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THE EFFECTS OF HAVING OFW PARENTS ON SELF-ESTEEM OF SELECTED FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF CEU GIL PUYAT MAKATI S.Y. 2012-2013
An Undergraduate Research Proposal Presented to The School of Science and Technology Centro Escolar University Makati
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Communication Skills 14
Princess Jazmine Dichosa
The researchers of Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat Makati from BS Psychology 2A wants to express their gratitude to all the people who have given their heart whelming full support in making this Research Proposal a magnificent experience. To God, the father of all, the researchers thank him for the strength that keeps them standing and for the hope that keeps them believing that this study would be possible and more interesting. The researchers also wanted to thank their family who inspires, encouraged and fully supported them for every trial that comes their way.
To other group mates who willingly helped the researchers gather the necessary data and information needed for this Research Proposal. The researchers’ utmost gratitude to their Professor, Dr. Richard Lumpas who has supported them throughout the Proposal with his patience and knowledge while allowing them to work in their way. The researchers give thanks to their Professor for the encouragement and effort and without him; this Research Proposal would not have been completed or written. One simply could not wish for a better or friendlier supervisor.
The researchers dedicate this study to their parents who have given them the opportunity to be in school and learn. To Dr. Ricardo S. Lumpas who has helped them come up with their study. Also, the researchers dedicate this study to all those students who are affected by the absence of their parents.
To the OFW Parents who sacrifices their quality time with their children in order to provide for them. Finally, this study is above all, dedicated to God, the Father Almighty, who the source of everything in this world, is.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 The Problem and Its Setting Introduction Many of the Filipinos find difficulty in finding a job in the Philippines, and because of that, some Filipinos have to find a job in other countries. Overseas Filipino Workers are helpful to the economy because 13.5% of the country’s gross domestic product comes from the remittance of OFWs. They earn more money in their job in other countries than in the Philippines which makes more Filipinos decide to work abroad. As an overseas Filipino worker, one of their sacrifices is to leave their families behind, thus depriving their family of their presence. Parents head overseas in search of bigger and better incomes, and more savings. Others take jobs overseas that they could not possibly get in their home country. Overseas employment gives opportunity to redefine life and the way of living. It often brings significant
consequences on children's development and well-being are less clear. Vulnerable children, especially those deprived of parental care, constitute a specific risk group.
The researchers got interested in the students having parents working abroad because in today’s youth, children are left behind and the researchers wanted to know if it will affect their self-esteem or not knowing that they’re not fully raised by their parents.
Setting of the Study The researchers will conduct the study in Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat Makati Campus. It is located within the central business district of Makati along Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City. Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat Makati was established on June 2005. Subsequently after two years of operation, the CEU built another unit, which opened on June 2007 at 103 Esteban corner Dela Rosa Streets, Legaspi Village, Makati City. Centro Escolar University is a private, nonsectarian higher education institution with an enrollment of over 20,000 students in its three campuses: Manila, Makati and Malolos. CEU was founded by Doña Librada Avelino and Doña Carmen de Luna and was originally called Centro Escolar de Señoritas. The first CEU Campus was built at Mendiola Street, Manila. The coursed offered in CEU Makati are Bachelor of Science in Psychology, Nursing, Medical Technology, Pharmacy(4 years), Clinical
Pharmacy(5 years), Doctor of Pharmacy, Associate in Arts (Pre-Dental Course), Doctor of Dental Medicine, Juris Doctor Program, Business Administration major in Management, Computer Science, Information Technology,
Figure 1 Vicinity Map of Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat, Makati
Theoretical Framework Self-Determination Theory (SDT) states that man is born with an intrinsic motivation to explore, absorb and master his surroundings and
psychological nutrients, or needs, of life (relatedness, competency and autonomy) are in balance. When social conditions provide support and opportunity to fulfill these basic needs, personal growth, vitality and well-being are enhanced. Relatedness was an addition to the original theory to account for people’s inherent ability to make meaning and
connect with others through the internalization of cultural practices and values.
Based on the Self-Determination theory, humans have conditions they need to fulfill and when all their conditions are fulfilled their needs are also fulfilled. People are more motivated when their needs are fulfilled and one of the main proponents in a person’s needs is safety, security, shelter, belongingness, recognition and love. All of these needs can be fulfilled by an individual’s parents and if they do not have their parents they will not achieve their needs to have a good selfesteem. If a student is not taught cultural practices and values, he or she may not develop the ability to make connections with other people thus decreasing self-esteem. The parents’ support is mainly the basis of a person’s self-determination and self-esteem.
