Resenha - PORTO MACEDO JR. Do Xadrez à Cortesia

January 30, 2019 | Author: Cesar Felipe Bolzani | Category: Max Weber, Language Interpretation, Science, Definition, Morality
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Resenha da obra Do Xadrez à Cortesia de Ronaldo Porto Macedo Júnior....

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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM DIREITO TEORIA GERAL DO DIREITO CONSTITUCIONAL Prof. Vera Karam e C!"e#r# Me$%ra&o' Ce$ar Fe(#)e *o(+a&# - MACEDO ,UNIOR ,UNIOR Ro&a(o Por%o. Por%o. Do xadrez à cortesia. Dor/#& e a %eor#a o #re#%o 0o&%em)or1&ea. S2o Pa"(o' Sara#3a 4567.

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A o9ra 9"$0a emo&$%rar 0omo a a:e&a a %eor#a o #re#%o 0o&%em)or1&ea a;"#r#" "m 0ar$%#0a ?< #e&%#f#0%#0 0r>%#0a$ a$ e Ro& Ro&a( a( Dor D or/# /#& & ;"e ;"e %er# %er#aa ofer ofere0 e0# #oo re$) re$)o$ o$%a %a$$ ma#$ ma#$ ae; ae;"a "aa a$$ a%ra a%ra3 3$$ e $"a $"a %eor %eor#a #a #&%er)re%a%#3#$%a o #re#%o.

6. O #re#%o #re#%o e a f#(o$of#a' f#(o$of#a' "ma &o3a &o3a a:e&a a:e&a %e=r#0o-?"r> %e=r#0o-?"r>#0a #0a

&a A(ema&!a a f#(o$of#a o #re#%o &2o  ma#$ %arefa e0("$#3a o$ f#(=$ofo$ H.... E o fa%o e a f#(o$of#a o #re#%o J ;"a&o a#&a 9"$0a o 0o&%a%o 0om a rea(#ae $o0#a( J %er em#:rao )ara a$ fa0"(ae$ e #re#%o  9a$%a&%e $":e$%#3o. H... O ;"e a&%#:ame&%e )o#a $er ma&%#o 0oe$o em 0o&0e#%o$ e f#(o f#(o$o $of# f#aa !e:e !e:e(# (#a& a&a a e#: e#:ee !o?e !o?e "m )("r )("ra( a(#$ #$mo mo e )ro0 )ro0e e#m #me& e&%o %o$$ me%oo(=:#0o$ ;"e #&0("# a$ )er$)e0%#3a$ a %eor#a o #re#%o a $o0#o(o:#a o #re#%o e a !#$%=r#a o #re#%o a %eor#a mora( e a %eor#a a $o0#eae. 6 1 HABERMAS, Jürgen. Prefácio. In Direito e democracia: entre facticidade e vaidade. !rad"#$o de %ávio Beno Sie&eneic'er. Rio de Janeiro: !em(o Bra)ieiro, 1**+, v. 1, (. -/0 v., (. -.

A f#(o$of#a o #re#%o )or%a&%o &a$ (%#ma$ 0aa$ fo# e$(o0aa a$ fa0"(ae$ e f#(o$of#a )ara a$ fa0"(ae$ e #re#%o. Dor/#& e @a9erma$ )are0em $":er#r ;"e %a( e$(o0ame&%o e %ema$ 0omo a f#(o$of#a mora( e )o(>%#0a a0a9o" :era&o "ma e$)0#e e ?"#0#a(#+a82o e$$a$ ma%r#a$ %ra9a(!aa$ %ra9a(!aa$ )or o)eraore$ o #re#%o &o $e" #a a #a. Por e$$a ra+2o a )ar%#r o$ a&o$ 65 o e9a%e &a %eor#a o #re#%o %er#a a$$"m#o 0ar&#o$ f#(o$=f#0o$ em %ema$ e 0arr#0a o" !erm !erme& e&" "%# %#0a 0a &o e$%" e$%"o o a$ a$ )r3e( 0o&!e0er o #re#%o %a( 0omo  o" &a$ )a(a3ra$ e Nor9er%o *o99#o' O )o$#%#3#$mo ?"r>#0o &a$0e o e$for8o e %ra&$formar o e$%"o o #re#%o &"ma 3erae#ra e ae;"aa 0#&0#a ;"e %#3e$$e a$ me$ma$ 0ara0%er>$%#0a$

a$ 0#&0#a$ 0#&0#a$ f>$#0o-ma%em$#0o-ma%em+o$ e fa%o e ?">+o$ e 3a(or e &a r#:oro$a e0("$2o e$%e$ (%#mo$ o 0am)o 0#e&%>f#0o' a 0#&0#a 0o&$#$%e $ome&%e em ?">+o$ e fa%o. O mo%#3o e$$a #$%#&82o e e$$a e0("$2o re$#e &a &a%"re+a #3er$a e$$e$ o#$ %#)o$ e ?">+o' o ?">+o e fa%o re)re$e&%a "ma %omaa e 0o&!e0#me&%o a rea(#ae 3#$%o ;"e a form"(a82o e %a( ?">+o %em a)e&a$ a f#&a(#ae e #&formar e 0om"�ar a "m o"%ro a m#&!a 0o&$%a%a82o o ?">+o e 3a(or  re)re$e&%a ao 0o&%r+o e fa%o $e #:o e$%e 0" r"9ro  9e(o form"(o "m ?">+o e 3a(orQ 4 @. L. A. @ar% ;"e$%#o&ar#a ma#$ %are e$$a 0o&0e)82o f#$#0a(#$%a o #re#%o. A)o#ao for%eme&%e &a f#(o$of#a a (#&:"a:em e L"#: #%%:e&$%e#& @ar% 0!ama a a%e&82o  )ara o 0o&0e#%o e conceito ;"e e$%< $e&o "%#(#+ao emo&$%ra&o $"a for%e 0o&e2o 0om ;"e$%Be$ )er%#&e&%e$ )er%#&e&%e$ $o9re $e"$ e(eme&%o$ 0o&$%#%"%#3o$. A$$#m' Por 3e+e$ &e$$e$ 0a$o$ a ef#Ro e "ma )a(a3ra )oe for&e0er %a( ma)a' a "m $= e ao me$mo %em)o )oe %or&ar e)(>0#%o o )r#&0>)#o (a%e&%e ;"e :"#a o &o$$o "$o e "ma )a(a3ra e )oe ma&#fe$%ar re(a8Be$ e&%re o %#)o e fe&me&o$ a ;"e &=$ a)(#0amo$ a )a(a3ra e o"%ro$ fe&me&o$. D#+-$e )or  3e+e$ ;"e a ef#Ro  merame&%e 3er9a( o" $= re(a%#3a a$ )a(a3ra$ ma$ #$$o )oe $er m"#%o e&:a&aor ;"a&o a e)re$$2o ef#&#a  e "$o 0orre&%e. Me$mo a ef#Ro e "m %r#a&:"(o 0omo "ma f#:"ra re%#(>&ea e %r$ (ao$ o" a ef#Ro e e(efa&%e 0omo "m ;"ar)ee #$%#&%o o$ o"%ro$ )e(a )o$$e e "ma )e(e :ro$$a )re$a$ e %rom9a e("0#a-&o$ e "ma forma moe$%a ;"er ;"a&%o ao "$o-)ar2o e$%a$ )a(a3ra$ ;"er ;"a&%o $ 0o#$a$ a ;"e a$ )a(a3ra$ $e a)(#0am. H... E$%a forma e ef#Ro   per genus et differentiam), ;"e $e 3 &o 0a$o 0ome+#&!o o %r#1&:"(o o" o e(efa&%e  a ma#$ $#m)(e$ e )ara a(:"&$ a ma#$ $a%#$fa%=r#a )or;"e &o$ < "ma $r#e e  )a(a3ra$ ;"e )oe $er $em)re $"9$%#%">a )e(a )a(a3ra ef#&#a. Ma$ &em $em)re e$%< #$)o&>3e( $em $em)re  0(ar#f#0aora ;"a&o #$)o&>3e(. O $e" $e" $"0e $"0e$$ $$oo e)e e)e& &ee e 0o& 0o&#8 #8Be Be$$ ;"e ;"e fre; fre;"e "e&% &%em eme& e&%e %e &2o &2o e$%2 e$%2oo  )ree&0!#a$. A )r#&0#)a( e&%re e$%a$ (%#ma$ (% #ma$  ;"e e3#a !a3er "ma fam>(#a ma#$ ma#$ e%e& e%e&$a $a e 0o#$a$ 0o#$a$ o"  genus re(a%#3ame&%e a 0"?a &a%"re+a e$%amo$ e$0(are0#o$ e e&%ro a ;"a( a ef#Ro (o0a(#+a o ;"e ef#&e )or;"e 0(arame&% 0(arame&%e e "ma ef#Ro ef#Ro ;"e &o$ #+ a(:o ;"e  mem9ro mem9ro e "ma fam>(#a fam>(#a &2o &o$ )oe a?"ar $e %#3ermo$ a)e&a$ #e#a$ 3a:a$ o" 0o&f"$a$ ;"a&o  &a%"re+a a fam>(#a.  e$%a e#:&0#a ;"e &o 0a$o o #re#%o %or&a #&%#( e$%a  B2BBI2, 3or&erto. 2 (o)itivi)mo 4"r5dico: i#6e) de 7o)o7a do direito. S8o Pa"o: 9cone, 1**. P. 1-

