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Moringga oleifera, also known as “Malunggay”, is known worldwide especially in the Asian countries that cures specific bacterial infection. It is a plant that is mainly used in cooking and many other Philippine dishes but malunggay has other purposes aside from being an ingredient in cooking, it is also used to kill certain bacteria species. It is said that it contains antibacterial components and is also used to treat open wounds by extracting its leaves to help aid in blood clot. There is also another plant that is commonly found in the country which is the Zingiber officinale, also known as “Ginger”, is a pungent aromatic rhizome which is commonly used as an additive flavor for cooking; as tribal ornaments for religious or superstitious beliefs; and also used as a medicinal plant and is also known to have antibacterial components. One bacterium which is commonly known to be found almost anywhere in the surroundings is the Staphylococcus aureus. This bacterium is found mainly on the nose and on the skin of humans, and in this manner about 20% of the human population are long term carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. In other words, this bacterium is the most common and abundant in the society. This bacteria specie can cause a range of illness from minor skin infections such as pimples, impetigo and boils. Though the treatment of choice for Staphylococcus aureus is penicillin, other biologists seek out more practical and natural alternatives.
The research study aims to compare the antibacterial effects of Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) leaf and Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) extracts on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The purpose of this study is to know whether which extract is more effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria specifically Staphylococcus aureus, and also we may be able to know whether which extract will be much recommended for antibacterial purposes. We, the researchers of this study chose Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extract because both of them are commonly known to be natural antibacterial and they are found to be abundant in the country; we also chose Staphylococcus aureus bacteria because it is known to be the most common bacteria that can be found in the environment especially the human skin. This study was based on previous researches that tests whether or not Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extracts have antibacterial effects and the result of these studies have shown positive results of antibacterial effectiveness. So this study focuses on comparing the antibacterial effects of both extracts. This study is significant because it focuses about environmental and health related issues. The study benefits the society in terms of preventing sickness and diseases, and helps maintain proper hygiene and sanitation in the society. This study is also a good source of medical interests because it focuses on natural antibacterial alternatives rather than the artificially prepared commercial products which are highly sold competitively in the market. In this study, it gives nature a sense of importance not just maintaining the balance of the eco-system but also to help individuals live in a better and much healthy lifestyle.
Review of Related Literature Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) is a popular plant known for nutritional value as well as a herbal medicine. Malunggay is a plant that grows in the tropical climates such as the Philippines, India and Africa. It is widely used as vegetable ingredient in cooking, as herbal medicine for a number of illness and other practical uses. Malunggay (Moringa Oleifera) has been used as herbal medicine in many cultures for hundreds of years; Malunggay is known as a very nutritious plant where it is used to combat malnutrition in third world countries especially for infants and nursing mothers. Malunggay as anti-infectious: Antibacterial; Anti Fungal. In late 1940's, the Department of Biochemistry at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore (PLN Rao) have found that Moringa Oleifera leaves contain a compound "pterygospermin" that is known in medical science as having antimicrobial, antibacterial, anti fungal properties. http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/malunggay.htm Malunggay seed and leaf (Moringa oleifera) extracts kill Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria (Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2010).
