Research Methodology

October 13, 2017 | Author: zafafabutayeh | Category: Qualitative Research, Quantitative Research, Inductive Reasoning, Research Design, Survey Methodology
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c     pp p  p p  pp   p

p  p  p   p  p    p p p pp  ! pp p  pp 0 " pp G p   p  pp    p  "pp    p" pp ^ p"p^ p  "   pp mp 0 " pp mp ^ p   pp mp ^ p   pp mp O  p # p$ p"p$ p  "pp ÷p Op   p"p   pp ÷p  "p  pp ÷p ÷p ÷p ÷p ÷p ÷p

p pp    pp p 

"p p p pp""p" ppp p# p

p p p p p pp  pp p p # p p"  p"p   p  !p p p p p" p# p p  p   p p  ppp  p p    p# p p p  p    p"p p # "p#   p p  p p   p pp # " !p%  p" p p   "pp p " p p   ppp$  ppp #p" p  p p   p#p p p   p p p#p p p p #pp# p  p"p  #pp# p p!pG p"" p  p pp  p p  p pp  p p p p p " p p  "pp   p  "  !pp p   pp          

        ! "  p  #  $ " #pp & p  p  p  p   pp' 'p pppp  p  p    !pG " p"p" "p p   pp p p  p" p  p p  p#p p  p"  "ppp   p p p" "p p p

 p p p %!p& pp (  p p p  p pp pp p"p pp " p p  p pp p  p p pp p# p p p pp" pp' 'p p p p   !p) pp p p  p p p p  # "pp " p'   'p!O!p  ppp  p

"pp  p"pp  p  p  p   p p #" "pp p   p   !p%  p p p p p (  "p p pp " p  p p  p  p  p p   !p*  ppp p p p" p p p!O!pp'   p# 'pp  pp" p  p"p p  p p  pp  p p p'O 'p

 p p" p  pp p p"p  p  "p  p#p !O!+p# p p p pp  p pp   p$  !pp G p"" p  p p p pp  p"   p #pp   p , pp   "p  "p"p   "p    pp ( p p pp   p   "  !p0p pp (p p   p  p p p p  p p p p p   p #p p "p, p p"p pp p  !p0p p p p " p#p p   p" p"p  p  "p p p  p p" !p0p

pp  p p   p  "p p  "  p p "p (  p "   p"pp   !p0p  #p"p p ( p p,  p  "p p p p$ p"p$ p  !p- $ p  p ( p  p  "p#p   p"p    p p   p "p"p"p p" p p p$   p p  p"p   p p p p "p p p p    !pp G p "p  pp  p " p p   p  "  p  pp  #p  p, p p  p! !p pp $ pp#p p "!p  p  pp " p  "p p p  p p p"pp  p  

 "p p" p p   p  "  !p pp  p" p pp  $ p#pp p "p p p, p#p p p p p#p p p . p!p. ppp  p p p  ppp#" p "ppp " pp p  p p $  p#p. ppp  p p p p" 

"p  p "p"p p  "ppp,  p p p   " p#p p p "p p  !p. p   p   p  p   p "p  p $ p p p  p"   "!pG  p  p p   p  p  p p"p # p p  p"p p p (p ( p (p  p  p"p# p   p , p  p p p p   p , p p  p p  !pp p

G c  &  pp G     !   ! '       p 

p p   p   p  "  p"p p p   p$  pp  pp p"p  pp  ppp  pp  p !p/ p"  "p  p  p p p  "ppp  p01234p!356p   "pp è          

                        èp

p01275p!116p#pp è                 

    



          è pp   #p01278p!9996p"   "p p   p  pp pp è            

               è pp  p p  p  p:p012796p pp p  p"p  p p   p  p p p  pp p  p   "pp  ppp p p "p"p  p p p p"p  pp  p "  !p G p  p p p   p  ppp   "pp0  p12;8p!;p"p?  p012216p p" p p: p pp012326p p (p p  pp p   pp #pp  p1!pp

p (  p1p: +p (  p  p pp -   pp>p"p?  p012216pp >p"p?  p012216p pp: +p   pp  p1p "p p pp  pp  p"p p ( p  p p  p p#pp  p "pp"p " pp  p  pp p"  p # p   p   "pp p" " p0 "p p 6p"p  pp p" p0 "p p  p "  6!pp > p pp012286p pp p" p  p  pp p" #p p  p   ppp" p  p p p p"p" p p : +p  p pp  p1!pp 0" p p>p"p?  p012216pp  pp  p p p  p (   p"p p p  p p p  p  p"p    pp (pp"p "p  p (   !pp O " p   p  "p p p  p"p $ p p"    p pp  p "p p  p  p pp p p  p   p  "p  p p p p"p" p p: +p (  p  p pp  p1!p= p p    p p#p p   p  "p p p p p  p p p pp p  p #p (   p p   p0>p"p?  p 12216!pp > p pp012286p"p p p# pp p012796p  p p"  p  # p" p"p" " pp ppp" p p$ "p p

