Religious Extremism in Pakistan. Reasons

April 20, 2018 | Author: Adeel Minhas | Category: Pakistan, Inter Services Intelligence, Taliban, Jihadism, Muhammad Zia Ul Haq
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WHat are the root causes of extremism in Pakistan?...

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LAHORE 

RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM – REASONS AND REMEDIES

BY

LT CDR SAQIB HASAN PN 2011-2012

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THESIS STATEMENT (RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM-REASONS AND REMEDIES) Pakistan got in!"!n!n#! on t$! na%! o& an i!o'og i! Is'a% T$! *!+ i!o i!o'o 'og g ,as as! as!  on .T, .T,o Nat Nation ion T$!o T$!o+ +// &0!'! 0!'!   t$! +!' +!'igi igio0s o0s is#+i%ination1!2t+!%is% o& Hin0s to,a+s M0s'i%s o& 0ni*i! Inia in t$at !+a T$!+!&o+!3 M0s'i%s o& S0 Contin!nt got 0nit! 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& Is'a% to 'i!+at! a #o0nt+ ,$!+! t$! #o0' "+a#ti#! it ,it$o0t i#tation o& Hin0s At t$! ti%! o& in!"!n!n#!3 t$! int!+na' i&&!+!n#!s a%ong M0s'i%s ,!+! so%!,$at 'ai 'ai asi asi! ! 0t 0t a&t! a&t!+, +,a+ a+s s ,it$ ,it$ !*!+ !*!+ "ass "assin ing g !#a !#a!3 !3 !2t+ !2t+!% !%is istt +!'i +!'igi gio0 o0s s *i!,"oints sta+t! s0+&a#ing T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%3 o& ,$i#$ on#! M0s'i%s ,!+! *i#ti%s t$!%s!'*!s3 sta+t! ,aging against &a#tions o& t$!i+ o,n +!'igion in Pakistan

Eit$!+ its o+igin ,as B+itis$ in40sti#! to Is'a%i# i!o'og1!0#ation sst!% a&t!+ 5678 9a+ o& In!"!n!n#! o+ its 'at!st t+a#!s !%anat! &+o% :ia +!gi%! &'o0+is$ing !2t+!%ist g+o0"s; t$! %!na#! $a !!n a %a4o+ $0+'! in Nationa' Unit In aition3 !*!+ Go*!+n%!nt in Pakistan !2"'oit! i%"'!%!ntation o&  Is'a% as 'a, o& 'an on' &o+ *i#to+ in !'!#tions B0t ,$!n t$! !si+! +!s0'ts ,!+! ,!+! not not +a, +a,n n  Go* Go*!+n% !+n%!n !ntts3 t$! t$! "0 "0'i# 'i# t0+n 0+n! to,a+ o,a+s s +!'i +!'igi gio0 o0s s "a+ti!s1'o#k A so&t #o+n!+ &o+ #'!+g (!it$!+ +ig$t!o0s o+ !2t+!%ist) got i%"'ant! in t$! $!a+ts an %ins o& %ass!s as t$! &o+%!+ %ig$t +!*i*! t$! i!o'og3 Is'a%

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THESIS STATEMENT (RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM-REASONS AND REMEDIES) Pakistan got in!"!n!n#! on t$! na%! o& an i!o'og i! Is'a% T$! *!+ i!o i!o'o 'og g ,as as! as!  on .T, .T,o Nat Nation ion T$!o T$!o+ +// &0!'! 0!'!   t$! +!' +!'igi igio0s o0s is#+i%ination1!2t+!%is% o& Hin0s to,a+s M0s'i%s o& 0ni*i! Inia in t$at !+a T$!+!&o+!3 M0s'i%s o& S0 Contin!nt got 0nit! 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& Is'a% to 'i!+at! a #o0nt+ ,$!+! t$! #o0' "+a#ti#! it ,it$o0t i#tation o& Hin0s At t$! ti%! o& in!"!n!n#!3 t$! int!+na' i&&!+!n#!s a%ong M0s'i%s ,!+! so%!,$at 'ai 'ai asi asi! ! 0t 0t a&t! a&t!+, +,a+ a+s s ,it$ ,it$ !*!+ !*!+ "ass "assin ing g !#a !#a!3 !3 !2t+ !2t+!% !%is istt +!'i +!'igi gio0 o0s s *i!,"oints sta+t! s0+&a#ing T$! +!'igio0s !2t+!%is%3 o& ,$i#$ on#! M0s'i%s ,!+! *i#ti%s t$!%s!'*!s3 sta+t! ,aging against &a#tions o& t$!i+ o,n +!'igion in Pakistan