It is also confirmed that there is
germ-fighting ability of water-based extracts of Moringa (Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 2010) however, the presence of oil along many other organic compounds in crude extract increases the content in organic matter of the treated water (Ndabigengesere, 1998) and prevents its storage and consumption for more than 24 hours (Jahn, 1988). This fact represents a disadvantage for its application at full-scale water
treatment and highly recommends purification of crude extract (Ghebremichael et al., 2005). Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale. The taste of ginger is distinct, brought about by the zingerone and shogoal substances that it has is giving the plant its pungent properties. As herbal medicine, ginger has long been used as a cold, cough, fever, and sore throat remedy. Ginger has been used as herbal medicine in many cultures for hundreds of years, ginger claimed to have many medicinal value, from antibacterial, antiinflammatory to anti nausea and treatment of sore throat. Ginger is popularly used for sore throat prevention and treatment. Ginger is also widely used as herbal medicine to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness. Leaves of ginger plants have also been used for food ﬂavoring and in traditional medicine. The Philippine Department of Health has endorsed ginger as an alternative herbal medicine for its anti bacterial properties and its efficacy for controlling sore throats, lowering cholesterol levels and nausea. Ginger can be a medicine used as anti-infection, antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic. Ginger's effects against infection have also been confirmed by laboratory science to kill cold viruses at a concentration of less than one part per million. Ginger contains a chemical called “zingibain” that kills and dissolves parasites and their eggs. http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/ginger.html
Staphylococcus aureus (In Greek, staphyle means “bunch of grapes”; In Latin, coccus means “spherical bacterium”, aureus means “golden” or “golden staph” (pronounced “staff’) is the most common species of staphylococcus bacteria causing infections in human. Staphylococcus aureus lives as a part of the normal skin flora in the nose or on the skin in 20-30% of healthy people (staph carriers). However, in even slightly injured skin or mucosa, staph may cause styes, pimples, folliculitis, furuncles, boils, swimmer’s ear, sinusitis, epiglotitis, whitlow, breast infection, impetigo, cellulitis, genital infection, scalded skin syndrome or other staph infections. Infections of internal organs include urinary tract infections, arthritis, pneumonia, infection of veins (thrombophlebitis), lymph nodes (lymphadenitis) or lymph vessels (lymphangitis), bone infection (osteomyelitis), or life threatening sepsis (staph blood invasion), infection of heart valves (endocarditis), meningitis, “flesh eating bacteria” infection (necrotizing fasciitis) and toxic shock syndrome. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins may cause food poisoning. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are among the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections, like bloodstream infections, infections of surgical wounds or pneumonia. Staph may also appear in vascular and urinary catheters, prosthetic joints and heart valves. Staph skin infection usually appears as a red, warm, painful swelling with a blister, ulcer, or crust, and drainage. Infection may spread into the deeper tissues, like the bones. http://www.healthhype.com/staphylococcus-aureus.html
Review of Related Studies
According to Jimenez, M. Q. (April 2011) in the Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Pulverized Citrus Seed, Sodis and Malunggay seed against coliform organisms as method of water disinfectant and its acceptability among selected Households in Barangay concepcion, Kabasalan Zamboanga Sibugay; malunggay had a positive effect of disinfecting water from coliform organisms. According to Bidaure, C. (2009) in his studies the Effect of Water Disinfection Promotion on the utilization of Boiling, Solar Disinfection and Malunggay Seed Powder as methods of water disinfection in Barangay Pangi, Ipil Zamboanga Sibugay; malunggay had been confirmed to be a good disinfectant. According to Wood, C.D. (1988) in his studies the comparison of Efficacy of Ginger with Various Antimicrobial Sickness Drugs; ginger has been proven to have antimicrobial properties. According to Chan, E.W.C. (2008) in his studies the Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibition Properties of Leaves and Rhizomes of Ginger specie; ginger has been confirmed to be a good antimicrobial. According to Panelo, C. I., Doctor of Medicine, “Potency is influenced by concentration, highly potent substances can produce large response even at small concentrations and vice versa.”
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
The concept of the research is a comparative study where the process is based upon comparison of two independent variables with its effect to the dependent variable. The independent variables, which are the Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extract, are the ones to be tested whether or not it will affect the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES • Malunggay leaf extract •
DEPENDENT VARIABLE •
Ginger root extract
CONTROL • H2O Solution (Distilled Water) Fig. 1 Diagram of Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Zones of Inhibition in culture of Staphylococcus aureus
The main purpose of the study is to compare the antibacterial effects of Malunggay leaf (Moringga oleifera) and Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) extract on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. More specifically the study aims to answer to following problem: 1.