  p "p p  p"p   p# pp p p p" " p p    p p  p  "p p ,  "p p p ( p p " !p

Gpp #pp  p9!pp

p (  %p0" p"p" " p0   pp p12796pp> p ppp1228pp 0p" "p pp  "  p pp  p  p p   p  p    p p "p p p#p p  p "p #p p  p012246!pG p  " p # p" p"p" " p  pp  p "pp p p p  p"!p0p p" p pp  p p p p p   p! !p   p   p p p   p"p   p"p" #p  p p  p  p"!p= #  p   p p    pp pp# p p p#" p   (p  # p "pp !p  pp"ppp p pp  , p  p  p p p p p  p p    p "p p  p  #p"p p p "p   p"p p   "pp p   p

 !p  p p    p  p" "p #p"pp  # p "p " "p (   p p#p p p p" #p "p  p"p p  p   " pp p p p"p p #p  p p (p  p  "p # !pGp  p pp p   p , p

p   p p   p # "pp " "p" "p pp " p "!pp 0p #p p p  p#p pp p pp   p , pp p" p p   p # p p  p"p  p p p p, p pp ppp" " p   p p  p p   !pp p c    pp G p   p" pp p #p p> p pp012286pp p  pp p  p  p  p   p  p p p  p0"p  6p  p   !p G p p p p  pp p  p   pp"  p p# p   p $  p p   p   p" p "p p p  pp "p p $ "p # p#p p  p "p p p    !p.   p p  p p  p  p p   p" p   p $ p   p p p ( p#p "p #p"pp p p   "ppp  pp p   p  pp" 

"p p p"@ p  p" p  p p p p " "!pp    pp p"" "p p pp   p (  p"   p"p!p ppp" p"p"" p ppp p pp p p p

 !pp p  p p   p  pp   "p p (  p p "   p pp p "p p pp p"  p p p"pp "  p"  p p  (pp p#pp#p p   pp p  "p p 0& p12296!pp > p pp012286p  p   p" p"p p p   pp p p p   p  pp #pp  p5!pp

p (  )p   pO pp (  p   ppp"p0p"pp1273Ap& p1229Ap> p pAp12286p p p pp p  p p pp   p , p# p p  p p  p"p p  p  p p p, pp$  p pp  p p# p  p  pp p p# p" 

"p"p  "pp> p p+p  # !p -p   pp   "pppp"  p p  (Ap"ppp p p   !pG p  (p  p pp"  p p  p p p (   p p p   p"p p p "p p "p p "ppp    "p  p 0& p12296!pp G ppp p (  p   pp p  p p "  p p p   pp #p p  p   p p p p p p p p " p"p p   p p p  ppp p "p p"p#p p  p p p   p , p0& p12296!pp 0 p p  pp p (  p   pp   "p  pp p"  p p  p  ppp p p p pp p"   p   pp p " p p  p"p"p    p p  p  Ap# p (  p   p "  p  p p p"p p"  p"   p   p  p!p 0 p"   p   p" p p p p #p p pppp  # p  pp p"   p p0& p12296!p0pp   p p   p" p  pp  "Ap pp p p pp' p"p 'p  p # p  p p p  p#p  p  !pp G p  "  p p   "p pp   p p "p p p  p p  p  p" "p"p  p p p, p"p p p p"p"p p p p p   !p%  p p pp  p p# p p  p"p  p pp  p p p   pp  p p pp "   p p #  p p  p "p $p p  "ppp (  p p#p pp  p p p p"p" p    p p  " "p  p   !p. pp  "  p p p #ppp  p p

 pp  p p (  p"p"   p   p pp p ,  p p p   pp p   "!p-pp  p pppp p  pp  p  p p   p pp "p  !pp p ^ "  ^"    pp   pp p p p  #p p p  pp#p  "  p p !pp" p p!p 012726p p p'

pp  "  p"   p#p# pp"pp# pp p  p p  p p"p  'p0!;16!p%  p p  pp#  p p pp $ p$ p p  pp   p p p p"!pO  "p p  p'  'p p p, p p"p  p  "pp p     pp p

