IN-PLANT TRAINING AT
FLUID CONTROL RESEARCH
INSTITUTE (FCRI) KANJIKODE WEST PALAKKAD
SIBI-B. ASTS TECHNICAL DIVISION SOUTH KALAMASSERY ERNAKULAM
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iam pleased to submit this in-plant training report at the esteemed organization FLUID CONTROL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (FCRI). I deeply indebted to each and every one who helped me to make my training a successful one. At the very outset, I express my sincere thanks to our respected Director and Head of Training G. Sundaravadivel for giving me an opportunity to attend the in-plant training. I hereby express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Achuthanathan P. and Mr. Madhu V. from the Department of Training for the arrangement and guidance provided throughout the endeavor. I also express my special thanks to all the lab experts for sharing the knowledge and information about all the divisions of the prestigious institution FCRI.
CONTENTS INTRODUCTION FLOW CHART PHYSICAL STANDARD LAB WATER FLOW LAB CWM (CENTER FOR WATER MANAGEMENT) LWFL (LARGE WATER FLOW LAB) OIL FLOW LAB ENVIRONMENTAL QUALIFICATION & TESTING LAB
CLOSED LOOP AIR TEST FACILITY AIR FLOW LAB CNG (COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS) CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION FLUID CONTROL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (FCRI), an esteemed organization dedicated to design and development of flow products and its calibration techniques was established in the year 1989. FCRI has been, established by Govt. of India with techno-economic inputs from the UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP). The institute has grown into a fully fledged quality assurance centre for the core sector industry and is on par with similar establishments in developed countries. FCRI is authorized by Department of Weights & Measures to conduct model approval tests on flow meters. FCRI is accomplished of NABL accredited laboratories for the calibration of flow meters in water, oil, and air media. The accurate and highly reliable services of FCRI are rendered to the major companies including GAIL, BPCL, BHEL, HPCL, ONGC, water supply boards etc. Besides the fluid laboratories, FCRI also has three supporting labs. The Physical Standard Lab deals with the calibration of mass, volume, density, viscosity, material testing and pressure metrology, Electronics and Instrumentation Lab is for the calibration of electrical parameters and time and Noise & Vibration Lab undertakes noise evaluation of control valves, generator sets, pumps etc.
PHYSICAL STANDARDS LABORATORY (PSL) The Physical Standard Laboratory maintains the primary standards of length, mass, time, temperature, pressure/vacuum, volume, relative humidity and hardness. It also provides calibration services in the field of dimensional metrology. The laboratory is equipped with the most reliable and sophisticated reference instruments, operated under controlled environmental conditions of 20 degree Celsius and 50 Rh. The master equipments are traceable to National Physical Laboratory at New Delhi. The laboratory is also equipped with reference instruments for force and torque. Calibration activities are carried out with established procedures in conformance with standard specifications.
MASTER INSTRUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR CALIBRATION: Parameter Equipment Range Accuracy slip gauges 0.5 - 100mm 00 grade gauge blocks 125 - 500mm 0 grade slip gauge calibrator 0 - 100mm < 0.1 micron universal length measuring machine 0 - 610mm 0.46 micrometer Length Surface Finish, Profile projector, Micro checker, Mu checker, Height master, Vernier Calipers
pressure Force Density Viscosity
Standard Weights 0.001g - 50kg Micro Balance 0 - 50g Micro Balance 0 - 210g Mass comparator 0 - 5kg Electronic Balance 64kg Electronic Balance 600kg Standard volume jar 5L/20L Specific gravity bottle 50ml Oil dead weight tester 1 - 1200 bar Oil dead weight tester 1 - 600 bar Air dead weight tester -1000 to 1000mbar Air dead weight tester -1 to 7 bar Absolute dead weight tester 30 mbar -20bar(abs) Very low pressure pneumatic dead weight test 0.2mbar -160mbar High pressure pneumatic dead weight tester 1bar - 160 bar Multi function pressure indicator 0 - 20 bar(abs) Liquid column manometer, Portable calibrator(400bar), precision pressure gauge
Class E1, E2, F1 1g 0.01mg 0.001g 0.001g 0.1g 0.02% 0.02% 0.025% 0.04% 0.02% 0.015% 0.025% 0.03% 0.03% 0.025%
Proving rings (tension & compression) Hydrometer Falling ball, capillary viscometer, std liquids etc
Class A L 50 0.50%
1000kgf, 50000kgf 0.6 - 1.6g/ml 0.5 - 10^5mPas/cSt