Conceptual Framework The research paradigm shows the flow of study where in the researchers will start with determining if one, both or none of the students’ parents is an OFW which is connected with a line to the First Year Students of Centro Escolar University Makati – Gil Puyat to show the difference in the effects brought to the students by having one,
both, or no OFW parents. The First year student is then connected to self-esteem with a striped right arrow. The striped right arrow indicates possibilities of having effects in the self-esteem of the students. The self-esteem is then connected to attitude, behavior and academic standing in which it may be possibly affected by the student’s level of self-esteem. The double-arrow head shows that attitude, behavior and academic standing may affect each other. Lastly, the OFW parents, First Year Students and Self-Esteem are situated in a circle because these three terms are the main topics of the researchers and the research study will go around these terms.
Figure 2 Showing the Research Paradigm the Effects of Having OFW Parents on the Self-Esteem of Selected First Year Students of Different Courses in Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat, Makati
Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the effects of having OFW parents on selected First Year students’ self-esteem in Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat Makati, for SY 2012-2013. Furthermore, it sought to answer the following specific questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondent in terms of the following: 1.1
2. Which of the following aspects of self-esteem is affected most by having absentee parents? 2.1
3. How much difference is there among different time periods when OFWs stay abroad?
4. What are the significant effects of having OFW parents on selfesteem of selected First Year students of different courses in Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat Makati? Assumptions of the Study This study will be based on the following assumptions: 1. The respondents have one or both parents working abroad. 2. The respondents will duly complete the test and questionnaire correctly and honestly. 3. There are 4 out of 10 respondents who have OFW parents. 4. All of the respondents have OFW parents. Significance of the Study Working abroad can be understood as parents’ solution to the plight of family poverty and unemployment. Oftentimes, parents head overseas in order to provide their children with a better future. This study will benefit the following: Students, for them to know and have an understanding of the effects on self-esteem of having parents working abroad. Teachers, for them to realize the situation of their students such as absence of parent can cause failing mark.
Parents, for them to understand the effects of their absence to the performance of their children. Scope and Delimitations of the Study The researchers will conduct a study that can answer the effect of having OFW parents on self-esteem to First Year students. The respondents that will be included are randomly selected First Year students in different courses enrolled at Centro Escolar University Gil Puyat, Makati. The respondents will be asked to answer series of questionnaires that will be given to them regarding self-esteem, confidence and behavior. This study will focus only on the self-esteem of the respondents with OFW parents. Another delimitation of this study is that it concentrates only in 10 students per course and may not be a representation sample of all college students for the reason that college students in different level and different course may also give different response to this research.
Definition of Terms The following terms were defined in the context of the study: Confidence. It is a feeling or consciousness of one's powers or of reliance on one's circumstances.
Competency. It refers to the quality or state of being functionally adequate. Development. It refers to a sufficiency of means for the necessities and conveniences of life. Gross Domestic Product. It is the market value of all the goods and services produced by labor and property provided in a country during one year. Natural Selection. It is the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures. Overseas. It means relating to, originating in, or situated in countries across the sea. Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW). It refers to any person, eighteen years of age or above, who is to be engaged, or is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which the worker is not a legal resident. Overseas Employment. It refers to employment of a Filipino worker outside the Philippines covered by a valid contract. Remittance. It is the sending of money to someone at a distance.
Self-esteem. It refers to the extent to which we like accept or approve of ourselves or how much we value ourselves. Self esteem always involves a degree of evaluation and we may have either a positive or a negative view of ourselves. Trauma. It is the behavioral state resulting from mental or emotional stress or physical injury.
NOTES 1 – Ryan, M.R. & Deci, E.L., (2004). Avoiding Death or Engaging Life as Accounts of Meaning and Culture: Comment on Pyszczynski et al.; (2004). Psychological Bulletin, 130 (3), pp. 473-477
CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This chapter is a review of related literature and studies in which the researchers considered as relevant to their study. Several authors have greatly influenced the general conduct of this study with their related investigation on its major concern. The following are some related literature and study regarding the effects of having OFW parents on CEU-GP Makati’s First year students’ self-esteem.
