Approximately 10,000 source rock samples from fifty-three (53) wells and 164 oils, representing both the pre-salt and post-salt sections were analyzed. Results of the study are presented in both analytical and interpretative reports formatted so that the major findings are readily accessible to the explorationist. • Analytical source rock data for the cores and cuttings are presented within individual well reports. Each report includes data tables, a Geochemical Well Profile, and an overall source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated. • A Crude Oil Report contains location maps and all analytical results in the form of data tables, gas chromatograms, and GC/MS fragmentograms. • A synthesis and interpretation of all analytical and geological data is presented within a comprehensive final report. The principal aim of this report is to outline the exploration significance of the data and make specific recommendations for future exploration. Full-color maps and figures are provided in the synthesis. Maps outline the character and distribution of oil families and effective source rocks.

70

ABON/NOR TH CONGO RESER VOIRS WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMISTRY S OUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS PRE-SALT – PHASE I WEST AFRICA NIGER

international Africa • Provide a stratigraphic framework for the Albertine Graben,

UGANDA – EAST AFRICA RESERVOIRS AND SEALS: PHASE III

to form the basis for delineation of the vertical and lateral distribution of the major reservoirs. Where possible, the sequences have been calibrated by reference to regional

Phase I (Tanzania) and Phase II

seismic lines; • Provide detailed reservoir description in order to establish

(Kenya) of our portfolio of reservoir and seal studies in East Africa were completed in 2009 and 2012 respectively. Phase III – Albertine Graben, Uganda was completed end Q4 2013. The Petroleum Exploration and Production Department, Republic of Uganda (PEPD) provided access to national archives of cuttings, conventional cores, fluids, electric logs, and technical geological well reports for study purposes. 15 wells (including 4 sidetracked wells and 4 cored wells) were selected for detailed analysis. In addition to the well data, the geochemistry of a number of oil seeps is included in the study. The objectives of the study were to:

the depositional and tectonic setting of the reservoirs and to provide detailed evaluation of reservoir quality. This allowed evaluation of the sedimentological, tectonic and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness; • Provide analytical data on the sealing capacity of potential seal rocks in order to improve prospect risk assessment. The dataset provides critical parameters for determining seal capacity of oil and gas seal rocks in their depositional context. • Provide a regional geochemical dataset in terms of source potential, thermal maturity and character of released fluids.

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HORE BASINS-PHASE I NIGER DELTA GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY NIGER D E I WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMISTRY LIBYA_RESER VOIRS

ASIA

international Asia BANGLADESH

• Determine the structural style and provide a balanced interpretation of the structural mechanism for the origin of each sub-basin • Develop concepts of hydrocarbon entrapment emphasizing such subjects as the timing of hydrocarbon entrapment versus reservoir diagenesis, the drainage area versus seal continuity, and the migration trends versus paleostructure attitude, and eventually identify areas where hydrocarbons would be entrapped • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of Bangladesh • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data including electric logs for Bangladesh

BANGLADESH

B

APEX in association with Core Laboratories has completed A Regional Petroleum Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential Study of Bangladesh (on and offshore). A database of thirty (30) wells and approximately 10,000 line km of seismic was provided by PETROBANGLA for study purposes. The database includes seismic, tapes and paper prints of wireline logs; laboratory and final well reports, and samples of cuttings, core and fluids. The study has significantly enhanced current data, and created new data (particularly stratigraphic data), thus allowing a significant body of consistent, compatible data to be interpreted and presented. Key objectives of the study were: • Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework as a basis to establishing a non-marine sequence stratigraphy and models of sedimentary facies for such sequences in Bangladesh • Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area

INDONESIA – COAL INDONESIA

T

he study of the stratigraphic occurrence and hydrocarbon potential of coals in Indonesia is the first database of its kind and quality to become available as an exploration tool in Indonesia. The quantity of samples (over 500) incorporated in the study allows a depth of interpretation previously unparalleled. The fundamental question of whether coals can generate and expel significant quantities of hydrocarbons has been the subject of a large volume of scientific literature in recent years. The study has generated a data set of over 500 samples to address the various problems associated with generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons from coal. The stratigraphic distribution of coals in Indonesian sedimentary basins has been described 73

Four (4) bound interpretive volumes are provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with seismic sections, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections. In addition, all laboratory data and well logs are appended to the final report in digital format.

in detail to provide a context for the sophisticated geochemical analyses, thus making the study an invaluable aid to explorationists and new ventures managers evaluating potential source units in their areas. State-of-the-art geochemical analytical techniques used on a comprehensive range of coals have provided a reference benchmark of coals and coaly shale source rocks in Indonesia. All interpretations were carried out by a team of experienced petroleum geochemists, geologists and coal petrologists to maximize the utility of the study. A complete set of analytical data is provided with the study along with detailed color graphics summarizing trends and crossplots of parameters to provide an easy reference for comparison. Spatial and temporal trends have been mapped to allow quick access for basin modeling. In addition all laboratory data are available in digital format. The study was completed in 1993.

BANGLA DESH INDONESIA – COAL INDONESIA – EAST INDONESIA FORELAND BASINS IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA PEARL R

international Asia PHILIPPINES MALAYSIA

CELEBES SEA

INDONESIA

Core Lab’s previous deepwater databases/ studies in the Gulf of Mexico/Campos Basin and West Africa provided a template for this study. The project was focused on the following objectives:

INDONESIA/PHILIPPINES – DEEPWATER RESERVOIRS PHASE I

Data pertaining to the deepwater

reservoirs is critical to many companies’ evaluation of new opportunities in the Asia Pacific region. This data is generally not available to companies other than Operators/Partners in specific blocks and to the National Oil Institutions. Restrictions governing the sampling of present deepwater wells have prevented such a database from being generated on an individual basis or basin-wide prior to this study.

• Establish a regional stratigraphic framework based on biostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy • Characterize the reservoir quality and petrophysical properties of deepwater reservoirs • Construct a basin-wide geochemical model and identify the functioning elements of the petroleum systems within the established stratigraphic framework • Evaluate the seal rocks of the reservoirs

The project analyzed and evaluated (geologically and petrophysically) rock samples from source rocks, reservoirs and seals represented by conventional core, sidewall cores, fluid samples and/or drill cutting samples.

Core Laboratories reached agreements with the Indonesian (MIGAS) and Philippine (DOE) governments to describe samples and analyze cores, cuttings and fluid samples from approximately fifty (50) wells in their respective countries. The study was completed during Q1, 2007.

INDONESIA – EAST NATUNA

The main technical objective of

the study is to generate a geological model for the area. The geological model provides an improved basis for paleogeographic, structural, and hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of petroleum systems. A comprehensive database has been provided by PERTAMINA together with open file data. In summary twenty (20) wells, and associated seismic and numerous outcrops and seeps comprise the database of the study. Currently over forty (40) wells have been drilled in East Natuna. Core Laboratories evaluated twenty (20) key wells for study purposes. This was achieved through the following approach: INDONESIA

• Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework as a basis to the establishment of a marine sequence stratigraphy and to determine models of sedimentary facies for such sequences in the area • Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of mature/effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area 74

• Determine the structural style and provide a balanced interpretation of the structural mechanism for the origin of each basin • Address the prospects of encountering accumulations of ‘high-CO2” natural gases • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the area • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data, including electric logs for the area. • Provide a browser edition of the report and database in HTML format.

Four (4) bound interpretive volumes are provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with seismic sections, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections. In addition, all laboratory data, well data, figures maps and well logs have been appended to the final report in digital format (CDR). An HTML version of the report is also available. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program were synthesised into a regional petroleum geology analysis, outlining current and proposed play concepts.