p p"p     p   p pp p p !p= #  p pp #p    p p  "p#p p "p"p   p pp p0"pp   p 6p  p pp # p$ p p$ !p.  p  p  p" p p p p (" p  p p p  !p p  #p p p p pp  p p  p p  "   ppp  p p p pp# p "  p p#pp pp$ p"p$ p   !pp ^ "   pp O p p p" p p p"  p$ p   !p p012216p p p  p'"   p"'Ap-p"p- p012356p'  "p"'Ap?   p012726p ' p   'Ap)p012746p' p"'Ap:"" p012716p' p   '!p & p012286p"   p$ p   p p pp   p# p p  p"pp $ p p p p  p p# pp pp" p p  p  p p p   p p"pp  p p !p- p" pp p p   "p#p" p p   p"p p" p  pp p "p p  #p" p   p  p p"p  p  pp  pp    "  p"p"   p!pp & p012286p pp  p$ p   p +p    p  "  " p p  pp p"p"p " ppp   p   " p "p p""p" p  p p  p pp p  pp p p p   p p" p  p p  p"p#pp pp p   pp #p "pp:  p"p%  p1221!pp"p  p pp $ p   ppppp p p   p p"p  pp  p 0p  p p!p12796!pp 0p p p p  p  p p ( pp p0p1225Ap  p 1225Ap/ p p!p1221Ap p"p " p012216Ap-  p1275Ap" p1274Ap>p "p?  p1221Ap> p p!p12286p  pp  p  pppp  "p    "pppp p p" "p ppp  p p p

  p  p p" p p  p p$ p   pp p  "p p pp p p p#p p  p p0& p12286!p> p"p- p 012;36pp p  p p" p p p   p"p p   p  pp  p ( p p p"  p # p   p p p p p#p  p$ p  "p p p   p"p p p  p p p   p p p#p$ p  "p p p  !pp 0p"" p p p p  p pp$ p   p p p  p  p  !p0  p  p  p' 'p  p"p  (p  !p^ p   p p p    p p  (p #p  p p p " p p p  p p"p"pp p p p  p !p0p "p  p  p p ( p p  p p'#'p"p' #'p p,p'#'Ap p ( p  p  (p "  " p pp  p  p  !pG p'#'p  p p  pp "p p " "Ap p' #'p p p #p p p  "Ap"p p '#'p p p" p"pp, p p   p p  p  p"p  p  p0& p12286!pp .  p p  p p p$ p  "pp pp& p1272Ap = " p"p "p1277Ap) p1272Ap= 

p1271p  p"p" p1224Ap   p1225Ap p123;ApG "p123;Ap" p p!p1272App p p!p1279Ap :  p"p%  p1221Ap> p p!p12286!pp ^"   pp ^ p   p  "p p p p p p"p  "p  " p  p p  p"p  p   p0> p"p- p12;76!ppp  p012756p   p pp pp$ p   pp p p p p  p  pp p p  (p p p p  !p^ p  "  ppp   "pp p# p pp p p   pp p p #pp#p"p # !p0p pp# pp$ p p  p p p p p  "   "p   p   pp p p" " "p"p   p  p ppp  p p  "p p   "p  #p pp p  pp  $ p p p "p ppp p   p p"p0O  p12246!pG p " " "p   p"pp  " p p " "p p  p p p p   p  p  p" p"p #p   p pp   p  p0  p p!p12756!pp      ' "  '" !  pp G p  p p"p   pp"p p   p pp p  p  "pp$ ppp$ p   p0> p"p- p12;3Ap?   p 12726!pp> p"p- p012;3p!526p pp '!!!!!& p p p p   p#p p (p   p p  p p p    pp p  pp p   p p  ppp" #p p p  p  p"p  pp   p p   p p !p

  ppp"p p, p"p   p"pp p   p  p  "p '!pp 0p  p$ p"p$ p  "p& p012286p  pp  p $ p  "pp   p p p  p#pp $ "pp pp p "p p   p  p "  " p   pp pp p  "p p   p  !p- p pp$ p  "p " ppp "p# pp  p p p" p p  pp" p p"ppp  #p# p# p p "p p" p ppp p  p p p $ p  "!pp 0p p p  p p" p p p p  p p$ p  "p p  !p-   p"p   p p " p  "p pp  p ( p p  p$ p  "p# p  p"p   p p" "p p "p p  p p$ p !p0p  p p "p "pp p p  #pp $ p p p# pp p0123;6Ap. ,"p"p? "p012;;6Ap"p p012256p p p "p"p p p$ p"p p " p   "p" p p p   p  p#p "p p p "p p   p   !p& p012286p pp p p"  p p p p

p$ p p$ p   p"p  p p   p#p p  pp$ pp p p  ppp ( p pp  p"  p"p

 p#pp p  p  !p- p p p ppp  p  "pp pp  p   pp p  p p p p"p#   !pGp #pp  "ppO # p "p0 "012756p# p pp è           !      