Local Literature Elena Laur quoted “Every child would like both parents to be at home. A complete family is more important than anything.” From what she discussed, separation from their parents affects the internal lives of the children to a great extent. Both grown-ups and children mentioned that their emotional lives suffer the most evident effects. Almost all the children asserted that after their parents’ departure they faced difficult and unpleasant emotional states. Only a few children from a certain region mentioned that their current material condition, which had improved thanks to their parents’ work abroad, makes them happy. Some of those who take care of children whose parents went abroad, along with some medical personnel, share the same opinion.
However, according to some children, money cannot compensate for the suffering caused by separation from their parents.1
The researchers included this article because it relates to the psycho-emotional development of children who have parents working abroad. This is also related to the self-esteem of children. Not all children are happy that their parents are separated from them. These children prefer having their parents working in the same area where they live because having parents working abroad; affect the emotional development of the children. Money does not matter to children because they need their parents more than the money. Asia-Pacific Policy Center vice president and executive director Rosemarie Edillon said that it is assumed that there is a trade-off between money and adult time when one or both parents work abroad. Simply put, less time spent with children are compensated with more money that their parents send. In addition, children’s satisfaction only improved when both money and adult time/attention provided to them increased.In the aspect of children’s satisfaction with the time and money provided to them, results in their study showed that OFW parents and their children give different importance to these inputs. While it is true that children do feel an increased satisfaction with the increase of adult attention and money from their parents, they give varied weights on their importance. More specifically, while the OFW parents give the same level of importance to attention and money, children, on their part, give more significance to attention than to money.2
This study is related to the current study because it shows that children value attention more than money. OFWs migrate to provide good education for their children. It is the main reason of the OFWs in working overseas and having a better income only comes second in their goals. Even though they give equal importance to attention and money, we have technology that lets us communicate using video calls and they still can’t give the same attention if they live with their children. According to Melanie Reyes, Migration is an economic, social and political process that affects those who move, those who stay behind, and the places where they go. People are crossing borders to search for better job opportunities and to provide a better future for their families. Reyes discussed that along the development of Filipinos working abroad is the plight of more children being left behind by either one or both parents, leaving them to the care of extended family members.
But when women migrate, it appears that families go
through more adjustments. Interchanging of gender roles in the family could also impact positively or negatively depending on how the father left behind accepts his new role. Reyes asserted that there is always an emotional aspect that goes along with parents leaving their children, especially for long periods of time and it is also a relief to have the extended family looking after the children left-behind. It
cannot negate the fact that the children are longing for the love and care of their biological parents.3 It is explained in this study that when the mother is departed from her child for a long time, like in an Overseas Filipino worker, the family goes to many adjustments. The researcher stated in the study that parental absence creates displacement disruptions and changes in care giving arrangement. Even if the extended family looks after the children, the child still needs the love and care of their biological parents. The departure of a parent to a child creates an interchanging of gender role which can affect a child positively or negatively, depending on the situation.
Foreign Literature According to Cristina Montefusco, she discussed that there are two different conditions of Children of Labor Migrants, those who are left alone just for a few years as mothers return home after a determined period of time and those who are permanently abandoned and eventually receive mothers’ remittances. Montefusco said that children become cynical and cruel and schools are unable to cope with this challenge. According to Montefusco, children left behind usually have problems related to low motivation to learn, negative change of moral
arrogance, insolence and egoistic attitudes. On the other hand, they
tend to be more vulnerable than the other children, to be more reserved as well as more independent. They need more support and understanding from teachers.4 The study is related to the present study because children’s attitude being left behind can be a cause of having a high self-esteem or low-self-esteem to children. Knowing why children acts that way leads to knowing the development of the children’s self-esteem. An article made by Jan Blaxall for the Canadian Child Care Federation, proposed simple strategies for parents to enhance the self esteem of their children. Affection conveys a sincere sense of enjoying children and wanting to be with them. Attentiveness conveys a genuine interest in what children are interested in, and a desire to know children as individuals. Acceptance conveys your respect for children for who they are today, without pressure to change, to become someone else, or to conform. Affirmation conveys an acceptance of children’s feelings as real and legitimate. Availability is also important because when feelings are intense to ensure that your child is not overwhelmed and “time in” to help a child regain control over strong emotions. Admiration is recognition of their efforts and achievements,
reassurance that it will get easier with time and practice. 5
According to the article, if children feel that their parents want to be with them it will enhance their self esteem. OFW’s are unable to make this connection and children may feel that their parents do not want to be with them resulting in damaging the self esteem. Parent’s helping their children when they are emotionally intense can affect self esteem in a positive way. If the parents are unable to help their child when they are full of strong emotions, it may have a negative effect on the child’s self esteem. From the book Parent-Child Relations, Jerry Bigner discussed that the families with teenagers stage of the family life cycle signals the approaching end of the child-rearing responsibilities for adults. As the first child grows through adolescence, parents must once again adapt to the changing developmental demands of their child in providing their
communications between parents and teenagers. Differences in value orientation and life-styles between the generations may become apparent as the teenager approaches early adulthood. With the completion of the adolescent stage and the exit of the last child from the home, the parents face the challenge of adjusting to new roles as adults as they enter the last stage of psychosocial development. Development
launching-of-young-adults stage centers on developmental tasks that
(2)Meeting individual and shared needs.