forma e ef#Ro )or;"e a;"# &2o !< "ma 0a%e:or#a :era( 9em 0o&!e0#a e fam#(#ar e ;"e o #re#%o $e?a mem9ro. O ma#$ =93#o 0a&#a%o )ara "$o e$%e moo &"ma ef#Ro e #re#%o  a fam>(#a :era( e re:ra$ e 0om)or%ame&%o 0o&%"o o 0o&0e#%o e re:ra 0omo 3#mo$  %2o 0a"$aor  e )er)(e#ae 0omo o o )r=)r#o #re#%o e %a( forma ;"e ef#Be$ e #re#%o ;"e 0ome8am )or #e&%#f#0ar a$ (e#$ 0omo "ma e$)0#e e re:ra$ &orma(me&%e &2o a"me&%am ma#$ a &o$$a 0om)ree&$2o o #re#%o. Para #$%o e#:e-$e a(:o e ma#$ f"&ame&%a( o ;"e "ma forma e ef#Ro ;"e $e?a "%#(#+aa 0om $"0e$$o )ara (o0a(#+ar "m %#)o e$)e0#a( e $"9or#&ao e&%ro e "m %#)o :e&r#0o e 0o#$a fam#(#ar e 9em 0o&!e0#o.  De$%a ma&e#ra $er#a )o"0o 0(ar#f#0aor #+er a)e&a$ ;"e (e#$ $2o %#)o$ e re:ra$ $e&o &e0e$$0#e @ar% e)(#0a ;"e "m !omem $em &e&!"m 0a9e(o &a 0a9e8a  &o%aame&%e 0are0a e&;"a&%o "m !omem 0om "ma 0a9e(e#ra e&$a &2o o  ma$ "m !omem 0om a)e&a$ a(:"&$ %"fo$ e 0a9e(o  o" &2o 0are0a Ta( ;"e$%2o em a(:"&$ mome&%o$ $er#a "ma mera ;"e$%2o e :ra"  )o$$>3e( $e fa(ar em #fere&%e$ :ra"$ e 0a(3>0#eQ )or o"%ro (ao a(:"ma$ 3e+e$ 0omo &o 0a$o o #re#%o  )o$$>3e( ;"e &2o $e %ra%e e "ma mera ;"e$%2o e :ra" ma$ "m )ro9(ema ;"e $"r:e ;"a&o o 0a$o-)ar2o  e fa%o "m 0om)(eo e e(eme&%o$ &orma(me&%e 0o&0om#%a&%e$ ma$ #$%#&%o$ a(:"m o" a(:"&$ o$ ;"a#$ )oem fa(%ar &o$ 0a$o$ a9er%o$ a #$)"%a. A ef#Ro e "m 0o&0e#%o )or%a&%o )a$$ar#a $em)re )e(a a&3e( )er0e9er )or%a&%o ;"e a %eor#a e @ar% re)re$e&%a "ma ;"e9ra e)#$%emo(=:#0a a )ar%#r a ae$2o a f#(o$of#a a (#&:"a:em e &2o ea%ame&%e "ma ;"e9ra 0om a$ %e$e$ 0e&%ra#$ o )o$#%#3#$mo ?"r>#0o. A 0r>%#0a e$%ar#a for%eme&%e #re0#o&aa ao 0o&0e#%o e o9?e%#3#ae #&$)#rao &o )e&$ame&%o e #%%:e&$%e#& $e:"&o o ;"a( a o9?e%#3#ae e$%ar#a m"#%o ma#$ (#:aa a "ma 0o&:r"&0#a e $"9?e%#3#ae$ o ;"e 0om "m )ar2o e o9?e%#3#ae W#&e)e&e&%e e &o$$a )er$)e0%#3aX. 7. A$$#m o 0o&0e#%o e #re#%o e3e $er 0om)ree&#o a )ar%#r e "ma #$%#&%a %eor#a a o9?e%#3#ae e forma ;"e o )ro?e%o e$0r#%#3o a(me?ao )or @ar% #fere o )ro?e%o e$0r#%#3o o$ )r-!ar%#a&o$ )or 0o&$#erar a &e0e$$#ae e $e %ra9a(!ar 0om "ma #me&$2o #&%er&a e #&%e&0#o&a(#ae. E$%ar#a a$$#m formaa "ma &o3a a:e&a ?"r>#0o- HAR!. / HAR!, H. . A. 2 conceito de direito. P. 1;3e( e $er 0o&!e0#o )e(a a"$&0#a e 0r#%r#o$ ;"e %or&em e$$e 0o&!e0#me&%o )o$$>3e(. E$%a %e$e eer0er#a for%e #&f("&0#a &a %eor#a )o$#%#3#$%a e $er#a "m o$ ar:"me&%o$ )ara a$ form"(a8Be$ #�#a#$ em efe$a a %e$e a $e)ara82o e&%re #re#%o e mora(. Como af#rma ,o!& A"$%#& a e#$%&0#a a (e#  "ma 0o#$a $e" mr#%o e emr#%o  o"%ra 0o#$a. Se e(a  o" &2o   "ma )er:"&%a $e  o" &2o 0o&form#0o. E&;"a&%o o  P2R!2 MA=ED2

