Remake - 1952 - Art of Garment Making, The - Chapter 06: The Lounge Jacket

April 25, 2019 | Author: Ratspeed | Category: Seam (Sewing), Sewing, Softlines (Retail), Clothing, Fashion & Beauty
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Chapter 6 of The Art of Garment Making by A.A. Whife. Not quite sure which year or revision....


1 Chapter VI

The Lounge Jacket


HE lounge jacket is undoubtedly the most widely worn one at the present time, either as part of a suit or as an “odd” garment. It is capable of many variations in general styling— such as number of buttons, number and type of pockets, shape of fronts and width of collar and lapels. And, of course, it can undergo various modifications in length, general size and shape. For consideration in this chapter on the making of the lounge, it

Pattern Parts We will start at the very beginning of things and take a look at the pattern parts, as the cutter would have them on his board. Diagram 59—The upper drawing here shows the forepart pattern of a lounge jacket, styled for the button-three front. There is an under-arm dart (1), a front dart (2); the pocket (cross or side pocket) level is indicated by 3. At 4 we have a balance mark, which will coincide with a similar one on the back. This is the side-seam position. Sometimes the under-arm dart is terminated at about 1” below the base of the scye, as denoted at A. The outside breast pocket level is shown by B. On the middle drawing there are certain style differences to be noted. Again we have a lounge forepart pattern, this time with the button-two styling and with a little more cut-away to the front. The two darts are shown by 1 and 2; in this case the underarm dart (1) is left open at the top (A); this is often done when it is required to give a little more “hip room” to the garment. At 3 we have the mark for a slanting type of pocket—a frequent feature nowadays. Also indicated on this drawing are the outlines of a patch pocket (see dash-lines). This type of pocket is mostly adopted for the so-called “odd” garment, or sports jacket. The sideseam balance mark is against seen at 4 and the outside breast pocket level is marked by B. Letter D denotes the position of what is termed a gorge dart, sometimes adopted, but not so frequently now as at one time. The bottom drawing shows a typical lounge jacket back pattern. Notice the balance mark at 4, to match that on the forepart in the same position. N marks the normal, or standard, sleeve pitch position for the hindarm (or

has been decided to take a style which is likely to remain in favour for quite a long time. We shall deal with the button-two model, mainly, but references will be made to the button-three style also. Each will be assumed to be modelled on what would be called moderate lines, with reasonable shaping at the waist and with a certain amount of “chest” judiciously effected.

rear) part of the sleeve; F denotes a lowered pitch mark, often referred to as the “fashion” pitch. Full details of these pitches are given in the section of this chapter devoted to the making and insertion of sleeves. Diagram 60—Here we have another kind of forepart—the one usually termed the side body style. In this, the under-arm dart is continued right through to the bottom, thus becoming a full-length under-arm seam. The front portion of the pattern is so arranged that the front dart is increased a little, having been manipulated by the cutter to produce a fairly full chest effect. Front of the cross pocket mouth is shown at P and its continuation on what will be the sidebody portion is seen at PX. Balance marks are introduced at 1 and 2 on the sidebody and at 3 and 4 on the front portion. These will be brought together when the under-arm seam is sewn out. (It is omitted on this drawing).

DIA. 59

One more note on the forepart patterns illustrated—it concerns the small “tick” at the front scye curve. This is the mark for the front pitch of the sleeve. The lower drawing here shows the forepart pattern for a double-breasted, or reefer, style of jacket. It is included to give an impression of the difference between this style and the lounge. Darts and pocket levels are indicated; sometimes the front dart is taken right through, as indicated by the dash line. A gorge dart, also marked here, is often adopted. Actual making of the reefer jacket will not be discussed in this book, but it may be said that the main features of it, so far as tailoring is concerned are exactly the same as those in the make-up of the singlebreasted lounge jacket.

DIA. 60

2 Diagram 61—This diagram depicts three styles of back. The top one is cut for a centre vent. The projection at the bottom (left) is the allowance made on the basic pattern. The under-lap (right half of back) is shown by 1, and the part which will be turned back on the left half is indicated by the dash line at 2. In the middle drawing we have a back pattern cut for side vents to be introduced (see the addition at 3). The bottom drawing gives an impression of a back pattern for a style which has small pleats, or tucks, in the shoulder-earn; these are indicated at 4. In the waist (5) are four small pleats (there will be three in each half back and one in the centre back, making a total of seven). This kind of back is often adopted for jackets, in the lounge general style, that are intended for sports or leisure wear. In each of the backs mentioned, it will be noted, the two sleeve 4

pitches (normal and fashion) are indicated by N and F respectively. Diagram 62—Here we see the sleeve pattern parts. The top


4 N

drawing shows what is called the top-half of the standard two-piece


N 4



sleeve; immediately below it is the under-half pattern. These two

DIA. 61

parts are cut to make up into what is sometimes termed the “fiftyfifty” style of sleeve. Like many trade terms, this is not strictly adequate, for the sleeve is not actually half-and-half. However, it may conveniently indicate that this type of sleeve is cut without the so-called false forearm. The latter style is indicated on the two lower drawings, which again show the top-half and under-half patterns. The false forearm is really a displacement of the forearm seam. What happens is that (usually) an extra inch is allowed on the forearm of the top-half and a similar amount is taken off the under-half. This can be appreciated by the reader if he compares the two upper drawings with the two lower ones. The two “ticks” on the top-half in the lower ones indicate where the original forearm was located. When this kind of sleeve is made up balance marks 1 and 2 (top-half) will be joined to balance marks 3 and 4 (under-half). There will be an easing-in between 3 and 4 of the under-half and a slight stretching between 1 and 2 of the top-half. This process is dealt with in detail later in the chapter. One more item on the sleeve patterns. The letters N and F on each of the lower drawings will give an idea of what happens when a sleeve is cut to have a “fashion” pitch. The line from N shows the cut for the normal pitch and the line from F denotes that for the “fashion” pitch. In other words, the top-half will be a little wider at the top and the under-half will be a little narrower. In most cases, the “fashion” pitch is made lower than the normal pitch-in a gentleman’s lounge jacket. (For ladies’ jackets a greater “drop” is usually made).

DIA. 62

3 Cloth Parts Cut Having now given a detailed account of the pattern sections, we can next devote attention to the cloth parts of the lounge jacket. They are illustrated on Diagram 63, The button-three style is taken as an example. Section 1 shows the back, as it will appear when it comes to the tailor. There is an inlay at the back neck (A), down the centre backseam (BB) and at the bottom (C). Sometimes a small inlay is left at D, as shown by dash-lines.

Section 2 indicates the foreparts, with inlays allowed at the shoulder (E), the scye (F and G), the side-seam (HH) and the bottom (JJ). There is also an inlay at the gorge (L) and down the front edge (KK). As will be seen, both back and foreparts have been mark-stitched (see the first chapter in this book) in the lines marked out by the cutter. The pocket mouth position, for the cross pockets, has been mark-stitched also (I). The inlay down the front edge (KK) will be left in this way if the jacket is to be prepared for a first fitting, in either the “skeleton” baste

form or in the so-called “pocket” baste. (The latter means that the pockets have been put in and most of the seams sewn out and pressed open). When the jacket is intended to be actually made up, the front edge inlay will be cut away. (This is illustrated on Section 5). Section 3—This shows the top-half of the sleeve, with the cuff up-turn allowed at M. The small projecting part at N is allowed there in order that it will take the vent tack of the cuff when the sleeve is made up. Notice that the false forearm is indicated here, with mark-stitches inserted to locate the original run. These will be used later in the sleeve make-up. Section 4—Here is the under-half of the sleeve. There are inlays at the hindarm (O and PP) and at the cuff (R), the last being the up-turn. Notice that the hindarm inlay is extended outwards at the bottom; this is to allow for the under part of the cuff vent. Section 5—As mentioned above, this shows the foreparts as they would be received from the cutter for make-up. The inlays at scye, shoulder-seam and gorge have been retained, but that on the front edge (KK of Section 2) has been removed. (An inlay, about ½”, may be left along the lapel edge to allow for “working.”) Some cutters prefer to remove the shoulder inlay, too, as they say it is sometimes inclined to “bind” the shoulderseam and give rise to creases there in the finished jacket. This is a matter of opinion; if the inlay is not too wide, very little trouble will be found in this direction. The retained inlay at the shoulder will be cut as the dash line on Section 5; if it is dispensed with, the shoulder will be as the solid outline. Marking-stitches have been omitted from this illustration, for the sake of clarity.

DIA. 63

To conclude this subject of inlays, it may be well to say that no inlay, whatever may be its position on a garment, should be excessively wide. Its purpose is to make provision for rectifications at fittings and to allow for any increase in size that may be required. Some cutters are inclined to eliminate all inlays, with the exception of those at the scye and the gorge—a practice almost universally adopted by the wholesale clothing trade. However, for our purpose here it has been decided to use inlays in certain places—all of them moderate in width.

4 The Canvases Diagram 64 shows three methods of cutting canvases for the fronts of a lounge jacket. The top drawing shows the canvas cut on the “straight.” The lapel crease line is indicated by a dash-line; the projection at A is made so that it will take the front tack of the cross pocket. A dart is to be taken out at D, to correspond to the front dart of the cloth forepart. There will be a puff inserted at 1 and (in some cases) slits or puffs at 2 and 3. In the centre drawing we have one example of canvas cut on the bias. It will be noted here that there is a running on the “straight” at the shoulder (3), the gorge (4) and the scye (5). Puffs and slits will have to be adopted at these parts if successful shoulder shaping is to be achieved. Again, the dart is indicated at D. The bottom drawing gives an idea of a second way of cutting canvases on the bias grain—and this is a better way than that just described. It will be seen that there is bias at gorge (6), shoulder (7) and scye (8). This is a very good feature, for it will allow shoulder shaping to be achieved without the insertion of puffs or the cutting out of slits. Some experienced tailors prefer this method of cutting and dealing with canvases. There is one possible “snag,” however. Notice that the crease line of the lapel (9) is also on the bias. This may not always be a good thing, for this part of the canvas has to act, with the bridle linen (to be dealt with later), as a kind of controlling agent on the crease of the lapel. However, if the bridling is done with care there should be sufficient control effected.

DIA. 64

The over-all advantage in cutting canvases on the bias is that there is imparted to them a kind of elasticity down the whole length of the forepart in which they are inserted; this is considered a great virtue in high-class tailoring circles. On the other hand, many tailors, by means of skilful work, are able to put straight grain canvas in jackets very effectively, giving the fronts a reasonable amount of elasticity and avoiding any “drawing up” in the finished garment. One thing must be added all canvas to be used in the making of jackets should be of the best quality. Whether canvases should be of linen (shrunk duck), cotton-andhair, wool-and-hair, or in a man-made fibre fabric is a matter which will always be under debate among tailors. It is largely affected by the type of cloth in which the garment is being made (its weight, thickness and density) and by the grade of workmanship available. For the purpose of this chapter on lounge jacket make-up it has been decided to illustrate the linen canvas. Operations involved in its cutting and insertion will apply almost equally to other kinds of canvas. All good linen canvases will be thoroughly shrunk before the tailor gets them; but some jacket-makers insist on more shrinking in the workshop—usually by means of immersion of the canvas in a bucket of water and a pressing of it with a hot iron afterwards. Certainly, it is advisable to treat all wool-and-hair canvases in this way before they are cut and prepared for insertion. The main thing to remember is this—canvases must never be short when they are put in the fronts of jackets (or in any other garments for which they are used). There must always be plenty of “play” in them, so that no contraction occurs in the fronts of the jacket.

DIA. 65 Drape and “Chest” Diagram 65 shows a canvas cut with the object of producing a certain amount of drape at the front scye of the jacket, in a modified form, and an appearance of “chest.” This canvas is cut on a bias and the front dart is well cut out to provide the extra upper “room” required in this instance. Two short dart are taken out on the inner edge, just below the scye (See 1 and 2). When these are closed, they will be brought edge-to-edge and serged over. The fullness resulting from this will form a kind of “round” in the canvas at S, where the dash line indicates the approximate position of the drape. This will coincide with the drape allowance already made by the cutter when he marked up the cloth forepart.

5 Canvas Preparation

There are some other things to be done in the preparation of the canvases, things which largely affect the chest and shoulder regions of the garment. These are shown on Diagram 66. Section A—This represents a piece of felt, or padding as it is sometimes called, cut to extend through the shoulder section and down over the chest area. Section B—Here we have a piece of specially manufactured hair canvas, which will be placed under the felt in the shoulder region. These two pieces are shown in position on the upper part of the main canvas in the drawing on the upper right. The front dart in the main canvas is denoted by D and its companion, a short dart in the felt, is seen at X. Notice that X is placed a little away from D, so that there is no thickness caused—as would be the case if the two joinings fell together. (This is an important consideration when lightweight materials are being made up). Note: In this drawing the shoulder canvas (B) is shown as though it were on top of the felt (A). This has been done so that the position of both can be clearly indicated. Actually, in makeup, the shoulder canvas will be next to the main canvas and the felt on top. A photograph illustrates this later. The felt and hair canvas are again shown in the drawing below the one just described. In this, however, there are indications of the puffs and/or darts that will be included in the two pieces of material. It is essential for there to be a relationship between the felt and hair canvas and the main body canvas. Whatever shaping is put into one must be put into all. Section 1 shows a body canvas with the front dart (1) finally prepared. Notice the little “step” at its termination (2); this will allow for the join. The dart may be closed by overlapping its two edges, or the edges may be brought together, serged, and bound with a strip of silesia—or other thin fabric. Sometimes a slit is made at 3, as shown, to prevent any shortness on the inner edge of the canvas. A better plan may be to drop the inner edge at its bottom, as indicated at 4. When the bottom edge is brought up to line with the mark-stitches in the forepart, 4 will move upwards and will thereby give a little extra length along the inner edge of the canvas. Section 2 gives an impression of the cloth forepart laid on the canvas, the latter being extended as the white areas at shoulder, gorge and lapel edge. These allowances over the cloth parts are made so that there is plenty of “play” for working the canvases into the fore part. The small Section 3 gives an impression of a shoulder hair canvas portion that has had a puff, or gusset, inserted in it at the shoulder-seam position. This is done to ensure a correct shaping of the shoulder and to get a nice, clean run up into the neck. The same idea, as already indicated, is carried out in the main body canvas.