From what Jerry Bigner discussed, it is related to the present study by mentioning some of the factors that might have affected the relationship between the parent and the child, especially when parents work abroad. Children whose parents are working abroad have the tendency to rebel because they do not have parents beside them to guide them. Only parents have that different and unique impact on their children that will boost their self-esteem up. It really gives teenagers good feeling or over-whelming feeling when they feel like the one they need is just there beside them rather than feeling incomplete. Sometimes effective communication with parents working abroad will make the child feel like parents are just physically absent but morally they present. Mark Huttemier, a counselor at University of Wisconsin River Falls, said that self esteem is the feeling of being valued or respected by our parents. Being respected means supporting the children’s decisions. The parent works to prevent the child from experiencing failure because the parent inappropriately interprets the child’s failure as his/her own failure. The child starts to see his achievements as a way to win approval from his parents and does not adequately internalize his success as esteem. The result is the child does not know
how to feel good about himself. He also said that awards like money, awards, and recognition should not be tied to self esteem. Instead he believed that personal integrity is the best in creating self esteem.7 This article is related to the study because if the parents go abroad they will fail to interact with their child thus not being able to support the child’s decisions. If the child excels or fails at something and is unable to connect with his parents this may result in failure to develop self-esteem. Personal integrity as defined in the dictionary means adherence to a code or values. Parents that go abroad will not be able to teach their kids values, which hinder the formation of self esteem. According to the article “The Impact of Migration on Children” by Caroline Bakker, Martina Elings-Pels and Michele Reis, they discussed that if children feel that their parents want to be with them it will enhance their self esteem. OFW’s are unable to make this connection and children may feel that their parents do not want to be with them resulting in damaging the self esteem. Parent’s helping their children when they are emotionally intense can affect self esteem in a positive way. If the parents are unable to help their child when they are full of strong emotions, it may have a negative effect on the child’s self esteem.8
The impact of parents’ migration on children can be devastating as
adolescents into adulthood. Children affected by migration face several challenges in terms of education and health care as well as various psychosocial
depressions, low self-esteem which can lead to behavioral problems, and at increased risk of poor academic performance as well as interruption of schooling. Local Studies Melanie Reyes, an active member of Women and Gender Institute for the United Nations Children’s Fund, believed that vulnerability of children to abuse and violence is one of the worrying aspects of parental absence. Study shows that among the common form of abuse are verbal, intimidating and hurting children. And among children of migrants, it is the male children who reported experiencing more abuse than female children. “Gender differences were largest for such abuses as being belittled and being hurt. The feeling of being abandoned was rather pronounced among the children of migrant mothers (boys and girls alike)”.9 The study is related to the present study because the vulnerability of children to abuse and violence are connected to one’s development of self-esteem. A person's overall sense of self-worth or
personal value may not be achieved if a child is vulnerable. A child may be vulnerable due to parental absence. A Research paper from College of Liberal Arts, De La Salle University – Dasmariñas concluded that parents help shape the personality of college students by means of attachment establishment through the formative years. As absentee parent/s goes home within two years, they are able to contribute on the rearing of their children. Monetary support compensates to the time lost, although not in every aspect of their college children’s needs. Lastly, the college students still see the parent/s overseas as figure/s of authority, however remote their parent/s can be.10 This study is related to the present study because the past study found out that parents have important roles on their children and they contribute on the rearing of their children. It also stated that parents help shape the personality of a child. In this aspect, parent absence may greatly affect a child’s personality and self-esteem. A local study about Migration and Filipino Children Left-Behind states that Parental absence creates “displacement, disruptions and changes in care giving arrangement.” There is always an emotional aspect that goes along with parents leaving their children, especially for long periods of time. Nevertheless, it is also a relief to have the extended family looking after the children left-behind. However, it
cannot negate the fact that the children are longing for the love and care of their biological parents.11 In the study about Migration and Filipino Children Left-Behind by Melanie Reyes, it is said that children left behind by their OFW parents seeks for love and care from their parents which cannot be replaced by mere caregivers. The study is related to the present study because the results of the past study states that children left behind needs love and affection from their biological parents. If a person’s needs are not fulfilled it may affect the person’s attitude, behavior and performance along with their self-concept or self-esteem. A study by the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy of University of the Philippines states that, the results of their study revealed that students with low self-esteem compared to those with high self-esteem tend to compare themselves more to others who are better or to those who have more. They also tend to see themselves in areas that they are not positively endowed with.
