REFERENCE DEPARTEMENT The reference department of any library is one of the important places in the library. This is organized in such a way that it allows the steady flow of information. The functional reference department is characterized by several major factors. These are staff, collection, facilities, and the reference room. The staff is considerably a key factor in reference work. A well trained staff contributes a lot to the achievement of its objectives. The collection of the reference department is the source of all information requested by library users. The more comprehensive the collection is, the more information can be extracted from it. A good library collection is attributed to the effort of the librarian to enrich it. The reference room is never complete without the necessary facilities. The sources of reference work become complete with the inclusion of the facilities which can contribute a lot to better learning on the part of the library users and ease in the search for needed information on the part of the staff.
A. relationship with other units of the Library The reference department is one of the components of the entire library system. Its functions largely depend upon its affiliation with other units of the library system. The reference department should be closely related with the following: 1. Administration – The active reference librarian participates in library administration. Communication plays a vital role in this work. 2. Technical service: acquisitions – This requires the reference librarian to be familiar with the different materials that will suit the needs of library users. He is also responsible in the selection and acquisition of materials not only for the reference department but also for the other units of the library. 3. Technical service: cataloging – Materials that have been acquired need to be organized. Organization of library materials allows the convenience of retrieving every piece of material acquired by the library.
B. Functions of Reference Work There are six functions of reference work. These are: A. Supervision function. This calls for the involvement of some factors to maintain efficiency in reference work. These factors are: Selection of materials Proper organization of library materials proper maintenance of the physical plant & facilities study of clientele study of personnel B. Information function. Information usually emanates from the reference department. Questions are classed according to subject, type, purpose, inquirer and sources consulted. 1. Subject – This type of classification groups the questions as to the class number it may have following any scheme of classification. 2. Type – This involves questions requesting answers with the use of directories. It may also include fact-finding materials which call for the use of almanacs, Reader’s Guide, etc. A library user might have his own personal choice of any material to suit his purpose. Subject specialized questions can also be considered under this category. 3. Purpose and Inquirer – To enhance student learning, School assignments, term papers, etc. are given to students. Other purposes may have something to do with vocational concerns which have to do with subjects like, advertising, teaching, etc. Organizations would involve Kabataang Barangay, CWL, PTA, Girl Scout, etc. This has also something to do with miscellaneous purposes like current events, solving crossword puzzles, etc.
4. Class of Questions
Sources consulted – should give the following summary: Sample Types
Definition, spelling, symbols, foreign terms, usage
History, general information, self education
current events, past year’s development recent happenings
Notables, specialists socialists, etc.
Biographical dictionary/ directories
Locations, descriptions, distances, population, etc., area measurement
Gazetteer, atlas, map, guide books, globes
curiosities, statistics, events, formulas, allusions
“How to Do”, “How to Make”
Reviews, best books, subject literature
National, trade subject, bibliography
Pictures, cartoons, slides, films, recordings
C. Guidance Function – The reference librarian acts as a guidance counselor in the choice of books for the readers. This necessitates knowledge of the reader’s capabilities as well as their interest. Materials offered. To them must be weighed. Bibliotherapy has very much to do with this function.
D. Instruction Function – This involves two types of teaching: informal and formal. E. Bibliographical Function – Bibliographies play a very important role in research. These must be available in the library. F. Appraisal – The Librarian checks his reference collection. He must be able to make these materials available to library users. The value and success of reference work is evaluated. This is generally based on (1) possession of the right materials and (2) knowledge on how to use these materials to the maximum. II.
REFERENCE SOURCES A.
Reference sources are classified according to primary, secondary. And tertiary sources. 1. Primary sources – are original materials. Examples of these are reports, magazine articles, patents, theses, dissertations, manuscripts, monographs. 2. Secondary sources – are materials prepared from original or primary sources. Original materials which have been rearranged, interpreted, condensed, belong to this classification. 3. Tertiary sources – are primary and secondary sources combined together. These are materials that have been twice removed from the original. Almost all types of reference sources fall under this classification.