Eit$!+ its o+igin ,as B+itis$ in40sti#! to Is'a%i# i!o'og1!0#ation sst!% a&t!+ 5678 9a+ o& In!"!n!n#! o+ its 'at!st t+a#!s !%anat! &+o% :ia +!gi%! &'o0+is$ing !2t+!%ist g+o0"s; t$! %!na#! $a !!n a %a4o+ $0+'! in Nationa' Unit In aition3 !*!+ Go*!+n%!nt in Pakistan !2"'oit! i%"'!%!ntation o&  Is'a% as 'a, o& 'an on' &o+ *i#to+ in !'!#tions B0t ,$!n t$! !si+! +!s0'ts ,!+! ,!+! not not +a, +a,n n  Go* Go*!+n% !+n%!n !ntts3 t$! t$! "0 "0'i# 'i# t0+n 0+n! to,a+ o,a+s s +!'i +!'igi gio0 o0s s "a+ti!s1'o#k A so&t #o+n!+ &o+ #'!+g (!it$!+ +ig$t!o0s o+ !2t+!%ist) got i%"'ant! in t$! $!a+ts an %ins o& %ass!s as t$! &o+%!+ %ig$t +!*i*! t$! i!o'og3 Is'a%

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T$! T$! $a'& $a'& #ook #ook! ! an an 0n! 0n!++ "+i* "+i*i'i'!g !g! ! #'!+ #'!+g g took took '!a '!a an an t$!i t$!i+  +  in#o%" in#o%"'!t '!t! ! t!a#$in t!a#$ings gs as! as! on $at+! $at+! sta+t! sta+t!  ta+g!t ta+g!ting ing #o%%on #o%%on %an %an T$! 0'ti%at! 0'ti%at! "+o0#t ,as into'!+an#!3 into'!+an#!3 ,$it! ,$it! #o''a+ 'ooting3 !%otiona' !%otiona' 'a#k %ai'ing3 #on&i #on&is# s#at atin ing g 'an 'ans s on t$! t$! na%! na%! o& %os< %osas$%i+ *a''! a! %0'ti i%!nsiona' "+o'!%s &o+ La, En&o+#!%!nt Ag!n#i!s (LEAs) &o+ #$!#ks an a'an#!s in "ost #on&'i#t !+a3 a't$o0g$ s"onso+!  t$! !a+'i!+ go*!+n%!nts t$!%s!'*!s

T$! !"iso!s o& Mi'ita+ O"!+ation in ?ATA1So0t$ [email protected]+istan an o& .La' Mas4i/ a! &0!' to &i+! an t$! s!+i!s s0i#i! atta#ks3 o% 'asts an o*!+t as%%!t+i# atta#ks  +!'igio0s !2t+!%ists on Go*!+n%!nt an A+%! ?o+#!s ,o+s ,o+s!n !n! ! t$! t$! sit0 sit0at atio ion n Is'a Is'a% % on#! on#! t$! t$! i!o i!o'o 'og g o& Paki Pakist stan an ,as ,as %a! %a! isi''0sion!  its !n!%i!s t$+o0g$ ,aging +!'igio0s +ai#a'is% T$! sit0ation not on' $as #on&0s! t$! g!n!+a' "0'i# ao0t i%ag! o& Is'a% 0t t$is "!+i' $as a'so !!n !sta'is$! as a s!*!+! int!+na' t$+!at to t$! #o0nt+

(In this this bac!"# bac!"#$ $ ana%&s ana%&s' ' th' "'as#n "'as#ns s # "'%i)i "'%i)i#*s #*s '+t"',i '+t"',is, s, in aistan an! $#ssib%' "','!ia% ,'as*"'s./