WATER FLOW LABORATORY (WFL) The Water Flow Laboratory has specialized test rigs for the precise calibration of flow meters, testing of valves, pipe fittings and other flow products. The whole laboratory system is designed to handle a maximum flow rate of 5000m3/hr. and pipeline sizes are classified into two categories namely 100 to 600mm and 15 to 100mm. The measurement of flow rate is done as per the static ISO 4185 static gravimetric method. The two weighing tanks are of the capacities 2T and 20T. The water is collected in the weighing tanks by diverter system for an accurately measured period of time. Electromagnetic flow meters are Connected to the end of the pipe lines. The mass measurement is by load cells. The online density acquired by a precision online densitometer and mass readings after correction for air buoyancy enables the mass to be converted into volume. These volumes and respective diversion time can provide an accurate measurement of flow rate.
FCRI is actively involved in testing of water meter of various water board authorities, local municipalities, corporation office for bulk purchase of water meters. It is involved from the stage of preparation of tendering specifications to evaluation of competent suppliers of large flow measurements needs. FCRI is identified as testing agency for performance evaluation of water meters. An advanced, highly sophisticated and accurate water flow laboratory accommodating meter sizes up to 100mm and flow rate of 300m3/hr has been set up and was commissioned on October 2005. Both laboratories are accredited by NABL for testing & calibration and also by W&M for the model approval of flow meters.
CENTRE FOR WATER MANAGEMENT (CWM) Centre for water management offers services like in-house flow product assessment, on site measurement/calibrations, analysis/design and consultancy service related to flow problems especially in water distribution networks, surge etc, A brief description of the activities are given below. A laboratory equipped with state of the art equipments facilitates in-house evaluation of flow product. In this facility, accurate measurement of flow in terms of volume is determined by gravimetric system. A flow rate up to 300 cu.m/hr through 150mm pipeline can be achieved in the laboratory with overall uncertainty in volume better than 0.04%. The flow sources are a constant head tank located at a height of 15m and at set centrifugal pumps of different capacity. Water passing through the test line is collected in a tank kept on a weighing scale, 300kg and 3000kg weighing systems serves this purpose. In order to maintain the water quality, stainless steel pipes and fixtures are used. A bank of reference magnetic flow meters is used to set the derived focus through the test line.
Testing of water meters FCRI is involved in testing of different types and sizes of water meters for the last two decades. Around 3000 water meters of various sizes are tested every year. The test facility is accredited by NABL and recognized by Bureau of Indian Standards. Routine tests (initial verification tests) and Pattern approval tests are normally conducted on meters. Routine test of water meters include hydrostatic pressure test, accuracy tests at different flow rates and pressure loss tests. Adequate facilities are available for carrying out various tests specified in different water meter standards like IS, ISO, EEC, and OIML etc. Endurance testing of water meters as per IS/ISO are conducted for different water boards in India during their bulk purchase.
This has ensured reasonable life for meters in the field and has yielded substantial increase in revenue for water boards. A model approval program (MAP) is launched by FCRI, based on suggestion from several major water boards. This is intended mainly to help the consumers and Water boards for quick purchase of meters, while ensuring the quality of meters. Details of models passed the endurance test will be made available in FCRI website. This is expected to help water boards to verify the models submitted by suppliers and proceed with quick purchase with acceptance tests on randomly sampled meters and applying the prescribed acceptance criteria. Special concessions on testing charges are applicable for water boards carrying out acceptance tests as per national/international norms during their bulk purchase. This quality assurance practice followed by various water boards in India has yielded substantial improvement in their revenue and reduction in UFW. Most of the water boards in India and manufacturers in India and abroad are availing various services offered by FCRI. FCRI encourage the customers to witness the tests along with any person they permit, which makes the testing completely transparent.