The Control Access Directional Type of Source
Bibliography which is commonly defined as an organized list of records is considered as the “first broad class or form of reference source”. 1. Control. Bibliography keeps the records of publications produced from time to time. Records compiled in the bibliography serves as a control upon which the librarian, bibliographer and other intellectual groups draw needed information to complete research work. 2. Access. The systematic arrangement of items in the bibliography facilitates access to information and all access types of information can be broadly defined as bibliographies. These are subdivided according to: a. Bibliography of reference sources and the literature of a field of either a general or a subject nature. b. The library card catalog c. General systematic bibliography (NUC) d. Indexes and abstracts e.g. RGPL, IPP, New York Times Index
3. Direction. Bibliography indirectly gives the source of information. C. REFERENCE TOOLS 1. DICTIONARY a. definition of terms: Dictionary – book containing a selection of words of a language or of some special subjects, arranged alphabetically with explanations about them. (Webster) Glossary – a list of special, technical or difficult words with explanations or comments. (Thorndike) Gradus – a dictionary designed to aid in writing poetry. Lexicon – a dictionary of foreign language especially of Greek, Latin or Hebrew. (Thorndike) Lexicographer – a writer of dictionaries. Thesaurus (verborum) – storehouse or treasury of knowledge. (Harrod) b. Categories of Dictionary (group or division in a general system of classification) 1). General English Language dictionaries – this category includes unabridged titles. 2). Paperback dictionaries – These are the less expensive types. They generally have from 30,000-50,000 words.. 3). Historical – This gives the background history of the word, from the date of introduction to the present. 4). Period of scholarly specialized titles – This gives an emphasis on a given time or place, ex. A dictionary of Old English. 5). Etymological dictionaries which put an emphasis on analysis of components and cognates in another language.. 6). Subject works which concentrate on the definition of words in a given area.
7). Others – This group would embrace such works as Dictionary of Slang, dictionary types of work dealing with abbreviations, proper usage, etc. c. Points for evaluating dictionaries 1). Scope – coverage, limitations, etc. 2). Authority – Check the reputation of the publisher and editor. 3). Format – take into consideration the binding of the book, arrangement of the words, print size, the use of boldface type and the other type features, margins, type of paper, use of different aids and devices like thumb indexes, running heads, guide keys, etc. 4). Word treatment – this concerns eight significant factors which dictionaries give. These are: a). spelling (orthography) b). pronunciation (orthoepy) c). syllabication d). etymology e). definition f). grammatical information – gives the part of speech g). usage – concerns proper usage of word h). synonym 5). Special features – these have become in demand information although some critics have considered them not strictly party of a dictionary. Some of these features are biographical sketches, maps, statistics (census figures), historical points of interest, table of weight and measurement, etc. REFERENCE UNABRIDGED DICTIONARIES The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. 2nd Ed. New York: Random House, 1988 Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster Inc., 1961 DXESK (COLLEGE) DICTIONARIES
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 2nd College Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., The Random House College Dictionary. New York: Random House, 1984. Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language. 3rd. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. 9th ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster, Inc., 1983. CHILDREN’S DICTIONARIES American Heritage Dictionary. Macmillian Dictionary for Children. New York: Macmiillian Co., 1987. Scott Foreman Beginning Dictionary. Clenview: III,: Scott Foresman, 1988. Webster’s Elementary Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.,1986. The World Book Dictionary. Chicago: World Book, 1983. FOREIGN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES Cassell’s English-Italian Dictionary. New York: Macmillian Cassell’s French Dictionary. New York: Macmillian. Cassell’s German Dictionary. New York: Macmillian. Cassell’s Spanish-English English-Spanish Dictionary. 