NDONESIA – EAST NATUNA INDONESIA – COAL TIMOR GAP/BONAPA VER MOUTH BASIN GULF OF THAILAND – THAILAND AND THE OCA

international Asia INDONESIA – EAST INDONESIA FORELAND BASINS

INDONESIA

T

he main technical objectives of this study are to provide a geological model and detailed economic assessment of the Foreland Basins of Eastern Indonesia. The geological model will provide an improved basis for paleogeographic, structural, and hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of petroleum systems. This will be achieved through the following approach: • Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework as a basis to establish a marine sequence stratigraphy and to determine models of sedimentary facies for such sequences in the area • Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of mature/effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area • Determine the structural style and provide a balanced interpretation of the structural mechanism for the origin of each basin

• Develop concepts of hydrocarbon entrapment emphasizing such topics as the timing of hydrocarbon entrapment versus reservoir diagenesis, the drainage area versus seal continuity, and the migration trends versus paleostructure attitude, and eventually identify areas where hydrocarbons would be accumulated • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the area • Develop a fiscal analysis and comparison of terms to other fiscal models • Undertake a market analysis for fluids • Provide a detailed economic analysis of the profitability of oil and gas exploration and field development using a range of economic assumptions

Tw e n t y ( 2 0 ) w e l l s , a s s o c i a t e d seismic and numerous outcrops and seeps comprise the d a t a b a s e o f t h e s t u d y.

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INDONESIA TARAKAN BASIN GULF OF THAILAND – CAMBODIA AND OCA IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GSINS BANGLADESH GULF OF

international Asia INDONESIA – TARAKAN BASIN

CELEBES SEA

C

ore Laboratories has completed a sequence stratigraphic and regional geochemical study of the Tarakan Basin. Consistent problems have plagued operators in the Tarakan Basin, namely poor sequence and seismic control, extensive reworking of sediments, poor stratigraphic controls, lack of closures, young migration and lack of competent seals. The main aim of the study was to erect a usable sequence stratigraphic and chronostratigraphic framework for the Tarakan Basin, to constrain the extensive geochemical database within this framework and to identify the functioning of petroleum systems in the Tarakan Basin. The study was focused on fourteen (14) key stratigraphic control wells in the Tarakan, Muaras and Berau sub-basins of the Tarakan Basin and on circa 2,000 km of regional seismic lines which were made available for appraisal and limited reinterpretation. The geochemical component focused on thirteen (13) key wells, plus oil/ extract data from an additional one well and five (5) oil/gas fields. Biostratigraphy • Detailed re-interpretation and new analysis were confined to the fourteen (14) key wells. Data from an additional six (6) wells were also reconsidered in the context of the evolving chronostratigraphic framework. These additional data proved especially useful for seismic correlations and paleoenvironmental mapping. • Additional information on “peripheral” wells

was obtained from a number of reports made available by the client companies and these are referred to, where necessary, in the text. Despite the fact that paleo-environmental and biostratigraphic information was not as complete or as thorough in these “peripheral” wells with no re-interpretation carried out, this additional information proved useful in compiling the paleo-environmental maps. Seismic • The seismic database consisted of approximately 2,000 line km of multifold subsurface coverage seismic, well synthetics, well velocity time-depth tables and two-way-time converted logs. The lines were selected in a sparse grid to aid in the well correlation of biostratigraphic events, sequence boundaries and sequences, rather than be used in basin seismic stratigraphy study of paleoenvironments away from well control. At its most dense (rarely), the seismic grid was in the order of five (5) km but generally was twenty (20) km or greater. Geochemistry • A detailed review of a pre-existing comprehensive database on potential source rocks throughout the stratigraphic record was performed for thirteen (13) key wells. Measured and modeled maturity data from these wells (plus hypothetical wells in undrilled depocenters) were interpreted to evaluate the thermal history of the Tarakan Sub-Basins. Oils/extracts data from the key wells, plus reservoired oils from one additional well and four (4) oil fields, were also considered with a view to understanding the oil-source rock relationships active throughout the entire Tarakan Basin.

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INDONESIA TARAKAN BASIN GULF OF THAILAND – CAMBODIA AND OCA IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GSINS BANGLADESH GULF OF

international Asia

INDONESIA

INDONESIA – SHALE RESERVOIRS

For operators working in Indonesia,

assessing shale potential has become an important aspect of overall resource evaluation. To assist in such efforts, this project, initiated in late 2010, is aimed at the characterization and evaluation of conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores and cuttings samples taken from multiple wells, targeting potentially productive shale formations across the various basins of Indonesia. Using rock material contributed by subscribing members, these prospective shale sections will be analyzed for geological, geochemical, petrophysical, geomechanical and production properties.

Some 20 wells have already been contributed. As with many of Core Laboratories projects, analytical results will be made available via RAPID. This gives operators the opportunity to search this large database and gain access to not only their own wells but also other operator wells submitted to the consortium. The project will utilize experience from evaluating numerous North American gas shale wells and the expanding evaluation of wells globally, in particular in Europe, South America and Australia. The prime objective of this project is to provide operators with measured rock properties in order to improve their formation evaluation and ultimately to optimize stimulation and production.

77

ANGLADESH GULF OF THAILAND – CAMBODIA AND THE OCA EAST I ORELAND BASINS GULF OF THAILAND AND THE OCA INDONESIA – E

international Asia IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA PAPUA NEW

T

he main technical objectives of this study are to provide a geological model and detailed economic assessment of the Foreland Basins of Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea. The geological model will provide an improved basis for paleogeographic, structural, and hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of petroleum systems. This will be achieved through the following approach: • Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework as a basis to establish a marine sequence stratigraphy and to determine models of sedimentary facies for such sequences in the area • Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of mature/effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area • Determine the structural style and provide a balanced interpretation of the structural mechanism for the origin of each basin

• Develop concepts of hydrocarbon entrapment emphasizing such topics as the timing of hydrocarbon entrapment versus reservoir diagenesis, the drainage area versus seal continuity, and the migration trends versus paleostructure attitude, and eventually identify areas where hydrocarbons would be accumulated • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the area • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data, including electric logs for the area • Develop cost models and a database to enable the costs of future potential exploration programs and field developments to be estimated accurately • Develop a fiscal analysis and comparison of terms to other fiscal models • Undertake a market analysis for fluids

CAMBODIA

• Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Gulf of Thailand • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data including electric logs for the Gulf of Thailand

GULF OF THAILAND – THAILAND AND THE OCA

THAILAND

Core Laboratories completed

A Regional Petroleum Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential Study of the Gulf of Thailand in September 1995. This study has been fully updated with eight (8) additional wells. A database of forty-six (46) wells and over 9,000 line km of seismic has been assembled for the study. The objectives of the study are: • Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework as a basis to establish a non-marine sequence stratigraphy and models of sedimentary facies • Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area • Determine the structural style and provide a balanced interpretation of the structural mechanism

Three (3) bound interpretive volumes are provided with seismic sections, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections. In addition, all laboratory data and well logs are appended to the final report in digital format. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program have been synthesized into a regional petroleum geology/hydrocarbon potential analysis, outlining current and proposed play concepts.

