research proposal-chapter 1-3.docx
Tardiness and Undertime...
“FACTORS AFFECTING TARDINESS AND UNDERTIME OF THE TEACHING AND NON-TEACHING EMPLOYEES OF THE CATANDUANES STATE COLLEGES”
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY It is vital to any government entity especially the school for all employees to have reliable attendance. Tardiness and undertime negatively impact the organization’s ability to effectively provide the organization’s services. Staff employees must arrive and be prepared to commence work at their scheduled start time. Employees are responsible for notifying supervision of absences, late arrivals, or early departures each day of the absence, tardiness, or early departure, in accordance with their unit’s call-in procedure, which typically requires employees to advise supervision when they will report to work. Unscheduled absences, tardiness, and unscheduled early departures (whether excused or unexcused), failure to provide appropriate notification, or abuse of sick leave or other paid time off may result in corrective action up to and including
http://hrservices.uchicago.edu/fpg/policies/500/p502.shtml Amongst other components of any organization, human beings are the most difficult to manage. Folks pose the most problems to administrators anywhere in the world, not excluding school organizations as learning factories. Many authors have posited as a matter of fact that it is easier to manage the
financial and material components of any organization than to manage the human component. They insinuate that “it is easier to manage even animals than
Peretomode, 2001;Ubogu, 2004; Emore, 2005; Ukoshi, 2004). Thus, in the school system, the school head, which is usually the headmaster/headmistress or the principal, is confronted with numerous problems posed by staff and/or students. These problems include: sleeping on duty, negative attitude to tasks, lack of motivation to tasks, sexual harassment, theft, quarrelling, malice, jealousy,
etc.(http://www.academicjournals.org/ingoj/pdf/pdf2011/July/Dafiaghor%202. pdf) The attainment of the goals of the organizations is reflected on the managerial performance of the manager, on productivity and organizational effectiveness. What contributes to organizational effectiveness is the quality of work life which is founded on healthy working climate that is when employees don’t murmur or complain because they experience how to have good human relationship with peer and supervisors because they observe work ethics and standards of human behavior called the code of ethics of professionals. The school is a social system in which the quality of work life is reflected on the working environment.
School administrators, teachers, and support
personnel interact effectively by being guided by Code of Ethics. It is stated in Article II Section 2 of the code that every school official of teacher must sincerely believe in and earnestly endeavor to help carry out the
declared policies of the State and shall take an oath or make affirmation to this effect. Moreover, Article II Section 3 of the same code provides that the interest of the State demands that every school official or teacher be physically mentally and morally fit for the service he has to render.
Devotion to duty honesty,
punctuality and efficiency are expected of him. In addition, Article VI Section of said Code states that every school or teacher should support loyally the legitimate policies of the school and administration. The teacher or school official should make an honest effort to understand those policies and regardless of personal feeling or private opinions faithfully carry them out so long as he remains in the organization. Pupils, students and/or staff could sometimes feel the extent of their lateness and very often they just decide to be absent. This has a very great effect on the individual’s academic and other achievements. (Ali, 2007) Getting and keeping a job are instrumental factors in determining a person’s success in life. Besides the obvious economic benefit to the individual, a job affects self-esteem, helps define social position, reduces the probability of involvement
contributing to the local, state and national economy. Given the importance of employment, this study explores behavior which is present in the work setting. When hiring, human resources managers look for - among other characteristics - dependability in job applicants. Tardiness and absences are indicators of undesirable employee behaviors, and, “...employers
may wish to avoid hiring individuals who regularly engage in such behaviors...” (Sackett & Wanek, 1996, p. 815). Once hired, satisfactory attendance on the job and acceptable levels of effort and loyalty become part of the old social contract between employees and employers (Weidenbaum, 1995). Abernathy (1989) cites studies which show that tardiness and absenteeism are two common reasons for employee terminations. Private business and government entities alike use these measures to discipline and fire employees (Michigan State Department of Civil Service, 2003). The objectivity and relative ease in data collection of tardiness and absenteeism records appeal to human resources departments. Thus work tardiness and absenteeism data is used by business for many reasons such as determining if training had an effect on work habits (Abernathy, 1999) and examining the dimensions of alienation from work (Cummings & Manning, 1977). Businesses track and analyze the tardiness and absentee rates of their employees to learn about their workforce, similar to taking the pulse to help assess the health of an organism. The issue of tardiness in the workplace has become very common. In any government agencies for instance, tardiness and undertime are the most common issues faced by employees that needs to be acted upon by the organization because it affects its productivity. The researches thus believes that this study on the Factors Affecting Tardiness and Undertime of the Teaching and Non-Teaching Employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges would contribute to the attainment of the Mission,
Vision, Goals and Objectives of the institution because in knowing the causes of unpunctuality of employees remedial actions could be made. Statement of the Problem The objectives for this study are to determine the factors affecting tardiness and undertime of the teaching and non-teaching personnel of the Catanduanes State Colleges. Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions: 1. Is there a relationship on the age of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 2. Is there a relationship on the age of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 3. Is there a relationship on the gender of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 4. Is there a relationship on the gender of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 5. Is there a relationship on the civil status of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 6. Is there a relationship on the civil status of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
Is there a relationship on the years in government service of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
Is there a relationship on the years in government service of the nonteaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
Is there a relationship on the present position of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
Is there a relationship present position of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
Research Hypotheses The following are the hypotheses posited: 1. There is a relationship between age on the factors affecting tardiness and undertime among teaching employees. 2. There is a relationship between age on the factors affecting tardiness and undertime among non-teaching employees. 3. There is a relationship between the gender of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 4. There is a relationship between the gender of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 5. There is a relationship on the civil status of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred? 6.