2nd ed. London: Collins, 1990. Webster’s New World Compact Japanese Dictionary. Japanese/English: English/Japanese. New York: Webster’s New World, 1983. SPECIALIZED DICTIONARIES Acronym. Initilism. And Abbreviations Dictionary. 14th ed. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1990. Chapman, Robert L. Thesaurus of American Slang. New York: Harper & Row. Dictionary of American Regional English. (DARE). Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 1985. Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Fowler, Henry Watson. Dictionary of Modern English Usage. 2nd ed. Rev. by Sir Ernest Growers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. The Random-House Cross-Word Puzzle Dictionary. New York: Random House, 1989. Roger’s International Thesaurus. 4th ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. Roger’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. Rev. ed. London: Longman, 1987. The Theasaurus of Slang. New York; Facts on File, 1988: Webster’s Collegiate Thesaurus. Springfield MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.,1976. Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1989. Webster’s New Dictionary of Synonyms. Rev. ed. Springfields, MA.: Merriam-Webster, Inc.,1980. Wentworth, Harold and Stuart Flexner. Dictionary of American Slang. 2nd New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1975. SUBJECT DICTIONARIES Business and Economics Amman, Christine. Dictionary of Business and Economics. New York: Free Press, c1977. Presner, Lewis A. The International Business Dictionary and Reference. New York: John Wiley, c1991. Rosenberg, Jerry Martin. Dictionary of Business and Management. New York: John Wiley, c1992. Chemistry Concise Dictionary of Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University
History The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, c1989. Librarianship Buchanan, Brian. A Glossary of Indexing Terms. London: Clive Binggley, 1976. Harrod, Leonard. Harrod’s Librarians’ Glossary of Terms And in Librarianship. Documentation and the Book Crafts and Reference Book. 6th ed. England: Gomer, Marshall, Faye Dix. School Librarian’s Encyclopedic Dictionary. West Nyack, N.Y. : Parker, c1979. Philosophy Dictionary of Philosophy. Moscow: Progress, c 1984. Lacey, A.R. A Dictionary of Philosophy. 2nd ed. London: Routhledge Kegan Paul, c1986. Reese, William L. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought. New Jersey: Humanities Press, c1980. Physics Concise Dictionary of Physics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, c1990. The Facts on File Dictionary of Physics. New York: Facts of File, c 1988. Plants and Animals Animal life: A Prentice-Hall Illustrated Dictionary. New York: Prentice-Hall General Reference, c 1991. The Illustrated Dictionary of Animal Life. Wilshore, UK: Merlion, c1992. Mabberly, D. J. The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press, c1993. Sugdan, Andrew. Longman Illustrated Dictionary of Botany.
Beirut, Eng. : York Press, 1986. Psychology Bruno, Frank Joe. Dictionary of Key Words in Psychology. London and New York: Routhledge & Kegan Paul, c1986. Chaplin, James Patrick. Dictioinary of Psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Dell, c1985. Stratton, Peter. A Student’s Dictionary of Psychology. London: Edward Arnold, c1988. Sutherland, Stuart. Macmillian Dictionary of Pshychology. London and Basingstoke: Macmillian, c1989. Science and Technology Chambers Science and Technology Dictionary. Cambridge: W. & R. Chambers, c1988. Concise Science Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, c1987. Emiliani, Cesare. Dictionary of the Physical Sciences: Terms. Formulas. Data. Oxford: Oxford University Press,c1987. Godman, Arther. Longman Illustrated Science Dictionary: All Fields of Scientific Language Explained and Illustrated. Beirut, Eng.,: Longman, c1981. Science and Technology: a Prentice-Hall Illustrated Dictionary. New York: Prentice-Hall General Reference, c1991. Social Sciences De Guzman, Leonora S. Dictionary of Social Work: Philippine Setting. Quezon City: New Day, 1988. Demetrio y Radaza, Francisco. Dictionary of Philippine Folk beliefs and Customs. Cagayan de Oro: Xavier University, 1991. Reading, Hugo F. A Dictionary of the Social Sciences. London: Routhledge & kegan Paul, 1977. 2. ENCYCLOPEDIA