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RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM IN AISTAN – REASONS AND REMEDIES ATER – I INTRODUTION

Pakistan ,as t$! -"+o0#t o& +!'!nt'!ss st+0gg'! o& t$! "!o"'! o& S0Contin Contin!nt !nt i++!s"! i++!s"!#ti #ti*! *! o& +!'igi +!'igion3 on3 #o'o0+ #o'o0+ an #+!! #+!! T$! +!#ogni +!#ognitio tion n o& t$at t$at st+0gg'! &o+ Pakistan ,as 0' gi*!n to #o%%0niti!s ot$!+ t$an M0s'i%s  Q0ai ! [email protected]% T$! g+!at '!a!+ +!&0s! to !#o%! "a+t o& .>$i'a&at Mo*!%!nt/ in 5=s3 a "0+! M0s'i% %o*!%!nt3 %o*!%!nt3 so t$at it s$o0' not #ast! a +!'igio0s1M +!'igio0s1M0s'i%0s'i%on' s$ao, on anti- B+itis$ %o*!%!nt In t$is #onn!#tion $! sai t$at3 it ,as a #+i%! to %i2 0" "o'iti#s an +!'igion t$! ,a ,! $a on! 5  At anot$!+ o##asion inna$ as t$! !signat! Go*!+no+-G!n!+a' Go*!+n o+-G!n!+a' stat! in t$! &i+st Constit0!nt Ass!%' o& Pakistan on 55 A0g0st 5=F83 o0 %a !'ong to an +!'igion o+ #ast! o+ #+!!    t$at $as not$ing to o ,it$ t$! 0sin!ss o&  t$! stat!    9! a+! sta+ting in t$! as ,$!n t$!+! is no is#+i%ination3 no istin#tion !t,!!n on! #o%%0nit an anot$!+  Cont+a+ to t$! #'!a+ *ision o& ?o0n!+ o& Nation3 a&t!+ $is !%is!3 it $as a',as !!n !n!a*o0+!  t$! M0s'i% #'!+g to i%"'!%!nt Is'a% as La, o& Lan On t$! sa%! not! t$! $a*! &ai'! !it$!+ in "+o*iing an ,+itt!n Is'a%i# &+a%!,o+k !*!+ &o+ i%"'!%!ntation Po'iti#a' '!a!+s$i" a'so 0s! Is'a% to !'ongat! t$!i+ +0'! on' an got t$! +!'igio0s #'!+i#s ass!%'! &o+ t$! "0+"os!

1 $tt"11 $tt"11,,,a%[email protected]#o%1i $tt"11,,,a%[email protected]#o%1inna$-Inia-Pa+titi nna$-Inia-Pa+tition-In!"!n!n#!-as,ant1 on-In!"!n!n#!-as,ant1"165=55 "165=5586 86 2 T$! Constit0!nt Ass!%' o& Pakistan D!at!s3 >a+a#$i3 *o'0%! 5 3 n0%!+ 3 55 A0g0st A0g0st 5=F8

" 5 a'a Pani/ (Ana%an Is'ans) #ontin0! &o+ !#a!s a&t!+ A%a'a (56KF) an Patna (5685) +!sistan#! att'!s T$! %04a$iin s$o,! ga''ant+ an #o0+ag! against t$! A'-Ti+%i$i3 Hait$ 8F 2001 Ti%% 2012 > #a%iti#n A)ainst T'""#" 

9it$in $o0+s o& t$! atta#ks o& =1 553 US a%inist+ation #on#'0! t$at Osa%a o"!+ating &+o% A&g$anistan is !$in t$! atta#ks T$!+!a&t!+3 $resident  3ush declared that#- Fe will make no distinction between those who planned  these acts and those who harbour them *4  O,ing to US "+!ss0+!3 M0s$a++a& 

took U t0+n on A&g$an "o'i#3 ann! i&&!+!nt i$ai O+ganisations 'ik! L!T an Ha+kat 0' Ansa+ (H0A)3 !t#3 an st+!ss! %a+assa$s/ +!&o+%s

46 #$id. (khtar+ uhammad+ ;t cdr > ,p it p 8 47 usa ?han [email protected]+,pcit+p.8!. 48 eore  Aush+ resident o B'+ statement $y the president in his address to the nation+ ashinton 'eptem$er 11+ 2!!1 at http:// www.white house. o"/ news/ releases/ 2!!1/ !%/ 2!!1!%11-16.html cited on 13 >o" 11.

