Research about tuba-tuba
Descripción: a research proposal tuba-tuba as herbicide...
Tuba-tuba (Jatropha curcas) seed extract effects on Crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)
Proponent: Lloyd P. Ondangan IV-Einstein
Submitted as a Requirement for Research II
Agusan National High School A.D Curato Street Butuan City
Mrs.Marie Lou Paler Adviser
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION A.
Background of the Study
. . . . . . . .1
Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . .2
Statement of the Hypothesis. . . . . .
Statement of the Objectives . . .
Significance of the Study. . . . . . . .3
Scope and Limitation. . . . . . . . . . 3
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . 4
. . .2
2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. . . . . . . . . .7 3. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chapter I Introduction Background of the study Crabgrass (D. ischaemum). This kind of plant is a competitor for water supply, sunlight and other source of nutrients of the other plants.
It is not helpful for it
competes with the other, some lawn owners considered it as a pest. This is an unwanted plant that needs to be controlled. People used various products to control grass, but some are harmful to the environment and quite expensive. The researcher developed a natural herbicide that can kill grass using the seed extract of tuba-tuba plant. Tuba-tuba is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical regions in the world. This plant contains toxalbumin curcin that is a highly poisonous chemical found in the seeds. Several cases of poisoning are cited due to seed intake of the said plant. In the study, the effects of tuba-tuba seed herbicide is observed and compared to the effects of a commercial herbicide to the weed crabgrass. 1
Statement of the Problem The following are the problems the researcher aims to answer during and after the investigation process. 1. Is there a significant difference on the herbicidal activity of tuba-tuba extract and commercial herbicide in the weed crabgrass? 2. Is there a significant difference on the no. of weeds present between the use of tuba-tuba extract and commercial herbicide?
Statement of the Hypothesis Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the
commercial herbicide in the weed crabgrass. Alternative Hypothesis: There is a significant difference between the herbicidal activity of tuba-tuba seed extract and commercial herbicide in the weed crabgrass. Statement of the Objectives The following are the objectives the researcher aims to achieve during and after the investigation: 2
1. To be able to compare the herbicidal activity of tuba-tuba seed herbicide and commercial herbicide in the weed crabgrass. 2. To be able to give a clear conclusion whether the tuba-tuba seed extract has herbicidal activity and can be used as a herbicide. Significance of the Study The
searching an alternative and organic herbicide. The study proposes
opportunity to plants to wield having no competitor for nutrients, water supply, and sunlight.
The study explores
the uses of tuba-tuba plant; this plant is commonly found in the locality. Scope and Limitations The study uses tuba-tuba seeds, which germinates 7-14 days in organic mix soil with good moisture, collection of seed may take time. The tuba-tuba seed is poisonous. Wrong usage of the 3
product could poison the user and may lead to death. The product has health risks, sniffing it can cause dizziness and/or
cause The accumulation of tuba-tuba seed is a hard task for a
lacking seeds will lead to a lower concentration and may affect the herbicidal activity of the product. The study focus only to the weed crabgrass and not a herbicide for all weeds. Definition of Terms 1. Herbicide - A substance that is toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation. 2. Crabgrass - a grass (Digitaria) that has creeping or decumbent stems which root freely at the nodes and that is often a pest in turf or cultivated lands. 3. Tuba-tuba - small tropical tree yielding purple dye and
containing purgative oil that is poisonous in large quantities. 4. Toxalbumin curcin – a highly poisonous chemical found in the tuba-tuba seeds. 5. Weed - A wild plant growing where it is not wanted and 4
6. in competition with cultivated plants. 7. Pest - A destructive insect or other plant that attacks crops, food, livestock, etc. 8. Risky - Full of the possibility of danger, failure, or loss. 9. Pollution – The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. 10.
specific space or substance. 11.
Sniff – Draw in air audibly through the nose.
remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used. 13.
Lung Problems – any problem in the lungs or that
prevents the lungs from working properly. 14.
Chemical – A compound or substance that has been
purified or prepared, esp. artificially. 15. or
Poison – A substance that, when introduced into absorbed
injury, esp. one that kills by rapid action
defeating or establishing superiority over others who are trying to do the same.