If both extracts (Malunggay leaf and Ginger root) are effective on inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
Which between the two extracts (Malunggay leaf and Ginger root) is more effective in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
Hypotheses The hypotheses for this study are: H1
Both extracts (Malunggay leaf and Ginger root) are effective in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
There is significant difference between both extracts’ (Malunggay leaf and Ginger root) effectiveness in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
Scope and Limitation of the Study The scope of our study is limited only in comparing the antibacterial effects of Malunggay leaf (Moringa oleifera) and Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) extract on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. It was conducted only in one of the laboratories inside the school’s vicinity. Further findings beyond the scope will not be subjected in the assessment. CHAPTER II
This research study was conducted in order to determine the antibacterial effects of Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extract on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the reliability of the research instruments and materials used are also part of the objectives. In order to answer these research goals, we, the researchers, conducted this experiment in line with this topic. Specifically, there are two extracts prepared, the Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extract, each prepared with ten different concentrations each having three trials with punched filter discs in order to determine accurately which variant is more recommended to be used. Distilled water solution served as the control of the experiment for reference of the two prepared extracts. Bacteria culture of Staphylococcus aureus were then obtained after the extracts were prepared. The punched filter paper discs were soaked in each of the extracts prepared and was added in each Petri dish of cultured Staphylococcus aureus and was then incubated to at least 36 degrees Celsius (body temperature) inside an incubator for 24 hours. After that, cultured Staphylococcus aureus in agar mediums placed into Petri dishes with the added extracts were then observed and measured for appearances of zones of inhibition using a Vernier caliper. Then, observed data were gathered from this research experiment and then computed for interpretation and analysis using Weighted Mean and T-test method.
The experimental method of research was used for this study. To define the experimental type of research, it is a study of cause and effect. It differs from nonexperimental methods in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable, while trying to keep all other variables constant. The experimental method is usually taken to be the most scientific of all methods, also called as the 'method of choice'. The main problem with all the non-experimental methods is lack of control over the situation.
experimental method is a means of trying to overcome this problem.
Setting The experiment took place in one of the Science Laboratory rooms of PG or ST buildings in San Pedro College Davao City, wherein the research instruments and materials used for the experiment are already complete and provided by the school itself.
Research Instruments Petri dish - a transparent glass or plastic plate with cover used to contain the culture of various microorganisms. Vernier caliper - a measuring device with a vernier scale used for measuring very fine measurements. Pipette - a slender tube attached to or incorporating a bulb, for transferring or measuring out small quantities of liquid, especially in a laboratory. Beaker - a lipped cylindrical glass container for laboratory use; used for stirring, mixing, heating, weighing liquid solutions or chemicals.
Erlen Meyer Flask - is a widely used type of laboratory flask which features a flat bottom, a conical body, and a cylindrical neck. Test tube - a thin glass tube closed at one end, used to hold small amounts of material for laboratory testing or experiments. Test tube rack – a rack used for putting the test tubes. Graduated cylinder - a thick-walled glass tube used for measuring out volumes of liquid. Punched Filter paper discs - a semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air flow. It is used to separate fine solids from liquids or air. Forceps - an instrument with two movable arms that are joined at one end, used for picking up and holding things. Alcohol lamp - a lamp filled with alcohol that is used for heating, burning and sterilizing. Inoculating loop - a short metal stick with a small loop at the tip of its end used for streaking bacterial culture. Mortar and Pestle - is a tool used to crush, grind, and mix solid substances. The pestle is a heavy bat-shaped object, the end of which is used for crushing and grinding. The mortar is a bowl, typically made of hard wood, ceramic or stone. Blender - an electronic instrument used for blending, mixing, liquefying and extract preparation of organic or inorganic substances. Hot Plate - is a portable self-contained tabletop small appliance that features one, two or more gas burners or electric heating elements.
Sieve Cloth - it is a clean piece of cloth used for sieving small and large solid particles to obtain pure liquid solution widely used in extraction process. Dropper - a small tube instrument with a rubber squeeze tip used for transferring small amounts of liquid solution from one container to another. Incubator – a machine that incubates different biological organisms.