LARGE WATER FLOW LAB (LWFL) One of the Largest & Unique Calibration/ Testing facilities of the Country is commissioned at FCRI. The facility is a Large Water Flow Laboratory which is designed for a pipe diameter of 2000mm with a max flow rate of 15000m3/ hr.
The facility consists of an underground water sump of capacity 3000 m3 on which five Vertical Turbine pumps are erected. The major specifications of this facility are as under: 1. Flow Medium: Water 2. Maximum discharge: 15000 m3/hr 3. Pipe Line Size: 2000mm (Design) & Ready to Use 1200mm 4. Maximum velocity : 1.4m/sin 2000mm dia. & 3.4 m/sin 1200mm dia. 5. Max Line Size Possible: 3000mm 6. Sump Dimensions: 50m long x 8 m wide x 7.5 m deep 7. Type of Flow: Direct Pumping 8. Pump Type: Vertical turbine 9. Discharge: 5000 m3/hr, 4000 m^3/hr.,3000m^3/hr, 2000 m^3/hr., 1000 m^3/hr. 10. Head: 20m of Water Column 11. Type of Drive: Electrical Motor 12. Power: DG Sets, 1250 KVA 2 Nos 13. Uncertainty: +/- 0.5% Important Flow Products which can be Calibrated / Tested in this facility include Large Size ( 600mm – 2000mm ) EMF , Ultrasonic Flow Meters , all types of Insertion flow meters , Orifice Plates , Mass flow Meters and all types of Valves. The added advantage of this facility is Pump Testing also can be performed here within a flow range of 2500m^3/HR.
OIL FLOW LABORATORY (OFL) The Oil Flow Laboratory has the ability to calibrate any type of flow meter and is used for the bulk flow measurements viz positive displacement flow meters, turbine flow meters, and mass flow meters etc. which are used to determine the total quantity of fluid. The Oil Flow Laboratory was commissioned in 1995. The calibration of OFL has been accredited by NABL. Legal Metrology, Weights & Measures unit, Department of Consumer Affairs has recognized FCRI for conducting Model Approval Test on flow measuring instruments and volume measuring instruments. The Oil Flow Laboratory makes use of static gravimetric calibration system for measurement and calibration is done by “Standing start and stop method”. Turbine flow meters are connected at the end to get the pulse output. The diversion method used in WFL is not used here as it might cause back pressure problems in the pipeline. A maximum line size of 200mm and of maximum flow rate of 650m3/h is also maintained in the lab. The medium of flow is EXXSOL D80 with kinematic viscosity of 2.06 Centistokes at 250C and a specific gravity of 0.78. For a flow rate up to 100m3/h (450GPM) it is possible to change the medium of calibration to Hydrol 100 or Hydrol 220. Calibration of composite probes used in petroleum retail outlets for level, density and temperature measurement is carried out at this Oil Flow Laboratory. The performance evaluation of fuel pumps used in automobile sector, industrial applications, and P.D pumps is conducted as per relevant standards. The calibration of flow products at the Oil Flow Laboratory are carried out with reference to API, ISO, ASTM and OIML standards.