Chapter II Review of Related Literature
Tuba-tuba In an article entitled Higher Plant Genera and their toxins (2008), tuba-tuba plant is a large coarse shrub or a small tree which can grow 3.5 to 4.5 meters tall. It has thin, often greenish bark which exudes copious amounts of watery sap when cut. The leaves are dark green, simple ovate to slightly lobed with 3-5 indentations, and widens up to 15 cm. The fruit are small capsule-like, round fruit; about 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter. These are green and fleshy when immature, becoming dark brown when ripe and splits to release 2 – 3 black seeds each about 2 cm long. The meat of the seeds is white and oily in texture. Moreover,
Hybridization Potential of Nine Accessions of Physic Nut (Jatropha
(2012), Jatropha curcas is a shrub which has an important economic
zones of the world. The oil of its kernels can serve as 7
potential as a renewable source of energy. From the article entitled Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops (2010), the physic nut is a drought-resistant species which is widely cultivated in the tropics as a living fence. Many parts of the plants are used in traditional medicine. The seeds, however, are toxic to humans and many animals. Considerable amounts of physic nut seeds were produced on Cape Verde during the first half of this century, and this constituted an important contribution to the country’s economy. Seeds were exported to Lisbon and Marseille for oil extraction and soap production. Today’s global production is, however, negligible.
including seeds, leaves and bark, fresh or as a decoction, are
purposes. The oil has a strong purgative action and is also widely used for skin diseases and to soothe pain such as that caused by rheumatism. A decoction of leaves is used against cough and as an antiseptic after birth. Physic nut is well adapted to marginal areas with poor soils and low rainfall, where it grows without competing with annual food 8
distributed in the tropics and is already used to a certain extent. Any further promotion of its use would, therefore, be facilitated by this. The species has numerous uses and in their combination lies the potential of this crop. The most important is the combination of erosion control and oil production. The use of the oil as a substitute for diesel fuel and for soap production in rural areas would improve the living conditions of the people and would offer additional income. In a news article of Inquirer entitled Tuba-tuba poisoning justifies tree cutting (2013), 30 children (aged 3 to 12) fell ill after eating tuba-tuba seeds in Barangay San Nicolas, Pampanga. The victims complained of abdominal pain, several of them suffered from severe dehydration due to vomiting. One of the victims mistook the tuba-tuba seed as small apple that tasted like peanuts; he shared it to his friends for them to taste. Another
Poisonous plant downs 14 kids in Tondo (2008), 14 children were
because of poisoning. The children took and ate the seed of 9
stomach pain. According to the doctor, the fruit of the plant
stomach and is not advisable for ingestion. The patients were given activated charcoal that magnetized the poisonous substance. When they moved their bowels, the toxin were naturally discharged along with the charcoal. The doctor added that while the sap, juice and oil from the stems and leaves of tuba-tuba are known purgative, anti-rheumatic and anti-helminthic, the seeds are highly toxic. He warned the seeds
hemorrhagic gastroenteritis or bloody diarrhea. It could be fatal
Toxalbumin curcin In an article entitled Handbook of Energy Crops, it is a
poisoning is irritant, with acute abdominal pain and nausea about
continue but are not usually serious. Depression and 10
collapse may occur, especially in children. Two seeds are strong purgative. Four to five seed are said to have caused death, but the roasted seed is said to be nearly innocuous. Bark,
contain HCN. Seeds contain the dangerous toxalbumin curcin, rendering them potentially fatally toxic.