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IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA TIMOR GAP/BONAPAR TE BAS BANGLADESH GULF OF THA ILAND – THAILAND AND THE OCA INDO

international Asia CAMBODIA

• Investigate the stratigraphic distribution of effective hydrocarbon source rocks in the area • Determine the structural style and provide a balanced interpretation of the structural mechanism for the origin of each basin in the study area • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Provide a summary of the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of Cambodia and the Overlapping Zone • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data including electric logs for the area

GULF OF THAILAND – CAMBODIA AND THE OCA

T

he study, encompassing the Khmer Trough/Shelf and the Overlapping Zone, has well control from nine (9) wells in Cambodia, and associated seismic in both Cambodian waters and the Overlapping Zone, together with four wells bordering the overlapping zone in Thai waters. This study is designed to complement Core Laboratories’ 1995-1999 study of the Gulf of Thailand, though it can be used independently. A key feature of this study is the creation of a digital database of electric logs, well and laboratory data, and a HTML version of the interpretive report and figures. The well database includes wells up to and including 1996. The Overlapping Zone studied will thus have well control from both Thai and Cambodian wells. The study offers upstream asset evaluation teams a complete tool for the geological and economical analysis of forthcoming opportunities in the area. The technical objectives of the proposed study are to provide a geological model of the area. The geological model will provide an improved basis for paleogeographic, structural, and hydrocarbon evaluation, and functioning of petroleum systems. This will be achieved through the following approach:

THAILAND

Four (4) bound interpretive volumes are provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with seismic sections, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections.Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program will be synthesized into a regional petroleum geology synthesis, outlining current and proposed play concepts.

• Construct a basin-wide lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework as a basis to establish a non-marine sequence stratigraphy and models of sedimentary facies for such sequences in Cambodia and the Gulf of Thailand

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ANGLADESH GULF OF THAILAND – CAMBODIA AND THE OCA BANG IAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA TARAKAN BASIN INDONESIA

international Asia VIETNAM

CAMBODIA

SOUTH CHINA SEA

• Characterization of the reservoir quality and petrophysical properties of all drilled reservoir lithologies • Evaluation of the seal rocks of the reservoirs

VIETNAM – RESERVOIRS AND SEALS OF THE CUU LONG, NAM CON SON AND MALAY THO CHU BASINS

Vietnam Petroleum Institute (VPI)

and Core Laboratories, with the approval of PetroVietnam, are pleased to present this reservoirs and seals study for Vietnam. Vietnam’s southern basins have long provided technical and financial reward with Oil and Gas plays in the three basins. However, the exploration success has been mixed and current players in the region are looking at a number of alternative plays. Many such plays involve complex reservoir systems and require accurate data to input into basin modeling programs. The lack of regional data and/or data trades hinders the evaluation of new play concepts. This study, completed in 4Q 2009, aims to evaluate all reservoir systems within the drilled succession and to assess regional and local seals within a robust correlative framework. An unprecedented database of forty-five (45) wells and 4,500 km of seismic has been assembled for study purposes. The project focuses on the following:

The project utilizes rock samples from reservoirs and seals represented by conventional core, sidewall cores and/or drill cutting samples. The data are provided within individual well reports, an integrated final report, and are also accessible digitally across the internet in Core Laboratories RAPID database system. This large and searchable database provides operators with valuable information for geological evaluation and reducing risk. Given the general lack of access to regional data, the study provides value as follows: • Cost ef f ective pur ch ase of f or ty -f ive ( 45) we l l s , geoscien ce data/electric logs • Access to newly-generated data by Core Laboratories • A un iq ue dataset of r ock petr oph y sics an d measur ed seal parameters

• Establishment of a regional stratigraphic framework based on biostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy

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IMOR/GAP BONAPAR TE BASIN GULF OF THAILAND – CAMBODIA AND HE OCA INDONESIA – COAL IRIAN JAYA AND PAPUA NEW GUINEA

international Asia SAUDI ARABIA YEMEN

d fA Gulf o

en

the geological, petrophysical and engineering properties of sandstone and carbonate rock types on a worldwide basis. The Worldwide Rock Catalog is organized and presented in a standardized format which serves numerous member companies as a primary source of rock property data covering a broad spectrum of reservoir rock types for improved exploration and production related formation evaluation. Core Laboratories developed the Yemen Rock Catalog which focuses on the spectrum of clastic and carbonate rock types found in the Republic of Yemen. The objectives of the Yemen Rock Catalog are the same as for the Worldwide Rock Catalog:

YEMEN ROCK CATALOG A C ATA LO G O F GEO LO GI CAL AND EN GI N EERI N G P RO P ER TI ES FOR SA N D STO N ES A N D CA RBONAT ES REP U BLI C O F YEMEN

Core Laboratories completed a project to

measure, document and interpret, in a catalog format, an extensive array of geological and petrophysical properties for Cretaceous, Jurassic and Paleozoic reservoir rock types in the Republic of Yemen. The analyses was performed on conventional core samples selected to represent the full spectrum of various reservoir rock types encountered in clastic and carbonate producing and potentially producing formations. The various rock types and their associated data in the Yemen Rock Catalog serve as reference analogs for more accurate estimates of formation parameters, producibility and reservoir behavior of non-cored reservoir intervals. The catalog will also supply geologists and engineers with analog data and parameters for modeling reservoir behavior and making reservoir management decisions. The study is patterned after our Worldwide Rock Catalog™ which characterizes and evaluates

• Provide a reference manual containing “analog” sandstone and carbonate rock types for more accurate estimates of formation parameters • Establish a comprehensive geological and engineering data base over a spectrum of sandstone and carbonate rock types • Define relationships and correlations between laboratory measured petrophysical data and estimates of reservoir rock properties from visual observations of core, sidewall, and/or rock cuttings material

The various rock types and d a t a i n t h e Ye m e n R o c k as reference analogs for estimates of formation

their associated Catalog serve more accurate parameters.

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AUSTRALIA

international Australia AUSTRALIA

and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting potentially productive shale formations from Australia. Specifically, these prospective shale sections will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geochemical, and where applicable geomechanical properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, and production test information as available. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells but also on other operator’s wells. The project will be focused on utilizing the experience of evaluating numerous North American gas shale wells in expanding the evaluation of shale reservoirs in Australia.

AUSTRALIA SHALE

C

ore Laboratories expanded our industry-leading study of Shale Reservoirs to areas outside of North America - Phase 2 – Global Shale Reservoirs. For those companies assessing Australia for future Shale Exploration and Exploitation, an evaluation of prospective Shale Reservoirs throughout the Australian Basins will be available as a subset of the Phase 2 Study, with comparisons to analogs in North America, but not access to the North American dataset. This project will consist of over 25 seeded legacy wells analyzed in the Cooper, Perth, Beeteloo and Queensland Basins. Core Laboratories will continue with the further characterization

83

BASINS – PHASE I YEMEN ROCK CATALOG NIGER DELTA GEOCHEMINS PRE-SALT – PHASE I WEST AFRICA WEST AFRICA GEOCHEMISTR

COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES

CIS

international Commonwealth of Independent States

SEA OF OKHOTSK

The study objective is to characterize the regional hydrocarbon source potential of Oligocene siliceous rocks and to determine where in the Sakhalin area Oligocene source rocks are effective, that is where Oligocene source rocks have contributed hydrocarbons to petroleum accumulations. Core Lab has obtained regional coverage of 100 mostly Oligocene source rock samples from seventeen (17) subsurface (well) and two outcrop locations. The sample suite also includes the Middle/Lower Miocene Pilsk formation which is a locally developed siliceous shale in the northern Sakhalin area. Crude oil samples were collected from eight (8) locations in the study area including both Oligocene and younger reservoirs. The results of this study are presented in this interpretive report as well as in analytical data volumes. This report provides an interpretation of the extensive geochemical database generated by Core Laboratories for this study. Maps, tables, and graphical displays of geochemical data are included in this interpretive report. The bulk of the analytical data is presented in the Oil and Rock Data Volumes.