Research Procedure First, we prepared the two extracts, the Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extracts. In order to obtain accurate and reliable results, the two extracts were prepared with ten different concentrations each having three trials designated with 3 punched filtered paper discs in each Petri dish with their prepared culture medium. The water-based extraction was the method used in the process. We then prepared the culture of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by asking from the laboratory stock room of the school if they have a source where we could get the bacteria. After Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was requested and identified, we made a preparation of the culture obtaining pure Staphylococcus aureus each gently streaked to the culture mediums in the Petri dishes. A water solution was included to serve as the control of the experiment for reference of the two extracts’ antibacterial effects. Punched filter paper discs were then used for soaking in each of the extracts prepared. The punched filter paper discs obtaining the extracts were then placed in each of the Petri dish of cultured Staphylococcus aureus and then incubated to at least 36 degrees Celsius (body temperature) inside an incubator for at least 24 hours. After 24 hours of growth and inhibition, cultured Staphylococcus aureus in Petri dish with the added extracts were observed and measured for appearances of zones of inhibition using a Vernier caliper
for accurate and precise measurements. Then, observed data were then gathered from this research experiment and were then computed for interpretations and analysis using Weighted Mean and T-Test statistical tool.
Research Statistical Tool The research statistical tools used for this study are Weighted Mean and T-Test. The weighted mean was used to get the total average of the data gathered while the T-Test was used for comparison of the two independent variables.
Weighted Mean - is the central tendency of a collection of numbers taken as the sum of the numbers divided by the size of the collection. This was used to get the total average measurements of the zones of inhibitions.
T-Test - is any statistical hypothesis test in which it assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. This was used to compare the extracts’ antibacterial effects to the growth of Staphylococcus aureus.
Table 1 Antibacterial Effects of Malunggay Leaf (Moringa oleifera) extracts on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Extracts Measurements of Zones of Inhibitions (mm) 10%
12.08 14.12 10.40 10.68 10.94 12.50 8.30
11.72 10.52 12.06 9.86
12.70 11.38 10.06 10.64 11.34 9.38
Average 12.17 12.01 10.84 10.39 11.02 11.76 8.99
10.78 13.40 9.06
In this table, after incubating the culture media for 24 hours, the researchers found out that Malunggay leaf extract with 10% concentration provided the highest zone of inhibition compared to the other 9 concentrations. Random results in terms of their levels of concentration are expected as the researchers used water-based extracts in the experiment.
Table 2 Antibacterial Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Root extracts on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Extracts Measurements of Zones of Inhibitions (mm) 10% Ginger Root
In this table, Ginger also showed random results as the method used by the researchers in the process is also water-based extraction. Results are randomly going up and down in each concentrations but this is found to be normal in dealing with water based extractions. Ginger with 9.82mm zone of inhibition is seen on the table as the greatest zone of inhibition in concentration of 80%.
Table 3 Antibacterial Effects of Distilled water (control) on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus Measurements of Zones of Inhibitions (mm) T1
Distilled Water 100 %
This data presents the results of the antibacterial effects of water, the control of the experiment. It shows an almost uniform measurement in all the zones of inhibition in the concentration of 100%. It is already expected to obtain the said results because they all have the same concentration. And even though the results were not highly effective in inhibiting the growth of the bacteria culture, it is significant for basis of the two extracts’ antibacterial effects whether they are better with or without water mixture.