profitably to weed control, environmental protection, and, in the same time, saving labor necessary for weed control practices, reduced soil erosion, saved energy, increased crop production, reduced the cost of farming. Therefore, herbicides
largely a manageable problem. In most cases, herbicide 11
human and are
misuse is a human health and environmental risks. The use of herbicides world
herbicides pose substantial dangers to the population at large
exposure. In our industrialized society, the common feeling about herbicides is often unreasonably hostile. Statistical studies made by herbicides manufacturers revealed that more than
agriculture, consider herbicides dangerous for man and for the environment. This poor social acceptance is probably due
scientific world and the society. Scientist and researchers have
developing herbicides. Crabgrass In
Crabgrass is a summer annual weed (one that germinates in the spring or summer, flowers, sets seed, and dies during a single growing season). In regularly mowed lawns it grows 12
prostrate and spreading. It dies in autumn with the first killing frost. It has the ability to survive in poor, dry soil conditions, but easily tolerates soil conditions of most kinds. In lawns it is often found where the soil and maintenance practices are poor. Crabgrass reproduces from seed that can germinate from mid-spring to late summer. All crabgrass seed in the soil does not germinate each year. Research has shown that less than 50% of the seed produced the
Lawns infested with crabgrass for several years in a row will have a large bank of viable seed during the spring due to the high level of seed production over the years. If crabgrass
significantly reduce the seed present in the weed seed bank in your lawn.
Chapter III Methdology This section shows the materials and tools needed and how will be the experimentation done. Collection of Tuba-tuba seeds Find the nearest tuba-tuba plant in the locality. The seeds will be gathered using a long stick (gather as many seeds as possible for greater production of the herbicide). The dried seeds will be put in a closed container while the green will be put in a separate container. The dried seeds will be set aside; the green seeds will be sundried for 5-7 days until the seed will obtain a black color.
Extraction of Tuba-tuba seed Prepare a pot, 1 liter of water, strainer, container, and the sundried tuba-tuba seeds. Put the water and the sundried tuba-tuba seeds into the pot. Make a fire, and then place the pot (with water and sundried tuba-tuba seeds) into it. Boil it for 30 minutes, maintain the fire. After this, set aside the pot and put out the fire. Using 14
the potholder, carefully pour the substance into the strainer and the container catching the liquid. Close the container and set it aside. Prepare mortar and pestle. Use gloves and mask for safety. The boiled tuba-tuba seeds will undergo pulverization using mortar and pestle. Boil the pulverized tuba-tuba seeds for 15 minutes using 1 cup of water. Then, strain it to the container (use the same container). The container will be left aside until the crabgrass is ready for operation.
Preparation of Crabgrass Make 8 ½ by ½ meter plot.
Plant two stems of
crabgrass in each plot, watering it twice a day for 10-20 days (if sunlight is always present). If it rains, the watering of the plants will be stopped until the sunlight returns. The plants will be ready after it reached its adult size. The plants will now ready for the experimentation.
Treatment of Tuba-tuba seed herbicide Prepare the tuba-tuba seed herbicide, commercial herbicide, gloves, mask, and spray bottle. Put the extracts of tuba-tuba seed in the spray bottle. For safety, wear the gloves and mask (use pants and sweatshirt if possible). For each of the 4 plots, spray it with the tuba-tuba seed herbicide with 20mL evenly. For each of the rest of plots, use the commercial herbicide and spray it evenly. Record the time in minutes, the time does the crabgrass withered. After 1 hour, measure the area of effect of the each herbicide in centimeter. The observations will be recorded in a notebook. Waste Disposal The crabgrass will be uprooted and will be put in a garbage bag. The remaining substance of commercial herbicide will be stored and used. The remaining tuba-tuba seed herbicide will be put in a container labeling it as poisonous. After 1 month, it will be collected by the government dumptruck to the Amparo dumpsite.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Kingsbury, J. M.(2008). Higher Plant Genera and their toxins. Washington, D.C.: Scientia Press Ahoton, L.E.,& Quenum, F. (2012).Floral Boilogy and Hybridization Potential of Nine Accessions of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) Originating from Three Continents. Benin: TROPICULTURA Heller, J. (2010).Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Orejas, R. (2013, February 19). Tuba-tuba poisoning justifies tree cutting. Inquirer Etolle, N. & Crisostomo, S. (2008). Poisonous plant downs 14 kids in Tondo. PhilStar Pacanoski, Z. (2010). HERBICIDE USE: BENEFITS FOR SOCIETY AS A WHOLE. Retrieved October 17, 2013, http://www.wssp.org.pk/131216.htm Duke, J. (n.d). Handbook of Energy Crops. United States: Purdue University Publications
Cornell University (2010). Crabgrass Controll. Retrieved October 17, 2013, http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/pesticides/gotpe sts/weeds/factsheets/crabgrass-cornell.pdf