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALIFICATION & TESTING LABORATORY (EQL & ETL) Environmental Qualification Laboratory of FCRI is well equipped for in-plant/site studies with the state of the art equipments/instruments. The following capabilities and services are offered by the Environmental Qualification Laboratory. Industrial / Environmental / Traffic Noise surveys Valve noise measurement and its abatement Determination of noise emission values of various equipment Machine vibration monitoring Strain Measurements Dynamic response of structures
Vibration - Acceleration Vibration - Velocity Vibration - Displacement Accelerometer Sound Power Speed
Range 94 dB @ 1 KHz 114dB @1 KHz 124dB @ 250 KHz 94, 104 & 114dB @ 31.5Hz to 8 KHz Octave 1 to 100 m/s2 (0.1 to 10 g) 5 Hz to 5 KHz 10 to 1000 mm/s 5 Hz to 5 KHz 0.01 to 10 mm 5 Hz to 1 KHz 10g @ 160 Hz 25 to [email protected]
to 16 KHz Source volume 0.7 m3 100 rpm to 10,000 rpm 10000 rpm to 25000 rpm
Best Measurement Capability (+/-) 0.3 dB 0.3 dB 0.3 dB 0.3 dB 4% 4% 4% 4% 2 dB 2.0 rpm 4.0 rpm
The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) at FCRI caters to environmental testing needs for almost all types of manufacturing and R&D industry. ETF facilitates a wide range of products including temperature/humidity and HVAC equipment, electrical/electronic measuring & indicating instruments, electrical switch-gear/control gear enclosures, telemetry/wireless communication equipment, audio visual equipment, products for space/aerospace, military and outdoor applications. It also includes water spray, water jet test, dust spray test, etc. The environmental chamber, spray water chamber, dust test unit are provided in this lab to check the ability of customer product to withstand corresponding parameters. The environmental chamber tests the humidity and temperature withstanding capability of the products like control panel, switch board, gas regulators etc. The spray water chamber detects the water proof ability of the products. The example includes water proof watches. The dust test unit checks the dust withstand capability of products like water meters. The talcum powder is used as dust. The two modes of operation include vacuum mode and non-vacuum mode. 80% of material volume dust is blown to the product to check the dust withstand ability at blow pressure 20mbar.
NOISE AND VIBRATION LAB Noise and vibration laboratory of FCRI is well equipped for in-plant/site studies with the state
measurement/calibration. The laboratory caters to calibration of rpm indicators, tachometers, vibration pick-ups, sound level meters, accelerometers, measurement of valve noise, torque machine vibration monitoring, impact testing of specimens as per ASTM E 23, stress analysis of valve body, fatigue testing of engine valves and seismic testing. The products calibrated at this lab include rotors, radial fans, wiper motor, compressors, automobiles, valves, engines, medical equipment, crackers, for shipping purposes, etc. The
industrial/environmental/traffic noise surveys, valve noise measurements, machine vibration monitoring, strain measurements and dynamic response of structures.
FCRI has a Hemi Anechoic Chamber in accordance with ISO standards to cater the needs like determination of sound power level of noise sources, noise emission values and measurement of aerodynamic noise generated by control valves. Hemi Anechoic Chamber is a cubic room consisting of glass wools arranged in sacs to absorb the sound. This acoustic environment can be used for determination of sound power levels of noise sources by precision method as per the standard ISO 3745 or by engineering method as per the Standard ISO 3744. Test objects of maximum dimension of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m can be tested inside the Hemi Anechoic Chamber by precision method. The air from the Closed Loop Air Testing Facility (CLATF) is given through a pressure transducer according to the consumer product requirements to detect the sound range. The sound is detected in decibels using a microphone and sound level meter. The vibration testing facility has found its applications in the areas including environmental testing of objects and structures, fatigue testing of specimens, resonance searching, calibration of accelerometers etc. Tachometers are used for rpm measurements and calibration of customer products. Calibration of contact and non-contact (blinking led) type tachometers are available here. The shaker system available is of the frequency range 5Hz to 2.5 kHz.
CLOSED LOOP AIR TEST FACILITY (CLATF) It is the type of flow test meters for high pressure calibration of industrial flow meters. It can with stand an air pressure of 2-20bar that is stored in different vessels. These vessels consist of safety valves. If the pressure exceed 20bar then the safety valves opens and eject the excess pressure outside and maintain required pressure level. A temporary vessel with low pressure is used to achieve air flow from high pressure area to low pressure area. As all other calibration, pressure calibration can also be done by two methods, primary and secondary.