Table 4 Comparison of Antibacterial Effects between Malunggay leaf (Moringa olifera) and Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) extracts using T-test Comparison p-value Interpretation Malunggay and Ginger
Malunggay has higher significant value
In this table, it presents the overall difference between the two extracts’ total average. The t-test statistical method was used to determine if there is significant difference between them and it presents that there is a 0.004 significant difference because a value is greater than 0.05 shows no significant difference. CHAPTER IV
This study is focused on the Antibacterial effects of Malunggay leaf (Moringa oleifera) and Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) extract on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The impact of this study is dependent on the rise and innovation for future usage of natural antibacterial treatment specifically for Staphylococcus aureus, the pimple-causing bacteria, wherein 20% of human population is long term carriers of this bacterium. Many scientists tried to come up with the safest and most natural way to kill the bacterium and many have achieved in doing this. On the other hand, we, the researchers of this study came up with an idea of comparing two of the most common and natural antibacterial found in the country. One of the most abundant herbs found in the country is the Malunggay leaf (Moringa oleifera) plant which has long been known to have antibacterial properties and also the Ginger root; they both have natural antibacterial properties. In this study, we performed an experiment to compare which extract is more effective in inhibiting the growth of the bacteria prepared in designated cultured mediums; the presence of zones of inhibition determine the effectiveness of the extract’s antibacterial properties to Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts were given 3 trials prepared with 10 different concentrations. The extracts were then tested and both obtained positive results. These results show that the Malunggay leaf extract provides better results and larger zones of inhibition compared to that of the ginger root extract because the Malunggay leaf extract achieved the maximum measurement of 12.17mm zone of inhibition at 10% concentration whereas the Ginger root extract at its highest only had 9.82mm zone of inhibition at 80% concentration. Though the total average of the Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extract provide random results, it was already expected beforehand as we, the researchers used the
water-based extraction process which is easier, cheaper and more natural compared to other complex extraction methods. Still, this kind of extraction process was still preferable in the study as the study only focuses on comparing the two extracts’ antibacterial effectiveness, not its individual concentration behavior. And to determine if the results are significantly different, the T-test statistical method was then used and the results showed that there is significant difference of 0.004 which is lesser than 0.05, because a result higher than 0.05 shows no significant difference. This implies that Malunggay leaf extract is highly preferable because it is a more effective antibacterial than the Ginger root extract.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
In this study, the antibacterial effects of Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) leaf and Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) extract on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus showed significant difference in their results. The study determined the potency of the plant extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, which is the common acne causing bacteria. Nutrient mediums were used for bacterial culture and test. 10 Different concentrations of the Malunggay leaf and Ginger root extracts were prepared in liquid form and further filtered. Distilled water was used as the control in the experiment for basis of the two extracts. Discs containing the plant’s extracts were inoculated on the bacterial culture and incubated for 24 hours at 37 degrees Celsius. Data gathered after the experiment was analyzed and interpreted using Weighted Mean and T-Test method. Malunggay extract with 10% concentration showed the optimum result on inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with 12.17mm zone of inhibition whereas; Ginger extract in its 80% concentration had a zone of inhibition of 9.82mm. Based on the table and statistical data presented, Malunggay and Ginger have a 0.004 value less than 0.05 which shows that there is a significant difference between the two extracts. This data gathered indicates that Malunggay is more effective in inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus than the Ginger.
Conclusion Based on the results data gathered, the researchers arrived to the following conclusions: 1.
Both Malunggay leaf extract and Ginger root extract show positive result on inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on a specified medium.
Based on the results obtained on table 2 the list of concentrations and its zone of inhibitions, Malunggay leaf extract with 10% concentration showed optimum results on inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with an average of 12.17 compared to Ginger roots extract’s strongest inhibiting concentration of 80% with an average of 9.82.
Malunggay leaf extract is more effective compared to Ginger root extract in inhibiting the growth of staphylococcus aureus.
Recommendation To the future researchers, we would like to recommend further study on the behavior of Malunggay and Ginger on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. We would also like to recommend the use of Ethanol in the process of extraction because it is more likely to produce pure extracts of different concentrations. We would also recommend conducting purification of crude extracts on the extraction of Malunggay and Ginger to obtain pure extracts.