SAKHALIN ISLAND MIOCENE AND OLIGOCENE GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY

I

n 1993 Core Laboratories completed a regional geochemical study of mostly Miocene clastic source rocks in the Sakhalin area. Oil companies participating in this first study requested that Core Lab develop a similar study which primarily focuses on Oligocene siliceous rocks in the same area. The Oligocene Pilengsk, a siliceous shale, is known to be a source rock for oil accumulations in the Okruzhnoye field where oil is produced from within fractures. A regional geochemistry study of the Oligocene Pilengsk and its equivalents will help determine the extent of this fractured shale play throughout the Sakhalin area. The contribution of oil from Oligocene source rocks to Miocene and younger reservoirs will also be examined. Results can be used to develop plays based on the migration pathways between Oligocene source rocks and younger reservoirs.

SEA OF OKHOTSK

SAKHALIN RESERVOIR STUDY

T

he study was undertaken to provide a uniform and comprehensive geochemical database from which to correlate oils and source rocks. A total of thirty-six (36) crude oils from nineteen (19) oil fields, and eighty-eight (88) source rock samples from twentyone (21) locations were collected. Crude oil samples were selected to provide a regional representation of onshore production from which to compare with offshore oils on the northeast shelf. Some oils were collected from different pay and different age reservoirs within the same field to examine vertical variations. Source rock samples were generally selected from the same fields from which oils were collected in order to examine vertical variations. Source rock samples were generally selected from the same fields from which oils were collected in

order to examine interbedded source-reservoir relationships. An effort was made to collect potential source rocks of different ages at each location to examine thermal maturity profiles. All source rock samples were core samples of subsurface strata at well locations. The major objective of the study is to identify oil/source rock relationships. An analytical program was developed to: • Determine the nature and distribution of different oil families • Evaluate source rock quality of different stratigraphic units • Correlate oils with their source rocks. In the conclusions section of this report, results of the study are presented in terms of their exploration significance.

The results of this study are presented in an interpretive report as well as in three analytical data volumes and a data CD.

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AKHALIN ISLAND MIOCENE AND OLIGOCENE GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY AKHALIN RESER VOIR WEST SIBERIA RESER VOIR ROCK CATALOG SA

international Commonwealth of Independent States

R U SS IA

WEST SIBERIA RESERVOIR ROCK CATALOG

A

total of 500 core plugs from fifteen (15) reservoir units in nine (9) oil fields in the southern part of western Siberia were selected to provide stratigraphic and regional coverage and analyzed to provide a database of petrophysical, petrographic, and mineralogical characteristics of major Jurassic and Cretaceous producing reservoirs.

The data presented in this study may be used to help assess reservoir quality and flow potential, identify controls on porosity and permeability, examine regional controls on reservoir quality, evaluate the potential for formation damage, correlate petrophysical data with wireline logs, and compare Russian and western-measured porosity and permeability data.

Presenting petrophysical, petrographic, and mineralogical characteristics of major Jurassic and Cretaceous producing reservoirs.

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AKHALIN ISLAND MIOCENE AND OLIGOCENE GEOCHEMISTRY STUDY WEST SIBERIA RESER VOIR ROCK CATALOG WEST SIBERIA ROCK CATA

SOUTH AMERICA

international BOLIVIA

South America BOLIVIA SUB-ANDEAN BASINS

T

he Surubi discovery in the Mamore Block and numerous oil seeps throughout the Sub-Andean region have encouraged examination of the Sub-Andean zone. The number, quality and location of effective petroleum source rocks in the Bolivian Sub-Andean zone has important exploration applications. The purpose of this study is to provide information on oil/source relationships from which prospective plays in the region can be evaluated. One of the fundamental questions to be addressed is the possibility of multiple effective source rocks. Previously, the oils within the Santa Cruz Basin were considered to be of the same organic facies and that differences among the oils were due to the effects of fractionation occurring during migration (Illich, et al., 1981). This study will analyze a diversified suite of gases, oils, and rocks to provide a better understanding of hydrocarbon generation and migration within the Bolivian Sub-Andean study area. All potential Paleozoic source rocks in the region will be characterized in terms of their ability to generate both oil and gas. Results of the study will help identify the most attractive areas for oil and gas exploration. This geochemical study of the Bolivian SubAndean area includes the detailed geochemical

analysis and interpretation of more than thirty (30) oils and seeps and more than 650 potential source rock samples from forty (40) well and outcrop locations. Samples were selected to provide regional coverage of the northern, central and southern Sub-Andean areas including the Boomerang Hills area north of Santa Cruz. In addition, gas samples have been collected from ten fields representing the Boomerang Hills area, Santa Cruz Basin, and central and southern Sub-Andean zone. The geochemical study will assess the source rock potential of all Paleozoic stratigraphic units in the Bolivian Sub-Andean study area. Particular attention will be given to understanding the controls on oil and gas distribution. Results provide new insight on oil/source relationships in the Sub-Andean belt and the adjacent parts of the Beni and Chaco Plains. Results of the study will be presented in both analytical and interpretive formats to ensure that all findings are readily accessible to explorationists and research personnel. The oil and source rock data will be presented in data volumes with excerpts of the key data incorporated into the final synthesis report. A comprehensive synthesis and interpretation of all the geochemical data will be presented in a final report. Maps of organic richness and thermal maturity as well as cross sections showing depths of the oil window will be provided in the synthesis.

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BRAZIL – CENTRAL OFFSHORE BASINS PETROLEUM GEOLOGY

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he Central (Espirito – Santo to Sergipe-Alagoas) offshore basins of Brazil have been subject of much speculation by the industry as a result recent license rounds. Although seismic coverage is now extensive, well data is less available. Core Laboratories and Fundacao CCMN (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) are pleased to present the generation of an all-new geological sciences dataset (biostratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology and petrophysics) from fifty-eight (58) wells. The study has the full approval (under Ordinance 114) of ANP. In total fifty-eight (58) wells have been analyzed and presented in a regional setting. The study was undertaken in two phases: Phase A - Espirito Santo to Jequitinhonha Basins, and Phase B - Almada to Sergipe Alagoas Basins. These phases are available combined or separately. The study was completed in January 2003. The main technical objective of the study is to provide a geological database for the Central Basins consisting of biostratigraphic, geochemical, reservoir geology and petrophysical data. This data set will form the basic framework for the development of an improved geological model of the Central Basins. It will be of great value to further hydrocarbon evaluation studies by the participating

companies and will add to the understanding of the functioning of petroleum systems in the Central Basins. The following approach has been applied throughout the study: • Construct a basin-wide biostratigraphic framework through the integration of lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and wireline log data • Constrain an extensive geochemical database within this stratigraphic framework and identify the functioning elements of the petroleum systems • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality and seal effectiveness • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology of the area • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data, including electric logs for the area and HTML version of the report

Five (5) bound interpretive volumes of each phase is provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program are synthesised into a regional petroleum geology, outlining current and proposed play concepts.

Core Laboratories and Federal University of Rio de Janeiro are pleased to present the generation of an all-new geological sciences dataset.

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the carbonate reservoirs, integrated with evaluation of associated seal rock lithologies and correlated with the local tectonic or halokinetic structures. The study is approved under Ordinance 114 by ANP. The primary technical objective of the proposed study is to extend the geological model of carbonate plays established for the shelfal parts of the Brazil Basins to establish a high-resolution, fully integrated, geological model for the Cretaceous carbonates. The study will primarily focus on carbonates of Aptian to Cenomanian age which include a range of shallow marine and reworked deep marine facies. Interpretation of data will include high resolution analysis of depositional environments, reservoir and seal geometries. Five (5) bound interpretive volumes are provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, and cross sections. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program will be presented in a regional synthesis of study results.