PRIMARY STANDARD GALVIMETRIC SYSTEM (PSGS) This type of calibration is performed by using the primary standard as the reference. It is an open loop system consisting of a huge spherical weighing vessel into which the compressed air is passed. Time rate of mass of air collecting in that vessel calculated which gives the mass flow rate. Finally air is emptied from the spherical weighing vessel to atmosphere. Maximum measurable unit of PSGS is 1000m3/h. APPLICATION OF PSGS 1. Primary calibration by mass and time measurement using air under following conditions
ß ß ß ß
Pressure : 20 bar Temperature : Ambient Flow rate : 4-1000kg/h Expanded uncertainty : 0.1%
2. Primary calibration of turbine meters, positive displacement meters, coriolis mass flow meters, critical flow venturi nozzle etc. 3. Evaluation of flow meters for custody transfer application of natural gas, Hydrogen etc. 4. Round robin test program to establish the dynamic traceability of PSGS. 5. Establishment of traceability of high pressure flow measurements carried out at CLATF to National/International standards. 6. Training of personnel in calibration of flow meters using primary standard techniques.
CLOSED LOOP AIR TEST FACILITY (CLATF) It is the secondary type of pressure calibration method. As the name indicates it is the closed loop method. Initially the compressed air is passed through the blower to adjust the speed of flow and in turn to the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is provided with a chiller plant parallel to maintain the temperature of 25 degree Celsius. A filter is also provided for filtering purpose. Unlike the primary or open loop method, it has three reference line with turbine meters and two test line where the test meters are connected. The air is then passed through the pre-filters and it is again channeled to the blowers. Hence maintain the closed loop. APPLICATION OF CLATF v Secondary calibration technique using master turbine meter as per AGA7/ISO 9951 under following conditions.
ß ß ß ß
Pressure : 20 bar Temperature : 25+/-1 degree Celsius Flow rate : 10-4000m3/h Expanded uncertainty : 0.3%
2. High pressure calibration of industrial flow meters such as turbine, ultrasonic, Positive
Displacement, vortex, orifice, coriolis, thermal, averaging pitut static tubes etc. 3. Evaluation of custody transfer flow meters for naturals gases etc. 4. Model approval of custody transfers flow meters as per OIML/BE EN/ANSI/IS standards. 5. Testing of products such as butterfly and ball valves, flow straightness, filters etc. 6. Training of personnel in calibration /testing of flow products. 7. Design/Development of flow control/measuring elements and reliability studies.
AIR FLOW LABORATORY (AFL) FCRI has established Air Flow facilities covering areas related to industrial gases. This lab has the low pressure calibration facility operating at near atmospheric pressure with flow rate up to 10000m3/hr . According to the calibration methods there are again Primary Air Flow Laboratory (PAFL) and Secondary Air Flow Laboratory (SAFL).
PRIMARY AIR FLOW LABORATORY Primary Air Flow Laboratory is called so because here we are taking the primary reference standard volume for calibration. The flow rate calibration in PAFL ranges up to 40m3/hr. This section is maintained at an ambient temperature range of 20+/-1 degree Celsius, humidity 55+/-5. The conditioned atmosphere of PAFL maintains the metrological qualities of the master flow meters and there by provides high reliability of calibration and operating performance. Calibration is performed under Compression mode operation. This instrument has a 3point reproducibility and 5point repeatability. PAFL consist of three major low pressure measurement instruments. 1. BELL PROVER
Here the air flow is measured with displacement of bell and the volume is calculated by the equation Area * length = volume
; where the bell area remains constant.
Hence volume flow rate can be determined in the unit of litter/minute, and then converted to m3/hr.
2. PISTON PROVER This is mainly used to calibrate the instruments where the flow rate is low about 3m3/hr. By using this instrument pulse rate can also be counted, hence k factor is calculated. The equation to determine the volume rate is Volume rate = [(pulses / time) / k factor] * 3600 There is a higher piston and lower piston that are automatically selected by the instrument itself according to the flow rate. 3. VOLUME METER This is very rarely used equipment where the flow rate is very low about 250ml/min. the measurement is taken out according to the level beams provided by the LEDs are cut. There is another portable air flow measuring device. It consists of four channels of thermal mass flow meter for different temperature level. The temperature difference of air input and output of the thermal mass flow meter is calculated which gives the flow rate up to 400L/hr is converted into m3/hr.