The Fittings

We now come to consideration of the various so-called “fittings” for the jacket-the facings, flaps, welts, jettings, pocketings, etc. Diagram 67—On this diagram, Section 1 shows the flaps (one (or each cross pocket, laid together); Section 2 shows the cross pocket jettings (or facings if jettings are not to be employed); Section 3 shows the outside breast pocket welt and Section 4 shows the facing for that pocket.

DIA. 66

DIA. 67 Section 5 indicates the under-collar, with the crease line dividing stand and fall mark-stitched, and Section 6 depicts the top-collar, or these two portions, the under-collar is cut in two sections, to be joined by a centre seam which will correspond with that of the centre back of the jacket; the top-collar is cut so that its centre falls on the crease or fold of the cloth. The facings of the jacket are shown on the centre drawing. Most facings are now cut so that the shoulder portion finishes at the dash line. At one time, the facings were cut as shown at A, extending right across the shoulder area. This is not so frequently done nowadays, though it is sometimes in half-lined or in unlined jackets; it is also adopted for certain overcoats.

6 Diagram 68—First, to deal with the smaller sections. of which Section 1 shows the silesia cut for the cross, or side, pockets. It is usually cut about 8” wide for each pocket and its depth will come roughly to the edge of the up-turn at the bottom edge of the forepart. Generally, a piece of silesia 18” by 8” will be enough for the making of one cross pocket. Section 2 shows the pocketing for the outside and inside breast pockets there is usually one of each, though some men like to have two inside pockets instead of the customary one, with or without the outside breast pocket. The width of the silesia for these pockets is about 7 ins., and the depth about the same unless extra large pockets are desired. The inside breast pocket is usually formed with a narrow piping, and for this purpose it is necessary to supply strips of lining to match the lining used in jacket. These strips may be joined to the silesia before the pipings are made or, if desired, the pipings may be made first and then the silesia joined afterwards. This depends upon the method adopted. The tops of the pieces of pocketing are slanted, as shown by dash line A. Section 3 indicates the linings for the flaps; these are usually cut from the same material as that used for the main linings of the jacket. There is a margin of lining left at the upper part of the flap lining, for working purposes; this is shown beyond the dash-line, the bottom of the drawing representing the top of the flap. Section 4 indicates a double strip of lining, to be used for the pipings, or jetting, for the ticket pocket. This will be inserted towards the bottom of the left forepart and the silesia used for it will be cut in a piece about 4½” wide by 3¾” deep, on the double. Ticket pockets should never be made too deep. Some tailoring houses prefer narrow jettings for all inside pockets. It is a matter of taste whether pipings or jettings are adopted.

Cutting Linings

The shaded drawings on Diagram 68 show how the sleeve linings are cut. In each case, the cloth sleeve parts are shown by the strong solid outlines and the linings by slightly lighter lines. About ¾” margin is allowed on the linings at the crown of the top-half, as denoted by C, with a little extra allowed at the top of both forearm and hindarm seams, as shown at F and H.

On the under-half, there is a ¾” allowance at the under-scye position, as indicated by US, and a small addition is made at the forearm, F. The hindarm part of the lining will be cut to include the inlay marked and left on the cloth under-half. At the bottom of both section the lining is generally cut to clear the bottom of the cloth upturn by about 1”. Care must always be taken, of course, to make sure that the sleeve linings are cut with sufficient length to prevent any shortness when they are being inserted in the sleeves. The cutting of linings for forepart and back is illustrated by the three diagrammatic drawings on Diagram 69.

DIA. 68

The top one depicts the forepart, with the inlays showing and with the facings laid on, as cut to the correct size and shape. There are additions at 1 (shoulder), 2 (bottom) and 4 (lapel). These allowances are made so that there is ample “play” ; the facings must not be tight in length; they must have sufficient width to pass over the lapel part. At the actual front edge they are cut to the same shape as the forepart itself, as shown at 3. The shaded section marked by X indicates the full shoulder type of facing, referred to earlier. The centre drawing depicts the back, with its lining indicated by the shaded area. The lining is usually cut so that the centre back (C–B) falls on the fold of the lining material. This is pleated over in the process of make-up, as will be explained later. Notice the extra allowance from the waist (W), traversing the back scye curve (S) and then along the shoulder and the back neck. About 1” is allowed at S and the lining is then graded down to W; there is normally ½” allowance at-shoulder and back neck. The length of the back lining can be ½” above the edge of the bottom up-turn. The bottom illustration portrays the forepart lining (shaded area) and shows its relation to the cloth forepart and the facing. In this case I have depicted the facing as cut to about one-third of the shoulder width a very common practice among tailors at the present time. Notice the allowance of lining beyond the bottom edge (6) and at the shoulder (T). At the side-seam (S–S) the lining extends as far out as the inlay of the cloth forepart.

DIA. 69 On Diagram 70 we see, in Section A, the forepart lining taken away from the facing, with the underarm dart (U) and the front dart (F) marked to be pleated over instead of seamed. This is favoured by some tailoring houses. The addition at the shoulder is shown by the extension at 1. Section B of the same diagram indicates the linings attached to a facing that is going to extend across the full width of the shoulder. U and F again indicate the two darts, to be pleated or seamed out. There will be a cut made at 2 and into this will be inserted a small puff. The process will be described and illustrated at a later stage. This puff may also be inserted in the lining (at the scye) when the facing is not intended to pass right over the shoulder.

7 While on the subject of linings and facings, I will anticipate our make-up progress by mentioning Diagram 71, which shows two examples of an alternative to the scye puff just mentioned. Section A shows how the lining will be cut for the forming of a pleat at line P. This pleat, adopted by many (perhaps most) tailors instead of the puff, will be folded out at the scye edge and will be carried to nothing at the edge of the facing.

DIA. 70

DIA. 71

Section B shows the pleat idea in another form—this time made to extend in the same depth right across the shoulder from scye to facing. When this is done, the pleat must be formed before the lining is seamed on to the facing, its front part thus being held in the seam. In either case allowance must be made at the top of the lining when it is cut; this allowance, indicated beyond the dash-line on both sections, will be made according to the depth of pleat required. One inch of depth is customary, though some tailors prefer a smaller pleat—½” or ¾”. In certain houses a short vertical pleat is made, very much Like that in some waistcoat linings.

Cloth “Gloss” Some cloths have a kind of finishing sheen on them, usually referred to by tailors as “gloss.” Its presence can be detected by applying the iron and a damp-cloth (pressing rag) to a part of the cloth. It will be noticed, after this is done, that where the iron has rested the cloth will appear to be very slightly darker and to have a more mat-like surface. Detection is easier on cloths of comparatively dark shade, but it can be accomplished on lighter shade materials as well. All garment parts in such cloths should be pressed over with an iron and damp-rag before making of the garment begins. This applies to all garments, of course, and not only to jackets. Both sides of the cloth should be so treated.

DIA. 72

Some high-class tailors insist that all cloths are treated in this way by the tailor before make-up operations, so that there is no danger of small areas of “gloss” appearing in the finished garment.

Sewing the Darts To proceed with our jacket-making, the next operation will be to sew out the underarm and front darts—or the sidebody seam, if this is featured—in each forepart and its companion front dart. Diagram 72—First, we will deal with the sewing out of the under-arm dart, as shown on Section A of this diagram. The stitching is shown extending from 1 to 2, the latter number being placed just above the markstitches which indicate the cross pocket mouth. Notice that the seam is gradually tapered as it reaches the bottom position. Some tailors prefer to sew the last 2” of this seam by hand, saying that they can get better control of it is this way and so avoid “bubbles” of fullness immediately above and below the pocket mouth. However, the seam can be sewn quite effectively by machine (as is mostly done nowadays) if due care is taken. Section B shows the seam in closer detail, so that the reader can see exactly how the stitching is carried out. A represents the base of the scye, W indicates the waist hollow and B shows the termination of the dart seam. In some cases the seam is taken down (about 1¼”) below the level of the pocket mouth. The idea here is to make absolutely sure that there is no “blob” at its end. This plan is all right when the pockets are to have flaps, but if they are to be jetted only, the portion of seam that will show below the bottom jetting may be thought by some customers to be unsightly. The sewing out of the front dart will be done in almost exactly the same way, except that there will be two terminations to consider-one at the top as well as one at the bottom. This means that the grading-off of the seam must be carried out at both ends. In some cases the upper termination of the front dart will just reach the welt seam of the outside breast pocket; this is an advantage in the prevention of “blobs,” of course. However, it is not often that a front dart will extend so far up, so the care and attention already mentioned should be given to the sewing of it—particularly at its terminations.

8 The Sidebody Seam Diagrams 73 and 74 show the procedure adopted for the sewing out of the front dart and the underarm seam in a forepart which has been cut with a sidebody portion (see on Diagram 60 of this chapter). Diagram 73: Section 1—Here the forepart is folded over so that the front dart seam can be sewn. It is shown stitched, with the gradual tapering mentioned earlier. The balance mark (indicated by 3 and 4 in this one drawing) will be joined to corresponding balance marks on the under-seam of the sidebody. The pocket mouth is indicated by P. Section 2 portrays the seam pressed open, with the resultant fullness at top and bottom distributed evenly in the upper and lower regions. Section 3 indicates the sidebody seamed on to the main portion of the forepart. The balance mark are shown, lying over their companion ones on the other portion of the seam. Diagram 74—On this diagram, Section 4 gives an impression of the forepart illustrated on Diagram 73 as it will be when both the front dart seam and the sidebody seam have been completed and pressed open. The pocket mouth edges, it will be observed, have been drawn together by close stitches. This will prevent ravelling and will also save the pocket mouth from danger of being torn while the forepart is being handled. Section 5 shows the forepart turned over on to its “right” side. The finished seams can be seen and the distributed fullness above and below the front dart is clearly indicated.

DIA. 73

When the seams are being pressed open, it is a good plan to use the iron to move the cloth forward from the front dart towards the front edge of the forepart, as denoted by the small arrow pointing in the front edge direction. Also, the lower part of the forepart should be pressed backwards, as indicated by the second arrow. More will be said about this when I deal with the canvasing of the jacket.

Work with the Iron At this stage certain things are to be done with the iron— with the aid of water. Shoulders are to be stretched; other parts have to be shrunk. The usual method of applying water is by means of what used to be called a “damp-dolly.” This is simply a piece of cloth rolled up into a kind of miniature Swiss Roll, tied round its middle with string or thread, one end of the “dolly” is dipped in a bucket of water, until it is pretty well soaked, then it is dabbed across the parts of the garment that are to be “manipulated.” The dabbing is nearly always carried out in a kind of paint-brush movement and the amount of damp imparted to the parts is fairly considerable, for there must be no danger of scorching the cloth. Let us assume that we have applied the “damp-dolly” to a forepart and that we are now applying the iron.

DIA. 74

9 Diagram 75—In the upper drawing here we have the forepart, with the iron indicated in different positions during work on it. A reasonable stretching is given to the scye part of the shoulder and to the gorge, as shown; below the cross pocket level the iron should be moved towards the centre of the forepart. This will make some provision at the hip region and will also prevent the cloth from tending to “flute” too much below the pocket level. The effect of taking out the front dart is shown on this diagram and will serve to emphasise the importance of the “forward” movement of the iron mentioned earlier.

The Stretching

The small Section A gives an impression of the shoulder portion of the forepart after the iron manipulation just described. The effect here has been exaggerated in order to make the operation clear. Actually, the amount of stretching given to shoulders now is quite moderate, for the present day cut and styling of jackets does not call for a great deal of forceful stretching. In earlier days, stretching was carried out with tremendous zest sometimes to the detriment of the finished garment. But moderation is always the keynote of today’s iron activities on jacket shoulders. A note on the forepart, in relation to letters S and T. There are some very high-class tailoring houses who do not like the stretching of the scye curve to extend too far outwards. The inlay will be stretched reasonably (as shown at T) but the part of the scye curve just inside the mark-stitches will be left unstretched. In fact, a piece of linen or tape, is put there to prevent stretching. The part which is stretched a little is that indicated by the dash-line at S.

DIA. 75

The idea is that this is the part where there is a prominence on most male figures—a kind of “bump” where muscle and bone protrude somewhat. It is true that there are some figures with that peculiarity, but not all. For the purpose of this explanation of jacket-making. Therefore, we will resort to the most generally adopted methods of dealing with the shoulder areas of the forepart. The lower drawing on Diagram 75 shows the forepart turned over on its “right” side, after the main part of the iron work has been carried out. It will be seen that the stretching of the shoulder and gorge has produced the extra length at A and B. The scye curve (C) has not been stretched to any extent at all in this instance—a plan favoured by many tailors when they are making up jackets for normal figures. There is the “fluting” of the side-seam at D, which will be controlled during later operations. Notice the fullness that has been “thrown” into the hip area (E), where it is wanted, and the comparatively straight run of the front from the lapel end (F) to the bottom (G). The required “forward” movement has been achieved at W and the backward movement at S (see arrow in each case).