BRAZIL – CRETACEOUS CARBONATES OF SE MARGIN

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he recent hydrocarbon discovery by Petrobras in Block 500 of the Santos Basin, within an interval interpreted to be highly porous, possibly fractured carbonates, has rekindled international interest within the carbonate plays along the Brazilian Margin, particularly within the region from the Santos Basin northward through to the northern Espirito Santo Basin. Further discoveries in BC 200 and in the vicinity of the Guarajuba field has further underlined such interest. Core Laboratories is pleased to present a study to evaluate the Cretaceous carbonates. The objective is to undertake a detailed investigation of the sedimentological, petrographical, biostratigraphical and petrophysical properties of

BRAZIL

In addition, high resolution, quantitative biostratigraphical analyses will be performed on drill cutting samples in order to place the cored intervals into a regional stratigraphic framework. The analysis of seal rocks and their hydrocarbon column capacity will compliment the reservoir description. These types of data and interpretations, integrated into a regional database, will significantly enhance participating companies’ understanding of these deepwater reservoirs for improved exploration and exploitation efforts. All of these data, besides being provided in individual well reports and in a final report, will be accessible digitally across the internet in Core Laboratories RAPID database system. The primary objective of the project is to provide each participating company with detailed geological, biostratigraphical, and petrophysical characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional reservoir and seal cores taken in the deepwater blocks of the Campos Basin.

BRAZIL – DEEPWATER CAMPOS BASIN

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eservoir characterization data pertaining to the deepwater reservoirs of the Campos Basin is critical to many companies’ evaluation program in Brazil. This data is generally not available to companies other than Petrobras. Restrictions governing the sampling of core have prevented such a database being generated on an individual basis or indeed basin-wide. Core Laboratories and its partners have obtained approval (under Ordinance 114) to describe, sample and analyze cores and cuttings samples from twenty-eight (28) wells in the Campos Basin. The study was completed in 2004. The study will focus on determining the depositional facies and environments of the slope and deepwater turbidite reservoirs, along with their petrographic and petrophysical properties.

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from these wells. The work program will cover: stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology and petrophysics, and will include newly generated analytical data. Interpretation will benefit from Core Laboratories experience gained in West Africa working on the Ivorian Transform Margin. The key components of the study are as follows:

BRAZIL – EQUATORIAL MARGINS

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he Equatorial Basins of Brazil (Potiguar, Ceara, Barreirinhas, Para-Maranhao and Foz do Amazonas) are attracting considerable industry interest because of well-documented large hydrocarbon discoveries within the conjugate transform basins of West Africa, including large oil fields in Ghana and the more recent new oil discovery in Sierra Leone, that provide hope of exploiting a large deepwater oil province (700 miles) across four countries across the African margin. Core Laboratories has commenced work on an integrated regional geological study of approximately 60 wells in the Brazil Equatorial Offshore Basins. The study has the full approval (under Ordinance 289) of ANP, and will be based on a suite of ditch cuttings, cores and fluids

• Biostratigraphy/Sequence Stratigraphy of study wells • Reservoir Description and Rock Property Evaluation of all major reservoir units • Rock Typing of uncored sections • Seal Atlas of major seal lithologies • Regional source rock evaluation and thermal maturity • Fluid characterization • Paleogeographic Maps (illustrating sediment transport pathways and depocentres) • Digital Database of laboratory and well data, including LAS files of the electric logs • HTML browser of the study dataset and report

BRAZIL

BRAZIL – SANTOS BASIN

The Santos Basin has been

heavily featured in all ANP License Rounds to date. Core Laboratories is pleased to present in this study, the generation of an all-new geoscience dataset (biostratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology and petrophysics) from thirty-one (31) wells. The study was initiated in January 2000 and completed in February 2001 under approval from ANP under Ordinance 114. PHASE II – DEEPWATER , a nine (9) well extension, was initiated in 2002. The main technical objective of the study is to provide a geological model of the Santos Basin. The geological model will provide an improved basis for hydrocarbon evaluation, and understanding of the functioning of petroleum systems. This was achieved through the following approach: • Construct a basin-wide biostratigraphic framework through the integration of lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and wireline log data

• Constrain an extensive geochemical database within this stratigraphic framework and identify the functioning of petroleum systems • Establish correlations between reservoir quality and depositional/diagenetic units, and evaluate controls on reservoir quality • Determine seal effectiveness, potential and controls on extent • Develop a summary of the petroleum geology of the area • Provide a digital database of laboratory and well data, including electric logs for the area • Provide a browser (HTML) version of the dataset and report

Five (5) bound interpretive volumes are provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps, isopachs and cross sections. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program have been synthesised into regional petroleum geology, outlining current and proposed play concepts.

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CABALLOS

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he Caballos Formation of Aptian-Albian age is an important reservoir in the Upper Magdalena Basin of Colombia. It has been studied at numerous outcrop localities along the basin margins. These outcrop studies which show considerable variation in Caballos depositional facies and reservoir properties need to be correlated with subsurface core data to develop a regional depositional framework and to examine regional variations in reservoir quality. This reservoir study of cores and outcrops was made to understand the depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality in the Caballos Formation. More than 3,200 feet of Caballos core from thirteen (13) wells were described and correlated with descriptions of Caballos outcrops at seventeen (17) locations. Analyses of biostratigraphy, petrology, and petrophysical properties were made to develop a regional time-stratigraphic framework, interpret depositional environment, and characterize reservoir quality. In addition, geochemical analyses of Villeta and Caballos shales were made to characterize source rock quality and thermal maturity. The results provide a better understanding of both source rocks and reservoirs in the Villeta-Caballos petroleum

system of the Upper Magdalena Valley. Cored wells and outcrop locations of the Caballos Formation were selected to provide regional and stratigraphic coverage in both the Neiva and Girardot Sub-Basins. New analyses including biostratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology, petrophysics, and geochemistry were integrated with available data to meet the following study objectives. • Establish basin-wide time framework for the Caballos Formation • Correlate Caballos units across the basin • Characterize and interpret Caballos depositional facies • Characterize petrophysical and petrographic properties and reservoir quality for each depositional facies • Determine depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality • Determine location of Villeta/Caballos source rock • Identify favorable areas for Caballos exploration

The results of this study are presented in a final synthesis report (Volume I) and in a number of data volumes (II and III). Analytical data are also provided in digital form.

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PERU

PERU – RESERVOIRS AND SEALS

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ore Laboratories is pleased to present this study of Peru with the approval and assistance of PeruPetro. The basins of Peru have long provided technical and financial reward with oil and gas plays in the major basins both on and offshore. However, current players in the region are looking at a number of alternative plays. Many such plays involve complex reservoir systems and require accurate data to input into basin modeling programs. The lack of regional data hinders the evaluation of new play concepts. This study, due for completion in 2012, aims to evaluate all reservoir systems within the drilled succession from approximately sixty-five (65) wells and to evaluate regional and local seals within a newly established correlative framework. The project focuses on the following: • Establishment of a regional stratigraphic framework based on biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy • Characterization of reservoir quality and petrophysical properties of all drilled reservoir lithologies in cored and uncored sections • Evaluation of seal rocks both locally and regionally

The project utilizes rock samples from reservoirs and seals represented by conventional core, sidewall cores and/or drill cutting samples. In excess of 4,000 feet of core is available for study. The data will be provided within an integrated final report, and will also be accessible digitally across the internet in Core Laboratories RAPID database system. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information for geological evaluation and reducing risk. The study report will be available in two phases which will be available together or separately: Phase I – Onshore Basins Phase II – Offshore Basins The primary objective of this project is to provide operators with key geological and petrophysical data derived from the evaluation of rock samples from numerous reservoirs and their seals. These interpretations and data will allow operators to improve their formation evaluation, assessment of reservoir quality, prediction of reservoir quality in un-drilled areas, and seal integrity evaluation within a correlative stratigraphic framework.