Bidaure, C. (2009). The Effect of Water Disinfection Promotion on the utilization of Boiling, Solar Disinfection and Malunggay Seed Powder as methods of Water Disinfection in Barangay Pangi, Ipil Zamboanga Sibugay. Chan, E.W.C. (2008). The Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibition Properties of Leaves and Rhizomes of Ginger specie. Ernst, E., Pittler, M.H. (2000). Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. B J Anaesth. 84(3), 367-371. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/ginger.htm Freeman-Cook, L., Freeman-Cook, K.D. (2005). Staphylococcus aureus Infections. HealthHype.com. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.healthhype.com/staphylococcus-aureus.html
Gonlachanvit, S., Chen, Y.H., Hasler, W.L., et al. (2003). Ginger reduces hyperglycemiaevoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 307(3), 1098-1103. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/ginger.htm Jimenez, M. Q. (2011). The Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Pulverized Citrus Seed, Sodis and Malunggay seed against coliform organisms as method of water disinfectant and its acceptability among selected Households in Barangay concepcion, Kabasalan Zamboanga Sibugay. Kumar, N.A., Pari, L. (2003). Antioxidant action of Malunggay, Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats. MedicalHealthGuide.com. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/malunggay.htm Shukla, S., Mathur, R., Prakash, A.O. (1988). Biochemical and physiological alterations in female reproductive organs of cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of (Malunggay) Moringa oleifera L. MedicalHealthGuide.com. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/malunggay.htm Sripramote, M., Lekhyananda, N. (2003). A randomized comparison of ginger and vitamin B6 in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai. 86(9), 846-853. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.medicalhealthguide.com/articles/ginger.htm Wood, C.D. (1988). The Comparison of Efficacy of Ginger with Various Antimicrobial Sickness Drugs.
APPENDIX A LETTER OF PERMISSION
December 7, 2011 Engr. Leonora C. Gustilo Director of Laboratories San Pedro College
Dear Ma’am, We the students of Biology Department are conducting a research entitled “A Comparative Study on the Antibacterial Effects of Malunggay Leaf (Moringa oleifera) and Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) extract on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus”.
. For us to be able to get the data needed for our thesis, we are planning to conduct the research procedure in any of the available laboratories of this institution. We are aiming to conduct our experiment for the duration of the whole semester starting December 10, 2011 onwards. With this, we are asking for your permission to allow us to use the laboratory room and equipments. These are the following laboratory apparatus needed for the research procedure. -TEST TUBES W/ RACKS -BEAKER -GRADUATED CYLINDER -BLENDER -PETRI DISH -MORTAR AND PESTLE -MICROSCOPE -ERLEN MEYER FLASK -ALCOHOL LAMP
-GLASS SLIDES W/ COVER SLIPS -FORCEPS -SPATULA -VERNIER CALIPER -HOT PLATE -MHA AGAR -STAPH IN TSB -INOCULATING LOOP -GRADUATED CYLINDER
We are looking forward for your positive response. Thank you and God bless Respectfully Yours, Michael Edbert P. Vego Paolo Antonio A. Colmenares Noted By: Prof. Meriane Pascua, MSbio Biology Coordinator
APPENDIX B PICTURES
Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) was used as the culture medium in the experiment.
Culture mediums poured into designated Petri dishes.
Blending Malunggay leaves during extraction process.
Test tubes prepared for containing different concentrations of the extracts.
Filter paper discs were soaked in different concentrations of the extracts.
Soaked filter paper disc placed on the culture mediums obtained zone of inhibition after 24 hours of incubation.
Zones of inhibition were measured using the Vernier caliper.
CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Michael Edbert P. Vego Age: 20 Sex: Male Birth Date: July 29, 1991 Address: Blk. 4 lot 11 Agan Homes, Koronadal City, South Cotabato, Philippines Name of Father: Dr. Edito T. Vego Name of Mother: Vivian Maribelle P. Vego
Elementary Training Department
School Attended Notre Dame of Marbel University –
High School Graduate
Notre Dame of Marbel University –
Integrated Basic Education Department College
San Pedro College
Honor student in Nursery and Elementary
Tinig Marista High School Choir
South Cotabato Amateur Swimming Association High School Varsity
BIOMS Club Member
Name: Paolo Antonio A. Colmenares Age: 20 Sex: Male Birth Date: January 13, 1992 Address: Emily Homes, Cabantian Davao City Name of Father: Antonio P. Colmenares Name of Mother: Florifes A. Colmenares
Colmenares Learning Center, Inc.
High School Graduate
Maryknoll School of Lupon
San Pedro College
1st honor from Nursery to Grade VI
Honor Student in High school
BIOMS Club Member