On the Back

The back can also receive some manipulation by the iron. What is often done by good tailors is indicated on Diagram 76. The top drawing shows the back as cut out; it is to be taken that the two thicknesses are laid together. (Mark-stitches and inlays have not been included on this illustration). Now the two halfbacks will be taken apart and each will be treated in the manner indicated on the centre drawing.

DIA. 76 The half-back is folded over, the fold being made from about 1” in from the side neck-point, so that it will be passing over what will be the shoulder-blade position on the figure of the wearer. A stretching is made here, with a corresponding shrinking at the waist and the back scye. The resultant shaping is shown on the bottom drawing. One more thing might be done on the back—it is done by many tailors. A piece of tape put along the back neck (or a strip of linen) so that this part does not get stretched or distorted during the makeup processes.

10 Insertion of Pockets We will assume that all the preliminary iron work has been done and that the back and forepart are ready for the next stage in make-up. This will concern the forepart and the insertion of pockets in it. Diagram 77—On this diagram are three foreparts, each showing individual features. The idea behind this plan is the conveying of different details to the reader, so that he will have a more complete picture of the procedure adopted in the making of a lounge jacket. Section 1 shows the left forepart of a button-three jacket, with the dart seams pressed open. A strip of linen (1) is now placed in position at what will be the back of the cross pocket mouth. From the position of the rear tack a narrower piece of linen is shown running diagonally into the side-seam (see 2). These pieces of linen are placed here to give strength to the pocket. The horizontal piece to give firmness to the mouth and to take the front tack; the diagonal piece to take the rear tack. 1 will be about 1½” or 2” wide and 2 will be about ¾” wide. Notice that both are taken into the side-seam. The position of the outside breast pocket mouth is denoted by mark-stitches. Section 2—Here we have the forepart of a button-two style lounge. The horizontal linen is shown by 1 and instead of the diagonal piece there is a narrow strip of linen extending from the rear pocket tack position right up into the scye, as shown by A. This is a stay method sometimes used by tailors who prefer to have the strain on the pocket taken vertically instead of diagonally. There is no outside breast pocket indicated in this case. Section 3—This drawing has a number of interesting features. First, the usual horizontal linen (1) is seen at the back of the pocket mouth, with the diagonal piece accompanying it. There is also a strip of linen going up from the pocket mouth into the scye, the is time covering the seam of the underarm dart (see 2 and 2X). Actually, this linen will conceal the seam; it is shown in the drawing in a way that will make the process clear to readers. It will be seen, too, that the outside breast pocket mouth in this forepart has had a piece of linen placed at its back. The scye “controlling” linen has been placed at 3; this has been mentioned earlier as a feature in the make-up methods adopted by some tailoring houses of repute. The lapels of this forepart are designed in such a way a will make them adaptable to either the button-three or the button-two style of garment. Mark-stitches are inserted in what would be the buttonthree style (A) and also for the button-two style. (B). The plan here is that the collar will be put on in such a way as to “pull” down to the lower buttoning position (button-two) and also to allow the lapel to roll to the button-three position so that the top button and what will be the centre button may be fastened. This is a kind of composite style of front that is being worn at the time in which this book is under preparation. Details of it are included to give the reader an idea of some of the various style features that can be introduced in the so-called standard lounge jacket.

DIA. 77 Now let us devote our attention to the putting-in of pockets, first taking the cross pocket, which in this example is to be fitted with a flap. Reference should be made to Diagram 78. We will take it that the flaps have been cut, shaped and lined in the manner described earlier. The lining will be the same as that used for the back and forepart—unless melton is used, as sometimes the case, though not so frequently for jacket flaps as for overcoat ones. The next thing to deal with is the pocket jetting, described and illustrated earlier in this chapter. A piece of pocketing, as correctly cut (usually silesia), will now be attached to the jetting. This piece will form half of the pocket. There are various ways of sewing in the flaps. Some tailors attach both flap and jetting at the same time; others sew the jetting on first and insert the flap after the jetting has been stitched across on the outside. Both methods can produce satisfactory results; for the present purpose we will deal with flap and jetting separately.

11 Section A shows the jetting, together with the silesia, stitched on the outside of the forepart. The actual length of the scam is marked by the flap before the jetting is basted on. The ends should be fastened securely; then the pocket mouth is cut open-great care being taken to avoid cutting beyond the limit marks at each end of the pocket mouth. After this, pass the jetting and its silesia through the opening on to the “wrong” side of the forepart, as shown on Section B which gives an impression of the bottom portion of the companion forepart after the attachments just described. It will be seen that the jetting has been sewn through the linen stay at the back of the pocket mouth, while the upper edge of pocket mouth is left quite plain in readiness for the flap to be joined. Section C portrays the outside view of the pocket, after the jetting has been stitched across; it might be mentioned that the jetting may be pressed open or rolled over in the usual way. The flap should now be inserted into the opening, as shown in Section D, and if proper care has been taken it should fit in nicely at each end. If there is a pattern on the material it should match. The width of the flap is usually made about 1¾ ins., but, of course, it is cut at least ½ in. deeper. This extra amount will be passed inside, as illustrated by dot-and-dash line. The actual sewing of the flap takes place on the “wrong” side of the forepart; the seam is only a very small one. Then the flap is turned downwards, as portrayed on Section E. This section shows tile appearance of the finished flap after insertion. A row of stitching is made along the top, the ends are tacked in what is called the D style. It will be seen that the tacks take the shape of this capital letter. The back view of pocket is portrayed on Section F. The various details are all plainly marked; these include the strip of linen from side-seam to front of pocket, another piece of linen from the back tack upwards and towards the side-seam, the stitching of flap, together with tack at each end, and the silesia pocketing stitched down each side and along the bottom. When the flap and jetting are sewn all at the same time, the two rows of stitching should be kept as close as possible, otherwise the pocket mouth will gape open.

DIA. 78 The jetted Pocket

Diagram 79 will give the reader a perfectly clear picture of two types of finish for the mouth of a flap cross pocket.

The first operation is shown on Section G. Two strips of the cloth are placed in position, as indicated by mark-stitches; these locate the pocket mouth. Then a row of stitching is made on the inside edge of each strip of cloth. The seam taken in this operation should be about 3/16”.

Section A shows a flap that has been inserted with only a narrow piping at the top, stitched down by outer stitches, as described. Section B depicts the double jetted finish—one often adopted. We see the jetted mouth, and the flap is indicated by dash outlines, to give the impression of its having been turned down inside the pocket.

Here are a few notes on the making of a jetted pocket—that is one without flaps.

After this, the pocket mouth is cut open to within ¼ in. of each end, then both seams are “snipped” to each corner, as illustrated by heavy marks on the drawing.

In each example the D tack finish is indicated.

Each seam is now pressed open, then the bottom jetting is turned inside and downwards, whilst the top jetting is passed through to the inside and turned upwards, thus making two jettings on the outside as shown on Section H. Another piece of material must be placed at the back of pocket opening to form a facing, and finally the silesia pocketing should be joined and finished in the same way as for a flap pocket. The tacking at each end may be perfectly straight, as illustrated, or D shape. This is a matter of taste.

DIA. 79

12 Welted Pockets The outside breast pockets of jackets are nearly always of the welted style, though there are some men who like to have jetted ones. In riding jackets the outside breast pocket is often made with jettings and a flap. For our present purpose, we have decided to adopt the welted pocket. In the first place, the position of the pocket mouth must be correctly marked; it should slant slightly downwards at the front, and must be kept well away from the armhole. This is very important, for if the scye requires “clearing” and the pocket is too near, it may not be possible to cut it away. Another item which must also be taken into consideration is the design of the material. If it is plain, it is quite an easy matter to deal with it; but if there is a rib, stripe, or check in it, then this must be taken into account when preparing the welt. As a rule, the cutter imply puts in a piece of material for the welt and welt facing, so that the tailor can match it when making up the pocket. When there is a rib in the material, it should form one continuous run with the forepart. This is not very difficult, because it does not show lip very much; but with a decided stripe the welt should match exactly, not only at the seam where it is joined to the forepart, but also at the opening.

With a check material there is greater difficulty, because the stripes must match in both directions, and unless care is taken when cutting and filling the welt the result will be anything but a success. The best plan for matching a welt is to mark the outline on the forepart with chalk, then place a piece of material over it, taking care that it matches in all directions, and finally get the impression of the welt outline by tapping the piece of material with the palm of the hand. It will then be seen that the outline is transferred from the forepart to the “wrong” side of the material which is to be used to make the welt, and it will only be necessary to add a good seam at top and bottom and leave the ends until after the welt has been sewn on. So far, we have only obtained the true outline of the welt. The welt itself must be sewn to the forepart in such a way that when it is pressed open and turned up it matches the forepart. Section 1 of Diagram 80 illustrates a section of forepart with the welt, welt facing, and a piece of pocketing sewn in position. The earn of welt is longer than the seam of facing, and a trip of linen is included in the seam which joins the welt and pocketing. Special care must be taken with the front end of the seams. The end of the facing earn should be kept well back from the end of the welt seam, because when the end of the welt

is turned in it slants backwards a shade, and if the seam is not kept well back it will show beyond the welt when it is finished. The various pieces having been sewn on the forepart, the pocket mouth must be cut open and the ends “snipped” into each corner before the seams are pressed open. As stated earlier, there will be a piece of linen basted on the forepart at the position the welt will take. This is not shown on these diagrams, so that actual seaming of the welt can be made clearer. The actual cutting through of the pocket is shown on Section 2, which illustrates the “wrong” side of the left forepart, after the welt and welt facing have been stitched on and cut open. When the welt seam has been pressed open, the welt and pocket will appear on the “right” side of forepart, as illustrated by Section 3. The top edge of welt must now be turned in to form the actual width required, and the pocket must be passed through the opening so that it goes to the inside of the forepart. In order to do this, it will be necessary to cut a small portion of the pocketing at both sides, as illustrated on the diagram. The position of these cuts may be located by folding the silesia pocketing over in such a way that the welt section is quite smooth; then “snip” it at an angle towards both ends of the welt seam. It should then be possible to pass the pocketing through as shown on Section 4, leaving the welt portion quite smooth; the inside section would also lie quite flat. (This diagram also shows the well facing sewn on and pressed open). Another piece of silesia is now required to complete the pocket; this may be sewn on from A to A of welt facing, or better stili, it may be arranged so that the pocketing is taken right over the seam. The outside view of the welt before the ends are turned in appears on Section 5. The top of welt is stitched and the ends are ready to be turned in and tacked.

DIA. 80

The perpendicular clot and dash lines indicate the position where the ends are turned in, and it will be observed that the front and back slant backwards—that is, taking the seam of welt as the basis.

13 There are various ways of turning in and fastening the ends. The cleanest method is by machining them; this is rather a difficult operation and should not be used unless one has had a fair amount of experience with this particular method. Another plan is to turn each end in first of all and then to fell the edges very carefully. If desired, they may be secured by back-stitching on the “wrong” side, care being taken that each stitch is carried through to catch the edge of welt. After the ends have been fastened, the extra length of material inside the welt should be cut away quite near the seam, and then the tacking must be made at each end as depicted on Section 6, which shows the completed welt. The tacking of a welt is largely a matter of opinion. Some tailors tack it from top to bottom, as illustrated on the diagram, whilst others tack diagonally from each corner at the top only. For our present work, it only remains to stitch round the silesia pocketing; then the pocket is complete. In order to show the most general way of tacking a welted outside breast pocket, the photograph marked Fig. A has been introduced. The needle is shown coming up from underneath the back of the welt and pocketing, part of the up-and-down movement involved in the operation of tacking. Readers will have realised that this kind of pocket is exactly the same as that featured in the waist· coats described in the previous chapter.

DIA. 81 Faulty Work-Diagram 81 It has been rightly said that correct procedures can often be more effectively conveyed in words and illustration if examples are given of faulty work. With this in mind, I have decided to include a diagram which shows what can happen if insufficient care has been exercised in the cutting and insertion of welts. Three different types of cloth design have been selected. Section 7 illustrates a herringbone. Here the welt is not only cut too straight, but it is not matched at the sewing seam, which makes the top edge even worse than the bottom. Section 8 shows a striped material. The bottom edge of welt is matched correctly, but at the top edge the stripes are too far back. In this case the welt has been cut too straight and it is impossible to alter it; the only remedy is a new welt. Section 9 portrays a check material with a very badly matched welt. This ha been greatly exaggerated, so that the stripes in both directions will be clearly seen. To rectify this it will be necessary to raise the back end and lower the front; in this way the cross check will harmonise and the upright check will also run in line. If this were done, it would be seen that the welt would slant too much. Hence the importance of getting the correct position in the first place, and

Fig. A

then obtaining the right outline as already explained.

Insertion of Canvases

Methods of cutting the canvases for jacket foreparts and the attachment of shoulder canvas, felt, padding, etc. have already been discussed and illustrated. We now come to the actual insertion of the canvas in the forepart. The procedure is indicated on Diagram 82. We are here looking at the cloth forepart laid on the canvas, the latter being ut to the correct shape. For purposes of clarity this drawing is rendered in diagrammatic form. Certain of the marking-stitches have been omitted and the pocket is not shown. Position of the latter is denoted by mark-stitches. The underarm dart and the front dart have been sewn up and their seams pressed open. First, a row of basting stitches is made down the lapel crease line, the canvas being worked backwards slightly so that the crease line basting stitches form a straight line. Next, the row of basting stitches nearest to the front edge of the forepart is put in, with the cloth part moved forward (quite taut on the canvas) from the front dart seam towards the front edge, as denoted by the arrows at A and B. At the same time, there is a backward movement of the cloth on the canvas in the direction of the front scye (C) and the hip position (D). When these positions have been established, further basting stitches should be inserted along the shoulder, down the forepart and from this to the bottom, then carried forward there towards the front edge. Care must be taken to ensure that the inner edge of the canvas (E), shown by the dash-line, is not in any way short or tight. After this basting has been done, the inside appearance of the front of the forepart will be very much like that indicated on Diagram 83, without the one or two additional things that are done immediately afterwards. These will be described now.