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primarily focus on sediments of Berriasian to Aptian age which include a range of fluvialcontinental, shallow lake and resedimented deep lake facies. Interpretation of data will include high-resolution biostratigraphy, geochemistry and detailed analysis of depositional environments, reservoir and seal geometries. Besides the well-documented fluvial and shallow lacustrine facies of the Atlantic Margin Basins, data from our Atlantic Margin studies (Core Laboratories, 2002/3) suggests the presence of some deeper water lake turbidite or debris flow deposits and local pre-rift Aeolian sandstones with considerable reservoir potential. In addition to detailed sedimentology, the project will include full evaluation of reservoir quality and reservoir fracturing as appropriate through detailed petrographic analysis of thin sections and macroscopic analysis of any core fracture systems. Detailed regional evaluation of the Berriasian to Aptian succession will provide the integrated geological dataset required for geological modelling and optimum reservoir description of all rift plays. Five (5) bound interpretive volumes of each margin will be provided. These volumes are fully illustrated with figures, analytical data and regional data in the form of maps and cross sections. Conclusions from the analytical and interpretive program will be synthesised into regional interpretations.

SOUTH ATLANTIC MARGINS PRE-SALT – PHASE II BRAZIL

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ore Laboratories has now built up extensive expertise in the regional petroleum geology of both the Brazilian and West African Atlantic Margin Basins. Our recent geological studies of nine (9) Brazilian basins (Core Laboratories non-proprietary studies, 2001 - 2003) have established an integrated geological model for the shelfal and deepwater areas of the eastern Brazilian Margin. In the mid-1990s Core Lab completed two land mark geochemical and reservoir evaluations of the Pre-Salt of West Africa. The Gabon/Congo areas were substantially updated and expanded during 2003. Recent hydrocarbon discoveries in pre-salt reservoirs have rekindled international interest within the clastic and carbonate rift and pre-rift plays along both the Brazilian and West African Margins. The study was undertaken on ditch cuttings, cores, sidewall cores and fluids from a suite of wells and oils. The primary technical objective of the study is to extend the geological model of pre-salt plays established for the shelfal parts of the Atlantic Margin Basins to establish a high-resolution, fully integrated, geological model for the rift and pre-rift reservoirs and source horizons. The study will

Our recent geological studies of nine Brazilian basins have established an integrated geological model for the shelfal and deepwater areas of the eastern Brazilian Margin.

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SUB-ANDEAN BASINS OIL GEOCHEMISTRY

The sedimentary basins along

the eastern face of the Andean range commonly referred to as SubAndean Basins, have long been recognized for their excellent source rock quality and oil production. From western Venezuela to southern Argentina there are no fewer than fifteen (15) separate oil productive basins that lie directly east of the Andes. Although the oils produced from these basins have widely differing characteristics, there is an obvious interrelationship throughout much of the region. To assist in the continued exploration of the region, Core Laboratories has completed a regional petroleum evaluation of selected crude oil samples from each of the major basins. The study entails the analysis of 172 oil samples distributed among twenty (20) different basins. The analytical program is extensive, and is designed to provide the necessary compositional data to accomplish detailed oil-to-oil correlations and, if needed, oil-to-source rock correlations. The principal objectives of this study are as follows:

• Characterize each of the oil families using both bulk property and molecular techniques including stable isotope and terpenoid biomarker analyses • Map the distribution of the various oil families • Detect and quantify the differences in thermal maturation and timing of generation as well as the effects of post-reservoir alteration on the various oil groups • Predict corresponding source rock depositional environments for each family based on crude oil geochemistry

To meet these objectives we have analyzed 172 crude oils from the following basins: Austral Basin Barinas Basin Bolivian Altiplano (seeps) Coastal Peru Basin Cuyanas Basin Llanos Basin Madre De Dios Basin Marañon Basin Middle Magdalena Basin

Neuquen Basin Noroeste Basin Oriente Basin Putumayo Basin San Jorge Basin Santa Cruz Basin Santa Cruz Basin Ucayali Basin Upper Magdalena Basin

• Determine the number of genetically distinct oil families distributed among the twenty (20) basins

There are no fewer than fifteen separate oil productive basins that lie directly east of the Andes.

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BRAZIL

TRANSFORM MARGINS – RESERVOIRS AND SEALS II: THE EQUATORIAL BASINS OF BRAZIL

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ore Laboratories are pleased to present the generation of an allnew integrated geological sciences dataset (stratigraphy, geochemistry, reservoir geology and petrophysics) from c.60 wells in the Brazil Equatorial Offshore Basins. The study is based on a suite of ditch cuttings, cores and fluids from these wells. The study has the full approval (under Ordinance 289) of ANP. The Equatorial Basins of Brazil (Potiguar, Ceara, Barreirinhas, Para-Maranhao and Foz do Amazonas) are attracting considerable industry interest

because of well-documented large hydrocarbon discoveries within the conjugate transform basins of West Africa, including large oil fields in Ghana and the more recent new oil discovery in Sierra Leone, that provide hope of exploiting a large deepwater oil province (700 miles) across four countries across the African margin. The primary objective of the Equatorial Basin study is to undertake a full evaluation of all major reservoir intervals penetrated in the study wells, combined with an evaluation of associated seal rock lithologies and evaluation of regional source units and thermal maturity. The study will focus primarily on full interpretation and integration of all rock data, but all fluid occurrences will also be characterized and correlated.

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GLOBAL

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global GLOBAL GAS SHALE

terms of the key factors that relate to a Gas Shale’s productivity. All of these data and interpretations are provided in Core Lab’s RAPID™ database application to the member companies and presented at periodic core workshops and technical seminars.

R E S E R V O I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N & C O MPLETI O N /STI MU LATI O N

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ore Laboratories has been conducting a joint industry project for the past four years focused on reservoir characterization and completion/stimulation of Gas Shales in North America (Phase I). Over sixty (60) member companies are contributing conventional core, well logs, completion, stimulation, and production data for a total of 189 wells to date. Core Lab has performed:

Core Laboratories is expanding our industryleading study of Gas Shales to areas outside of North America as a Phase II to our original study. Participants in the Phase II Study will receive all the data and interpretations from the North American Phase I Study and will contribute core and data from their own Gas Shale reservoirs. Participants will be able to leverage the North American data sets and technology in evaluating and developing their own Gas Shale reservoirs. These integrated data sets and case histories will provide operators with the critical parameters to optimize their exploitation of these reservoirs and reduce finding and development costs.

• An extensive core analysis program on each of these cores • Core-log calibration for petrophysical models and OGIP calculations • An evaluation of the completion, stimulation and production from these wells

In addition, Core Lab has synthesized the data and made comparisons of various Gas Shales in

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RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID™ SPOTFIRE ANALYTICS ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS RELATIVE PERM

global GLOBAL GAS SHALE This project will consist of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores, rotary sidewall cores, and drill cutting samples taken from multiple wells targeting potentially productive gas shale formations from around the world. Specifically, these prospective shale sections will be analyzed for geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties. These data will be integrated with well logs, stimulation designs, and production test information as available. This large and searchable database will provide operators with valuable information not only on their own wells but also on other operator’s wells. The project will be focused on utilizing the experience of evaluating numerous North American gas shale wells in expanding the evaluation of gas shale reservoirs globally.

The primary objective of this project is to provide operators with measured geological, petrophysical, geomechanical, geochemical, and production properties of the gas shale formations globally in order to improve their formation evaluation and to optimize stimulation and production. Our work in North America suggests that understanding the similarities and differences in shales is the key to successful exploration and exploitation. The resultant database will be an invaluable tool to operators in evaluating, comparing, and designing completion and stimulation methods for gas shale formations.