SECONDARY AIR FLOW LABORATORY Secondary air flow lab is called so because here we take secondary reference output from the lab. Here sonic nozzles are used as reference standard for calibration purpose where the velocity of flow becomes equal to velocity of sound that is known as sonic level. It is designed as per ISO 9300 reference standard. There are three different sonic levels with specific mach numbers. They are: Subsonic 1 12 sonic nozzles arranged in parallel having different flow rate can be calibrated, the combination of these values can also be calibrated according to the test meter specification. This lab maintained at temperature 25 +/- 1 degree, and humidity about 55+/-5 degree. Here the
Calibration is performed under suction mode operation. Three blowers are provided for sucking air. The range of flow rate calibration is 22.50 to 10000m3/hr. The standard flow rates calibrated by using sonic nozzles are given below.
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS(CNG) Increased concern on the environmental pollution caused by conventional auto fuels such as diesel/petrol, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), an environmental friendly and clean fuel is opted as an alternate fuel. Auto fuel Policy introduced during 2003 by MOPNG aims at to address the issues of vehicle emission, vehicle technology and auto fuel quality. And also it aims at optimal utilization of oil & gas infrastructure. The use of CNG and LPG would be increased in pollution effected cities. CNG Vehicles are in use in major states in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Delhi, Andhrapradesh, Bengal, UP, MP etc. In recent future, it is likely that most Southern cities will also go on CNG. GAIL (India) Ltd is planning to expand its CNG distribution network to 46 cities in the country to meet the automobile industry demand. CNG is dispensed using specialized dispensing equipment to the vehicle. Domestic Natural Gas consumption is about 100 mmscmd of which Auto and Industrial consumption stands at about 20%. To augment the gas supply position, LNG regasification capacity is to be enhancing to 25mtpa by 2010. Deposits of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) that could yield 1.2 trillion m3 of gas and Methane Gas Hydrates that can produce 7.5 trillion m3 of gas in about 80000 km2 areas have been found in India. In the Automobile sector, there is a continuous growth of CNG stations totaling more than 600 catering to about 700000 vehicles. Indian automotive sector contributes about 4% to GDP. Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) 200616 envisages an investment of $40 billion to help transform India into a global automobile player accounting for 10 per cent of the GDP.
Cost of Metering Errors The cost of the fuel is charged based on mass measurements made by Coriolis mass flow meters installed in each dispenser. OIML recommendations stipulate an error of 1.5% on the dispensed
quantity, which is in the range 10 – 100 kg. Small errors in CNG measurement will result in large revenue losses. For example, consider a typical fleet consisting of 30 vehicles in which individual vehicles travel 80 km per day. At an average fuel efficiency of 20 km per kg, the fleet will consume a total of 43800 kg per year. At an average price of Rs.20 per kg, the fuel cost for one year is Rs.8,76,000. An error of about 1.5% could produce a revenue loss or gain of Rs. 13140 per year for the fleet. 5% could result in an annual loss in revenue of Rs.43800. 15% could provide a revenue loss of Rs.131400.
250 bar Natural Gas Calibration and Test Laboratory The new 250 bar facility is capable of evaluating high-pressure storage cylinder, natural gas storage tanks and testing metering technologies for high pressure compressed natural gas applications and type test dispensers. The facility consists off major components such as booster compressor, piping components, control components, storage cascades, weigh and buffer tanks and precision electronic mass comparator.
Features of the facility Test Line size : Up to 1.5″ Medium : Compressed Natural Gas Storage volume : 18 m3 Reference :Gravimetric method Pressure : Up to 200 bar Weight Flow rate : 4500 kg/h Vessel : 985l Buffer Tank: 900 Flow Rate Uncertainty : 0.1 % Clean dry gas filled in cascades is used as test media. Gas drawn from Weigh/buffer tanks (pressure variation 180-25 bar) by booster type reciprocating compressor is compressed to the operating pressure of 250 bar and stored in cascades. The high-pressure storage system has sufficient internal volume to cater to a maximum flow rate of 4500 kg/h at 200 bar. The system will ensure flexibility in discharge and adequate supply of gas to the set up. The pressure to the
test loop can be regulated to the required levels. Multiple sets of pressure regulators are incorporated for maximum flexibility while testing 2-3 bank dispensers. Mass flow rates are monitored using coriolis meters connected ahead of test line. A set of 7 critical flow venturi nozzles of different capacities controls the mass flow rates. Actual mass flow rates are determined using electronic balance. Pressures are measured at upstream/downstream of nozzles and also at the inlet of the compressor. Meters up to 1 1/2″ shall be accommodated in the loop. The facility is extensively instrumented and remotely operated valves will be controlled by an online real time PC based GE Fanuc SCADA System. The facility is designed as per relevant ASME/NGV/CCOE Pressure Vessel Codes. Complete test loop is constructed using stainless steel considering the safety and extended life of the loop components eliminating the problem associated with rust and ageing effects.