14 In this diagram we see the main canvas, the shoulder canvas and the padding (or felt) in position. We also see the lapel partly padded and its bridle attached. The so-called bridle is indicated by the narrow shaded strip running down from the gorge position to that of the upper button (we are dealing with a button-two jacket in this instance). The bridle may be made from linen, tape or the selvedges of sleeve lining. Notice that a piece of bridle is allowed to extend beyond the gorge curve. This part will be sewn down to the collar canvas at the time when the collar is being attached to the jacket—a procedure to be described later. When the padding of the lapel has been completed (the process was detailed in Chapter 1) the edges of the main canvas should be trimmed back, about ¼”, as shown on the diagram by figure (lapel step), 2 (lapel edge), 3 (front edge) and 4 (bottom “corner”).

DIA. 82

The Edges The edges will be finished, or rather formed, by attachment of strips of linen, plain tape or specially prepared stay tape. One edge of the strips will be lightly stitched to the canvas and the other edge will be allowed to extend right to the edge of the forepart (cloth part). There are various ways of treating the strips for purposes of forming the edge. One way—used very frequently when linen is adopted—is to cut the trips about ¾” in width and to baste them along the edges with stitches set at ½” inside the outer edge of the canvas. The front part of the strips is left on, falling level with the outer edge. When the facings are seamed on the strips of linen, basted into a continuous strip all round, are caught in with both cloth and canvas. This plan is quite satisfactory when the cloth is of light or medium weight and is not thick; but in thicker and heavier materials the edge, when finished, is inclined to be too hard and clumsy—even after fairly concentrated pressing with the iron. Another method is to attach the linen strips as just described and then to trim away a certain amount at the outer edge, so that when the facings are seamed on the stitches pass through two thicknesses of cloth only, leaving the linen strips unsewn. At a latter stage the seam of the facing is carefully fastened down, by a serging stitch, to the edge of the linen. When stay tape is adopted, the facing may be sewn through it, as detailed above, usually without any danger of a thick and clumsy edge being formed. The reason for this is that the stay tape is very thin, soft and pliable and will not harden up when it is pressed. Of course, a thin linen, with a minimum of manufacturing” dressing” in it, will usually give good results. On the other hand, a plain tape, unstarched, will be quite effective. There are, too, various adhesive tapes adopted for edges. These are used more extensively in the wholesale clothing industry than they are in the bespoke tailoring trade. They are convenient to use, as they do not require stitching down, apart from the stitching which takes place during the seaming—on of the facings. Some tailoring houses of high repute do not use either tape or linen for the edges of jackets. They maintain that to leave the edge free of such stay will help towards the production of a very thin, soft edge in the finished garment. Edges made in this way are very carefully united to the canvas by means of fine stitches passing through the facing earn.

DIA. 83

DIA. 84 Attachments

To give the reader an idea of the attachment of linen strips and of stay tape, I have prepared Diagram 84. On this, Section A shows linen, basted down and serged on the edge to the canvas, the latter being denoted by the shaded portion of the drawing. Section B indicates the attachment of stay-tape to the canvas. H will be noticed that there is a kind of staggered stitching; part of this will be on the cloth of the forepart and part on the canvas. The stitches, made with fine silk thread, will only just catch the cloth and canvas—they are not taken through. The three photographs, taken in a West End workroom, will convey a very clear idea of the upper part of a typical jacket forepart at the stage we have just been discussing—and at a slightly later stage in the make-up. Section A shows a linen canvas (1) inserted in the forepart. Notice the “ease” in the canvas at the chest region; this is an important thing, for any tightness in the body canvas here may well cause trouble in the finished jacket. At A we see the front part of the cross pocket. In this case the canvas has been slit a that the pocket can be seen. This practice is not general, but some tailor make such a lit in the canvas here and then serge the edges of the slit down to the pocket stay linen. In all other examples given in this book. However, the canvas is shown taken over the pocket—the most widely adopted method.

15 The shoulder canvas is seen at 2 and the felt at 3. The bridle, in this case made from sleeve lining selvedge and cut rather wide, is denoted by 4. The padded lapel, with linen attached at its edge, is indicated by 5; continuation of the edge linen is shown at 6. Section B shows a similar part of a jacket at a later stage. Here, the facings (with linings attached) have been sewn on at the edges. We also see the back of the inside breast pocket (7) with one of its tack visible at 8. At 9 there is a pleat in the lining, used in place of the puff for ease at the front scye. All the processes mentioned here are dealt with later in this chapter. In Section C we have a kind of “close-up” picture to show the planning of two slits in the canvas and hair canvas at the scye (described earlier) which will be folded over at their edges and sewn down flat. This is a feature in the canvasing of jackets by high class tailors when it is required to keep the actual scye edge close and to provide relative fullness at a position slightly inwards. For figures with a prominent “shoulder bone” this is a very effective plan. When the forepart is basted on to the canvas, it is quite possible that the shoulder will not lie smoothly; this should be rectified at once by pressing with a fairly warm iron, on the canvas side. This defect is caused by insufficient stretching of forepart, or by inserting extra large vees or cuts in the canvas, and is easily corrected at this stage, as the forepart will take the shape of the canvas when damped and pressed. As a matter of fact, at this stage in the make-up the under-pressing of the entire forepart will take place, so that everything is made smooth before the linings and facings are attached and the two foreparts joined to the back. This under-pressing is done with a fairly hot iron and the application of water by means of the “damp-dolly” already described.

Facings and Linings We may now consider the preparation of the facings and the linings. If the facing has been cut in one piece (that is one piece or a single facing for each forepart), it will be a comparatively straightforward matter to seam it on to the forepart and press it over in position. However, there are some cases in which one or two joins have to be made— probably as the result of shortness of cloth.

Joined facings, it should be stressed, are not to be commended. Most good tailoring houses will make sure that their coat-makers are supplied with enough cloth to make it convenient for them to cut the facings whole. However, as joins are sometimes employed, I will give a brief note about them. The join at the bottom of a facing is simply stitched across and the seam pressed open; but the join at shoulder must be treated according to circumstances. For instance, the facing may be cut straight through to shoulder seam with extra piece of material to go through the shoulder; in this case it will be advisable to join the shoulder section to the forepart lining and then make one seam from top to bottom. This seam would join the forepart lining and shoulder piece to the main portion of facing.

Inside Pockets

There are usually two pockets inserted in the linings of a jacket—an inside breast pocket and a ticket pocket. Most customers have an outside breast pocket on the left and the inside one on the right; the ticket pocket will be placed in the left-hand lining and facing. There are some men who like to have two inside breast pockets, as well as the ticket pocket and the outside breast one. The position of the inside breast pocket is located just below the base of scye, and slanting slightly downwards, measuring about 5½ ins. to 6 ins. in width, 6 ins. to 7 ins. in depth; it should be kept well away from the

front of scye. In very small sizes it may be found necessary to reduce the width of pocket in order to leave a fair margin at The position of the inside breast pocket is located just below the base of scye, and slanting slightly downwards, measuring about 5½ ins. to 6 ins. in width, 6 ins. to 7 ins. in depth; it should be kept well away from the front of scye. In very small sizes it may be found necessary to reduce the width of pocket in order to leave a fair margin at the scye, and also keep it well away from the front edge. There are various methods of making inside pockets; one plan is to sew on strips of lining to form pipings, then the silesia pocketing is fastened after the pipings or jettings are made. Another plan is to sew the lining along the top edges of both layers of silesia, then stitch on a strip of linen and finally sew the whole lot in position on the facing. When it has been sewn on, the pocket mouth is cut open, the ends are “snipped,” so that they turn out cleanly, and then the pipings are stitched in the usual way along the outside.

16 For the present purpose I have chosen the former method. The strips of lining are sewn on, then the pocket mouth is cut open, and after the corners have been “snipped” each piece of lining is passed through the opening, the bottom layer passing downwards whilst the top layer is passed upwards on the inside of the lining. The pipings must be kept in position by basting stitches and the bottom section should be stitched through before the pocketing is joined. A facing of lining is necessary on the layer of pocketing, which is exposed when the pocket mouth is open; this must be stitched on before the silesia is fastened to the upper piping; finally a row of stitching is taken right through the whole. The end must be tacked very firmly by making a triangular stitching at each end, including a strip of linen at the back. To complete the pocket it will only be necessary to seam round the pocketing or silesia, taking care that the stitches are very strong and will not break when there is any strain. Diagram 85—Section A of this diagram illustrates two things, the first stage in the insertion of an inside breast pocket and the vertical shoulder join in a facing. The latter is indicated by the dash line on the facing portion of the drawing. It will be seen that the seam will run in a relatively pleasing line and will not make the join thus effected very noticeable. However, as was stated earlier, join are best avoided altogether.

Pleats or Darts Section B depicts the linings and facing for the left forepart-looked at from the “right” side of the materials. The strips of lining are sewn in position, for both breast and ticket pockets, and the procedure is the same in every case. A pleat is allowed under the arm, but in a great number of cases, as I have said, a dart is taken out to correspond with the dart in forepart, and any excess of material is pressed over to form a small pleat. If a front dart is made in the forepart, a corresponding dart must be made in the lining. This is not indicated on our diagram as I thought it might be of interest to include a forepart which would be adopted for a style of jacket now in vogue—one with only an under-arm dart featured. The dash lines down side-seam indicate the amount of inlay which ha been left on the lining to correspond with the inlay on forepart. Section C portrays the back lining, arranged with a shallow pleat down the centre; this must be firmly basted over and the stitches should be kept in until tile garment is finished. When both forepart linings are completed, and the back lining is also ready, we must make up our minds which method of procedure is going to be adopted, and in this instance we propose dealing with making lip the foreparts separately. This is probably the best plan to adopt for the purpose of this book—and it is quite widely practised in the trade, although the one-piece method is the more general one at the present time. It is simply a matter of either completing the foreparts before joining them to the back or making the joining before completion of the foreparts.

DIA. 85

DIA. 86 Puffs and Pleats It will have been noticed that on Diagram 85 the facings shown in the foreparts are of the kind which go right over the shoulder area, as mentioned in an earlier part of this book. This plan is sometime adopted; when it is, there will have to be a puff inserted at the scye curve, as it is not possible to make a pleat in the cloth facing in the way that it can be made in the lining. Description of the puff and it insertion will now be given. Diagram 86—As the jacket we are in progress of making has facings which go only partly across the shoulders, the diagram depicts the upper portion of the forepart in this arrangement. This, as has already been stated, is the more common method.

17 The basting on of the facing must be done very carefully and arranged in such a way that ample lining is allowed in the armhole and shoulder, and plenty of length at the bottom. If the lining has been properly fitted in the first place sufficient ease will be found at the correct positions, and it only remains to baste down the front and shoulders as indicated on diagram. The scye pleat is shown.

Important Part

The most important part of this operation is basting over sufficient material at the lapel so that when it is turned over it will lie nice and flat. With the ordinary square or single-breasted shape it is quite an easy matter to ease on the material whilst basting on the facing, and with a little practice the exact amount can be allowed and left on almost automatically. For the pointed style of lapel (sometimes called the double-breasted style) rather more care has to be exercised. Extra material must be allowed in both length and width. The seaming round must be done in such a way as will ensure a clean turn-out of the point of lapel. The pointed style, not widely adopted for the lounge jacket nowadays, will always be used in the double-breasted reefer jacket, some dinner jackets, dress coats and smoking jackets; it will also be adopted for various styles of double-breasted overcoat.

The Seaming

The actual seaming on of the facing takes place on the forepart side, thus the seam of the right forepart commences at the bottom whilst the seam of left forepart starts at the top and goes towards the bottom.

DIA. 87 Section 1 shows the inside of the garment, with 1 denoting the shoulder-point of the lining and C marking the position at which the puff will be inserted. The line at C represents a cut in the lining. Section 2 indicates the opening of the puff slit. The lining is pulled up at the shoulder-point from 1 to 2, thus causing the opening at C. The piece of lining which will form the puff is seen at U. Section 3 portrays the puff in position, its edge having been felled down on the lining. Care must be taken here to make sure that the stitches do not pass through to the canvas underneath. Some tailors attach one end of the puff, to one side of the slit, by means of a back stitch. The puff lining will then be placed against the main lining “right” side to “right” side. At the completion of the back-stitching, the puff will be turned over and its three remaining sides will be turned in and felled down to the lining. The other method, as has been explained, will involve the formation of a pleat, in place of the puff, which will extend in the lining from nothing at the scye curve to about ¾” or 1” at the facing join. Diagram 87—The top left-hand drawing here illustrates the right facing and lining basted on to the cloth forepart ready for joining together. It must be stated that the forepart (cloth part) is laid with the “right” side uppermost, and with the “right” side of the lining facing it. The “wrong” or inside of the lining is facing upwards, showing the pocketing of the inside breast pocket and the stitching of the lining on to the facing.