a. Definition – A work containing information on all subjects, or limited to a special field or subject, arranged in systematic (usually alphabetical), order. b. Encyclopedias maybe divided into three categories: 1. By Format – some sets cover from 4-32 volumes e.g. World Book and smaller works range from 1, 2, 3 vols. E.g. New Columbia Encyclopedia. 2. By Scope – The division is either General e.g. World Book, Britannica, Americana or Subject e.g. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 3. By Audience – The general work maybe for a teenager or a lay person. c. Points for evaluating encyclopedias 1). Scope – coverage 2). Authority 3). Writing Style – articles are clearly and interestingly written. Puts complex ideas and concepts into easily understandable Language without sacrificing accuracy. Contents are as comprehensible to as many readers as possible. 4). Recency: continuous revision 5). Viewpoint and objectivity 6). Arrangement and entry 7). Index 8). Format 9). Cost Adult Encyclopedias The Encyclopedia Americana. Danburry, CTL Grolier Inc., 30 vols. The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 15th ed. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. Popular Adult and High School Sets Academic American Encyclopedia. Princeton, New Jersey: Arete, 1981 Canadian Encyclopedia. 2nd 3d. Edmonton, AL: Hurting Publisher
Ltd., 4 vols. Colliers Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillian Educational Corporation, 24 vols. Everyman’s Encyclopedia. London: J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 12 vols., (out of date) Funk & Wagnalls new Encyclopedia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985-1991, 9 vols. Children and Young Adults’ Encyclopedia Campton’s Encyclopedia and Fact Index. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica (26 vols). Children’s Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica (20 vols). Merit Students Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillian Educational Corporation (20 vols). The New Book of Knowledge. Danburry, OT: Grolier Incorporated, ( 20 vols. ) World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book (22 vols.) One Volume Encyclopedia The Cambridge Encyclopedia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. The Random House Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. New York: Random House, 1990. Foreign-Published Multivolume Encyclopedias French Grand Dictionaries Encyclopedique Larrousse. Paris. Larrousse, 1982-1989, (10 vols.) Encyclopedia Universalis. (2nd ed., available in the U. S. from Encyclopedia Britannica), 1968-1975,1986, 20 vols.
German Brockhaus Enzyknopadie. Rev. 19th ed. Wiesbaden: Brockhaus, 1986. (This was first issued as Frauenzimmer Lexican issued between 1796-1808 especially for wome). Italy Encyclopedia Europa. Milan : Garzanti, 1976-1981. Enciclopedic Italiana. Rome: Institute della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1929-36. (9 vols. Supplement) JapaneseKodansha Encyclopedia of Japan. New York: Kodansha International, 1983. (9 vols. & supplements) RussiaThe Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1973-1983. (32 vols.) Known as Bal`shaia Sovetskaia Entisklopedia (BSE) In Russia. SpanishEnciclopedia Universal Ilustraa Europeo-Americana. (Espasa). Barcelona: Espasa, 1907-1933 (108 vols. Including Supplements form 1934 to date). SUBJECT ENCYCLOPEDIAS Arts and Architecture Encylopedia of Architectural Techonolgy. New York: MacGraw-Hill, c1979 Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering & Construction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988-1990. Encyclopedia of World Art. New York: Crow, c1975. Yarwood, Doreen. Encyclopedia of Architecture. London: B.T. Batsford, c1985. Economics & Business The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics. New York: Macmillian
Educational Co., 1988. History Canby, Courtlandt. Encyclopedia of Historic Places. New York: Facts on File, c1984. Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean: Greece and Rome. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1983-1990. Library Science ALA World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services. Chicago: American Library Association. 2nd ed., 1986. Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1968 to date. Literature Beret’s Reader’s Encyclopedias. 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. Campbell, Oscar James, ed. The Reader’s Encyclopedia of Shakespeare. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1966. Spencer, Stephen, ed. The Concise Encyclopedia of English and American Poets and Poetry. Music Blackwood, Alan. Encyclopedia of Music. Secaucus, N. J. : Chartwell Books, c1979. Cooper, Martin. The Concise Encyclopedia of Music and Musicians. London: Hutchinson, c1978. Green, Stanley. Encyclopedia of Musical Theatre. New York: Dodd, Mead, c1976. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 6th ed. New York: Macmillian Co., 1980. Religion Canney, Maurice A. An Encyclopedia nof Religions. Jawahni Nayar, Delhi: Nag, c1976. Mand and His Gods: Encyclopedia of the World’s Religion.
