Reflexology assignment

April 2, 2018 | Author: elemibodyworks | Category: Reflexology, Massage, Health Care, Public Health, Medical Specialties
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Vishnu͛s feet, containing the symbols of the Universe. (

Chantelle Thornton

c            ½any ancient cultures had some sort of foot therapy that resembles some form of reflexology. The Native American Indian cultures, Egyptians and Chinese independently developed methods which were all based on the same principles. The Zone Theory was the precursor to modern Reflexology which began with Dr. William H. Fitzgerald, ½.D. an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist˜ He called his work Zone Analgesia where pressure was applied to the corresponding bony eminence or to the zones corresponding to the location of the injury. He also used pressure points on the tongue, palate and the back of the pharynx wall in order to achieve the desired result of pain relief or analgesia. He was responsible for formulating the first chart on the longitudinal zones of the body. Dr. Fitzgerald discovered a very interesting fact, that the application of pressure on the zones not only relieved pain but in the majority of cases?also relieved the underlying cause as well. Dr. Shelby Riley, ½.D. worked closely with Dr. Fitzgerald and developed the Zone Theory further. Eunice D. Ingham, a Physical Therapist, worked closely with Dr. Riley and was fascinated by the concept of Zone Therapy and started developing her foot reflex theory in the early 1930's. She had the opportunity to treat hundreds of patients and determined that the reflexes on the feet were an exact mirror image of the organs of the body. Dr. Riley encouraged her to write her first book entitled "Stories The Feet Can Tell" where she documented her cases and carefully mapped out the reflexes on the feet as we know them today. This book was published in 1938 and was translated into seven foreign languages. The confusion between Reflexology and Zone Therapy started at this point however, there is a distinct difference between the two therapies. Zone Therapy relies solely on the zones to determine the area to be worked, whereas Reflexology takes the zones as well as the anatomical model to determine the area or areas to be worked. In the late 50's Dwight Byers started helping Eunice Ingham at her workshops. In 1961 Dwight Byers and his sister Eusebia ½essenger, RN joined their Aunt Eunice teaching at workshops on a full time basis. Seven years later they became responsible for the continued teaching of Reflexology under the banner of The National Institute of Reflexology. In the mid 70's Eusebia retired and Dwight Byers formed The International Institute of Reflexology, where the theories and techniques of Reflexology were further refined.

O      The practice of reflexology is based on the fact that each part of the body is represented in the feet and hands. It is also believed that by pressing and massaging these various areas, the body is positively affected by the signals being sent to the body͛s nervous system. The nervous system then transports signals to the brain which adjust and relax the body in the appropriate ways. The practice of reflexology usually lasts from around 30 minutes to an hour. Tension levels of the body are positively affected by reflexology therapy. The practice of reflexology is typically applied to the feet, but can also be used on the face, ears and hands.

° °     A professionally trained reflexologist can detect subtle areas of tension at specific points in the hands and feet. By applying acupressure and massage like techniques to these specific areas, the reflexology practitioner aims to stimulate and promote specific bodily, organ, and muscular functions. Some tools can be used to create the pressure instead of the hands and fingers of the practioner. These are predominately made from wood or plastic.

       Reflexology is so widely used because of its great versatility and numerous benefits. Apart from Reflexologists, beauty therapists, massage and remedial massage therapists, naturopaths and nurses are some of the other professions that may undertake study in this area to complement their other treatments. Qualified and association registered Reflexologists can be searched on the Reflexology Association website- There are 113 practioners listed in WA.



During a reflexology session there are a few ways aromatherapy may be incorporated into the treatment. This can be achieved through the use of essential oils in a vapouriser /burner in the treatment room. Essential oils may be added to a pre-treatment foot bath. Also aromatherapy may be incorporated into and products that are used in the treatment, including before and after, such as creams, lotions, mists or powders.

     c   A Reflexologist can facilitate relief for: p? Sinus pain p? ½enopausal symptoms p? ½igraines p? Pre-menstrual syndrome and other menstrual irregularities p? Constipation p? Diarrhoea p? Sciatica p? Asthma p? Back pain p? Neck pain p? Shoulder pain General benefits of Reflexology include: p? Reduced stress and tension p? Improved circulation p? Reduced toxicity p? Improved immunity p? Increased body awareness (List from

c      c   Research conducted on Reflexology falls into three categories p? The physiological effects of reflexology p? The effectiveness of reflexology for a wide range of symptoms and conditions. p? Evidence of the accuracy of the reflex points in relation to what they represent º ??  ? ?     ? ? The baroreceptor reflex maintains blood pressure homeostasis by changes in autonomic outflow. These receptors are situated in the carotid sinus of the carotid artery and the arch of the aorta, and interact with many physiological processes in the body. In a pilot study at the University of Leeds, Ben Frankel measured changes in baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) in a group receiving reflexology and in a control group receiving foot massage. The measurements were recorded both before and after a 45 minute reflexology/massage session and showed a reduction in BRS in both groups of 60% and 50% respectively. According to Frankel, the results suggest that one mode of action of reflexology is through the nervous system whereby BRS is altered by stimulating the sensory system of the feet. Reference: B.S.½. Frankel, "The effect of reflexology on baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, blood pressure and sinus arrhythmia", Complementary Therapies in ½edicine (1997) 5, 80-84

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Using colour Doppler sonography, blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney while the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of the three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p = 0.001) during and an increase (p = 0.0001) after foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women or smokers and non-smokers Verum and placebo groups differed significantly concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy. Extract from a recent study at the Universitatsklinik fur Innere ½edizin, Innsbruck, Austria: (Forsch Komplementarmed 1999 Jun;6(3):129-34)

 ??  In 1995 a large Danish study involving 220 patients and 78 reflexologists was undertaken to find out if reflexology was an effective treatment for headaches with results assessed by qualitative interviews before, during and three months after the last treatment. Results were: Cured 16% Helped 65% No Benefit 18% Seventy five percent of the participants stated that their general health had improved and 50% had an increase in their energy level and had become better at preventing headaches. In many cases the therapist became a "catalyst for a learning process and personal development in the patient" (Brendstrup, Launso & Eriksen, 1995). Reference: "Headache and Reflexological Treatment" by E Brendsstrup & L Launso, publ. by the Council Concerning Alternative Treatment, the National Board of Health, Denmark, 1997.   ?º   Bill Flocco and Terry Oleson conducted a randomised controlled study of 52 women suffering Premenstrual Symptoms in 1992. Their results were published in "Obstetrics and Gynaecology" the following year. The 'true' reflexology group reported a 46% reduction of symptoms both physiological and psychological, and the placebo group only 19% symptom reduction. A summary of results was published in FootPrints in ½arch 1999. Reference: T Oleson, W Flocco, "Randomized controlled study of premenstrual symptoms treated with ear, hand, and foot reflexology" Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol 82, No 6, Dec 1993, 906-911.  ?   ½adsen & Anderson (1993) in Denmark reported on the decrease in number of 'sick days' within a postal service with 1450 employees. 225 employees received reflexology treatments, with only 2% reporting no effect. The decrease in sick days over a 3 year period saved the company the equivalent of 110,000 English pounds. Reference: L.Eriksen, "A close-up view on company reflexology", 1991, Forenede Danske Zonenterapeute Research Committee.

‰     ? ?Watson.S & Voner.V (2009)Ñ    , The ½cGraw-Hill Companies Inc.,New York?? ch-highlights&catid=9:newhorizons&Itemid=11

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