There is a relationship on the civil status of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
There is a relationship on the years in government service of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
There is a relationship on the years in government service of the nonteaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
There is a relationship on the present position of the teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
There a relationship between present position of the non-teaching staff on the tardiness and undertime being incurred?
Scope and Delimitation This study will focus on the factors affecting tardiness and undertime of the employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges.
The factors that cause
tardiness and undertime will be determined base on the employees profile in terms of age, gender, civil status, years in government service, and present position. The respondents of this study will be the teaching and non-teaching employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges.
This research will cover the
period from May 30, 2011 to October 8, 2011.
Importance of the Study This study on factors affecting tardiness and undertime of teaching and non-teaching personnel of Catanduanes State Colleges will benefit the school, school administrators, teachers, support personnel, students and researchers.
The school will get an advantage from this study because after determining the factors that cause tardiness and undertime of the employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges, necessary actions shall be made thus resulting to organization’s success being having productive employees. School administrators and department heads shall benefit from the result of this study upon knowing the factors that affect tardiness and undertime of the Catanduanes State Colleges personnel may it be teaching and non-teaching, they will come up with programs/actions that will minimize if not completely eliminate tardiness and undertime in the institution. Teachers and support personnel will benefit from the findings of this study since they will be aware of their attitudes that cause them incur tardiness and undertime, and therefore could make necessary actions to correct it. This study will benefit future researchers because they may make use the results of this study for their own data gathering and in-depth study with regards to research that is with significance to the present study and also for reference purposes.
Definition of Terms In order to have a better understanding and clarity of the study, the following terms have been defined according to how they are used in the study. Tardiness refers to the failure of an employee to report to work on scheduled start time.
Undertime refers to the failure on an employee to complete the work time scheduled due to early departure. Employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges refers to the teaching and non-teaching personnel working at the Catanduanes State Colleges. Teaching Employees refer to the faculty members who perform classroom instruction, conducting research, production and extension services and who holds a permanent status. Non-teaching Employees refer to the support personnel who perform various services and the functions of respective units and offices and possess a permanent status. Catanduanes State Colleges refer to the institution, an entity where the locale of the study will be conducted.
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related literature and studies gathered and found to have relevance on the present study. Related Literature
Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Time management may be aided by a range of skills, tools and techniques used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due date. This set encompasses a wide scope of activities, and these include planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, analysis of time spent, monitoring, organizing, scheduling and prioritizing. Initially, time management referred to just business or work activities, but eventually the term broadened to include personal activities as well.
A time management system is a designed
combination of processes, tools, techniques, and methods.