#re#%o )o$#%#3o a;"# $e a)re$e&%a 0omo "m fa%o o m"&o a $a9er o$ 0oma&o$ ema&ao$ o $o9era&o a mora(#ae $er#a a%o #&%er&o $"9?e%#3o r#:#ame&%e $e)arao o #re#%o. A$$#m o #re#%o  0o&$%#%">o )or "m 0o&?"&%o e fa%o$ ;"e )or $"a 3e+ $2o o$ 0oma&o$ em#%#o$ )or "m )oer $o9era&o !a9#%"a(me&%e o9ee0#o. O ?"r#$%a f#$#0a(#$%a )or%a&%o 9"$0a e$0ar%ar o 0o&!e0#me&%o ;"e &2o for )a$$>3e( e re"82o a fa%o$ 9r"%o$ (hard facts), e forma ;"e o #re#%o e3e $er e$%"ao 0omo o"%ra$ 0#&0#a$ em)>r#0a$' e$0re3e&o o $er &o m"&o )or me#o e "m m%oo e$0r#%#3o e em)>r#0o. E$%e  "m e$for8o )romo3#o %a&%o )e(o rea(#$mo ?"r>#0o e A(f  Ro$$ ;"e efe&e ;"e o #re#%o e3e $er 0om)ree&#o 0omo "m 0o&?"&%o e fa%o$ em)>r#0o$ o m"&o 0omo )e(o )o$#%#3#$mo ?"r>#0o e ,o!& A"$%#& ,erem[ *e&%!am e @a&$ Ke($e&. N"ma e $"a$ ma#$ 0(e9re$ )a$$a:e&$ af#rma Ke($e&' a Teor#a P"ra o D#re#%o  "ma %eor#a o D#re#%o )o$#%#3o J o D#re#%o  )o$#%#3o em :era( &2o e "ma orem ?"r>#0a e$)e0#a(.  %eor#a :era( o D#re#%o &2o #&%er)re%a82o e )ar%#0"(are$ &orma$ ?"r>#0a$ &a0#o&a#$ o" #&%er&a0#o&a#$. Co&%"o for&e0e "ma %eor#a a #&%er)re%a82o. Como %eor#a ;"er �a e e0("$#3ame&%e 0o&!e0er ) $e" )r=)r#o o9?e%o. Pro0"ra re$)o&er a e$%a ;"e$%2o' o ;"e  e 0omo  o D#re#%o Ma$ ?< &2o (!e #m)or%a a ;"e$%2o e $a9er 0omo e3e $er o D#re#%o o" 0omo e3e e(e $er  fe#%o.  0#&0#a ?"r>#0a e &2o )o(>%#0a o D#re#%o. "a&o a $# )r=)r#a $e e$#:&a 0omo )"ra %eor#a o D#re#%o #$%o $#:&#f#0a ;"e e(a $e )ro)Be :ara&%#r "m 0o&!e0#me&%o a)e&a$ #r#:#o ao D#re#%o e e0("#r e$%e 0o&!e0#me&%o %"o ;"a&%o &2o )er%e&8a ao $e" o9?e%o %"o ;"a&%o &2o $e  )o$$a r#:oro$ame&%e e%erm#&ar 0omo D#re#%o. "er #$%o #+er ;"e e(a  )re%e&e (#9er%ar a 0#&0#a ?"r>#0a e %oo$ o$ e(eme&%o$ ;"e (!e $2o e$%ra&!o$. E$$e  o $e" )r#&0>)#o me%oo(=:#0o f"&ame&%a(. \ O #re#%o e&0o&%ra-$e )or%a&%o &o 1m9#%o o $er $e&o $e" e$%a%"%o o&%o(=:#0o formao  )e(a )o$#%#3a82o )erm#%#&o a$$#m $e" e$%"o 0omo "ma 0#&0#a &a%"ra(. Ca9e me&0#o&ar ;"e )ara Ke($e& #fere&%eme&%e e A"$%#& a$ &orma$ &2o 0o&$%#%"em #re%ame&%e fa%o$ 9r"%o$ ma$ f"&0#o&am 0omo e$;"ema$ e #&%er)re%a82o o a%o  ?"r>#0o. E$%e a%o )or $"a 3e+ &aa %em ;"e o %or&e "m e3e&%o ?"r>#0o  a &orma ;"e o e)(#0a ;"e a e(e $e #re0#o&a e a )ar%#r a ;"a( $e #&%er)re%a o e3e&%o ;"e (!e 0o&0ee e$%e 0ar#0a )or%a&%o &a$0e e "m fa%o o m"&o f>$#0o' "m 0oma&o em#%#o )or  "m )oer $o9era&o ;"e  !a9#%"a(me&%e o9ee0#o. @ar% far< "ma 0r>%#0a a e$$e moe(o 0#%a&o a #fere&8a e&%re a$ e)re$$Be$ f"# o9r#:ao a fa+er a(:o e %e&!o a o9r#:a82o e fa+er a(:o. Se )ara A"$%#& e$$a$ e)re$$Be$ $er#am #fere&%e$ &o $e&%#o e ;"e "ma fo# em#%#a )or "m )oer $o9era&o %e&!o a o9r#:a82o e fa+er a(:oQ #fere&%eme&%e a e#:&0#a e "m (ar2o ;"e o9r#:a a(:"m a fa+er a(:o. Para @ar% a 0o&0e)82o a"$%#&#a&a fa(!a )or;"e' em )r#me#ro (":ar %or&o"-$e 0(aro ;"e em9ora "ma (e# 0r#m#&a( ;"e )ro>9e o" )re$0re3e 0er%a$ a8Be$ $o9 0om#&a82o e )e&a $e a$$eme(!e ma#$ e&%re %oa$ a$ 3ar#eae$ e #re#%o a ore&$ 9a$eaa$ em amea8a$ aa$ )or "ma  )e$$oa a o"%ra$ %a( (e# me$mo a$$#m #fere e %a#$ ore&$ &o a$)e0%o #m)or%a&%e e ;"e $e a)(#0a :era(me&%e ;"e(e$ ;"e a 0r#am e &2o a)e&a$ ao$ o"%ro$. Em $e:"&o (":ar !< o"%ra$ 3ar#eae$ e #re#%o &omeaame&%e a$ ;"e 0o&ferem )oere$ ?"r>#0o$ )ara ?"(:ar o" (e:#$(ar  )oere$ )9(#0o$Q o" )ara 0o&$%#%"#r o" a(%erar re(a8Be$ ?"r>#0a$ )oere$  )r#3ao$Q a$ ;"a#$ &2o )oem $em a9$"ro 0o&0e9er-$e 0omo ore&$  9a$eaa$ em amea8a$. Em %er0e#ro (":ar !< re:ra$ ?"r>#0a$ ;"e #ferem e ore&$ &o $e" moo e or#:em )or;"e &aa e a&.

 )e$$oa$ $o9era&a$ &2o )"eram $er #e&%#f#0aa$ &em 0om o e(e#%orao &em 0om o =r:2o (e:#$(a%#3o e "m E$%ao moer&o.  Ke($e& )ro0"ra efe&er "ma 0o&0e)82o f#$#0a(#$%a fre&%e ao$ ar:"me&%o$ e @ar% e)(#0a&o ;"e a &orma ?"r>#0a )re$$")Be a e#$%&0#a e "m ore&ame&%o ?"r>#0o e forma ;"e e#$%#r#am fra:me&%o$ e &orma$ 0"?a $a&82o $er#a (o0a(#+aa em o"%ro #$)o$#%#3o o ore&ame&%o. E )ara re$o(3er o )ro9(ema a a"$&0#a e $a&82o em &orma$ $e0"&"o )ara e9er $er#a for%eme&%e #&f("e&0#aa )or  $e"$ 0om)rom#$$o$ &orma%#3o$ 0om &orma$ mora#$ $o0#a#$ o" ?"r>#0a$Q e )e(a 0re&8a e ;"e o$ o"%ro$ #&#3>"o$ e$%2o 3#&0"(ao$ a 0om)rom#$$o$ $eme(!a&%e$. De$$a forma e#$%e "ma #me&$2o e #&%e&0#o&a(#ae &a a82o $o0#a(. E e$$a #&%e&0#o&a(#ae  $em)re #&#3#"a( e  o e(eme&%o formaor o $#:&#f#0ao a a82o mo%#3o )e(o ;"a( o #$%a&0#ame&%o o 0#e&%#$%a e3e $er $em)re a0om)a&!ao e em)a%#a &o $e&%#o e ;"e $e e3e 9"$0ar 3er o m"&o )e(o$ o(!o$ o a%or.

.6.

O are+ e e9er 

 No ?o:o e are+ )or eem)(o a a82o $er#a formaa )e(o ?o:aor ;"e 0o&!e0e a$ re:ra$ o ?o:o a$ 0o&$#era e e a0oro 0om $"a %0�a e 0o&!e0#me&%o %oma "ma e0#$2o ra0#o&a( ao e0##r $"a ?o:aa. Re:ra$ &e$$e $e&%#o )o$$"em "m ")(o $e&%#o' e&;"a&%o #e#a e e&;"a&%o fa%o em)>r#0o. E&;"a&%o #e#a ma&#fe$%a-$e &o a%or  ;"e 0o&$#era a re:ra 0omo regra que deve ser seguida . E&;"a&%o fa%o em)>r#0o  0om)o&e&%e o9?e%#3o a rea(#ae em)>r#0a e )oe $er3#r )ara )re3er a$ a8Be$ e "m e%erm#&ao :r")o e )e$$oa$. Ta( )re3#$2o  o m%oo e 3er#f#0a82o a 3a(#ae a$ #&%er)re%a8Be$ $o0#o(=:#0a$ e ma&e#ra ;"e a#&a ;"e a #&%e&0#o&a(#ae 0"m)ra "m )a)e( 0a"$a( &a a82o $o0#a(  o e$%a9e(e0#me&%o e 0$%#0a o" a$ (e#$ 0a"$a#$ e$%< m"#%o ma#$ )r=#ma o re#&o o #$0"r$o e a$ re(a8Be$ #&%er&a$ ;"e (#:am a$ )ar%e$ o re#&o o #$0"r$o 64

.4.