London: Hamlyn, c 1971. Science Macmillan Encyclopedia of Science. New York: Macmillan, C1991. Philippine Science Encyclopedia. Manila: National Research Council of the Philippines, c1986. Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia. New York et al: Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1983. 3.Ready Reference Sources: Almanacs, Yearbooks, Handbooks, Directories A. Almanacs and Yearbooks Alamanacs – publication, usually an annual, containing a variety of useful facts of miscellaneous nature, and statistical information. It was originally a projection of the coming year by days, months, holidays, etc. (harrod) - a compendium of useful data and statistics relating to countries, personalities, events, subjects, etc., (katz) Yearbook – a volume often called an annual, containing current information of a variable nature, in brief descriptive and/or statistical form, which is published once every year. (Harrod). - annual compedium of the data and statistics of a given year. (Katz) Purposes/Functions of almanacs and yearbooks a). Recency – to supply the latest information on a subject or personality b). Brief facts – an almanac gives single figure or a fact without explanations. c). Trends – current information in almanacs or yearbooks indicate the latest trend and developments. e). Directory and biographical information – directory
informationare also found in almanacs and yearbooks. Some yearbooks may sell names of famous personalities. Their address and many other biographical information are Indicated. Some almanacs cite names of associations, Societies and their respective addresses. f). Browsing – It helps find bits of interesting information in some unrelated parts if both almanac and yearbook. B. Handbooks / Manuals 1. Definition of Terms: Handbook – a treaties on a specific subject; often nowadays a simple but allembracing treatment, containing concise information, and being small enough to be held in the hand; but strictly, a book written primarily for practitioners and serving for constant revision or reference. Compedium – a brief summary of a larger work or a field of knowledge. (Katz) 1. Classification of Handbooks 1). Curiosities – questions ranging from customs, traditions, events, superstitious to science and arts. These are mostly answerable by this type of handbook. 2). Literary – this deals with allusions, identification of plots, characters, incidents, quotations. 3). Statistics – this covers statistical information on populations, finance, education, business and industry. 4). Documentary – this gives exact wording of rules, regulations, laws, decisions, and documents. 5). Parliamentary and debate - in formations regarding questions conducting meetings, supporting arguments, participation in debates are included here. 6). Specific subject – facts relating to subject areas like government, education, history, geography, sports, science and technology. 2. Points for evaluation In addition to the general criteria for evaluating reference books, the following points should be added:
1. 2. 3. 4.
source of data accuracy of information accessibility of information recency
Note: Although handbooks and manuals are synonymous, a slight degree of difference comes in between them in such a way that a manual has instructions on how to do or make things, or how to perform whereas a handbook gives miscellaneous facts and figures on one or many subjects prepared for ready use and usually give brief and handy information. (Shoes) c. Directories 1. Definition: Directories of list of persons or organizations in an alphabetical or classified arrangement. These include addresses and affiliations for individuals and officers and other data for organizations. (Gates) 2. Purpose: a. Directories are used to find out an individual’s or a firm’s address and/telephone number; b. the full name of an individual, a firm, or an organization; c. a description of a manufacturer’s product and or the service and d. the name of the president and any other officers of a particular firm, or the head of a school, etc. 3.Scope: Types or categories of directories: a. Local directories a. telephone books b. city directories examples under this are directories of schools garden clubs, department stores, theaters and social groups.
b. Government directories This includes guide to government offices agencies. c. Institutional directories We find here lists of schools, foundations, libraries, hospitals, museums, galleries, etc. d. Investment service Very much related to trade and business directories, give detailed reports on public and private corporations and companies. e. Professional directories These are directories of professional organizations e.g. librarianship, pharmacy, medicine, law, etc. f. Trade and business directories Includes manufacturer industries, and services.
GENERAL ALMANACS AND YEARBOOKS World Almanacs and Books of Facts. New York: Newspaper Enterprise Association, 1868 to date. Whitaker’s Almanac. London: J. Whitaker & Sons Ltd., 1868 to date. Information Please Almanac. Boston: Houghton Mifflin co., 1974 to date. Canadian Almanac and Directory. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman, 1874 to date. Facts on File Yearbook. New York: Facts on File, 1940 to date. Government: International Statesman’s Yearbook. New York: St. Martin’s Press, Inc., 1964 to date. Europa World Yearbook. London: Europa Publications, Lts., 1926 to date.