management is a necessity in any project development as it determines the project completion, time and scope. (http://www.wikipedia.org) An individual who were appointed in the government is deemed responsible and accountable to the people the moment he accepted the position. This is in consonance with 1987 Constitution of the Philippines, Article XI Section 1, which provides that:“Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must, at all times, be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and efficiency; act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.” Inherent in this mandate is the observance of prescribed office hours and the efficient use of every moment thereof for public service, if only to recompense
the Government, and ultimately, the people who shoulder the cost of maintaining the transactions of the government. Thus, to inspire public respect for the officials and employees are at all times behooved to strictly observe official time. As punctuality is a virtue, absenteeism and tardiness are impermissible. (Laserna) Moreover, Section 2 of the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees or the Republic Act No. 6713 states: “It is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public service. Public officials and employees shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their duties with utmost responsibility, integrity, competence and loyalty, act with patriotism and justice, lead modest lives, and uphold public interest over personal interest.” Therefore, an employee is compelled to be accountable to the people at all times, and that includes the responsibility of reporting to work on time to carry out his duties and responsibilities promptly. All officers and employees of the government are bound to observe the required government office hours except those covered by special laws (Supreme Court, justices, Judges, etc.), elective officials and presidential appointees. Government Office hours refers to the minimum working hours that officials and employees required to render for a week. The prescribed government working hours is eight (8) hours a day for five days a week or forty (40) hours a week exclusive of time for lunch. The working hours starts at 8:00 o’clock to 12:00 o’ clock in the morning and 1:00 o’clock to 5:00 o’clock in the afternoon. Working
days starts Monday to Friday except Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays. (CSC Resolution No. 93-924 dated March 4, 1994) Moreover, flexible working hours for government employees were granted with the following conditions, pursuant to CSC Resolution No. 96-0082 dated January 4, 1996: Usual official time of 8:00 in the morning to 12:00 noon and 1:00 to 5:00 in the afternoon shall be made available to the public by the department agency concerned; Flexible working hours shall be from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm only; Flexible working hours adopted by officials and employees shall thereafter be their regular working hours which cannot be occasionally or periodically changed at their pleasure. Overtime services rendered by official and employees in the exigency of the service or for whatever reasons, should not be allowed to offset their tardiness or undertime they may incur; lastly, working hours of officials and employees shall comply with the 40-hour week law requirement. From these work schedule and with the availability of flexible working hours that an employee may availed of tardiness and undertime still occur, henceforth this research initiate to determine the factors causing tardiness and undertime of the teaching and nonteaching employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges. Moreover, the Civil Service Commission (CSC), as the central personnel agency of the Government, shall establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy in the civil service. It shall strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability.
(Article IX, item B Sec. 3 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution) In this connection, the Civil Service Commission (CSC) has promulgated guidelines which make the habitual incurrence of undertimes an administrative offense, and which reclassify absence in the morning, or half-day absence, as tardiness. Citing the need to limit the number of times a public officer or employee is allowed to go on undertime due to its inimical effect to public service, the CSC issued on August 6, 2010 its Memorandum Circular No. 16-2010 which states that any public officer or employee “who incurs undertime, regardless of the number of minutes/hours, ten (10) times a month for at least two (2) months in a semester shall be liable for Simple Misconduct and/or Conduct Prejudicial to the Best Interest of the Service, as the case may be.” Undertime is defined as “working time that is less than the full time or the required minimum” which is usually incurred by one “who leaves from work earlier than the usual eight-hour work schedule in a given working day.”The said circular also imposes the same penalty or penalties on an official or employee who incurs the same number of undertimes “for at least two (2) consecutive months during the year.” Likewise, the CSC has, through its Memorandum Circular No. 17-2010, also dated August 6, 2010, promulgated guidelines on half-day absences, or the instances when a public officer or employee “does not report for work either for the whole morning or the whole afternoon.” Under the said guidelines, “an official or employee who is absent in the morning is considered to be tardy and is subject to the provisions (of the Civil Service Law, Rules, and Regulations) on Habitual Tardiness.” Additionally, “any officer or employee who is absent in the afternoon
is considered to have incurred undertime, subject to the provisions on Undertime.” Businesses track and analyze the tardiness and absentee rates of their employees to learn about their workforce, similar to taking the pulse to help assess the health of an organism. Employers also watch tardiness and absenteeism rates because they affect profitability. Companies lose productivity if employees are late or missing. Businesses may need to maintain a substitute or “on-call” list or pay overtime to regular workers to fill gaps left by absent employees. These substitutes may not be as familiar or as skilled at a job, or they may be tired from working extra hours. Their output is less, the product quality lower, and accident rate higher. Yet employers may be reluctant to terminate unreliable workers because turnover affects profits (Hacker, 2003).
Related Studies Several studies were found to have relevance on the present study. Mercado (2009) study on Employees’ Motivators and Perceptions on the Implementation of Management Systems and Procedures of the Catanduanes State Colleges reveals that……………………….(look at the conclusion) Mercado’s study and the present study are comparable with this study as its
Catanduanes State Colleges. descriptive type of research.