A !erme&"%#0a e @ar%' !%#0a e e %a#$ e#:&0#a$ ;"a&o re0e9#a$ e o"%ro$. 6 A$$#m @ar% #$%a&0#a-$e o )e&$ame&%o e A(f Ro$$ e ;"e o a$)e0%o #&%er&o $er#a "m mero $e&%#me&%o e o9r#:a82o. @ar% a)ro#ma-$e o )e&$ame&%o e e9er e ;"e a$ &orma$ 0o&$%#%"em ra+Be$ )ara a:#r. A #3er:&0#a e&%re e$%e$ (%#mo$ $e < &o fa%o e ;"e )ara e9er a$ ra+Be$ )ara a a82o $2o o $e&%#o $"9?e%#3ame&%e 3#$ao. Para @ar% a$ ra+Be$ $2o 0o&$%#%">a$ )e(a$ re:ra$ $o0#a#$ ;"e f#am a #&%e&0#o&a(#ae a )r=)r#a a82o 67. I&%e&0#o&a(#ae ;"e &2o &e0e$$ar#ame&%e refere-$e  a)ro3a82o 3a(ora%#3a a re:ra ma$ $#m a $"a mera 0o&$#era82o e&;"a&%o ra+2o )ara a:#r. No 0a$o )or eem)(o e "m &eo&a+#$%a ;"e ae&%ra "ma $#&a:o:a $em "$ar o ;"#)"o :"#a $"a a82o. A$$#m !< o re0o&!e0#me&%o e a 0o&$#era82o a &orma 0omo ra+2o )ara a82o. A &o82o e9er#a&a e em)a%#a e$$a forma $er< %am9m #m)or%a&%e )ara a %eor#a e @ar% )o#$  &e0e$$3e( a fa%o$ 9r"%o$. A rea(#ae o #re#%o e)e&e e re:ra$ $o0#a#$ e e$$a forma e)e&e e &=$ me$mo$. A$$#m e(a &2o  )a$$>3e( e "ma e$0r#82o ]a )ar%#r e (":ar  &e&!"m] #$%o  e%er&ame&%e a &o$$a )er$)e0%#3a !"ma&a ma&#fe$%a em &o$$a$ forma$ e 3#a. 6Y

.7.

A &o3a o9?e%#3#ae ?"r>#0a e @ar%' e$0r#82o e a3a(#a82o

A o9?e%#3#ae 0om)ree&#a 0omo )ar%e a rea(#ae &2o re"%>3e( a fa%o$ 9r"%o$ &a$ %eor#a$ e @er9er% @ar% e L"#: #%%:e&$%e#& refere-$e )or%a&%o ao a$)e0%o #&%er&o a$ re:ra$. Como af#rma @ar% o ;"e 0o&$%#%"# o me%ro-)ar2o 0omo me#a e me&$"ra82o e o9?e%o$ &2o  a 9arra e )(a%#&a e Par#$ ma$ o "$o ;"e fa+emo$ e(a 0omo o9?e%o e me#a. 1 P2R!2 MA=ED2

De$$e moo &o 0a$o e "ma )ro)o$#82o ?"r>#0a &2o 9a$%a ;"e e#$%a "m fa%o  9r"%o &o m"&o e%erm#&a&o ;"e )or eem)(o "m #&#3>"o e#o" "ma !era&8a  )ara o"%ro. A 0o&#82o e 3erae a )ro)o$#82o e)e&a a me&0#o&aa forma e 3#a o" a;"#(o ;"e ,o!& Sear(e 0!amo" e fa%o #&$%#%"0#o&a( o" $e?a a e#$%&0#a e "ma re:ra 0o&$#era&o $e" a$)e0%o #&%er&oQ ;"e ef#&a o ;"e  "m %e$%ame&%o. Ca9e ;"e$%#o&ar a )ar%#r a;"# o$ (#m#%e$ a ao82o e "m 0ar)#o$ 0omo fo&%e e &a%"re+a mora( &a ar:"me&%a82o  ?"r>#0a. E)(#0a ;"e o$ )r#&0>)#o$ em 0o&%ra$%e 0om a$ re:ra$ em $e&%#o e$%r#%o af#rmam ra+Be$ ?"r>#0o-mora#$ ;"e ?"$%#f#0am "ma e%erm#&aa e0#$2o a%r#9"#&o(!e$ "m )e$o #fere&0#ao. Ao emo&$%rar ;"e o  point   a #&%e&0#o&a(#aeQ o$ )r#&0>)#o$ %em "ma f"&82o 3a(ora%#3a Dor/#& $":ere ;"e o$ ?">+e$ $e 3a(em o$ )r#&0>)#o$ )e(a $"a ra+oa9#(#ae e ?"$%#8a e &2o )e(a $"a mera a"%or#ae 0omo )re%e&#a ,o$e)! Ra+. E$$a 3#$2o o$  )r#&0>)#o$ re)re$e&%ar< "m a%a;"e #re%o %am9m a %e$e a$ fo&%e$ )"rame&%e $o0#a#$. O #re#%o %er#a "ma #me&$2o e ra+oa9#(#ae e ?"$%#8a 9a$eaa &o$ )r#&0>)#o$ ;"e &2o e$%ar#a e3#ame&%e re)re$e&%aa &o 0o&0e#%o e D#re#%o )o$#%#3#$%a.

De$$a forma e #a&%e o ar:"me&%o e ;"e o$ 0o&f(#%o$ e&%re )r#&0>)#o$ far#am 0om ;"e fo$$e #f>0#( e%erm#&ar $e" 0o&%eo o9?e%#3o e a$$#m 0r#ar o9r#:a8Be$ 3#&0"(a&%e$ )ara o$ o)eraore$ o #re#%oQ Dor/#& 0r#a "m &o3o 0o&0e#%o e o9?e%#3#ae 0o&%e%"a(#+ao 0om o$ ?o:o$ e (#&:"a:em ?"r>#0o$' E3#e&%eme&%e %ra%a-$e e "ma o9?e%#3#ae &2o re"%>3e( a "ma 0o&0e)82o a9$o("%a o m"&o &em %am)o"0o re"%>3e( a 0r#%r#o$ e 3er#f#0a82o f#$#0a(#$%a$ 0o&forme $e )ro0"ro" emo&$%rar &o$ 0a)>%"(o$ a&%er#ore$. E$$e ar:"me&%o e#:#r)#o$ mora#$ )oem fa+er )ar%e o #re#%o e$e ;"e $e?am re0o&!e0#o$ )or "ma &orma e re0o&!e0#me&%o 0omo %a(. O )o$#%#3#$mo #&0("$#3#$%a #$0ora )or%a&%o e Dor/#& &o ;"e $e refere ao $e" a%a;"e a %e$e a$ fo&%e$ $o0#a#$' me$mo o$ )r#&0>)#o$ &2o )er%e&0em a "ma #me&$2o #fere&%e a;"e(a a$ re:ra$  )er%e&0e $#m ao 0o&?"&%o o$ fa%o$ $o0#a#$ e  3er#f#0ao &a &orma e re0o&!e0#me&%o.

7.4.

O #m)r#o o #re#%o 0o&%ra-a%a0a' o $e:"&o ro"&

O e9a%e me%oo(=:#0o &a %eor#a o #re#%o fo# a)rof"&ao 0om a )"9(#0a82o em 6Z a o9ra O Im)r#o o D#re#%o. A;"# Dor/#& refor8ar< "ma o9?e82o a&%#:a ao$  )o$#%#3#$%a$ ;"e 0!amar< e ferroaa $em1&%#0a  semantic sting). Uma 0o&0e)82o $em1&%#0a  a;"e(a ;"e 9"$0a ef#&#r o $#:&#f#0ao e "m 0o&0e#%o a )ar%#r o 0o&?"&%o e 0o#$a$ fa%o$ e )r0"(o )ar;"e e%0. Co&%"o e(e$ $2o (=:#0o-:rama%#0a(me&%e #&ae;"ao$ )ara e$0re3er 0o&0e#%o$ #&%er)re%a%#3o$ 0omo #re#%o 0or%e$#a o" ?"$%#8a. Ne$$e )o&%o re$#e o a:"#(!2o $em1&%#0o ;"e a%#&:e a %eor#a  )o$#%#3#$%a. De$a0oro$ $2o 0om"&$ &o #re#%o e 0om fre;"&0#a referem-$e $ re:ra$ ;"e $e $")Bem $erem a$ 9a$e$ o" f"&ame&%o$ )ara o #re#%o. 6 1+ P2R!2 MA=ED2