In this case the seam is made from the bottom up to the top of lapel, and then carried across the step of lapel about 1½ ins., the seam is not shown on this diagram, but the outline is plainly marked. The seam must be kept in a true line if a good edge is to be obtained. After the seam has been made, the edge must be “trimmed,” and then turned and basted out as shown on top right-hand diagram, which depict the inside view of the right forepart. The basting of the edge should start opposite the turn of lapel, upwards and on the forepart side, then the stitches should be passed through to the facing side. Now baste out the shape of lapel, allowing a fair amount of ease so that the lapel turns over nicely, and without any tightness. When the edge has been basted, a row of stitches should be made round the armhole and also along the seam of facing and lining, this being necessary to keep the facing in position while it is being fastened to the canvas on the inside. The fastening of the facing to the canvas must be done with a loose stitch, otherwise it will show a “drag” on the outside, when the jacket is finished. On this diagram the lining is shown basted along the bottom edge, within a few inches of the side-seam of the forepart. Here, as indicated by the circle, it has been left open to show the turn-up of the cloth. If the foreparts have been made up in this “separate” method, they will at this stage be ready for the back to be joined to them at the side-seams, when the basting over of the linings will be completed. The bottom drawing on Diagram 87 show the back basted on to the back lining; ample lining is left on all round, and a pleat is arranged down the centre, as already described. Before the seaming of the side-seams and shoulder-seams they should be basted in position, care being taken that all balance marks are kept together, and all particular instructions carried out.

18 The One-piece Plan

The making of the foreparts and back separately has been fully described; let us now take a few notes of another plan of make-up. This is what might be conveniently called the “one-piece” plan. In this, the back and foreparts are joined together so that a kind of skeleton garment is formed. The inside of the parts, after the joining, is depicted on Diagram 88. As will be seen, the canvases are in and the pocket stays have been taken through, bridles are attached, lapels padded. The side-seams and centre back-seam have been pressed open and the whole has been under-pressed in the manner already described. There are one or two additional things to note here. First, the shoulder canvas and padding. In some cases, these are brought right down to the lower part of the chest region—or, the padding (felt) only is brought down; the shoulder canvas is left higher, as we have seen it in earlier diagrams, and as indicated by the black curved lines on the foreparts here.

DIA. 88

Next, the strips of linen (usually about 2” or 2½” wide) which are seen at the front, basted on to the canvas and secured with stitchings at their edges. These strips are stays for the buttons and buttonholes. In some tailoring houses the canvas is cut away under the stay on the left forepart (in which the buttonholes will be inserted). The reason for this is that the linen is not so likely to fray and push through the edges of the buttonholes, as the canvas will sometimes do. Hair canvas (a mixture of wool and hair or cotton and hair) is much more likely to cause trouble in this way. Frayed edge of canvas pushing through the edges of the buttonholes are very unsightly. Diagram 89—In this diagram we are looking at the linings, attached to the facings, joined at the side-seams and at the centre back (which is pleated down its full length in this instance) and laid on the joined cloth foreparts and back. We see the inside breast pockets and ticket pocket, as we are viewing “wrong” side of the linings and of the facings. The “skeleton” shown on this diagram can be made up completely, by attaching facings and then seaming up the lining parts at the side-seams. Such work could be done by machine and the completed “skeleton” laid on the cloth “skeleton.” The facings would then be seamed round in exactly the same way as that described for the “separate” method of make-up.

DIA. 89

However, the most generally adopted plan is to attach only the forepart sections and then to baste in the back linings and turn them in, basted, at the side-seams in readiness for felling. This plan is referred to as the “open coat” plan; it is the one almost universally adopted by high-class tailors.

Facing Seam

There is one more observation to make on the linings—particularly with regard to their attachment to the facings. So far, we have thought about a seaming on the facings; but there is another plan. It consists of joining the facings separately to the foreparts and leaving the linings out until afterwards, when they are basted into the foreparts and then felled down the inner edge of the facings. When this method is used it is necessary to have a piece of facing extending into the position of the inside breast pocket (or pockets) and, in some cases, into the position of the ticket pocket. The pockets will be inserted in the extensions and the linings will be felled round, having first been cut so that they can be turned in. Usually, there is a margin of a good ½” between the turned-in edges of the lining and the jettings or pipings of the inside breast pockets.

DIA. 90 Of these two methods, the former one may be said to be the more convenient to operate, but it lacks the stamp of “good tailoring” which the latter one has about it.

19 A Compromise However, there is a compromise plan to be considered. The forepart linings can be seamed to the facings (or felled to them) before the inside breast pockets are inserted (as already described) and the back lining can be basted in afterwards, turned in at the sideseams and felled down. This way of working could legitimately be described as the “open coat” way and would not be severely criticised by experienced tailors. The appearance of the whole garment, from the ins;de, after the linings were inserted in this way, would be as that illustrated by Diagram 90. In fact, this will be the appearance of the jacket when the linings have been prepared on the “separate” lines and after they have been made ready for the felling of the side-seams. This example is a button-three jacket, with front darts incorporated. For purposes of comparison, I have indicated the puff in the one forepart (see A) and the pleat in the other (see B). Notice, too, that there are plenty of basting stitches at the shoulders and round the armholes (or scye). This is a very important matter, for it is essential that the linings are kept carefully in position at this stage. Along the bottom edge the linings will be felled at a certain distance lip from the actual edge of the turned-up cloth part. As was said before, it is important that there is sufficient length in the linings so that no “drag” will occur when the garment is being worn. It is the custom of some tailoring houses to allow enough extra length to form a small pleat right along the bottom. The allowance for this will be made when the linings are first cut. When the pleat is adopted, the linings are first felled right along the bottom; then a shallow pleat is formed (about ½” in depth) and this is basted down so that it falls about ¼” over the felling stitches. Later, the pleat is pressed in firmly by the iron and the basting stitches are removed. If this pleat is allowed, care must be taken to see that there is not too much extra length of lining—other wise there will be a rim of it showing below the bottom of the finished jacket. This is a most unsightly thing. With the jacket in its present state, we are ready to sew the shoulder-seams and to make preparations for the putting-on of the collar and the insertion of the sleeves.

Back Vent Before making those further moves, however, it might be well for us to consider the operations that would be involved if the garment was one styled with a centre back vent—a feature very much in evidence at the time when this book is being written. Diagram 91—On this diagram, Section 1 shows the two portions of the back laid together. Mark-stitches are inserted at the centre back, bottom and neck; the vent allowance has been made. The inlay

DIA. 91 on the back-seam will be left wider on the right half; it may be cut to normal width on the left at the vent position or left as the right side. Now to the actual preparation of the vent. First of all cut a narrow strip of linen and baste it along the edge of the vent which is left on the right section of the back, as indicated on Section 2. Then take another strip, about 1 inch wide, and baste it on to the slit of the left section of back; but in this case the edge of linen must be placed in line with the marking-stitches which denote the centre back line. This is illustrated on the same diagram. The linen must be held fairly close on both sides, the loose material pressed away very carefully; and then the edges are basted over and fastened with a loose serging stitch. After the centre back-seam has been sewn it must be pressed open, as indicated on Section 3, which shows the inside view of the lower part of the back. The linen is seen protruding above the vent of the left section, and the vent itself is pressed open in both directions. If the back were made up in this manner the vent would not overlap at all; therefore it will be necessary to “snip” the seam of the right section, as indicated on Section 4 and then turn the extra material over. This diagram shows the inside view of the back with the slit turned over; the tacking is also indicated. The “snip” must be made at an angle, and it should terminate just where the seam finishes. In fact, it is advisable to keep it just a fraction away from the actual seam, or it may pull out when the slit is being finished. Thus it will be seen that the upper portion is pressed open to where the snip is made, but below this one section of the back overlaps the other, and the tacking may be made by one or two mall rows of stitching, as desired. In both cases a piece of linen should be included at the back.


DIA. 92 The Finish The lining of the back must now be considered. The best plan is to form a pleat for the entre, arranging it so that the right half overlaps the left; then cut up the centre to the height of vent and baste it over in both directions, as illustrated on Section 5 of Diagram 92. Starting at the top, form the pleat, to a point just above the vent. Then the lining is turned in slanting downwards, and finally it is carried down to the bottom, care being taken to allow a fair amount of ease at the top, where there would be a tendency to “drag” if the lining were at all tight. This diagram plainly illustrates the method of fixing the lining. It will be seen that the lining is brought right over to the edge on one side, but a fair amount of cloth is left on the other; the latter portion is the section of back which overlap, whilst the former is the under section. Section 6 shows the completed vent, with a slanting single-stitch tack inserted at its top. The tack is made about 1¼” in length and is taken through the two thicknesses of the vent turning-in. Tacking should be done by hand and a fairly stout silk thread should be used. Section 7 portrays the appearance of the square tack, sometimes called a “brick” tack. In this case, a part of the left half-back is carried over on to the right and two stitchings are made. One will be a felling at the top of the actual tack and the other will be a row of back-stitching about 3/16” below; this row of stitching will be carried over on to the left half-back, beyond centre back-seam.

Two Hints

To pass on two helpful hints on the making of vents, I will refer the reader again to Diagram 91. On Section 4, which shows the in side of the vent, it will be noticed that a strip of stay tape has been attached to the outer edge of the right half-back. This is sometimes done in order to ensure that there will be no stretching of the edge when the garment is in wear. Section 4X shows what can be done to make certain that the vent will not tend to “open out” when the jacket has been worn for a short time—a very bad defect in vents, by the way. Before the tacking stitches are put in, the part of the vent on the left half-back is brought over and basted down, just a little out of the vertical, a indicated on the diagram at A. Then the tack is made a that the tendency of the left half-back is to “spring” over towards the right one. It will be found that this plan will ensure a really straight-hanging and close vent in the finished garment. It will be realised that Section 4X shows the outside of the backthe “right” side of the loth.

DIA. 93 The Shoulder Seams

Now let us deal with the matter of sewing the shoulder-seams of our jacket. First things are shown on Diagram 93. Section A—This illustration will serve as a reminder of the fact that the length of the shoulder-seam on the back (1 to 2) is usually about ½ in. more than that of the forepart (3 to 4). This is done when the garment is cut, the extra length on the back being put there so that it can be eased in, and the resultant fullness pressed back in the direction of the blade. In certain cases more than ½in. of extra length is allowed on the shoulder-seam; and sometimes this is drawn in with a thread and the fullness pressed away before the seam is sewn. Such a plan is effective when dealing with figures in which the upper part of the hack is prominent and more material is needed to provide for greater ease of movement. In the present instance we are concerned with a fairly normal figure, and the additional ½ in. on the back will be sufficient allowance. And this will be gradually eased in when the shoulder-seam is basted ready for sewing. Section B—Here we see the shoulder-seam as it will be when basted ready for sewing; the arrow indicates the direction in which fullness is pressed towards blade. It will be seen that the edge of the back shoulder runs along the marking-stitches of the forepart, and that the easing-in is done fairly evenly on the whole length of the seam. It may be an advantage, in the case of figure irregularities, to have more fullness at one part than at another. For instance, one figure may want more eased in at that part of the seam near the neck: another may require more at the shoulder-point end. Instructions for these variations are generally given by the cutter. He may have his own ideas of the best way in which the back should be eased in—not only for figure needs but for particular style effects. It is our opinion that a fairly evenly distributed fullness is satisfactory for most of the present-day shoulders. Section C—This illustrates the shoulder-seam sewn up and pressed open. Notice the tendency of the seam now to curve slightly forward toward the forepart. This is something which must be carefully watched, for if the seam goes towards the back there may be too much stuff thrown into the region of the back scye; and this will cause a very unsightly appearance at that part when the coat


DIA. 94 is finished. There is a little point about the position near neck. It will be remembered that an inlay is left at the neck section of both back and forepart; this will, in the completed coat, pass up the neck under the collar. On Section B we have illustrated these inlays as not being sewn right to their ends, and we have indicated a small “spring” at the neck marking-stitches. This is done so that there is no possibility of the inlays being tight on their outer edges, Most tailors will cut the seam open at the inlay part and allow it to fall flat inside under the collar. This is a certain way of avoiding the tightness we have referred to. If this course is adopted care must be taken to see that the seam is well fastened off at the marking-stitch position. One more point about the easing-in of the back. For most normal figures the distribution of fullness can be started at about 1 inch from the neck-point. (See the dash line near 3 on Section A). The folding back of the linings, canvas, etc., on Section C will emphasise the necessity of leaving plenty of room to get at the seam. Basting stitches should never be placed too near the seam position.

Shoulder-point Padding

This kind of padding is to be distinguished from the felt padding already mentioned, which is a fabric (or bonded fibre) made for the purpose of insertion with the shoulder and main canvases. Shoulder-point padding is used to “build up” the shoulder slightly and to give a certain amount of support to it. Further, the point padding forms a base for the attachment of the sleevehead wadding which will be dealt with when we come to consider the putting-in of the sleeves. Shoulder-point padding can be made from wadding, or it can be obtained in the form of ready-made pads of varying thicknesses and widths. Some of these pads are made from cotton or jute fibres; others are made in foam plastic. Certain pads are shaped to the shoulder and there are some which are perfectly fiat.

DIA. 96 DIA. 95 Diagram 94 depicts three kinds of shoulderpoint padding: they are described below. One or other of these will be attached to the canvas. 1—This is a point pad made from wadding. There are three layers of wadding, each one thinned out at its slanting edges, basted firmly together. The straight edge, which will fall along the scye edge of the jacket, is left at its original thickness on all the three layers. 2—Here we have a ready-made fibre pad; it is made flat and will have to be shaped to the requirements of the shoulder when it is inserted in the garment. 3—On this drawing we see a pad which has been already shaped—it may be composed of fibre or of foam plastic. This one has its under part made a little shorter than its outer, so that the shaping can be held. Diagram 95—This diagram gives an indication of the correct location of the shoulder-point padding when laid in the shoulder. It also conveys a clear picture of the pad’s appearance when looked down upon. Imagine that we are looking at the inside face of the pad—the shorter one. The longer one will be touching the cloth of the back and forepart, here shown as the closed at the shoulder-seam. I indicates the wider part of the pad which extends from just beyond the shoulder-seam (A); 2 shows the narrower and longer part, which goes down into the back of the jacket. If wadding is used by the tailor to make up his pad, he will so arrange it that the shaping for the shoulder is incorporated. In the same way, the fibre pad that has not been pre-shaped will be slit on the under part and overlapped so that it takes the required shape.