                  

                       pp 0p  p   p  p"p p p pp  p  p  ppp#"  "p #pp p  p pp p p$  pp p  p  p"pp ppp ,  "p pp#pp  "pppp

p  pp p "p p0& p12286!p= 012376ppp/  p  p *  p   "ppp è "                       

                                 èpp 0p pp p p  p  p& 012286p pp p  p$  p pp # "p p #p p p$ p"p$ p  "p   !p   p   "  pppG "p0123;6Ap # p"p= p1272Ap > p p!p12796p  p pp  p"  "p  p pp  p  "pp "pp   p"p p p p  p !p p p$ p   p

 $ p p p    +p  p p$ p $ p  pp " "pp  p" p p   p" ppp p"  p p' #p p"p p p p "p 'p0& p12286!pp & 012286p   p  pp p  p$  p"p  (p pp p p  p p p$ pp  p  p p p#p  p p p p!p&  p p p  p p p "p p "p  p  p p " p p p p   "!p0pp p   p# p p "p p  p (  p p  ppp#pp p  "p "p p"  " "!p   pp""p  p  pp p p # " p  p# p  "p p p$ p  "!pp 0p

p p   p  "  p= 

012716p p    p p  p  "pp  p  "  p# p-p"p- 012356p  pp    p p"  pp  p  "  pp "pp#     !  !   "       #p& 012286p ppp p p p p   pp p p pp#p p" pp  p "p p  p $ "p p pp  "p p "p p  p  " !p.   p

 p"p" p012246p  p pp p p # pp p p   pp p   p#pp"  "  p p  p$ p  "p"p p"p#p  p p p  p" ppp"  " p p  (p $ pp  p p ( p"!pG p   p  p#  !    "          !   !   !    #p0!93   pp  p  p ÷pp>   pp   p p    p"p  (p p""p

pp -   p> p p!p1228p0" "p p  "p"p

p12326p

p (  +p   p p p$ p"p$ p  "pp  p   p   !p-   pp& p012286pp & p012286p p p p  p  ppp p$ p  "p p $ p  "p0.p86p p p   p#p pp p  p"p #p pp  p p p p"p pp  p#pp  p p

  !p    p p#p p p " p p p p p  p  "  !p G p#p p p   "p#p#  p  p $ p p'  'p"p p#p #  p  p   pp "p p p p  p  p0-p "p- p12356!pG p p  "p p  p  p#p  p"p# p#p  "p p pp& p01272p!81;6p"   p p' p  p# p p   p  p  p  p p p   pp  "ppp  "  p   pp   p" p  pp  !'pp p      pp =p" " "p p pp p"p p p p #ppp " p p "p # p p p   p$  pp$ p p# "p p "p#p$ p p p "p#   p  p p (p pp p"   p p p  "p p   p!p> p p p p p p"pp   p  p"p  p "p p p    "ppp  p p p"p"p   p  !p  p"pp p   "p p  p !p> p p!p012286p " pp p p p  p"p   p p #pp  p;!pp

p (  ,p-   p p  p"p0   pp> p p!p12286pp -   ppp$ p  pp p p   p pp  p   p"p    pp   pp   p"pp p  p  "p "p p p   "!p>p"p?  p012216p  ppp p pp  "  p p   p   p  pp  p  " p  p  # p # p   p"p (  p   !p. p> p p!p012286p#  p  p p p  p"   p"@ ppp  p"   "pp p   p p p"p"p p  pp" p  p "p p" p  p"p p $ p"p  p pp"p"!p>p"p?  p012216p " pp p p p pp  pp #pp  p3!p-pp pp p  pp  p "p  p p   p  !pp Cp p pp  p3p p   p  p "p p p  "pp  p  #p  "p p p"   p#p$  p pp p ( p"pp p    p p p p$  "p"p  p p p  "!p0p" "p #  p p "p  #p0  p p  p pp    6#p p  "p  p