This study and of that of Mercado’s used the
In the study of Gabriel (1990) that the relationship between organizational climate of the technological university system and morale of the faculty.
discovered the need to improve the value orientation of both faculty and administration of the university. The study of Gabriel is related to the present study on the aspect of organizational conditions which employees play a role. While Gabriel focuses on the relationship of the morale of the faculty to the organizational climate, this present study also dealt with the factors that affect teaching employees tardiness and undertime that could affect the organization climate of the Catanduanes State Colleges. Also, both studies point of reference are the school setting. Moreover, research of Santelices (Graduate School Journal, Volume XXX, December 2004) on Superior-Subordinate Communication climate among nonteaching
communication is a tool to promote interpersonal relation among employees and between supervisors and subordinates. Furthermore, employees whose attitudes toward policy standards are positive don’t murmur or complain, so their attitude promote healthy working climate among employees and between supervisors and subordinates.
This study of Santelices has bearing on the present study
because respondents of her study are also employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges.
Theoretical Framework of the Study
The theory which fit to this study is the Systems Theory of Griffin. This theory states that every organization is provided with inputs in order to realize its goals and objectives.
These inputs include among others material input,
human inputs, financial inputs and information inputs. These inputs must be transformed either through technology and managerial processes in order to produce an output.
These outputs include products or services or losses,
employee behavior and information outputs. Finally, the environment reacts to these outputs and provides feedback to the system. (Figure 1) Considering this theory, the researcher believed that the same could be applied in the determining of the factors affecting tardiness and undertime of the teaching and non-teaching employees of the Catanduanes State Colleges. Inputs to the program include material inputs, human inputs and financial inputs. However, in this study the focus is more on human inputs-teachers and the non-teaching personnel of the Catanduanes State Colleges. From the above theory, this study advanced that there is a significant relationship between the profile of the employees and the Tardiness and Undertime they made. Feedback from the Environment
Technology and Managerial Processes a. Material Inputs
b. Human Inputs
c. Financial Inputs
c. Employee Behavior
d. Information Inputs
d. Information Output
Figure 1 – Systems Theory of Griffin ______________ Source: Ricky W. Griffin. Management, 2nd Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company Conceptual Framework This study is based on the idea from Section 2 of the Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees or the Republic Act No. 6713, provides that, “It is the policy of the State to promote a high standard of ethics in public service. Public officials and employees shall at all times be accountable to the people and shall discharge their duties with utmost responsibility, integrity, competence and loyalty…” However, compliance of government officials and employees which include the teaching and non-teaching employees of the Catanduanes State
Colleges, to this statement is being influenced by lot of factors wherein tardiness and undertime is one among that contributes thereto. The incurring of tardiness and undertime may be affected by the personal profile of the employees such as age, gender, civil status, years in government service and their present position. Age may affect the ability of the employees to report to work on time. As it could be an indicator of vigor. Also, it reveals the maturity level of an individual to assume responsibility. As one matures, he becomes more aware of the need to work and to handle his work with conscientiousness. Gender may also be one of the factors that cause tardiness and undertime among employees.
Women and men have various differences in
terms of personal grooming that could affect the time consumption prior to coming to work. The civil status of the employees may also affect their incurring of tardiness and undertime. Single employees as compared to married employees may report to work ahead of working time since they do not have children/husband to attend to. The number of years in service may also be the reason why employees get tardy and be on undertime. Being in the government service for a longer period may bring boredom and lifelessness on the part of the employee especially those who are nearing retirement; hence, reporting to work is merely for the purpose of completing their compulsory age of retirement.
Present position of the employees may be one of the factors that affect tardiness and undertime made.
An employee who holds a much higher
position than those with a lower post may not incur tardiness nor undertime as that they serve as the role model in terms of punctuality and a good public servant. Figure 2 shows the conceptual framework of the study. It illustrates that age, gender, civil status, years in government service and present position are associated to the incurring of tardiness and undertime of teaching and nonteaching employees.
Employees Profile Age Gender Civil Status Years in Government Service Present Position
Tardiness and Undertime
Figure 2 Conceptual Model
Chapter 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This
instrumentation and validation, sampling technique and statistical tools used in the study.
This study will used the descriptive survey method of research. The questionnaire will be used as an instrument for data gathering.
research involved description of existing conditions, practices and beliefs. (Calderon, 1993). It is appropriate to use this method since it will solve the research questions and will give clarity to the problem of the study.
Sources of Data The sources of data in this study will be the personnel of the Catanduanes State Colleges, the faculty members and the non-teaching employees with a total of 396.
Sampling Procedure The researcher will get a copy of the lists of faculty members and support personnel from the Human Resource Management Services of the Catanduanes State College. Base on the list the total number of personnel of the Colleges will be determined and all will be the respondents of this study, and thus will not make use of sampling method.
Ali M (2007). Attendance and Punctuality cost companies big money. Retrieved 23rd
September, 2010 from: http://bizconvering.com/business-