Shoulder Linings

In Diagram 96 we see the parts of the linings which come into the shoulder region basted over and made ready for felling. The latter operation will be made after the sleeves have been sewn in. The shoulder-point padding will already have been attached to the canvas in the correct position as indicated on the previous illustration. As a matter of fact, the basting stitches of the lining (if they are inserted at the shoulder-seam at this stage) will have to be removed when the sleeves are being basted in for sewing. Many (probably most) tailors will not put in the bastings at this juncture; they will simply make sure that the linings are secured by the lower basting stitches, so that they will not get out of control, and will leave the basting of the shoulder-seam linings until after the insertion of the sleeves. The lining of the back is seen on the illustration as having been brought over the forepart and basted down, as it will be ultimately. Of course, when the sleeve is sewn in the appearance of the scye will not be as indicated here; but we are showing the shoulder in this way in order to give the reader something of a picture of what it will look like when it has reached this stage. When the lining is basted along it is evenly eased in, very much in the same way as the back was eased in to the forepart when the actual coat seam was basted. Our diagram shows the left shoulder; when dealing with the right one we should be working in the reverse direction. It will be seen now that if this lining were fixed before the insertion of the sleeve it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to sew in the sleeve and to press the seam open at the sleevehead. Here is one more case of the need for leaving room in which to work. And there is another little thing of the same kind. When the lining is being turned in and basted it is left free for about 1½ in. towards the neck. This is done so that scope is allowed for turning in at the back neck when the collar has been put on. (Description of this operation will be given later).

22 The Collar

It must be mentioned that the top-collar is not cut on the bias of the material, but on the straight. This is necessary on account of stripe, check, and other designs in cloth: these cannot be distorted. The stretching is, therefore, rather more difficult to accomplish than in the case of the under-collar. However, at the present time it is not thought a good plan to do a lot of stretching. Shape and style can be produced without it. (This may apply to the under-collar, too.) Do not overstretch its edges.

We have come now to the time when we have to cut and prepare the collar. The first stages are illustrated on Diagram 97. A jacket collar consists of three separate things: The outside, or top-collar; the undercollar (usually made from melton); and the canvas. In some tailoring firms it is the custom for the cutter to cut the under-collar when be marks up the coat; but in the majority of firms this is left to the tailor. We will not argue about the merits and demerits of these two methods. We will say, however, that the tailor should always be given instructions as to the collar he is required to put on the coat. There are many types of collar—and many styles of lapel. The tailor should be told what kind of effect the customer wants. Does he wish for a high or low roll of lapel? Does he like a rather wide or a narrow collar? Does he prefer to show a lot of his linen collar, or only about ¼”? These are some of the questions which have to be answered before the collar can be satisfactorily made up. Here are the various parts, in different stages of make-up, of the standard coat collar. I will take them one by one, explaining the treatment they must receive at the hands of the tailor. Section A—This is the cut-out under-collar, measured and shaped to the required style and size. The dotted line indicates the dividing mark, and it runs in continuation of the crease line of the coat lapel. (The part above this line is called the fall, and the part below it is called the stand.) This section is in two pieces, one laid immediately upon the other—that is, on the double. In our illustration the under-collar is shown laid on the collar canvas. Notice that the edge of both fall and stand is on the bias of the canvas. The part marked by a double-headed arrow is on the straight. This is the correct way of laying the collar. I will mention here that the material from which the under-collar is cut is also arranged in this manner, with fall and stand edges on the bias. By doing this we make sure that both melton and canvas are readily stretched and shaped in the course of making. An extra word about the canvas here. This is usually supplied in a width which permits the amount necessary for each collar to be cut in one piece. If we “opened” the two pieces of our Section A at 1 and 2 and lifted the latter part over in the direction of the long arrow, it would stretch right across the width of the

Section F—Here is the padded and stretched under-collar, with the canvas partly trimmed away. The padding is done in such a way that the canvas goes on to the melton relatively “long.” The padding is started at the crease line, and the fall I curled over in the hand—it should never be held flat.

DIA. 97 canvas (having the appearance of Section C without the seam). But the bias of the two halves would be different. It is really better to cut the canvas in two pieces, as the melton is cut—so that each piece has the same bias on its edge. Economy—false though it may be—sometimes does not permit of this; tailors have to do their best with the collar canvas in one piece. Section B—This is the under-collar (on the double), showing the marking-threads running in the crease line. These are cut in the usual way, and the two parts of the under-collar are sewn together. Section C—The two parts having been sewn, the seam is pressed open, as shown by the shaded portion, and the under-collar is ready for basting on to the canvas. Section D—Here we see the under-collar, turned over so that its “right” side is uppermost, lying on the canvas. A row of basting stitches is sewn in line with the marking threads of the crease line. The canvas is trimmed round the edges, a margin of about ¾” being left all round. This margin allows for the padding, in which process a certain amount is lost on the fall section. Section E—For a moment we will give our attention to the top-collar. It is shown here cut to the shape of the under-collar, but with a margin left for seams and “working.” It is stretched on both stand and fall edges.

Section G—This shows the stand stitched with silk—not padded as in the case of the previous section. Most tailors adopt the stitching shown here for the stand. But either method may be used. I will draw the reader’s attention to the dash line on Section F. This represents the joining of the two parts of the canvas, if cut in the way I have described above. It is not a seam, but an overlapping. The collar has now reached the stage when the top is ready to be put on to the under. Some tailors make the collar outright, putting it on the coat in this condition. Others prefer to fell on the under-collar and put the topcollar over. The padding of collars and perhaps more often the padding of lapels—is carried out by machine today in many tailors’ workrooms. Use of a padding machine, of which there are many excellent examples on the market, is by no means confined to the wholesale trade. It is true to say that the padding of lapels and collars in garments made up from lightweight cloths (or from some of the fabrics which are made from blends of natural and man-made fibre) is in some ways better than the padding of them by hand. However, for the purpose of this book I think the choice of hand padding for both is a well-advised one.


DIA. 98 Now let us look at Diagram 98, which shows the completed under-collar being attached to the neck section of the jacket. The collar is first basted on, fairly easy along the back neck portion of the garment and with rather more easing-in at the part which passes along the curve of the forepart neck—the gorge, as it is usually termed. Altogether, the collar is basted on easy so that when it is felled round (raw felling being used for this purpose) the fullness can be nicely distributed. The extra length thus given to the sewing-on edge of the collar is very important; it helps the collar to lie well along its crease edge and allows the shoulders of the jacket to fall nicely on the figure just below the neck region. The actual basting-in of the collar must start from the centre of back, the left half being basted from the centre to the end of lapel; then the right half is basted from the centre to the end of the lapel. After it has been basted in, it should be turned over in position, so that the crease edge runs in a continuous line with both lapels; and if the line is not correct, the crease should be taken out and re-pressed so that it forms one curve tram lapel end. The portion of linen bridle at each side, mentioned earlier, should then be fastened on to the crease edge of the collar with a padding stitch. Finally, the outline, or shape must be marked in readiness for the outer, or top, collar.

The Top-collar

I will start with the assumption that the top-collar has been basted carefully over the canvas of the under-collar, with care that there is sufficient material to come over nicely, without the slightest tightness, and that it is now as we see it in Diagram 99. It may be mentioned here that in many workrooms where the subdivisional method is adopted all felling is left until the entire collar has been basted out. The collar is made, shaped, put on and covered by the tailor, then passed to a felling hand. However, in this case we are illustrating the making-up of the collar in a series of separate operations so that readers (especially the younger ones) may get as clear an idea as possible of the whole. Here we see the top-collar basted over the under-collar and made ready for felling and drawing. The top-collar is held in position by basting stitches at centre, edge and crease. Those at the crease are taken over in a kind of very loose chain stitch, as shown: this helps to keep the material of the top-collar quite steady during the process of basting and felling. The greatest care must be exercised in this part of the work—the top-collar must not be twisted or pulled out of shape. This applies particularly when patterned cloths are being made up. Distortion of the outside collar during making will cause the design of the material to lose its set. Stripes will become “bent” and checks will be thrown out of line.

DIA. 99 A and C on the collar, B and D on the lapels, are the positions where the so-called drawing takes place. It will be realised that this is where a certain amount of distortion of pattern could easily happen. Stripes and check must be very carefully “matched” at the junction of the two sections of material. Another thing, there must be just the right amount of length along the top-collar; it should not be in any way tight. A shortness along the collar will cause a drag and will make the outer edge curl upwards—a very unsightly defect. A–B and C–D are drawn carefully together with silk, the stitches being concealed. In thick cloths this operation does not give the tailor any great difficulty; but in light-weight materials there is a danger of showing the stitches and extra care must be used. Of course, there are some cloths so thin that even the nicest skill cannot treat without giving indication of the stitches—usually in the form of minute dents along the drawing seam. But if the young tailor takes trouble with his work he will be able to reduce such dent to an absolute minimum. The small inset sketch will, I think, convey a clear idea of how the needle is held for collar-drawing. The gap between sections A and B is made deliberately so that the “way” of the stitches can be noted. In the main diagram, by the way, the linings are shown before they are turned up on the cloth parts at the bottom. As was mentioned earlier, some tailors leave all felling operations until the last. At the neck part, the lining of the back of the jacket is represented in the diagram as having been turned down in order to show the appearance of the lower part of the top-collar (see at E.) This is actually the stand section and falls inside the coat over the back neck inlay. There is a row of stitches running about ¼ in. below the crease edge of the collar—shown here by small dots. This stitching is put in as a stay to the top-collar and to prevent its coming away from the canvas. These stitches are not drawn in tightly. Their purpose is not to draw in but to support. The lower edge of the part at E will, in the case of certain material, be relatively tight. When this is so the cloth should be “snicked,” as shown, for it is vital that no tightness exists here. It will be realised that this part must never be brought down too far.

24 this part—though some cutters leave a small one at the top, extending from the shoulder-seam to the back pitch position.

DIA. 100 Diagram 100—This diagram has been prepared, in order to show in more detail the so-called “covering” of the collar which has just been described. Two or three different methods of collar finish are indicated. Section 1—Here we are looking at the under part of the collar as it would appear without attachment to the neck of the garment. The outer edge of the top-collar is seen protruding—this is after it has been turned in but before it has been felled The ends can be cut fairly flush, a shown at A and B, and then turned in to the ends of the under-collar. Or they can be left on longer, as indicated by C and D and then turned over and cross-stitched down to the under-collar melton. Surplus cloth for “working” is shown by dash line E–E. Section 2 shows half of the collar with the edges raw-felled. That is, the edge of the melton under-collar have been fastened down to the turned-in edges of the top-collar cloth. Care must be used here to ensure that the stitches are not taken right through to the outer collar. This is what the collar would look like if its ends had been turned in as denoted by A and B of Section 1. Section 3 portrays the appearance of the collar after the treatment of the ends shown by C and D of Section 1. The extended pieces of the top-collar have been turned back and turned in and have been cross-stitched down. Many tailors say that this is the better way of finishing a collar—for two main reasons: (1) it makes a thinner and neater end and (2) it leaves something on the length of the collar which may be used if it has been sewn into the jacket too short and therefore has to be lengthened for correct fitting. Section 4 shows a third method—at least of finishing the outer edge of the collar. This time, the edge has been machine-stitched, thumbed out and basted round ready for the outer edge stitching to be put in. This is quite a good idea

DIA. 101 for thin cloths. Section 5 shows the outside appearance of the finished collar and lapel on the left side of the garment.

Inserting the Sleeves

Many experienced tailors will say that the insertion of sleeves is one of the most important and difficult operations in the making of a jacket or coat. It will be realised, therefore, that a really full explanation of the different kinds of work involved is almost impossible in a book. The whole business of putting in sleeves is something which certainly the young tailor must study and practise for a long time before he can expect to be fully skilled at the job. The practical tuition and the guiding hand of a craftsman actually doing the work is the only really satisfactory form of instruction. But certain things can be imparted by means of the written word and many useful “tips” can be passed on to the student. I do not set out here to attempt an exhaustive treatise on the subject; I shall try to give the reader a number of valuable hints and suggestions. These will be illustrated by diagrams and sketches; and I hope that they will be helpful to all young tailors who read and study them carefully. Before coming to the actual putting-in of the sleeves, we will consider a few details of the preparation that is necessary. Let us look at Diagram 101, which shows the armhole, or scye, as well as sections of the sleeve. Section 1—Here we have an impression of the armhole of the coat ready to have the sleeve basted in. The front pitch is marked at 2; the back pitch being located about 2¾” below shoulderseam. Notice the effect of the stretched part at the front of the armhole, both outer cloth and inside material are “easy” at this part. (Lining, canvas and shoulder-padding are all quite free. Nothing is “held up”). The marking-stitches on the forepart are shown clearly. When the sleeve is sewn in a seam will be taken at about ¼ in. behind these stitches. The back has no inlay at

Section 2—This diagram shows the so-called crown of a typical sleeve and the wavy line at 3 indicates where the sleeve will be eased in to the armhole when it is being sewn. The amount of this fullness will vary with different cloths and with the style of sleeve desired. Materials of soft, fleecy texture can be eased in much more effectively than can certain lightweight worsteds, the nature of which is wiry and “springy.” There are two main reasons for the placing of fullness in the sleevehead. One is that it provides ease and comfort for the wearer’s arm; the other, that it allows the formation of the shape which style requires at that part. There is, of course, another more practical reason; the crown of the standard sleeve design at the present time could not be reduced enough to allow its being sewn into the armholes, without a considerable reduction of the entire sleeve width—and this would not be practicable. Section 3—The under-half of the sleeve (top section) is illustrated here; and again the wavy line, at 4, shows where this section should be fulled-in to the under-part of the armhole. There are various opinions on this; but we will not discuss them now. Our diagram shows the most generally accepted way of easing in. Section 4—Here we have an impression of the forearm seam of a sleeve. There is a difference between the sleeve and the one illustrated in Sections 2 and 3. The sleeve shown in these two diagrams is one with what is known as a false forearm. In Section 2 the upper part of this is clearly indicated by the small projecting part at the front of the sleevehead. This part is usually notched or mark-stitched. When the sleeve is basted into the armhole the notch is placed at the front pitch mark. (A complete reproduction of this kind of sleeve will be seen in Section 5). Coming back to Section 4, I will draw attention to the part of the forearm between points A and B. The seam is represented by the dotted line and there has been effected here a fulling-in of the under-half of the sleeve. This may be done, together with a stretching (not too much) of the top-half of the sleeve at the same position. Some tailors prefer to full-in the under-half only; others say that the stretching of the top half is more effective. I am inclined to favour a little of both—but only a little.