O ;"e Dor/#& %e&%a e)(#0ar  ;"e o$ f#(=$ofo$ o #re#%o )e&$am ;"e e3em e#$%#r  re:ra$ 0om"&$ ;"e afa$%em o e$a0oro e&%re o)eraore$ o #re#%o. Se:"&o e(e o$  )o$#%#3#$%a$ a0re#%am $er )o$$>3e( fa+er #$$o )or 0o&0eer ao #re#%o "ma fo&%e e$%r#%ame&%e em)>r#0a $em )er0e9er ;"e o$ e$a0oro$ $2o &a ma#or#a a$ 3e+e$ %e=r#0o$. O a:"#(!2o ;"e a%a0a o )o$#%#3#$mo )or%a&%o  o e ;"e o 0arr#0oQ e&%2o e$$a$ re:ra$ &2o e#$%em. @ar% 9"$0a afa$%ar e$$a 0r>%#0a a)o&%a&o )ara "ma #fere&8a &o$ e$a0oro$ %e=r#0o$ $o9re o ;"e  o #re#%o e &o$ e$a0oro$ em)>r#0o$ $o9re a a)(#0a82o o #re#%o. Para Dor/#& )orm #&e#$%e "ma (#&!a f#rme ;"e #3#a a %eor#a o #re#%o a e0#$2o ?"#0#a( o" ;"a(;"er o"%ro a$)e0%o a )r#0a. 6

Y. Dor/#& e a %eor#a a #&%er)re%a82o

Vo0  "m 0%#0o ar;"#me#a&o $e a0re#%a ;"e a$ )ro)o$#8Be$ &2o )oem $er 3erae#ra$ )or;"e &2o !< &aa a> &o m"&o J "m )o&%o e a(a3a&0a:em J em 3#r%"e e ;"e e$$a$ )ro)o$#8Be$ )oem $er mo$%raa$ 3erae#ra$.45 A )ar%#r e$$a 3#$2o o 0e%#0#$mo ar;"#me#a&o Dor/#& (a&8a "m a%a;"e &2o a)e&a$ ao )o$#%#3#$mo ma$ a %oa$ a$ forma$ e$e&:a?aa$ 0om a$)#ra8Be$ &2o a3a(#a%#3a$ e me%oo(o:#0ame&%e &e"%ra$ )re$e&%e$ em 3amo$ ;"e &orma$ #$0r#m#&a%=r#a$ &2o $2o &orma$ e #re#%o )o#$ &2o )a$$am ao %e$%e a ?"$%#f#0a82o mora(. Dor/#& efe&er< ;"e $e fa(e e "ma 0o&0e)82o o"%r#&a( e #&%er)re%a%#3a 0omo forma$ ma#$ ae;"aa$ e e$%"ar o #re#%o. Para #$$o )r#me#rame&%e e3emo$ #e&%#f#0ar o$ 3a(ore$ ma#$ ae;"ao$ ao #re#%o. E$$a #e&%#f#0a82o 3#r< a 0o&0e)82o a$)#ra0#o&a(' o e$%"o a (e:a(#ae )erm#%e #&%er)re%ar o$ 3a(ore$ ;"e $e a)(#0am ao e$%"o o #re#%o. Ne$$e $e&%#o a$ 0o&0e)8Be$ a$)#ra0#o&a#$ e o"%r#&"o$ em ma%r#a$ e  )(a&e?ame&%o e $"a$ )r#0a ;"e $e refere a forma 0omo e3e a:#r o ?"#+ ao e0##r o 0a$o 0o&0re%o o" $e?a  o )(a&o ;"e #$0"%e 0omo a$ a"%or#ae$ e3em a:#r ao a)(#0ar o #re#%o. Por e$$e mo%#3o  "m  D[email protected], >-

e$%%#0o-mora(. "e f#;"e 0(aro ;"e a$ 0o&0("$Be$ ;"e %eremo$ o ;"e  0orre%o &e$$e e$%#0a. Ma#$ a#&a o e9a%e @ar%-Dor/#& emo&$%ra ;"e o$ )ro9(ema$ a;"# #$0"%#o$ e$%2o (o&:e e $erem )a0#f#0ao$. O$ efe&$ore$ e "m o" e o"%ro (ao %m $e"$  )r=)r#o$ ar:"me&%o$ e &2o $2o )er%e&0e&%e$ a e$0o(a$ f#(o$=f#0a$ ;"e 0o&0oram e&%re $# ma$ $2o e(e$ me$mo$ )ro%a:o&#$%a$ e $"a$ )r=)r#a$ %eor#a$. De "m (ao ,o$e)! Ra+ @ar% A&re# Marmor S0o%% S!a)#ro ,"(e$ Co(ema& e&%re 3%#0o o #re#%o

6.6.  ?">+e$ )o(>%#0o$ e o E$%ao e D#re#%o > D[email protected], +>

O$

Dor/#& #�#a $"a o9ra #$%#&:"#&o e&%re a$ 0o&0e)8Be$ e E$%ao e D#re#%o. E#$%#r#am "a$ 0o&0e)8Be$ om#&a&%e$' a 0e&%raa &o %e%o (e:a( e a 0e&%raa &o$ #re#%o$. A )r#me#ra $er#a a #e#a e ;"e o E$%ao $= )oe eer0er $e" )oer 0o&%ra o 0#a2o $e e)re$$ame&%e )erm#%#o )e(o %e%o ?"r>#0o o" em 0a$o$ 0o&%ro3er$o$ ;"a&o a (e# &2o e$:o%ar o 0a$o 0o&0re%o a )ar%#r a #&%er)re%a82o o $e&%#o $em1&%#0o o" )$#0o(=:#0o o %e%o ?"r>#0o. O )r#me#ro refere-$e a 9"$0a )e(o ;"e o %e%o (e:a( ;"#$ #+er e o $e:"&o ao #&%e&%o e 0om)ree&er o o9?e%#3o o (e:#$(aor &o mome&%o em ;"e re#:#" o #$)o$#%#3o (e:a(. Uma %er0e#ra 3#a a#&a $e a)re$e&%a )ara o$ 0a$o$ 0o&%ro3er$o$ e refere-$e a "o a ;"e$%2o $em1&%#0a e )$#0o(=:#0a 9"$0a&o 0om)ree&er 0omo e0##r#a o (e:#$(aor 0a$o fo$$e (e:#$(ar $o9re o a%o ?"r>#0o em ;"e$%2o.  o ;"e $e 0!ama e ;"e$%2o 0o&%ra fa0%"a(. F#0a 0(aro ;"e ?"r#$%a$ #r2o #$0orar $o9re a$ #&%er)re%a8Be$ 0orre%a$ ;"a(;"er  ;"e $e?a o m%oo "%#(#+ao ma$ o$ ;"e efe&em a 0o&0e)82o 0e&%raa &o %e%o (e:a( af#rmam ;"e a forma 0omo o$ ?">+e$ :"#am $e" )e&$ame&%o )ara a #&%er)re%a82o o %e%oQ  o e(eme&%o re(e3a&%e e$$a 0o&0e)82o. A #e#a e "m E$%ao e D#re#%o 0e&%rao &o$ #re#%o$ e&fre&%a )ro9(ema$ f#(o$=f#0o$ em ma#or e$0a(a. A;"# o o9?e%#3o  #e&%#f#0ar $e a )ar%e )o$$"# "m #re#%o mora( $o9re $"a ema&a. N2o $e %ra%a )orm e af#rmar ;"e o$ ?">+e$ e3em e0##r  e a0oro 0om ar:"me&%o$ )o(>%#0o$ ao re:a(o a (e# ma$ e af#rmar ;"e &o$ 0a$o$ 0o&%ro3er$o$ e$$a a&+e$ e3em $e ma&%er fora a )o(>%#0a. I$$o $e +e$ #&%erfer#$$em em ;"e$%Be$ )o(>%#0a$. O ;"e Dor/#& 9"$0a emo&$%rar )orm  ;"e a$ $o("8Be$ ofere0#a$ )e(a 0o&0e)82o 0e&%raa &o %e%o (e:a( $em1&%#0a )$#0o(=:#0a 0o&%ra fa0%"a(Q &2o e#am e $er e ma&e#ra a(:"ma e0#$Be$ )o(>%#0a$. S2o &a 3erae e0#$Be$ 0om e$%e 0ar+e$ %e&em a $er 0o&$er3aore$ o ;"e %or&ar#a )ro9(em%#0a &2o %er< 0ar%#0o-mora#$ e&3o(3#o$ e3em e$%ar e a0oro 0om o$  )r#&0>)#o$ efe%#3ame&%e )re3#$%o$ &a (e# e forma ;"e "m ?"#+ 0o&$er3aor e3er#a #:&orar $"a$ 0o&3#08Be$ e 9"$0ar a;"e(a$ &2o-0o&%ra#%=r#a$ 0om o$ )r#&0>)#o$ )o$#%#3o$. Se a 0o&0e)82o e E$%ao e D#re#%o 0e&%raa &o$ #re#%o$ $e %or&a$$e ma#$  )o)"(ar o ;"e %em $#o a e"0a82o ?"r>#0a %or&ar-$e-#a ;"a$e 0er%ame&%e ma#$ am)(a e ma#$ #&%ere$$a&%e o ;"e  a:ora e !ome&$ e m"(!ere$ ;"e &"&0a )e&$ar#am &"ma 0arre#ra ?"r>#0a )or e$e?arem "ma 0arre#ra ;"e %e&!a #&f("&0#a )ara a ?"$%#8a $o0#a( 0ome8ar#am a )e&$ar e ma&e#ra #fere&%e. A )rof#$$2o m"ar#a 0omo m"o" ra#0a(me&%e &o$ E$%ao$ U&#o$ &e$%e $0"(o e o$ ?"r#$%a$ ;"e e$$a )rof#$$2o 3a(or#+a e ma&a  ma:#$%ra%"ra $er#am #fere&%e$. H... Se o D#re#%o %#3e$$e "m (":ar #fere&%e a;"# )e$$oa$ #fere&%e$ %er#am "m (":ar &o #re#%o. 4

6.4.