The International Yearbook and Statesman’s Who’s Who. London: Read Information Services, 1953 to date. World Facts Figures. New York: John Wiley & Sons 1979 BOOKS OF DAYS AND FIRSTS American Book of Days. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1978. Chase’s Annual Events. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1957 to date. Holidays and Anniversaries of the World. 2d ed. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1990. Kane, Joseph N. Famous First Facts. 4th ed. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1981. QUOTATIONS Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations. 15th ed. Boston; LittleBrown & Co., 1980. The Concise Columbia Dictionary of Quotations. New YorkL Columbia University Press, 1989. The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. 3d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. A Dictionary of Business Quotations. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Simpson’s Contemporary Quotations. New York: Houghton, 1988. Stevenson, Burton E. The Home Book of Quotations, Classical and Modern. 10th ed. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., Inc., 1967 ETIQUETTE Baldridge, Leticia. The New Manners for the 90’s. New York: Rawson/Macmillan, 1990. Emily Post’s Etiquette. 14th ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1984.
LAW The Reader’s Digest Legal Question and Answer Book. New York: Random House, 1988. LITERATURE Cliff Notes. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliff, various dates. Magill, Frank N. Masterplots. Rev. ed. Englewood Cliffs,. N.J.: Salem Press, 1976. Monarch Literature Notes. New York: Monarch Press, various dates. MEDICINE. The American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid & Emergency Care. New York: Random House, 1990. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co., 1989 to date. Physician’s Desk Reference to Pharmaceutical Specialties and Biological. Oradell, N.J.: Medical Economics Co., 1974 to date. SCIENCE Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Co., Press, 1913 to date. Directories Directories in Print. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., to date. (formerly Directory of Directories) Metro Manila Telephone Directory. Makati: Philippine Long Distance Co. Associations and Foundations Encyclopedia of Associations. Detroit, Michigan Gale Research Co., 1956 to date. 3 vols. Foundation Directory. New York: Foundation Center, 1960 to date. Education
American Council on Education. American Universities and Colleges, 13th ed. New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1987. Comparative Guide to American Colleges. 14th rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1989. Lovejoy’s College Guide. New York: Monarch Press, 1940 to date. Libraries and Library Associations. The American Library Directory. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1923. Directory of Special Libraries and Information Centers. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1963 to date. 1992 Directory of PAARL Members Comp. & ed. By Rebecca M. Jocson. Manila: Philippines Association of Academic and Research Libraries. 1984 to date. 4. Biographical Sources a. Definition of termsL Biography – life history of a person. Autobiography – life history of a person written by himself. Genealogy – the making of a human pedigree through the linkage of basic biological data found in records, with names, dates and places. (Katz) Biographical dictionaries – universally used reference work which is essentially a directory of notable persons, usually arranged alphabetically by surnames with biographical identifications that range from brief to extended narrative. b. Points for evaluation 1. Selection – The question is why a name is included. Selection is based on the names of the persons who qualify according to set of standards and the scope of the work being prepared. NB. Rejection or selection of names employed by some publishers are based On:
a. the person must be living or dead, b. the individual must be a citizen of a country, region, etc. c. the person must be employed in a specific profession or type work. d. The individual must be a given sex or age. 2. Audience – For what group (age, grade) is the biographical source written? 3. Length of entry – How much space is allotted to the entry> Is it a line or so? A page? 4. Authority – reputation of publishers, editors, and sponsors is a very major consideration her. 5. Frequency – the range of time covered by the work should be checked. Does it need updating? 6. Other points – are ther photographs? Is the work adequately indexed or furnished with sufficient cross references? c. Types of Biographical Sources 1. Universal – includes notable persons of all times and places; 2. Retrospective – limits itself to notable dead persons. 3. Current – includes notable living persons. d. Significant values of the specialized biographical work. 1. Source of correct and complete address. 2. Source of correct spelling of names and titles. 3. Source of miscellaneous information for those considering the person for employment or as and employer or as a guest speaker. 4. Valuable aid to historians as genealogist seeking retrospective information (if the work has been maintained for a number of years.) e. Major sources of biographical information 1. 2. 3. 4.
memoirs diaries letters autobiography
Index to Biography Abridged Biography and Genealogy. Master Index, 1988.