Calibration Process in the laboratory Before the test begins, the gas flow through the system is bypassed into buffer tank and the weighing balance along with weigh tank above is tarred. This minimizes error in final mass totals due to gas in the piping upstream from the meter. During the test, the data acquisition system records the time-based variations of the gas pressure, the mass of the gas delivered/stored. Gas flow rates can be automatically controlled to simulate vehicle-fueling scenarios as in 2/3 bank filling system. The flow is directed through the meter and into highpressure weigh cylinders mounted on the precision balance. At the end of the test, the gas collected at weigh tank is pumped back into the storage cascades.
Applications This facility will facilitate dynamic testing capable of testing CNG systems at large scale in realistic gas dispensing conditions and consequently. This facility will extend services in the area of Testing and evaluation Flow capacity evaluation of fills systems as per AGA/CGA NGV1 CNG norms.
• Characteristics of temperature variation at inlet of receiving tank. Characteristics of temperature variation at the downstream of fill system. • Pressure rise characteristics of receiver tank. • Fill time characteristics. • Performance testing of components such as check valves, relief valves, filters, fittings, fuel pipelines • To undertake the calibration of mass flow meters used in the CNG dispensers. • To carry out high Pressure calibration of Industrial Custody Transfer Gas Flow Meters such as hydrogen, Oxygen etc. • To conduct the model approval tests on CNG dispensers as per OIML recommendations.
CONCLUSION Fluid Control Research Institute is the leading fluid research institute in South East Asia. It is a pride to our country and works for the development of the industries. The Test, Research and Calibration facilities are continually upgraded, updated and expanded to ensure they are among the best in the World. Regular Inter-comparison exercises, International Certifications and validations, stringent Quality Audits, skilled and trained manpower and overall professionalism have contributed to our high levels of reputation and credibility. FCRI has also undertaken projects in the area of software development related to analytical techniques, selection, estimation of requirement of flow meters etc. These software’s are also used by valve manufacturers, fertilizer industries and petrochemical plants. NEWTON, VAP 1.0, AUTOVALV, SAFEVALV etc are the software developed by FCRI. The in-plant training at FCRI has given us ideas about the calibration and testing of flow products. We were introduced to the following labs:
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Physical Standards Lab Water Flow Lab & Oil Flow Lab Environmental Qualification & testing Lab Closed Loop Air Test Facility & Primary Standard Gravimetric System Air Flow Laboratory
The major facilities at FCRI to undertake testing and calibration are air flow, water flow, oil flow, noise and vibration etc. This in-plant training helped us to perceive knowledge about the calibration techniques and we were able to observe the practical applications of theoretical classes we have undergone.