O f=r"m o )r#&0>)#o

A 0o&$%#%"#82o  a (e# f"&ame&%a( o$ E$%ao$ U&#o$ e o$ ?">+e$ e3em a)(#0ar a (e#. So9re e$$e ar:"me&%o $#m)(e$ e for%e ,o!& Mar$!a(( 0o&$%r"#" a #&$%#%"#82o a re3#$2o ?"#0#a( a (e:#$(a82o "ma #&$%#%"#82o ;"e  $#m"(%a&eame&%e o or:"(!o e o e&#:ma a o"%r#&a &or%e-amer#0a&a. 4 U%#(#+a&o-$e o  judicial revie# )are0e ;"e ?">+e$ eer0em )oer e 3e%o $o9re a &a82o. Dor/#& ;"e$%#o&a 0omo )oemo$ 0o&0#(#ar e$$a #&$%#%"#82o 0om a emo0ra0#a e af#rma + - ; *

;"e $er#a )o$$>3e( fa+-(o $e 0o&$e:">$$emo$ 0r#ar "m )ro:rama a)o(>%#0o )ara re$o(3er  o$ 0o&f(#%o$ 0o&$%#%"0#o&a#$. Ne$$e $e&%#o "a$ re$)o$%a$ foram ofere0#a$ am9a$ #&$"f#0#e&%e$ $e:"&o Dor/#& 0omo $e 3errem &o$ ?< me&0#o&ao$ erro$ e 0o&$%#%">rem "ma e0#$2o )o(>%#0a 0om ro")a:e&$ e !#$%=r#0a. @< "ma #$%#&82o 0om"m e&%re %eor#a$ #&%er)re%a%#3a$ e &2o-#&%er)re%a%#3a$ "%#(#+aa$ &o judicial revie#. A;"e(a$ e%erm#&am a #&%er)re%a82o a 0o&$%#%"#82o e $"a #&%e&82o or#:#&a( e&;"a&%o %eor#a$ &2o-#&%er)re%a%#3a$ fa3ore0em a 9"$0a e e(eme&%o$ e%ra?"r>#0o$ mora#$Q &a %omaa e e0#$Be$. Dor/#& af#rma ;"e a #$%#&82o e&%re a$ "a$ %eor#a$ 0o&f"&e ma#$ o ;"e e$0(are0e. I$$o )or;"e %eor#a$ &2o-#&%er)re%a%#3a$ $em)re 9"$0am e%erm#&ar a f#&a(#ae o %e%o 0o&$%#%"0#o&a( )ara 9"$0ar &e$$e )(a&o e f"&o o$ )r#&0>)#o$ mora#$ a)(#0a$ o )r=)r#o %e%o' $er#am "ma  petição de princpio$

Um :r")o e )e$$oa$ re"&#"-$e em F#(a(f#a e (< e$0re3e" "m o0"me&%o ;"e fo# a0e#%o )e(o )o3o em 0o&form#ae 0om o$ )ro0e$$o$ e$%#)"(ao$ &o  )r=)r#o o0"me&%o e 0o&%#&"o" a $er a0e#%o )or e(e a ma&e#ra e &a me#a em ;"e %em $#o. Se #$$o %or&a o o0"me&%o em #re#%o $= )oe $er )or;"e a0e#%amo$ )r#&0>)#o$ e mora(#ae )o(>%#0a ;"e %m e$$a 0o&$e;"&0#a. Ma$ e$$e$ )r#&0>)#o$ )oer#am &2o a)e&a$ e$%a9e(e0er a Co&$%#%"#82o 0omo #re#%o ma$ %am9m (#m#%)#o$ rea(me&%e %m e$$a 0o&$e;"&0#a  0(aro a% e0##rmo$ o ;"e $2o e$$e$  )r#&0>)#o$. "a(;"er re$)o$%a a e$$a )er:"&%a e3e a$$"m#r a forma e "ma %eor#a )o(>%#0a emo&$%ra&o )or ;"e a Co&$%#%"#82o e3e $er %ra%aa 0omo #re#%o e 0er%a$ %eor#a$ )o(>%#0a$ )(a"$>3e#$ )e(o me&o$ (e3a&%am a ;"e$%2o e $e o o0"me&%o e3e $er (#m#%ao e a(:"ma ma&e#ra. 5

 % intenção dos constituintes&formulando uma intenção original 

Dor/#& efe&e ;"e 9"$0ar a #&%e&82o o$ 0o&$%#%"#&%e$ )or%a&%o  "m a%o #&%#( ;"e %erm#&a $e&o merame&%e #&%er)re%a%#3o. Por "m (ao  #f>0#( $e &2o #m)o$$>3e( ef#&#r a #&%e&0#o&a(#ae e "m :r")o (e:#$(a%#3o )o#$ #&%e&82o )o$$"# 0ar"o$ #e&%#f#0ao$ e "ma 0o&0e)82o m#$%a ;"e 0o&$#era a #&%e&82o 0o&$%#%"0#o&a( 0omo  )ar0#a(me&%e 0o&$%#%">a %am9m )or 0ara0%er>$%#0a$ a)are&%eme&%e ma#$ o9?e%#3a$ 0omo a (e#%"ra $em1&%#0a o o0"me&%o. U%#(#+a&o-$e a 0o&0e)82o )$#0o(=:#0a Dor/#& emo&$%ra a$ ;"e$%Be$ ;"e a %eor#a e&fre&%a ;"a#$ $e?am' 6Q ;"em 3a(e 4Q ;"a( e$%ao )$#0o(=:#0o' e$)era&8a$ e e)e0%a%#3a$ Q ;"a( e$%ao )$#0o(=:#0o' &e:a82o e e(e:a82o 7Q ;"e 0om9#&a82o e #&%e&8Be$ #&#3#"a#$ A )r#me#ra )er:"&%a 9"$0a #e&%#f#0ar o$ $"?e#%o$ 0"?a$ #&%e&8Be$ $2o re(e3a&%e$.  Ne$$e $e&%#o 3a(em a$ #&%e&8Be$ o$ mem9ro$ o 0o&:re$$o Do$ e(e:ao$ a 0o&3e&82o or#:#&a( De %oo$ e(e$ #&0("$#3e o$ ;"e 3o%aram 0o&%ra O$ e$%ao$  )$#0o(=:#0o$ a$ )e$$oa$ 0omo "m %oo o" a)e&a$ a$ ;"e )ar%#0#)aram e e9a%e$  )9(#0o$ Va(em a)e&a$ a$ #&%e&8Be$ o$ )er$o&a:e&$ e "m e%erm#&ao mome&%o a !#$%=r#a o" %am9m e o"%ro$ "a#$ Se:me&%o$ o )9(#0o ,">+e$ a S")rema Cor%e De$$a$ ;"e$%Be$ )oem emer:#r re$)o$%a$ )er#:o$a$ 0omo a ma#$ famo$a e(a$' a  )er$o&#f#0a82o o$ F"&aore$. A$ )er:"&%a$ 4 e  referem-$e ao e$%ao )$#0o(=:#0o a&a(#$ao. Se )or "m (ao   )o$$>3e( 9"$0ar a$ e$)era&8a$ e e)e0%a%#3a$ o (e:#$(aor )or o"%ro  )o$$>3e( 9"$0ar  a;"#(o ;"e fo# &e:ao o" e(e:ao )ara :era8Be$ f"%"ra$. A$$#m !a3er< $em)re "m  )ro0e$$o #&%er)re%a%#3o o a%o e )re%e&$2o. Pre%e&#a-$e ef#&#r "m )r#&0>)#o 0om o #$)o$#%#3o a)ro3ao ;"e e3e $er 9"$0ao &a e$)era&8a o (e:#$(aor o" era  )re%e&#o $e (#m#%ar a #+er ;"e P e forma ;"e %"o ;"e &2o for P fo# e(e:ao )ara a$  )r=#ma$ :era8Be$ e ?"r#$%a$ Toa$ e$$a$ )er:"&%a$ )a$$am )e(a$ ;"e$%Be$ e ;"a#$ )e$$oa$ e ;"a#$ e$%ao$ e3em $er 0o&$#erao$ )ara e$em9o0ar &a )er:"&%a 7. "e 0om9#&a82o e #&%e&8Be$ #&#3#"a#$ e3e $er 0o&$#eraa A ma?or#%%#0a. De3e $er e&0o&%raa )or eem)(o &"m ar:"me&%o e ;"e "ma 0o&0e)82o a?"$%a-$e me(!or  %eor#a ma#$ 0o&3#&0e&%e e :o3er&o re)re$e&%a%#3o. Ma$ e&%2o a #e#a 0om ;"e 0ome8amo$ e ;"e o$ ?">+e$ )oem %omar e0#$Be$ 0o&$%#%"0#o&a#$ a)o(>%#0a$ ao e$0o9r#r e #m)or a #&%e&82o o$ 0o&$%#%"#&%e$  "ma )rome$$a ;"e &2o )oe $er 0"m)r#a. Po#$ o$ ?">+e$ &2o %m 0omo e$0o9r#r e$$a #&%e&82o $em 0o&$%r"#r o" ao%ar "ma 0o&0e)82o e #&%e&82o 0o&$%#%"0#o&a( em 3e+ e o"%ra #$%o  $em %omar a$ e0#$Be$ e mora(#ae )o(>%#0a ;"e %#&!am 0omo o9?e%#3o e3#%ar.