adolescents base their self-esteem on internal factors, namely on their belief that they are loved by God and by their adherence to a moral code. No gender differences were found between males and females’ direction of social comparison. affected
Females were found to be more
relationships, and relationship with God.12
The study is related to the present study because it shows that a person’s self-concept is said to be affected by family relationships. If the parents are working abroad then a person’s self-concept or selfesteem may also be affected. A study entitled, Self-esteem and family relationships: A Filipino study by Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela states that the importance of the parent-child relationship in the development of self-concept is well recognized by psychologists. The Philippines is an intensely family oriented society. Given the family oriented nature of Filipino that writers should suggest that the Filipino based in the bond that unites the family and kinship groups. However, this proposition been empirically investigated. The article tests whether high self-esteem subjects report a higher degree of family acceptance than low esteem subjects. It was found that the high self-esteem group reported a superior level of family inter-relationships to the low self-esteem group. This lends empirical confirmation to the hypothesized close association between the Filipino's perception of his family relationship and his selfesteem. It also lends support, from a cross-cultural perspective, to the view that family relationships are a significant influence on the development of sense of self worth of adolescents. According
relationships play a very important role in a person’s self-esteem. Being that of a country with close family ties, a child is influenced
significantly by their family especially their parents. The study by David Watkins and Estela Astilla is related to the present study because it establishes discovered facts about the family’s role to a person’s self-esteem. Foreign Studies According to Stanley Coopersmith, he studied the kinds of parental attitudes and practices were associated with the development of high levels of self-esteem and there were three conditions that were correlated with high self-esteem. First, the parents themselves had high levels of self-esteem and were very accepting toward their children. Second, students with high self-esteem tend to have parents who enforced clearly defined limits. Third, parents of the students with high self-esteem showed respect for the children's rights and opinions, respect for the children's rights and opinions.
The study is related to the present study because Parents' parental
development of self-esteem of their children. A parent who has a high self-esteem can also influence and give their children a better guidance, show them their limits and most importantly, respect their ideas and opinions. Parent's support all through the way is a big help in guiding the child to be confident in everything they do.