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On "o'iti#a' &+ont3 t$! "+o-A%!+i#an an anti !2t+!%ist "o'i#i!s o& "+!s!nt go*!+n%!nt '! to a +!'igio-"o'iti#a' #oa'ition o& i&&!+!nt +!'igio0s "a+ti!s in &o+% o& M0tta$ia Ma4'is-!-A%a' #o%%on' kno,n as MMA >! and was also able to form government in DF5$ (>  MMA t$!+!a&t!+ 

&ai'! to "+o0#! an istin#t "+os"!+it 0n!+ t$! &'ag o& so-#a''! Is'a%

4% Ta$%ina Ras$i3 I%"'i#ations o& t$! =155 A Pakistani P!+s"!#ti*!3 IPRI3 ?!+0a+ 3 " 5! Hassan Aas3 O"#it3 "6

1%

ATER-III E33ETS O3 RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM ON AISTANI SOIETY M&stiicati#n O>   m i l li o n  S d o ll a r s .

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Aovernment in +entral /sia. +.I./. called it ,peration +yclone-  and in the following years * billion dollars were committed to its  p r o m o t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f a l a r g e n u mb e r o f  r el i g io us

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$akistan fficers of the 3ritish MI8) and the local ISI played the r o l e o f  t e a c h e r 0 -  K  /

5% #at alik+ ?ashmir D Cthnic onlict+ #nternational ispute+ ,$an3 Ding to >i'' Us3 (La$o+! A'-Aas Int!+nationa'3 7)3 "8

23

Pakistan It is t$0s n!#!ssa+ to ana's! t$! i%"a#t on Pakistan in t$! a&t!+%at$ o& =155 in t$! &o''o,ing "!+s"!#ti*!s ash,i" #%ic&

T$! %ost #+iti#a' task &o+ Pakistan in t$! "ost =155

"!+io ,as to "+!s!+*! t$! '!giti%a# o& t$! >as$%i+i &+!!o% &ig$t!+s/ st+0gg'! an not a''o, it to &a'' "+! to t$! n!, !&inition o& t!++o+is% K On t$! ot$!+ $an Inia ,ant! to [email protected]! t$! o""o+t0nit to "0t %o+! "+!ss0+! on Pakistan on a##o0nt o& its a''!g! s0""o+t to t$! in&i't+ation a#+oss t$! LOC T$is 0n!+%in! t$! ongoing st+0gg'! o& >as$%i+i "!o"'! KF aistan;s N*c%'a" A"s'na% 

?o+ Pakistan3 4oining t$! US '! anti t!++o+ist

#oa'ition +!&'!#t! a %a4o+ "o'i# s$i&t3 ,$i#$ +!R 36 Bi''ion &+o% F to 6-= T$! !sti%at! #ost o& t$! ,a+ on t!++o+ ,as a+o0n F6F i''ion +0"!!s in 8-6K7 T$! Minist+ o& ?inan#! $as #a'#0'at! t$at t$!

63 [email protected]' 0+ R!$%an3 Pakistan an 9a+ on T!++o+is%3 A*ai'a'! at ,,,issi#o%3 a##!ss! on 

?! 55 64 A$%a Aas3 I%"a#t o& =155 on S%a''!+ Stat!s o& So0t$ Asia3 A*ai'a'! at ,,,issi#o%

a##!ss! on  ?! 55 65 (rticle on akistan 'uered loss o 2+!8! An+ 0he )ecorder+17 9an+2!!%.

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%a#+o!#ono%i# stai'isation is 'ik!' to s'o, o,n t$! !#ono%i# g+o,t$3 #a0s! "o*!+t an "0s$ "o*!+t +at! 0" in t$! s$o+t +0n Int'"na% S'c*"it&Pakistan/s s'i! to,a+s stat! &ai'0+! a##!'!+at!