p  # pp0 "p"p&  p123 p  p  "p p"  p p  p  p   pp p    p# "p" p p p p pp" !p0pp p p p ppp  p p #p p '   'p$  p pp"p p' p 'pp $ p p p  p p   pp p " "p"p p !pp % p  p ppp p p p  p  p p p  p p   p #pppp p p p    p pp p p"pp" p p, p  p p p  !pp G p  "p p pp  p#p" p#p p "p$   p0" p p   p p p p   pp$  p $ p"p 6p  "# pp   p p"p$   p " p"pp "p   p  !pG p "p"p p p#p ( p p p p p"p !pp p p c    pp

 p!pO!p0122;6p   p  p-p0 #p  !pp " p/!p?!p012746p'C" "p#p p" "p  p  p   "  p  # "pp!p/!p.  p0 "!6p" pp0  p   p

  p> #pGp?0p !pp " p/!p?!p p?!p"p* p!p012726p'0p  p p   p   "  p. p " p p  +p p pp

p'p?  p p 0  p  p-" p9!p%"" p0 "!6p0  p =p    p   p&-: p  !pp

"p&! !p"p&  p!p0123!p012246p'   p p$ p"p'pp!p p"p!>!p   p0 "!6pp^p pOp  " !pp  p?!p"p-  p:! !p012376p0 "!6p- p   p  p"p  " p * p* " !pp   p!?!p  "  p!!pDp

 p!>!p0127;6p'  pp #p "p "    p  pp p !p0pG!p- p0 "!6p  "p p p  pp

  p  !p p0*p p   p  !pp  p!.!p  p!C!p"p%  p*!p012716p'   p p  #p  $ 'pp-!p*  p0 "!6p-   p  "  p-p.  p?   !pp  p! !p012376pG p  p p p  ppp p  p"p p   !p/ #p) p p !pp  p!.!p012796p&pppGp "p-  Ep9"p "!p" p% p C !pp p !p"p  p!p?!p012256p'  p"p p    p "p  "pp  p p   'pp>  p !p   "p0 "!6p '0   p-   'p  "p p p9 " p !p012736p   p!p/ #p) p? p& pDp - !pp OpO!!p"p. p?! !p012386p'   p p   p p p ^   p   ppp  p pp  pG  "p  "'p?  p p  "p  p82p? !pp OpO!!p012376p p"p    p  pG pG pO p  "p/ #p ) p& !pp O p-!!p"p pO!:!p012726p'(p  p   p  p pp C!-!p"p  p  'p?  p p0  p  p-" p9 p!p> lp:!p"p: "p0!p012286p   p  "pp  p -" pp p>" p  p=p=  p=  "!pp >p:!p012756p'G p  p  p p p"  p  'p?  p p p " p p   p-  p115!pp >p?!p"p?  p!p012216p   p  "ppp* " !pp > p !>!p"p- p!*!p012;36pG pO  p p> " "pG p p " !pp >

" #p?!O!pDp=p?!!p012396p'  p"  p p   p  p  p   'p?  p p0  p  p-" p51!pp > p!>!p012836p'p- p-  p#p pp p"pp0  #p- 'p  "p-p;p? !pp > p!G!pDp*  pG!*!p012736p'  p p"p ( p  'p 0  p   pp  #p44!pp > pG!p012746p'G p  p p p  p " p p  p p p  pG p   p  ('p0  p   p  #p15!pp > pG!p"p* p!012246p' p p-   p"p p  p p   p pp

p-  'p0" p   p   p95!pp > p:!pDp> p?!*!p012736p'0  p  p   p  "'p " pp0  pp   p9!pp = p:!p!p012786p-   p p? p  p* ( p p* ( !pp = p?!.!p"  p!!pGp!*!p"p p&!!p012746p   pOp p#p "p  p=p/ #p?  !pp = p-!p012736p'G p p p p-  pp" p   p   'p?  p p

  p   p !p5p!9857!pp

= p.!!p012376pG p   p p: # " p pC p p p !pp =  pG!=!p"p   p!p012376p'. p p   p  p p "p $   pp$ pp p p "p  '!p p-   p   #p !p45p/ !p4!pp =  " p>!/!p "!p !=!p012776p'G p  p   p p p

p p   p #'p%  pOp1;4!pp = 

p !p012716pG p-  p  pp  p  -  p !p / #p) p&p #!pp = # "p:!p"p- p?!!p012756pG p   p pp-" p   p  p > # p"  !pp =p-! !p. (p!?!pDpOp!p012786p'> p  pp  p   'p p?  p p& "p  p124!pp ?p-!!p0122 p?!!p  !p?!p"p:p!!p012796p?"  ppp   p- p * " !pp

* p!p!p  pO!p"p  "

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