According to Frank Rusch, the family's involvement in their son's or daughter's education is a critical factor related to school success. Students' benefits from family involvement as indicated by better academic performance, better attendance, lower dropout rates, increase likelihood for higher education and improved attitudes. Parents play a significant role in transitions as indicated by the overwhelming support for their own involvement evident through Legislations, research outcomes and student testimony. In addition, parents are a source of continuity and consistency in the young adult's life that can be a key link among changing education and adult service personnel as well as an ongoing and constant source of support. Parents themselves must set or be a good example to their children. Being a role model to their kids affects what they might be in the future. 15 The study is related to the present study by means of how much time is allotted by the parents to bond with their children. The more they show support and give their children's needs, the more the child is being motivated in pursuing better achievements as they develop their self-esteem. According to Delamont, "boys" demand are given more attention and engage in activity related discussion to a greater extent than girls. Girls maybe more affected than boys by family disruption. there is
some evidence that the effect of living with one parent on dropping out of high school is greater for young men. Parents bear primary responsibility for making sure that the child's needs are met. In order to grow up to be successful adults, children need intellectual stimulation and they need to know that working hard and getting a good education will pay off in the future. They also need a close relationship with a parent who is committed to their well-being and who has the ability and authority to supervise their activities and make sure they do not get off on the wrong track. Boys are more irresponsible than girls. But by now some girls tend to act like boys. They do the same thing. Parents must guide their kids on which track they must go.16 The study is related to the present study because parents should be the first and the one who will set their children's mind in knowing how to have a better future. Their close relationship is the key in convincing the child to believe what their parents tell them. Without it, children might just make their own risky decisions without asking anyone for opinions if what they will do is for the better or for worse because some parents just leave their children for work and never having the time to talk to them. According
probability sample of one thousand, two hundred fifty fathers showed that children whose fathers share meals, spend leisure time with them, or help them with reading or homework do significantly better in schooling than those whose father do not.17 This study is related to the present study because parents spending time mostly with their kids are really important to a child’s development and they are able to guide their child while growing up. If the child is nurtured with love, care and support from their parents, children will not have low self-esteem and will have self-confidence to do the right thing. According
displacement, disruptions and changes in care giving arrangement.” Maruja asserted that there is always an emotional aspect that goes along with parents leaving their children, especially for long periods of time. Nevertheless, it is also a relief to have the extended family looking after the children left-behind. However, it cannot negate the fact that the children are longing for the love and care of their biological parents.18 The study is related to the present study because parents should be the one guiding their child. The children will not have a proper selfesteem if they are left behind. A child may grow in a wrong
environment and could think and do risky actions if they are not well guided and taught by their parents.
Elena Laur. “Psycho-emotional development”, The
Of Parental Deprivation On The Development Of Children Left Behind By Moldovan Migrants. page 20 www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/The_Impact_of_Parental_Deprivation_ on_the_Development_of_Children.pdf 2
Rosemarie Edillon (March - April 2008). OFW Children: Wanting
For More Attention, Development Research News Vol. XXVI No.2 ISSN 0115-9097 3
Melanie M. Reyes (2008). Migration and Filipino Children Left-
Behind. www.unicef.org/philippines/Synthesis_StudyJuly12008.pdf 4
Cristina Montefusco (November 2010). International Migration
Organization Final Report: The Psychosocial-Educational Component. pg.10-13 5
Jan Blaxall(2008). Parents as Partners: Enhancing Self-Esteem Jerry J. Bigner. “An Introduction to Parenting”, Parent – Child
relations. page 210 – 211 7
Mark Huttemier (August 2012). From Integrity to Self-Esteem
Caroline Bakker, Martina Elings-Pels and Michele Reis (August
2009). The Impact of Migration on Children, Caribbean UNICEF Office for Barbados and Eastern Caribbean Melanie Reyes (2003). A Philippine Study: “Families on the
Effelaine Castro, Jomari Del Rosario, April Jane Gonzales, Josef
Paolo Jimenez, and Kong-Tae Kyu (2011). The Psychological Effects of the Absentee Parents to the Personality Development of College Students. www.scribd.com/doc/67272871/The-Psychological-Effects-ofthe-Absentee-Parents-to-the-Personality-Development-of-CollegeStudents 11
Melanie M. Reyes (2008). Migration and Filipino Children Left-
Behind. www.unicef.org/philippines/Synthesis_StudyJuly12008.pdf 12
Eric L. Dimar (2011). Contingencies Of Filipino Adolescent Self-
Esteem And The Possible Effect Of Direction Of Social Comparison. (University of the Philippines Diliman Undergraduate Thesis)
David Watkins and Estela Astilla (1980). Self-esteem and family
relationships: A Filipino study. http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/11587764/selfesteem-family-relationships-filipino-study 14
Abe, Sherry. Bagus, Jasmin. Francisco, Mellisa Joy (March
2004). The Self-Esteem Of Students In The Cream Section From Second Year To Fourth Year Of The BS Psychology Program School Year 20032004 (Centro Escolar University Undergraduate Thesis) 15
Claudette P. Nuguid, Mary Cris P. Cabahug, Theresa Joy C.