+a%ati#a'' in 8 T$! assassination o& &o+%!+ P+i%! Minist!+ [email protected]+ B$0tto on 8 D!#!%!+ 8 ,as a +!%in!+3 t$at t$! #o0nt+/s "+og+!ssi*! #o''a"s! ,as %0#$ %o+! +a"i an i++!t+i!*a'! t$an %ost $a !n*isag! B!si!s t$is g+a*! in#i!nt so%! %o+! !*!nts $a""!n! ,$i#$ $as !t!+io+at! &a+i# o&  so#i!t T$! sa%! a+! 'ist! !'o, La' Mas4i E"iso! O"!+ations in 9ana3 Ba4a0+ an S,at S0i#i! Bo%ings Ho,!*!+ t$! La, En&o+#!%!nt Ag!n#i!s (LEAs) o& Pakistan $a*! !!n *!+ !&&!#ti*! in !a+ 55 an t!++o+ atta#ks $a*! !!n so%!,$at #on&in! Statisti#s o& t$! sa%! a+! gi*!n at A$$'n!i+-5

25

ATER-I5 =AY 3OR=ARD AND REOMMENMDATIONS

E2t+!%! $o"!s a+! o+n o& !2t+!%! %is!+KK As sai  B!+t+an R0ss!' #'!a+' !"i#ts a "i#t0+! o& $o"! to !*is! t$! st+at!gi!s &o+ #0+ing +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% in Pakistan T$! +oot #a0s!s as !&in! in #$a"t!+s II an III ,o0' ! tak!n as +!&!+!n#! to s0gg!st *ia'! o"tions T$! +!#o%%!nations %a ! as &o''o,s %a"i&in) R#%' # Is%a, in R*nnin) Stat' Aai"s 

Con&0sion o*!+ t$! iss0!

%a ! #'a+i&i!  a 4oint t!a% o& int!''!#t0a's an 0'!%a in o+!+ to !'i%inat! t$! #$an#!s o& 0sing Is'a% as a s$i!'  #'!+g an "o'iti#ians in &0t0+! E"a!icati#n # :ia R')i,' R'#",s 

A't$o0g$ %an o& t$! +!&o+%s

!*is!  :ia +!gi%! $a*! !!n i'0t! 0t t$!+! is sti'' a n!! to o a,a ,it$ t$! a&t!+ !&&!#ts B!'i!*!s o& +!'igio0s %ino+iti!s an a'' s!#ts o& Is'a% s$o0' ! #onsi!+! ,$i'! %aking '!gis'ations in t$! #o0nt+ in 'in! ,it$ Q0ai/s *ision T$! sa%! ,o0' #0+tai' t$! !'!%!nt o& +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% E%i,inatin) S#cia% E$a'i3 ?aisa' [email protected]3 Ai%an-A'-:,a$i+i an %an ot$!+s a+! !2a%"'!s T$!+!&o+! !si!s "o*!+t a''!*iation an 40i#ia' +!&o+%s t$!+! is a s!+io0s n!! to #$!#k t$! a#ti*iti!s on i&&!+!nt +!'igio0s [email protected]%a+!ssa$s  Int!''ig!n#! ag!n#i!s against "ossi'! +!#+0it%!nt o& o0ng g!n!+ation Ea+' ,a+ning to "+!*!nt t$! t$+!at ,o0' "+o*! *ita' in t$is +!ga+ #ntin*ati#n # Ban #n S'cta"ian an! Mi%itant O*tits 

Ban

on

s!#ta+ian an %i'itant o+ganisations s$o0' ! #ontin0! an a #ontin0o0s ,at#$ is a'so +!as$%i+ an int!+na' s!#0+it sit0ation Ca+!&0' ,at#$ on +!'igio0s o0t&its1%a+!ssa$s3 !'i%ination o& so#ia' !*i's3 !#ono%i# s0st!nan#! an 'ast o&  a''3 t$! nationa' ,i''3 #o0' ! t$! "at$ '!aing to s0##!ss in &ig$ting against +!'igio0s !2t+!%is% in Pakistan

2%

AENDIX-I E+c'"$ts "#, th' *nt'" R'$#"t ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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