DIA. 102 Section 5—Here, as was said, is the complete top-half of a sleeve with a false forearm. This type of sleeve is most widely adopted today, because the forearm seam is, when the sleeve is set in, almost hidden. Now in this sleeve it is essential for the edge of the false forearm to be stretched, as we have shown on the diagram. If this stretching is not done the edge of the seam will be relatively tight when pressed open and will cause trouble to both tailor and cutter. It is not difficult to see why. The marking-stitch which appears on the diagram is in line with what we might cause true forearm of the sleeve. If we run a line from the top of the forearm (at the notch) to the marking-stitches at the cuff (see those going across at that part), we shall find that such a line is longer than one drawn down the edge of the false forearm. Therefore, it is necessary to stretch the latter. A regards the under-half of this kind of sleeve, it is never a disadvantage to ease it in a little—as explained earlier. One small point before closing this stage. The projecting piece marked by X is the addition to the turn-up of the cuff.

The Sleeve Linings

Although the cutting of sleeve linings has been mentioned earlier, it is necessary here for more details to be given. References will be made to Diagram 102. Section 1—Here we have the top-half of a sleeve, showing the lining as it should be cut. The diagram is a composite one, as it illustrates the two types of sleeve we have already discussed: the so-called “fifty-fifty” sleeve and the one with the false forearm. The latter is shown by the dash-line, 1. The solid line of the crown of the sleeve at A represents the sleeve itself, as does the line of the cuff at 3–4. The amount of lining left at the top is 1”, and the amount left at the cuff is about 1¾”. That at the top should never be less than ¾”; but the

allowance at the bottom may be varied according to taste and to the amount of lining available. It is best, however, to allow a fairly generous turn-up, so tat there is plenty of “play.” As I have said so many times before, there must not be any tightness on the seams; if the linings are too short they will not go into the sleeves with the necessary ease for their correct set, and there will be trouble when they are finished off. The shaded section on this diagram represents the turn-up of the cuff. Section 2—This shows the under-half of the sleeve and the method of cutting the lining. Here again the upper part of the actual sleeve is indicated, by a solid line B, and the cuff is shown at 5–6. We have illustrated the marking-stitches of the under-half. It will be realised that these will not be visible when the lining is laid on the sleeve; but we have shown them in order to give the reader a clear idea of bow the lining is cut at that part. It extends to the inlay of the sleeve. Sometimes this inlay is continued straight down, as shown by the dot-and-dash line here. In any case, it is a good idea to leave the inlay of the lining straight. Any surplus here can be cut away when the cuff is finally made up. As in the previous diagram, the shaded portion indicates the cuff turn-up.

Point to Note

The careful reader will have noticed that the linings are not represented as having been cut exactly as the sleeve in the case of the false forearm. They are cut exactly as for the “fiftyfifty” sleeve. This has been found, by many of the best tailors, to be the most satisfactory plan. On the top-half the lining is cut in line with the forearm; on the under-half it is cut with the equivalent of the false forearm left on—as shown beyond 2 on this diagram. When the sleeves are in the jacket scye and the linings are being felled round, the seam on the forearm of the linings will be fixed at the front pitch position. The seam, therefore, acts as a guide to the pitch and helps to prevent any distortion which might arise. Further, the stretching of a false forearm addition on the top-half of the lining could not be satisfactorily carried out.

Section 3—In this diagram we see the basting and the sewing of the forearm and hindarm seams. We are looking at the tophalf of the sleeve, the contour of the upper part of the under-half is denoted by the dotdash line at B. The “right” side of the cloth on each part is inside. The forearm seam is basted first (excepting a sleeve that is going to have a raised, or lapped, hindarm seam). This seam should be sewn, on both sleeves, with the top-half uppermost. In this way, the small amount of fullness allowed on the under-half can be the more effectively cased in. At the hindarm seam the top-half is brought over to the marking-stitches and is then basted along there, so that the seam will fall 1¼” behind the stitches. When this is being done, care must be taken to avoid any twisting of the top-half. It will be noticed that the hindarm seam is not carried further down than E, which is the position for the tack at the cuff vent. It is better to baste all the way down the seam, in order to keep it steady; the actual sewing need not extend to the bottom. Sections 4 and 5 show where the linings should be fulled in when they are being felled round the armhole at a later stage. At 1 and 2 on the top-half and at 3 on the under-half. On the latter, 4 indicates a pleat which is sometimes put in the lining at that part, instead of the easing-in. We can say now that the sleeves and their linings are sewn up. The seams of the former have to be pressed open and those of the latter are pressed over. Some care is necessary when pressing open the seams of sleeves—indeed when pressing open any seams. This is a matter which docs not always receive the attention it demands. It must always be remembered that the two seams in a sleeve are of different shapes; the forearm is concave and the hindarm is convex. When pressing open such seams, the tailor must try to preserve their contours. The iron should be used with care, so that no stretching or distortion takes place. As a matter of fact, in modern clothing factories there are special units (shaped bucks they are called) fashioned in such a way as will make them adaptable to the requirements of the two seams of the standard two-piece sleeve-the type being discussed here. The average bespoke tailoring workroom will not have these units, but I believe it is possible to get something very much like them, which can be used for this particular kind of pressing.

26 Pressing and Tacking

We will assume that the pressing has been done and that the sleeve has its lining basted in. It was at one time the custom to tack the lining down both forearm and hind arm seams of the sleeves, a distance of about three or four inches being left between each tack. The tacks were put in by a kind of continuous basting stitch and were left in the finished sleeve. Nowadays, however, the most generally accepted way of fastening the sleeve lining to the sleeve is to put one or two light basting stitches down the seams and to baste round the top, slightly below the crown, and round the bottom, just above the cuff. The light stitches down the seams are removed after the sleeves are put in the coat, thus leaving the linings free inside. They are, of course, held at the scye and cuff. Such a method has the great advantage of ensuring that no tightness can occur in the linings—if they are put in with due care. Now let us look at Diagram 103. Section 1—Here we have a picture of the sleeve, its linings basted in and held steady by the stitches I have mentioned. Notice the dot-dash line A; this denotes where the top edge of the cuff up-turn will come inside. The dash-line B is where the turned-in edge of the lining will fall. It will be seen that there is a reasonable allowance here, so that plenty of “play” is given for turning up before felling. There should always be sufficient length of lining through the sleeve—but not too much. If there is excessive length in the linings they will fall down towards the cuff in the finished coat and will produce a bulky fold at the bottom; and this will give the wearer of the garment a considerable amount of discomfort. The forearm seam (actually that of the false-forearm in this case) is turned well inside the sleeve. Section 2—In this diagram we see the inside of the lower part of the sleeve, with the linings turned up ready for felling and the vent, or slit, formed at the cuff. The hindarm seam of the lining is denoted by C. Notice that the lining is so arranged as to allow freedom of opening in the case of “real hole-and-button cuffs.” Some customers, though they may never use these buttons, are very particular about having the “real” thing. They look with scorn upon the so-called “sham” holes and are not impressed by any praise of their neatness! But whether real or imitation holes are adopted the making of

DIA. 103 the slit is the same, except in cases when it is decided to fell the linings straight across the bottom. This is sometimes done when “sham” holes are put in.

“bunches” of fullness at one place—unless a very abnormal figure is being dealt with, for which a particular placement of fullness is required.

Notice the line at D. This illustrates a way of turning in the cuff in order to allow for the sleeves being lengthened at any time. The part turned in at D is lightly felled down, just clear of the buttonholes; it can be released quite easily, if necessary. This plan need not be adopted when the cuff has only “sham” holes; the problem involved in lengthening does not arise in that case.

The fullness in the sleeve-lining is not put in exactly the same place as that of the sleeve itself. The most prominent part of the crown on the lining is left almost plain. This does not mean that it should go in tight, however. This method of treating the lining is one practised at the present time by many very good tailors in the West End. They say that it is better to have the lining just easy at this part and fulled in—not too much—at a position slightly below E on Section 4. The result is a better hanging sleeve.

Section 3—This illustration takes us rather ahead of our work, for it shows the sleeve with the cuff completed. The lining has been felled round inside the cuff, the holes have been put in and the buttons sewn on. I show this in order to give young readers a good idea of the finished cuff. In no part of a coat is neatness more essential. A clean, neatly finished cuff goes a long way towards giving a good impression, whereas a clumsy, untidy cuff can spoil an otherwise satisfactory garment. Section 4—Here we are looking at the top of the sleeve, with the lining turned down inside. The shaded portions (E and F) indicate where the crown of the top-sleeve and the scye section of the under-sleeve should be fulled in to the armhole when the sleeve is being sewn into the coat. This operation is done gradually, so that the fullness is evenly distributed. There must never be any

The Putting-in

Let me say at the outset that the young tailor must be prepared for many disappointments when he tries to put in sleeves for the first time. He will feel that his hands are “all fingers and thumbs”— especially when he is dealing with the linings, canvas, etc., during the serging of the armhole after the sleeve has actually been sewn in. Let him not be dismayed by any early failures. As I said in one of our previous sections, the making of a good tailor, one who may be rightly described as a craftsman, is a long process. But it is a very interesting one. Practice will bring its reward in the shape of skill and craftsmanship. With the standard of sleeve pitch aimed at and the positions where fullness is to be placed in mind, we will proceed.

27 Section 3—In this diagram we are looking at the inside of the coat. The pad or wadding is attached to the canvas and the lining at the shoulder-seam is folded back (see I and J) in order to show the general “lay-out” of things before the fastening, and serging are begun.

DIA. 104 Diagram 104: Section 1—We are here looking inside the armhole with the sleeve set in. The top-half is on the left and the underhalf on the right. Notice the distribution of the fullness at the area bounded by the double arrow at A. This is the part of the sleeve which will fall where, in the majority of figures, the greatest prominence exists. B shows the inlay of the forepart shoulder seam. Some care is needed here. Although the inlay has been stretched to some extent, its edge may still be a little short. Therefore, when the sleeve is sewn in, the inlay must not be held tight at the position B. It should be eased over towards the inside of the sleeve. Some tailors do not include the inlay in the sewing; they lift it up and put the stitches through underneath. But I am inclined to favour the plan of sewing through the inlay—so long as care is taken to prevent any tightness on its edge. C shows the location of the under-half fullness—or part of it. The end of the shoulder-pad is shown on the extreme right. Such pads have been discussed already and an average position has been indicated for them. However, they are not always put in the same position; different figures call for different treatments. Usually, some indication of the correct place for the pad (or wadding, if that is used) is given on the ticket.

Section 2—This illustration gives a good impression of the armhole at another part. The fullness is clearly indicated and the pitches are marked. G is the front pitch, and H is the back one. In this position the shoulder-seam is hidden under the hand on the left. Once again I will mention the fact that fullness is not located in exactly the same way for every coat sleeve. Type of figure has to be considered here, as in other parts of the coat. The method of fullness distribution which we show is the most standard one, and will be satisfactory for the majority of figures. It is what might be described as an even distribution. Some tailors may prefer to have a little less fullness immediately above G; but this will depend largely on the type of material used.

Sleevehead Pressing

We have now finished with the actual sewing-in of the sleeve. Our next task is to press the seam of the top-half and part of the under-half. The top-half seam is usually pressed open from just above the back pitch to the base of the armhole; the under-half is pressed over—from just below the back pitch to the base of the armhole. This arrangement will assist in producing the “drape” effect at the hindarm which is a popular style feature at the present time. This done, we have to arrange the linings, canvas, etc., in readiness for the serging round of the armhole.

In an earlier illustration we saw the linings folded over and basted at the shoulder-seams, ready for felling. At that time, as I stated, we were in advance of our work; now we have reached the stage at which this is done. The sections I and J are folded over, and the latter is basted on to the former, along the shoulder seam—fulled in gradually. As will be seen, the sleeve lining is left loose in the sleeve, out of the way of the armhole. The bodypart linings are now fastened all round the armhole—this is called serging. It is sometimes done with basting-cotton (double threads) and sometimes—this is the better plan—with thread. The serging stitches keep the linings securely attached to the armhole and prevent their slipping about. These stitches pass through both lining and canvas, and through one half of the sleeve seam. They also pass through the inner edge of the shoulder pad. Great care must be taken not to drag the linings up whilst the serging is being done. It is always best to keep the sleeve uppermost whilst working.