 'rocesso processo e democracia

Co&%ra)o&o-$e ao$ ;"e 9"$0am "ma #&%e&82o or#:#&a( e#$%em o$ ;"e a0re#%am ;"e o  judicial revie# &2o e3e e0##r $o9re ma%r#a$ e $"9$%1&0#a e3e&o $e (#m#%ar merame&%e ao e3#o )ro0e$$o (e:a(. Dor/#& emo&$%ra ;"a%ro )ro)o$#8Be$ e$$a %e$e e%ra>a$ a %eor#a e ,o!& @ar% E([' 6Q a re3#$2o ?"#0#a( e3e %er em 3#$%a o  )ro0e$$o a (e:#$(a82o &2o o re$"(%ao #$o(ao e$$e )ro0e$$o 4Q e(a e3e a3a(#ar e$$e  )ro0e$$o $e:"&o o )ar2o e emo0ra0#a Q a re3#$2o 9a$eaa &o )ro0e$$o )or%a&%o  0om)a%>3e( 0om a emo0ra0#a ao )a$$o ;"e a re3#$2o 9a$eaa &a $"9$%1&0#a ;"e %em em 3#$%a o$ re$"(%ao$  a&%a:�a a e(a 7Q o %r#9"&a( )or%a&%o erra ;"a&o 0#%a "m 3a(or $"9$%a&%#3o )"%a%#3ame&%e f"&ame&%a( )ara ?"$%#f#0ar a re3o:a82o e "ma e0#$2o (e:#$(a%#3a. Dor/#& af#rma a0re#%ar ;"e a )r#me#ra )ro)o$#82o e$%< 0orre%a ma$ a$ o"%ra$ &2o )o#$ e3e-$e a%e&%ar )ara o )ro0e$$o ?"$%ame&%e )ara re$)o&er 0orre%ame&%e a$ ;"e$%Be$ )o(>%#0a$ $"9$%a&%#3a$ e &2o )ara f":#r e(a$. A#&a emo&$%ra ma#$ "ma 3e+ ;"e  #m)o$$>3e( o)erar e$%a f":a. A af#rma82o 4 fa(!a )o#$ o #ea( a9$%ra%o e emo0ra0#a em $# me$mo &2o ofere0e &e&!"ma $"$%e&%a82o ma#or )ara "ma o"%r#&a ?"r>#0a a re3#$2o ?"#0#a(  9a$eaa &o )ro0e$$o. Dor/#& emo&$%ra ;"e a$ 3%#0a e )or #$$o $"9$%a&%#3a. O ar:"me&%o e E([ e ;"e o Tr#9"&a( )oe e3#%ar ;"e$%Be$ e $"9$%1&0#a a)o#a&o $"a$ e0#$Be$ &a me(!or 0o&0e)82o e emo0ra0#a e emo0ra0#a $er#a e&%2o a"%o-a&"(aor4. Poemo$ ef#&#r "a$ e$%ra%:#a$ )ara %omar a e0#$2o $o9re o 0o&0e#%o e emo0ra0#a ma#$ ae;"ao ao  judicial revie#. O$ ar:"me&%o$-#&$"mo$ e o$ ar:"me&%o$-re$"(%ao. O )r#me#ro 9a$e#a-$e &"ma %eor#a $o9re #$%r#9"#82o ae;"aa o )oer )o(>%#0o $em - ;/

fa+er refer&0#a a ;"e$%2o a ?"$%#8a. O $e:"&o )o$$"# 0ar%#0o$ $o9re o 0o&0e#%o e emo0ra0#a a)(#0%#0o.  0o&%ro3er%#o ;"a(  o )ar2o 0orre%o )ara e0##r $e a(:"ma (e:#$(a82o %ra%a a$ )e$$oa$ #:"a(me&%e. Se a(:"m a0re#%a ;"e a (e:#$(a82o %ra%a a$  )e$$oa$ 0omo #:"a#$ ;"a&o )e$a %oa$ a$ $"a$ )er$)e0%#3a$ e "%#(#ae $em &e&!"ma #$%#&82o #&#3#"a( e&%2o "$ar< o ;"e e$0re3# a&%er#orme&%e 0omo ar:"me&%o "%#(#%ar#$%a )"%o a fa3or a efe$a a emo0ra0#a e a e$0o(!a e&%re 0o&0e)8Be$ r#3a#$ e emo0ra0#a. Se a(:"m re?e#%a e$$a e$0r#82o "%#(#%ar#$%a e %ra%ar a$ )e$$oa$ 0omo #:"a#$ em fa3or e a(:"ma e$0r#82o $")o&o ;"e a$ )e$$oa$ &2o $2o %ra%aa$ 0omo #:"a#$ a me&o$ ;"e a$ e0#$Be$ (e:#$(a%#3a$ re$)e#%em 0er%o$ #re#%o$ f"&ame&%a#$ e&%2o #$$o e3e #&e3#%a3e(me&%e afe%ar $e" 0%#0a$ #m)or%a&%e$. A ;"e$%2o  ;"e mo%#3o$ &a$ $"a$ m2o$ $2o  9o&$ mo%#3o$. M#&!a 3#$2o  ;"e o Tr#9"&a( e3e %omar e0#$Be$ e  )r#&0>)#o &2o e )o(>%#0a J e0#$Be$ $o9re ;"e #re#%o$ a$ )e$$oa$ %m $o9 &o$$o $#$%ema 0o&$%#%"0#o&a( &2o e0#$Be$ $o9re 0omo $e )romo3e me(!or o  9em-e$%ar :era(. Dor/#& af#rma ;"e $e a9a&o&armo$ a #e#a e ;"e e#$%e "ma forma 0a&�a e emo0ra0#a %am9m e3er>amo$ a9a&o&ar a #e#a e ;"e o  judicial revie# J e&;"a&%o  )ro0e$$o e 3e%o )o(>%#0o J  #&0om)a%>3e( 0om a emo0ra0#a. Porm a#&a  &e0e$$)#o$ a9er%ame&%e.

-- *

6..