APPENDIX Specifications of the Water Flow Laboratory
In Mass Flow rate
In Volume Flow rate
In Total Volume
±0.04%(Upto 250 T/h) ±0.10%(300 to 1800 T/h)
±0.05% (Upto 250 m3/h) ±0.10% (300 to 1800 m3/h) ±0.25% (1800 to 4500 m3/h)
±0.04% (Upto 20 m3)
In Total mass ±0.01% (0 to 2000 kg) ±0.025% (2000 to 20000 kg)
±0.5% (4500- 15000 m3/hr)
Specifications of the Air Flow Laboratory
Max. Flow Rate(m3/h)
Air Flow (1bar abs)
Closed Loop Air Test Facility (20 bar)
Uncertainty in Flow Rate (% reading)
Uncertainty volume (% reading)
0-40 m3/hr : +/- 0.2% > 40 m3/hr : +/- 0.25%
0 - 0.5 m3 : +/- 0.1%
Max. Line Size
Specifications of the Oil Flow Laboratory
Max. Flow Rate(m3/h) 650
Max. Line Size 200mm
Uncertainty in Flow Rate (% reading) 0 - 100 m3/hr : +/-0.075%100 650m3/hr : +/- 0.1%
Uncertainty volume(% reading) 0 - 9 m3 : +/- 0.05%
Specifications of the vibration shaker
M/s Unholtz Dickie Corporation USA
: Sine 2040 kgf a) Seismic qualification tests as per (PK) the standard IEEE-244 : Random 2040 kgf b) Vibration tests as per OIML R Force rating (RMS) 185/1993 : Shock 4080 kgf c) Exploratory vibration test as per (PK) ANSI B 16.41/ ASME QME 1 Frequency range 5 Hz to 5 kHz d) Shock testing as per IS 9001 Part 17 Max. Bare table 95 g Peak sec 1/1985 acceleration e) Vibration testing as per QM 333 : 1.8 m/s (sine) and QM-351 Max. velocity Peak f)Vibration testing as per JSS 55555 : 2.4 m/s (shock) g) Vibration tests for automobile Max. displacement : 51 mm Peak to parts as per JIS D1601/1995 Peak h) Vibration testing as per various Max. static pay 454 kg MIL/IEC and other load (Vertical National/International standards Axis) Table diameter 335 mm Horizontal Slip Table size Vertical Head expander size
915 x 915 mm 610 x 610 mm
Electronic & Instrumentation Laboratory testing facilities
Instrument used for testing
1 µV to 1000V AC & DC
+/- 0.0002 to +/- 0.4
Multifunction calibrator 1 µ A to 11A AC & DC
0.2mA to 100A
+/-0.02 % O/P to
AC & DC
+/- 0.02% of range
1 Ohm to 100M Ohm 1 Pf to 100 m F 100 m H to 10H 1MHz to 20 MHz
+/- 0.007 to 0.0109 0.1 0.1
Resistance Multifunction calibrator Capacitance LCR Meter Inductance LCR Meter Frequency Function generator Water Bath Oil Bath
+/-0.0042 to +/-0.9
Stability +/-0.1 deg.C +10 to +100 deg.C
Stability +/-0.01 deg.C -30 to +150 deg.C Stability +/- 0.2 deg.C
+30 to +700 deg.C +/- 0.01 deg.C(Dead bed)
High temperature calibration system
+5 to +1100 deg.C
1 nS to 105 S
Stability +/-0.25 deg.c 0.00001% to 0.007%
Technologies developed by FCRI are : 1. Automatic level controller- An Automatic level controller to maintain fluid levels in reservoirs has been developed. 2. Averaging Pitut Probe- Design, development, testing and supply of Averaging pitut tubes used for flow measurement in Large pipelines have been completed. 3. Cone Flow meter- This flow meter was indigenously developed at FCRI. It is a differential pressure type flow meter operating on the same principle as conventional orifice meter, venture meter, nozzle etc.
4. Development of Non Intrusive diagnostic techniques for check valves- A non Intrusive technique for Check valve diagnostics has been developed. 5. Five hole Probe- Special purpose probes called Five hole probes used for boundary layer flow measurement has been designed, developed tested and supplied by the Institute. 6. Frequency to Current Converter- A unique Frequency to Current Converter finding a wide variety of applications was developed in-house. 7. Multiphase Flow meter (Transient) - A flow meter to measure transient steam water flow mixtures with good accuracy levels is being attempted in the Institute. 8. Nozzles for steam flow measurement- Special purpose Nozzles for Steam flow measurement have been designed, fabricated, tested and supplied by the Institute. 9. Special Probes for oscillating flow measurement- Design, development, testing and supply of a probe for measurement of time variant flow (oscillating flow) was completed at the Institute. 10. Thermal Mass flow meter- Design, development, testing and supply of Thermal mass flow meters have been completed.