The Pitch

Let us return, for a moment, to consideration of the sleeve pitch. Reference is made to Figures 1 and 2 of Diagram 104. Figure 1—This diagram shows what would be described as a forward-hanging sleeve. The heavy dash line indicates the hang of the normally pitched sleeve and will give an idea of the extent of difference. There are certain figures for which this forward pitch will be required. Figure 2—Here we have reverse of the above—the backward-hanging style of sleeve. Again we indicate, by dash lines, the hang of the normal. Very erect figures sometimes need this style of sleeve. I must emphasise that these two styles of hang are unusual. They meet the requirements of particular figure changes: they should not be taken as standards. As I said before, the cutter gives (or should give) indication of the pitch he wants in his marking of the pitch-point on the garment. The tailor will take these marks as a guide.

28 First, all the basting stitches are removed; then the inside parts are pressed-facings, linings, etc. This is done with a piece of linen, about 24” long by 12” wide, laid over the part to be pressed and slightly damped by application of the “damp-dolly” already mentioned. Afterward, the facings are damped by means of damp-rag and are pressed lightly so that all “gloss” from the previous pressing can be removed. The damp-rag should not be over-soaked with water. The iron for these parts of the pressing should be fairly hot—but of course not hot enough to bring the danger of scorching.

DIA. 105 Diagram 105 gives an impression of the jacket at the stages we have just been carrying out. The left-hand drawing shows the garment ready for the insertion of the sleeves and for the full felling of the linings, with the exception of the shoulder-seam parts. The collar is completed. The right-hand drawing indicates the left half of jacket, with the sleeve inserted. The pitch here is what might be called the standard one, with the forearm falling a little over half-way across the mouth of the side pocket. This pitch will be satisfactory for the majority of figures whose arms fall in a normal position.

Final Procedure

Before the felling is done there is one more operation needed to complete the insertion of the sleeve—that is the making of a roll of wadding in the sleeve head, or crown. Shape, size and thickness of this will be determined by the style of finish that is required. Some tailoring houses like to produce a fairly definite sleevehead; in this the crown will be well rounded over the end of the shoulder. Others like a more indefinite appearance—something like that adopted by Continental tailors—in which the sleevehead is made to look as though it were a continuation of the shoulder, almost like a Raglan overcoat styling. There are then those tailors who like a moderate rounding of the sleevehead, with just a suggestion of a “roping” in the crown. This is often referred to as the “natural” sleevehead and it is one in favour in this country at the present time.

The roll of wadding is made so that it extends from a little above the front pitch position to a little above the back one. It will be placed along the crown at the top part shown in Section 2 of Diagram 104. It will be lightly, but securely, serged to the shoulder pad, or wadding, and the stitches will be taken through to catch one half of the pressed-open sleevehead seam. The roll of wadding will then be thinned out at the edge which will fall, into the sleeve itself, lying between the cloth and the lining. When the sleeve head has been treated in this way the linings will be brought up on to the scye curve and then will be turned in and basted down, just covering the serging stitches that have been put into the scye after the sleeves were inserted, as mentioned earlier. Care must be taken by the tailor not to pull the linings up too far—otherwise they will be short down the entire length of the sleeve and this will cause defective hang of the latter.

Pressing-off When all the felling has been done— sleevehead linings, the side-seams, shoulderseams and bottom hems of the body linings, and when the buttonholes have been worked (see notes in the first chapter) the garment will be ready for what tailors always call the “pressing off.” This process need not be laborious, for most parts of the garment, as will have been gathered, have already received a certain amount of pressing during the other stages of make-up.

All the outer parts of the jacket have now tu be pressed. First, edges, sleeve-heads and collar are pressed by means of the linen and “damp-dolly”; then the whole garment is carefully pressed over with a moderately hot iron and the damp-rag. The photograph here will give the reader a good idea of what the jacket should look like after its press-off and when the buttons have been sewn on. This brings us to the end of the description and illustration of the various operations involved in the making of a lounge jacket by the bespoke method. I hope readers will be able to form a clear idea of the work—a highly practical work—which it is not easy to convey absolutely adequately by means of diagram and printed word. There is one thing that I might mention here; it concerns the lapels of the jacket. It is the practice of many good tailoring houses to cover the lapels with silesia. This is usually cut to just pass under the edge linen, or tape, at the front and to fold over the crease line of the lapel at the rear. It is lightly padded on to the canvas.

The Dinner Jacket The dinner jacket (or dress lounge as it is sometime called) is made up in very much the same way as that adopted for the lounge. It can be said that the only difference is in the facings, which are made from silk or satin. Treatment of the edges and the canvas for the attachment of these will involve certain operations which are not carried out in the making of a lounge jacket. This treatment is dealt with in Chapter VIII, which has the Evening Dress Coat a its subject.

29 Notes on “Bagging”

As I said earlier, the method of make-up that has been described in this chapter is the “open coat” method—the one practised by all good class tailors. Indeed, this kind of tailoring is carried out in very many of the better grade wholesale clothing factories. However there are some manufacturers who supply a “popular price” range of garments and they, with certain lower grade bespoke tailors, adopt what is known as the “bagging” plan—also mentioned before. I thought it might be interesting to conclude this chapter on jacket-making with a few notes on the process of “bagging.” The most important thing is to fit up the various parts very carefully, allowing sufficient material at the vital points. The lining and facing must be cut so that when they are joined they correspond with the foreparts; ease is required at the shoulder; the outside collar should be cut at least a seam larger than the under-collar; and a fair amount of ease must be provided for the corner of lapel. Each forepart is made up with pockets; the canvas is basted in; and then the back is joined to the foreparts at side-seams and shoulder-seams, these being pressed open in the usual way.

The Collar

After this, the under-collar is prepared by padding it to the canvas. The stand is stitched out to within ½ in. of the sewing edge; and then both stand and fall edges are slightly stretched. If the under-collar is to be seamed in and pressed open, the work must be done very carefully. The collar must be held fairly tight across the back neck, and a little ease should be put in the hollow of gorge. After the seam has been pressed open, the collar canvas should be brought over the seam and fastened, arranging the forepart canvas at both sides to come between the seam and collar canvas. That is, the collar canvas is fastened over the forepart canvas. In this way a very thin finish is produced. When a melton under-collar is used, it is usually felled into the neck and the various layers of canvas and material must be arranged In such a way as to give the thin finish which is always desired. The next operation is to put in the crease edge of lapels and collar, and also shrink away any loose material which may show itself at the neck. The marking-stitches will indicate the line for creasing the lapel, and the height of stand, which should be marked on the under-collar, will give the crease for the collar. When adopting this method of making-up it is advisable to carry the bridle right round the neck, holding it fairly tight across the centre of back, so that when the jacket is turned out the collar will fit nice and snug around the neck. The collar and lapels must be shaped before the lining is basted on.

Some Details

Details of some of the operations in “bagging” are illustrated on Diagram 106. Here is a description. Section 1—This drawing shows the outside portion of the jacket facing uppermost, the under-collar has been seamed in and pressed open and the step has been shaped in readiness for the facing. When shaping of the lapels is carried out a seam must be allowed at the step, so that when the facings are sewn on the seam will form one continuous line; this is most important, especially for the topcollar where the seam shows on the outside.

DIA. 106 (Sections 1 & 2) This latter item must be taken into account when basting on the facing; the best plan is to start with the collar seam, keeping it level from end to end, and arranging each end so that the collar seam comes exactly where the stitching will be made. The process is illustrated on Section 2, which illustrates the linings basted into the forepart; the edges have been sewn right round. It will be seen that the back is represented as having been joined to the forepart linings at the side-seams and the shoulders. The outside collar (top-collar) has been sewn into the neck part of the lining. This has to be done with great care, for the seam must be kept straight on the facing from the neck-point to the “corner” of the lapel. This section also shows the method of pressing the collar seam. The portion of this seam which joins the facing is pressed open in the usual way (more or less as adopted for the “open” style of makeup). The centre back, however, where the top-collar joins the back lining, is treated differently. Here, the collar is pressed over the lining, on the “wrong” side, thus leaving the lining over the collar on the “right” side.

30 The Seaming

the “right” sides together, and seam them up for a distance of about 3½ ins., this being the length of opening. When these seams have been sewn, they should be turned out and basted giving an effect as shown on Section B.

In the seaming round of the facings and the collar edges the stitching will be done on the forepart side (not the facing side). The stitching starts at the bottom of the right forepart and is carried up to the “corner” of the lapel; then it is taken right into the collar seam, care being taken that the seam from the end of lapel to the “corner” runs in a perfectly straight line with the collar seam. The stitching is now continued round the collar edge and into the left lapel “corner”; then it is taken right down the left forepart. After the full seaming has been made the seam should be trimmed to within a relatively small margin of the stitching, turned out, “thumbed” and basted. In the example illustrated the bottom is left open, so that the linings may be felled along, as in the “open” jacket. In some cases, the linings are machined along the bottom and the foreparts are later turned out through the armholes. In very thin cloths it may be possible to “turn out” through the neck linings, an opening having been previously left for this purpose. Having turned the garment out we must proceed to baste the edges, inducting lapels, collar and bottom. The best plan is to start at the bottom of crease edge of the right forepart, working up towards the collar, then round the collar and down to the end of lapel on the left forepart. After this come back along the left lapel, round the collar, down to the original starting point; the row of basting being placed about 1 in. away from the edge. Now start again at the bottom of the right lapel and baste along the entire length of crease edge, allowing sufficient material for the collar and lapels to turn over nicely. If desired this row of basting may be started from the bottom of the left lapel.

Armholes and Bottom The edges and bottom may now be basted, and a row of basting placed round the armholes to keep the lining in position; the bottom may also be fastened at the seams or right along as desired; and finally the lining will be basted within an inch of the bottom edge. When all the basting has been done, the lapel and collar “corners” must be firmly fastened and a row of side-stitches placed right in the collar seam, so that both collar parts are kept together.

This diagram shows the inside view of the bottom section of left sleeve. The hindarm of top-sleeve must be arranged with a notch to denote the actual length of cuff opening; but the hindarm seam of under-sleeve may be taken straight through and tapered off at the end of the seam.

DIA. 106 (Sections 3 & 4) This having been done, the edges should be well pressed; the lapels must also be pressed in position, the collar shaped or moulded with a fairly warm iron and damp-rag, giving an effect as illustrated on Section 3. This diagram shows one half section of the turned-out jacket; the various rows of basting are clearly indicated, and the sewing-on edge of collar end runs in a perfectly straight line with the end or top of lapel.

A Fault

If the garment has been correctly fitted up, this result will be obtained: but if the fittingup and seaming has been done incorrectly the result will be as portrayed on Section 4. This shows the same half section. The lapel curls upwards, and the seam of collar and lapel is not in a straight line. This is mostly caused by making the collar seam too hollow, or probably the facing has not been cut properly. Now for a few words on the makingup of the sleeves. There are one or two “differences” here, sometimes adopted. Reference should be made to Diagram 107. Sleeves in the “bagged” jacket are usually made with open cuffs, and finished with three or four buttons. Sometimes real holes are made, but as a rule imitation holes are worked so that the sleeves may be lengthened or shortened as may be necessary. First of all, sew on small pieces of material at the bottom of hindarm seams, as illustrated on Section A. Then press the seams open. After this, turn up the cuff facing, placing

If a firm cuff is desired, as favoured by some makers, a strip of canvas should be inserted, and the cuff facing fastened to it with a loose serging stitch; but in any case the facing should be fastened at the forearm seam to prevent it dropping below the edge. This is seen on Section B. The cuff having been turned up and fastened, the hindarm seam should be sewn and pressed open; this seam is illustrated on Section C. We see the left top-sleeve placed in position on the under-sleeve, with the seam sewn from elbow to cull, or rather to the top of the cuff opening. The seam must be made so that it terminates exactly where the opening commences, otherwise the cuff will not turn out nicely when the seam has been pressed open.

Seam and Tack After the seam has been sewn and pressed open, the sleeve should be turned out and the cuff opening tacked at the top. This is very important the tacking must be made very firmly, preferably by hand, and should be at least ¼ in. from the seam. The finished cuff is shown on Section D. The inlay of under-sleeve which forms the button-stand is plainly illustrated, and the top-sleeve is turned back slightly, showing the seam which is made when the small piece of material is sewn on at the bottom of hindarm seam. The sleeve lining should now be seamed up and pressed over. The seams need not be pressed open; it is quite sufficient to press the top section over the under-sleeve both at forearm and hindarm.


DIA. 107 Cuff Opening

When sewing the hindarm sleeve it will be advisable to leave a few inches open at the bottom so that it can be basted round the cuff opening. The seams of lining should be fastened to the seams of sleeve; the stitches must be kept as loose as possible, otherwise there will be a “drag” at the seams when the sleeve is turned out. The sleeves will now be basted in, the fullness in the crown being carefully distributed, and will then be sewn in by machine. Care with regard to pitch will also be exercised, as explained for the “open” make-up. Preparation of the armhole for the insertion of the sleeves will be very much the same, in

principle, as that already explained for the other kind of making. In some wholesale factories, however, special machines will be used for the serging of the armhole after the sewing of the shoulder-seams; the latter will be done by machine. Buttonholes may be put in either by hand or machine; the latter is the more general practice nowadays in jackets of this kind. The main pressing-off will almost certainly be done by means of steam and vacuum pressing machines. These are fitted with various shaped bucks which are designed to retain the shape that has been put into different parts of the garment—in cutting and making. Style features are retained.

For the collar, shoulders and sleeveheads there are special hand-manipulated irons. These are used on shaped bucks so that form and design are maintained at these important parts of the garment. These note on the “bagging” method, with comments on general practice in the wholesale clothing trade, are necessarily brief and incomplete. It is hoped, however, that they will be of interest to the reader and that they will help him to distinguish between this particular mode of make-up and that which is adopted by the bespoke tailor. It is with the latter, of course, that this book is chiefly concerned. In this sphere, we now pass on to the making of what are called body-coats.

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