Liwanag (March 2012). Comparative Study Of The Father's Absence And The Mother's Absence On The Cognitive Ability And Academic Performance Of Freshmen Students Of The School Of Science And Technology (Centro Escolar University Undergraduate Thesis) 16
Christian Mary G. Avinante, Elaine C. Domingo, Monette M.
Mirano (March 2003). Perceived Effects Of Paternal Absence On The Child's Social And Emotional Development (CEU Undergraduate Thesis) 17
Claudette P. Nuguid, Mary Cris P. Cabahug, Theresa Joy C.
Liwanag (March 2012). Comparative Study Of The Father's Absence And The Mother's Absence On The Cognitive Ability And Academic Performance Of Freshmen Students Of The School Of Science And Technology (Centro Escolar University Undergraduate Thesis) 18
Asis Maruja (2000). A Study of Migration and Families in Asia
CHAPTER 3 Methods and Procedure This chapter includes the methods and procedures that will be used in gathering data, the subjects of the study, the instruments that will be adapted, the sampling technique, and the statistical treatment that will be employed in interpreting the data.
Research Methodology The Descriptive Research Method will be used in this study. This type of research method describes and interprets what is. It is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, processes that are going on, effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing.1
gathering and tabulation of data. It involves the elements or interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described and is often combined with comparison and contrast.
In other words, Descriptive Research may be defined as a purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends and cause-effect relationships and then making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of statistical method.
Since the present study is concerned with the effects of having OFW parents on self-esteem of selected First Year students, the Descriptive method of research was the most appropriate kind of research design to use. Subjects of the Study The researchers choose the entire First year students studying in Centro Escolar University Makati-Gil Puyat. The total number of first year students, excluding irregular students, is 1335. The age range is from 15-19 years old. Sampling Technique The researchers will use Purposive sampling - a non-Scientific Sampling. This type of non-scientific sampling is based on selecting the individuals as samples according to the purposes of the researchers as their controls. An individual is selected as part of the sample due to good evidence that he is a representative of the population.
Generally speaking, statisticians do not use this type of sampling design because not all of the individuals are given equal chance to be included in the sample since the criteria are based on the purposes of the investigator.
Procedure of Data Gathering The researchers will utilize the following procedure to gather the data for this study: 1. The researchers will write a permission letter to the Dean and the Vice President of Centro Escolar University Makati City, to conduct a study. 2. The researchers will request from the Student Records Management Department for the schedule and room assignment of the respondents. Instruments that will be in this Study Below are the instruments that will be used by the researchers in conducting this study: 1. The researchers will prepare a survey questionnaire for the respondents. It will consist of ten (10) major questions with a multiple choice type of responses. This questionnaire will intend to gather data that will show the effects on self-esteem in having OFW parents.
2. The researchers will use the Rosenburg's Self-esteem scale. It consists of ten (10) questions, which will determine the self-esteem level of the respondents. (FOR THE SAMPLE OF ROSENBURG'S SELF-ESTEEM SCALE, GO TO www.wwnorton.com/college/psych/psychsci/media/rosenberg.htm) Statistical Treatment of Data The following formulas will be used by the researchers to treat and interpret their data. The researchers will use Mean. This is to know what the average self-esteem level of the respondents is.
X = (∑ƒixi) / n Where: X = mean n = level of self-esteem ƒi = frequency Xi = grade or mark per question The next statistical formula is the Standard Deviation. It is used to know the range of each grade or mark of every answer in each question of the questionnaire.
SD = √[n∑x2 – (∑x2)] / √n Where: SD = standard deviation x = mean n
respondents in a group
Below is the formula for the Two-Tailed T-Test to determine the significance of the difference in the stress levels of the two groups. t=
t-Test mean of the first sample
mean of the second sample
sample standard deviation of the first sample
sample standard deviation of the second
sample This test was used in rejecting the (Ho) Null hypothesis. The results will be used to find out the effects of having OFW parents on the self-esteem of selected first year students.
Jose Calderon, Expectacion Gonzales (1993). Methods of
Research and Thesis Writing. (Quad Alpha Centrum Bldg. 125 Pioneer Street, Mandaluyong City 1550: National Book Store, 2007 Reprint) Page 61 2
Custodiosa Sanchez (1980). Methods and Techniques of
Research, (Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc.) Page 83 3
Research Methods and Thesis Writing, (856 Nicanor Reyes, Sr. St., Sampaloc, Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc.) Page 104