Pr#&0>)# o )o(>%#0a )ro0e$$o

"a(;"er "m ;"e )e&$e 0omo e" ;"e a )re$%a82o ?"r#$#0#o&a( $"9$%a&%#3a &o D#re#%o  "ma ;"e$%2o e )r#&0>)#o e ;"e e$$a  "ma #m)or%a&%e af#rma82o %a&%o em %ermo$ &orma%#3o$ ;"a&%o %e=r#0o$ %em "m #&%ere$$e e$)e0#a( em $a9er $e  )o$$>3e( e&0o&%rar "m me#o-%ermo e&%re a$ af#rma8Be$ ea:eraa$ e a$ &##(#$%a$ $o9re o$ #re#%o$ ;"e a$ )e$$oa$ %m a  )ro0e$$o$ &o %r#9"&a(. 7

Dor/#& a)re$e&%a $e#$ ;"e$%Be$ )er%#&e&%e$ $o9re a re(a82o e&%re )r#&0>)#o$ )ro0e$$o e  )o(>%#0a ;"a#$ $e?am' 6Q  0oere&%e 0om a )ro)o$#82o e ;"e a$ )e$$oa$ %m o #re#%o e &2o $er 0o&e&aa$ )or "m 0r#me ;"e &2o 0ome%eram &e:ar $ )e$$oa$ ;"a#$;"er  #re#%o$ &o $e&%#o e$%r#%o a )ro0e$$o$ ;"e )o&!am  )ro3a $"a #&o0&0#a 4Q $e &2o a 0oer&0#a e#:e ;"e a$ )e$$oa$ %e&!am #re#%o ao$ )ro0e$$o$ ma#$ )re0#$o$ )o$$>3e#$ Q $e &2o e#$%e a(:"m me#o-%ermo efe&$3e#$ Como %a#$ #re#%o$  )oer#am $er form"(ao$ 7Q a$ e0#$Be$ ;"e o$ %r#9"&a#$ %omam a re$)e#%o o  )ro0e$$o &o e0orrer e "m ?"(:ame&%o $2o a$ e0#$Be$ e )o(>%#0a o" e )r#&0>)#o O ;"e e3er#am $er YQ a$ )e$$oa$ %m #re#%o$ )ro0e$$"a#$ &o ;"e #+ re$)e#%o a e0#$Be$  )o(>%#0a$ a0er0a e "ma )o(>%#0a Come8a&o )e(a )r#me#ra ;"e$%2o Dor/#& $":ere ;"e #ma:#&emo$ "ma $o0#eae ;"e e$%a9e(e8a 0omo a9$o("%o o #re#%o e &2o $er 0o&e&ao $e #&o0e&%e ma$ ;"e &e:"e ;"a(;"er #re#%o a a(:"m )ro0e$$o e$)e0>f#0o forma&o a$$#m "ma $o0#eae ef#0#e&%e em 0"$%o$. Se:"&o Dor/#& $e "m #&#3>"o #&o0e&%e for 0o&e&ao 0r#m#&a(me&%e e(e $ofrer< a&o$ $#m)(e$ J ;"e $er#am a )"Ro #&e)e&e&%eme&%e e $er ?"$%a o" &2o J e o$ a&o$ a#0#o&a#$ ;"e $er#am o  fator de injustiça J a&o$ ;"e a(:"m $ofre $em)re ;"e a )"Ro  #&?"$%a. @a3er#a e$$a ma&e#ra "ma #&0oer&0#a &a $o0#eae ef#0#e&%e em 0"$%o$. Uma $o0#eae ;"e $e #m)Be "m 3a(or mora( o #re#%o e &2o $er 0o&e&ao $e #&o0e&%eQ e #:&ora a &e0e$$#ae e ofer%a o$ )ro0e$$o$ ma#$ ae;"ao$ a $"a efe$a  "ma $o0#eae ;"e #:&ora o fa%or e #&?"$%#8a. Para eem)(#f#0ar Dor/#& 0#%a o eem)(o o 0a$o #&:($  D contra -ational .ociet for the 'revention of Cruelt to Children, o&e "ma m"(!er fora fa($ame&%e a0"$aa e 0r"e(ae )ara 0om o$ f#(!o$. A m"(!er mo3e" "ma a82o 0o&%ra o =r:2o )e#&o o &ome o #&forma&%e 0o&$#era&o-o #m)or%a&%e )ara $"a efe$a. A C1mara o$ Lore$ e0##" 0o&0orar 0om o ar:"me&%o o =r:2o )9(#0o )orm ;"e a(e:o" ;"e re0e9er#a me&o$ e&&0#a$ a&&#ma$ 0a$o a$  )e$$oa$ $o"9e$$em ;"e )oer#am %er $e"$ &ome$ re3e(ao$ em 0or%e. E$%e  "m 0a$o e)(>0#%o &o ;"a( $e 0o&$#era "m 0"o %er#a e 0o&!e0er $e" a0"$aor. Ne$$a $o0#eae &2o $e 0o&$#era o fa%or e #&?"$%#8a ;"e )oer#a $er #m)"%ao ao #&#3>"o )e(a &2o a)(#0a82o e $e" #re#%o ma$ (e3a-$e em 0o&%a "ma ef#0#&0#a e 0"$%o$ J ;"e &2o $2o &e0e$$ar#ame&%e f#&a&0e#ro$. A o)o$#82o e&%re a&o$ $#m)(e$ e a&o$ mora#$ fa%or e #&?"$%#8aQ  #m)or%a&%e  )ara 0om)ree&er $e o #re#%o e &2o $er 0o&e&ao $e #&o0e&%e e3e %er ma#$ for8a o ;"e ar:"me&%o$ 0omo a efe$a o 9em-e$%ar $o0#a( a (o&:o )ra+o. No 0a$o e "m !omem 3e(!o fra0o e oe&%e ;"e  #&?"$%ame&%e 0o&e&ao a mor%e %eremo$ "m a&o mora( m"#%o $")er#or ao$ a&o$ $#m)(e$ $ofr#o$ )or e(e. Se &o 0m)"%o :era( o #&0#e&%e $e #&0("# a)e&a$ &a #me&$2o o a&o $#m)(e$ e&%2o &2o $e )oe a9$o("%ame&%e )ro)or o ar:"me&%o a fa3or e  )ro0e$$o$ ma#$ 0aro$. Ma$ $e e(e  #&0(">o &a #me&$2o e $e" a&o mora(  )oe )e$ar m"#%o. Por%a&%o e$$a$ o9?e8Be$ efe%#3ame&%e refor8am m#&!a $":e$%2o e ;"e "ma $o0#eae ;"e $"9me%e ;"e$%Be$ e )ro0e$$o 0r#m#&a( a "m 03e#$ 0om a a3a(#a82o a 0om"&#ae o a&o mora( 0o&%em)(ao &a (e# Z. I$$o e;"#3a(e a #+er ;"e &2o  &e0e$$%#0a J e re$)o&e $"a )er:"&%a 7Q. Para e)(#0ar e$$e ar:"me&%o )oemo$ re0orrer a #ma:em o #&#3>"o ;"e re;"er a am#$$2o e a(:"ma )ro3a a ;"a( &2o %em &e&!"m #re#%o o ;"e :erar#a "ma e0#$2o )o(>%#0a 0a$o $e (e3a$$e em 0o&%a $e a $o0#eae :a&!ar#a o" )erer#a )or  am#%#r )ro3a$ e$$e %#)o' Co&%"o e3e e$%ar 0(aro a )ar%#r a #$0"$$2o )re0ee&%e ;"e e$$a (#&!a e ar:"me&%a82o fra0a$$a. E(a )re$$")Be ;"e o #re#%o )ro0e$$"a(  "m #re#%o a "m &>3e( f#o e ea%#2o &2o o #re#%o  a%r#9"#82o e 0er%o )e$o ao r#$0o e #&?"$%#8a e a&o mora(. Se o #re#%o fo$$e "m #re#%o a "m ao &>3e( e ea%#2o e&%2o a e0#$2o o %r#9"&a( $er#a %omaa 0omo $")Be o ar:"me&%o em o#$ )a$$o$' o )r#me#ro "m ?"(:ame&%o e )r#&0>)#o  )er:"&%a&o $e o &>3e( e ea%#2o e#:#o $er#a a(0a&8ao 0omo ;"e$%2o e )ro9a9#(#ae a&%e0ee&%e me$mo ;"e a )ro3a fo$$e e0(">a e o $e:"&o "m ?"(:ame&%o )o(>%#0o $e a$ 0o#$a$ fo$$em a$$#m e e0(">-(o o" &2o. Ma$ 0omo a e0#$2o  a e e%erm#&ar $e o r#$0o e a&o mora( fo# e3#ame&%e a3a(#ao e$$e$ o#$ )a$$o$ %ra&$formam-$e em "m. Po#$ $e o$ 0 1-1

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