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WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS GL GAS SHALE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID™ SPOTFIRE

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R E S E R V O I R CHA RA CTERI ZATI O N A N D F R A C T UR E STI MU LATI O N O P TI MI ZATI O N

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ore Laboratories is conducting an ongoing multi-company, geo-engineering study of Tight Gas Sands that is being extended to areas outside of North America. For the past four years, our Fracture Stimulation Optimization technical teams have been analyzing and evaluating Tight Gas Sands in North America and have developed a very large and comprehensive database. This database consists of the characterization and evaluation of numerous conventional cores taken from multiple Tight Gas Sand formations, and integrates the data with the same stimulation design and production characteristics as a case history. This project will provide international operators with valuable information

not only on their own contributed wells, but also on other operators’ wells in other Tight Gas Sand formations. The data and understanding of the North American Tight Gas Sand reservoirs will provide international operators the most current reservoir characterization, completion designs, and production performance data that can serve as analogs and benchmarks for international Tight Gas Sand reservoirs. Project deliverables are managed and distributed within our RAPID™ database application. Each company joining the project will be required to contribute conventional cores for analysis, evaluation and inclusion into the database. The conventional core must be through a Tight Gas Sand reservoir.

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global RAPID™ Spotfire Analytics A N A P P LI C ATI ON FOR T H E R ET R IEVAL AND ANALYSIS O F C O RE- BASED PET R OPH YSICAL DATA SET S

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s an enhancement to the RAPID™ hosted data sets currently available in Core Laboratories’ joint industry projects, the Integrated Reservoir Solutions Division of Core Laboratories is offering a RAPID/TIBCO Spotfire Enterprise Player analytics service.

to geological, engineering and petrophysical professionals and decision-makers. Every time the software is opened, pre-built graphs are automatically updated with the latest data from RAPID in seconds. In addition, the data can be analyzed using Spotfire’s powerful filter and export options.

This analytical service represents a breakthrough in analytical capabilities for geological engineering and petrophysical datasets. Its use has the potential to significantly reduce the time professionals currently spend finding, formatting and analyzing critical petrophysical, geologic and engineering data while providing insight into the reservoir in ways that were previously unknown. Because part of this analytical service provides a direct “link” from the Spotfire application to the RAPID™ database, this service has been dubbed “RAPIDLink”.

RAPIDLink can be customized to meet the needs of specific users. In addition to complementing the regional studies, this service can be used to analyze your own proprietary data as well. Utilizing a team of experienced data loaders, proprietary core data sets may be loaded into the RAPID Database. Core Laboratories can then create a library of pre-designed analytical solutions for your organization. The library would be a repository through which professionals can access and analyze the core-related data sets in the joint industry projects, or proprietary core-related data sets.

RAPIDLink™ provides a convenient multi-user analytical solution, enabling an organization to easily deploy rich interactive analysis applications and workflows that deliver information insights

• Con sor tia pr oject data is viewable on deskto p with in secon ds • Pr e-built graph s ar e populated with f r esh data • Power f ul f ilter an d expor t option s • Pr oprietar y data can be loaded an d an aly zed

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global Relative Permeability Database FO R EN HA N C ED R ECOV ERY AND R ESER V OIR SIM ULAT ION

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elative permeability data is a key component in reservoir characterization, understanding reservoir behavior, and predicting recovery factors in EOR projects such as water floods. Relative permeability data is a critical input parameter for reservoir simulators. The databases are very expensive to acquire and in many cases are not readily available, such as in:

by having a relative permeability database that can be accessed to acquire the statistics and probability of these key parameters from analogs.

• Old fields • Acquisition candidates • Fast-track reservoir simulation of discovery wells

In these cases, the reservoir engineer is often left with his or her “best estimate” of residual oil, relative permeability, water cut curves and recovery factors. However, the uncertainty and risk involved in creating these estimates can be greatly reduced

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Core Laboratories has developed a searchable Relative Permeability Database, using our RAPID™ database application, for the purpose of enhancing operators’ prediction of reservoir behavior. Companies participating in the project contribute a required amount of relative permeability data for inclusion in the project. The data would form the initial database which would then grow as additional companies join the project. In this fashion, a very large relative permeability database of over 1,000 samples is anticipated and will continue to grow over time.

TIGHT GAS SANDS GLOBAL GAS SHALE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RAPID™ SPOTFIRE ANALYTIC S WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG

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A CATALOG OF GEOLOGICAL AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES FOR SANDSTONES AND CARBONATES

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ore Laboratories is pleased to offer membership in an ongoing project designed to characterize and evaluate the geological, petrophysical, and engineering properties of sandstone and carbonate rock types. The resultant Worldwide Rock Catalog™ serves member companies as a reference source of rock property data covering a broad spectrum of reservoir rock types for improved exploration and production related formation evaluation. This Worldwide Rock Catalog™ project was initiated in 1985 in association with Dr. Robert M. Sneider. Project participation is now approaching forty (40) companies and continues to grow. In exploration and exploitation activities geologists, petrophysicists and engineers make assumptions about reservoir-rock formation evaluation parameters when there is no available data. These assumptions can have a pronounced impact on decisions and economics. This database is designed to reduce the risk and improve the estimation of these parameters resulting in improved formation evaluation and prediction of production performance. Core Lab uses a proven system of

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classifying reservoir rock types that will provide the link between a “zone of interest” and an analog rock type in the database. Geoscientists and engineers will be able to access the rock property data by rock type, formation, depositional facies, log parameters, petrophysical properties, etc. The rock property data is organized and presented in a standardized digital catalog format. The project currently has well over 150 fully characterized productive reservoir rock types and is expanding rapidly. It is the largest rock property database commercially available today. The objectives of the Worldwide Rock Catalog are: • Provide a reference manual containing “analog” sandstone and carbonate rock types for more accurate estimates of formation parameters • Establish a comprehensive geological and engineering data base over a spectrum of sandstone and carbonate rock types • Define relationships and correlations between laboratory measured petrophysical data and estimates of reservoir rock properties from visual observations of core, sidewall, and/or rock cuttings material

WORLDWIDE ROCK/PORE CATALOG GLOBAL TIGHT GAS SANDS GL GAS SHALE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY DATABASE RAPID™ SPOTFIRE

global C A PI L L A RY P RESSU RE D ATA BA SE FO R E N H A N C E D FO RMATI O N EVA LU ATI O N A N D R E S E R V O I R SI MU LATI O N

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ore Lab’s searchable Capillary Pressure Database was created for the purpose of enhancing operator’s prediction of reservoir saturation behavior. A capillary pressure database with over 3000 samples is currently available to each member company - with an optional, secure and client-specific proprietary database available for each participant if they desire to have Core Laboratories host their own data for evaluation. Capillary pressure data are a key component in reservoir characterization as it is the primary method of characterizing the pore system of a reservoir. Capillary pressure data can be utilized to determine the following: • Determine distribution of fluids in the reservoir • Evaluate expected reservoir fluid saturations • Depths of fluid contacts • Transition zone thickness • Evaluate reservoir rock quality and rock type delineation • Estimate permeability and relative permeability • Differentiate pay from non-pay • Approximate recovery efficiency • Determine seal capacity Consequently, capillary pressure data are often used as a critical input parameter for formation

evaluation and reservoir simulation. Unfortunately, the data are, in many cases, not readily available, such as in: 1) old fields, 2) acquisition candidates, and 3) wildcat and discovery wells. In other cases, the petrophysicist or reservoir engineer may desire to model saturation profiles in order to confirm traditional “Archie” saturation models but are unsure as to which capillary pressure modeling technique will provide the “best estimate” of capillary pressure characteristics. The uncertainty and risk involved in making these decisions can be greatly reduced by having a capillary pressure database which can be accessed to model these key characteristics from either analog or clientproprietary data sets. Core Lab’s Capillary pressure database will have the following displays and functionality. • Data matching the search parameters will be displayed graphically. Various capillary pressure modeling techniques will be automatically evaluated and ranked for easy selection. • Users will be able to easily convert returned data to the reservoir conditions of their choosing. • Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle can be easily standardized. • Composite graphs showing data trends versus petrophysical parameters such as porosity, permeability, Flow Zone Indicator (FZI), etc. will provide an easy visual method of comparing the data.

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SHALE CHARACTERIZATION & PRODUCTION PROPER TIES OF NOR TH RICA TIGHT GAS SANDS FRACTURE OPTIMIZATION ARKANSAS –

Index All Studi e s:

Absaroka Geochemistry Study 50 Anadarko Basin Regional Study 36 Antler Basin Source Rock Study 50 Apalachicola Embayment Regional Study 20 Arkansas – Louisiana State Line Smackover Study 11 Arkansas – Louisiana Lower Cretaceous Study 10 Australia Shale 83 Avalon Wolfcamp Shale Regional Study 40 Bangladesh 73 Bolivia Sub-andean Basins 88 Bone Spring Sandstones Regional Study 41 Brazil – Central offshore Basins Petroleum Geology 89 Brazil – Cretaceous Carbonates of Se Margin 90 Brazil – Deepwater Campos Basin 90 Brazil – Equatorial Margins 91 Brazil – Santos Basin 91 Brushy Canyon Sandstones Study 42 Caballos 92 Codell Sandstone – Dj Basin 51 Côte D’ivoire – Regional Reservoirs and Seals 59 Côte D’ivoire – Regional Reservoirs and Seals: Update 59 Cotton Valley Regional Study 11 Deep Frio of South Texas Regional Study 21 Deep Frio Regional Study 20 Deep Shelf Gulf of Mexico Regional Study 17 Deepwater Gulf of Mexico Core Study 18 Delaware Mountain Group Regional Study 42 Denver Basin I and II Paleozoic Oil/Source Rock Study 50 Duvernay Regional Study 7 Eagle Ford Regional Study 21 Eaglebine Regional Study 22 East Texas Lower Cretaceous Regional Study 12 East Texas Smackover Regional Study 12 Gabon/North Congo Reservoirs 60 Gas Shales Reservoir Characterization and Production Properties of North America 2 Global Gas Shale 98 Global T ight Gas Sands 100 Granite Wash Regional Study 37 Gulf of Thailand – Cambodia and The OCA 79 Gulf of Thailand – Thailand and The OCA 78 Haynesville and Bossier Shale Study 13 Haynesville Core Study 22 Hydrocarbon Potentialof The Arbuckle Group – Oil and Gas Study 37 Indonesia – Coal 73 Indonesia – East Indonesia Foreland Basins 75 Indonesia – East Natuna 74 Indonesia – Shale Reservoirs 77 Indonesia – Tarakan Basin 76 Indonesia/Philippines – Deepwater Reservoirs Phase I 74 Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea 78 James Lime 13 Kenya – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase II 60 Libya – Pre-Upper Cretaceous Reservoirs of Onshore Sirt Basin 62 Libya – Reservoirs of offshore Basins-Phase II 61 Libya – Reservoirs of Onshore Basins-Phase I 61 Lobo Regional Study 23 Louisiana W ilcox Regional Study 24 Lower Smackover “Brown Dense” Exploration Reconnaissance Study 14 Lower Tuscaloosa Formation Regional Study 25 Mafla Smackover Regional Study 26 Marcellus Shale Study 4 Mississippi Lime 38 Missourian T ight Oil Reservoirs – Anadarko Basin 39 Montney Regional Study 8 Morrow Regional Study 43 Morrow Sequence Stratigraphy and Petrophysical Study 44 Mozambique – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase Iv 63 Namibia and The Orange Basin Reservoirs and Seals – South Atlantic Margin 63 Niger Delta Geochemistry Study 64 Niger Delta Reservoir Study 65 Niobrara Regional Study 51 Norphlet Reservoir Study 27 North Slope Alaska Source Rock Study 56 Offshore/Texas Louisiana – MioceneCore Study 19 Oklahoma Geochemistry Study 39 Oligocene Regional Study 27 Onshore South Louisiana Miocene Regional Study 28 Paradox Basin Regional Study 52 Pearsall Group Reservoir Evaluation 28 Peru – Reservoirs and Seals 93 Post Salt Reservoirs and Seals of The South Atlantic Margin 67

Prairie Du Chien Regional Study and Rock Catalog 35 Pre-Salt South Atlantic, Phase III: Pre-Salt Carbonates West 66 Queen Sandstones Regional Study 45 Rapid™ Spotfire Analytics 101 Relative Permeability Database 102 Sakhalin Island Miocene and Oligocene Geochemistry Study 85 Sakhalin Reservoir Study 85 San Joaquin Basin Petroleum Potential Regional Study 56 San Juan Basin Regional Study 53 San Juan Basin Rock Catalog 54 Senegal, Agc and Guinea Bissau – Central Atlantic Margins West Africa – Phase I 67 Smackover Reservoir Study 29 South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt – Phase I West Africa 68 South Atlantic Margins Pre-Salt – Phase II Brazil 94 Southern California Oil Study 56 Stevens Reservoir Study 57 Sub-andean Basins Oil Geochemistry 95 Tanzania – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals Phase I 69 Tanzania – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase I Update 68 Tatum Basin Regional Study 45 Temblor Regional Study 57 Thanksgiving Field Study 29 T ight Gas Sands Fracture Optimization 3 T ight Oil Reservoirs of The Midland Basin“Wolfberry”, Strawn, and Mississipian 46 Transform Margins – Reservoirs and Seals II: The Equatorial Basins of Brazil 96 Travis Peak- Hosston Sandstones 14 Uganda – East Africa Reservoirs and Seals: Phase III 71 Upper Cretaceous T ight Oil Reservoirs Powder River Basin 53 Upper Devonian Shales 5 Utica Regional Study 4 V icksburg Regional Study and Rock Catalog 30 V ietnam – Reservoirs and Seals of The Cuu Long, Nam Con Son and Malay Tho Chu Basins 80 West Africa Geochemistry Study 70 West Siberia Reservoir Rock Catalog 86 W ilcox Provenance Study 19 W ilcox Regional Study In South Texas 31 W ilcox Reservoir Study 32 W illiston Basin Regional Study 55 W ilrich – Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin 8 Wolfcamp Regional Study 47 Wolfcamp Reservoir Study 48 Woodbine Regional Study 15 46 Woodford Shale – Midland Basin Woodford Shale – Oklahoma 48 Worldwide Rock/Pore Catalog 103 Yegua Regional Study 33 Yemen Rock Catalog 81

I N T E G R AT E D R E S E R V O I R S O L U T I O N S D I V I S I O N O F F I C E S : U.S. & CANADA Core Laboratories 6316 Windfern Road Houston, TX 77040 Te l e p h o n e : 7 1 3 - 3 2 8 - 2 6 7 3 Fax: 713-328-2190

Integrated Reservoir Solutions Bay13, 19 Aero Drive NE C a l g a r y, A l b e r t a , C a n a d a T 2 E 8 Z 9 Canada Te l e p h o n e : 4 0 3 - 2 9 5 - 3 2 8 4 Fax: 403-295-3159

I N T E R N AT I O N A L Core Laboratories Unit 23, Ormside Way R e d h i l l , S u r r e y, R H 1 2 L W United Kingdom Te l e p h o n e : + 4 4 - 1 7 3 - 7 8 5 - 9 6 6 0 Fax: +44-173-785-9661 w w w. c o r e l a b . c o m / i r s

For more information regarding Regional Reservoir and Rock Property Studies contact; [email protected]

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