Almanac of Famous People. 4th ed. 1989. (formerly: Biography Almanac) Biography and Genealogy Index. 2nd ed. Detroit, Michigan, Gale Research Co., 1980. Biography Index. New York: The W.H. Wilson Co., 1974 to date. Universal and Current Biographical Sources Pseodonyms. Pseudonyms and nicknames Dictionary, 3rd ed. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., Biographical Dictionaries. Webster’s New Biographical Dictionary. Springfield, MassL C. Merriam Co., 1985. Directory: The Who’s Who Form Who’s Who in America/ Chicago: Maquis Who’s Who, 1889. to date. Who’s Who. London: Black, 1849 to date. International who’s Who. London: Europa Publications Ltd, 1935 to date. Essay Form of Biographical Sources Current Biography. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1940 to date. The New York Times Biographical Services: A Complication of Current Biographical Information of General Interest. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms Intl., 1970 to date. Retrospective Essay Form Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Sorimber’s Sons, 1974 Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. By Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, 1885 to 1901; reissue, London: Oxford University Press, 1938. Notable American Women 1609-1950. A Biographical Dictionary. Ed. By Edward T. James. Cambridge, Ma: Harvard University Press, 1971. Librarianship Directory of Library and Information Science. Woodbridge, CT: Research Publication, 1988 to date.
Literature Author Biographies Master Index. 2nd ed. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1984. World Authors 1980-1985. New York: the H. W. Co., 1990 Supplements: World Authors 1975-1980 World Authors 1970-1975,1979. World Authors 1950-1970,1975. Science Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1970-1980. 5.GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES a. Definition of Terms: Map – a plane representation of the earth’s surface, or party of it, indicating physical features, political boundaries, etc. (Harrod) Atlas – a collection of maps or plates or other exhibits bound in a volume. (Shores) Gazetteers – alphabetic list of place names including such information for each place such as pronunciation, location, description, and statistics (Shores) -
geographical dictionaries, usually of place names (Katz) Guidebooks – book of direction and information, especially one for travelers, tourists, etc. (Webster) Cartography – art of map making Globe- a spherical model of the earth. (Webster) b. Types or categories of geographical sources: 1. Maps and atlases (for visual location and identification). These are identified as general maps by cartographers: a. flat maps b. charts c. collection of maps in atlas forms
Most common maps in atlases are: a) Physical maps which show the various features of the land, from the rivers and valleys to the mountains and hills b) Political maps trace the limits of political boundaries. c) Physiological maps, topographical, and geological maps refer to the various aspects of the physical features of the land. Among other group of maps that can be considered here is referred to as thematic. This has to do with historical, economic, political and other related subjects. e.g. The Times Atlas of the World 2. Guidebooks (give more detailed information and description from then travel point of view) 3. Gazetteers (for identification and description of places). This is consulted for information on names of places, location and its area, population, the leading economic characteristics, etc. c. Points for evaluating maps 1. Authority – consider the reputation on map making and printing of the following: a. publisher b. editorial staff c. cartographer Reputable pybllishers of maps are: USA –0 Rand McNally& Co. CS Hammond & Co. The National Geographic Society Simon & Schuster Great Britain – John G. Bartolomew ( Edinbugh) Oxford University Press (Cartographic Department) Germany – Langenscheidt
2. Scope or coverage – consider the following points: a. region covered b. kind of map – political, etc. 3. Date – check the following datal a. Imprint, copyright, revision dates b. Text dates for population figures, place names, boundaries 4. Format – give attention to : a. b. c. d. e. f. g.
color symbols projections grid systems type binding marginal information
5. Arrangement a. map sequence b. index d. Methods used in using or referring to maps: 1. The use of marginal letters and figures 2. Indexing Frame or grid 3. Latitude and Longitude – this is the most accurate method Major-size World Atlases The New International Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally Co., 1990 Times Atlas of the Worlds: Comprehensive Edition. 8th rev. ed. London: Times Newspaper Limited, 1990. Small-size Atlases Citation World Atlas. Rev. ed. Maplewood, N.J.: Hammond, Inc., 1990. Gold Medallion World Atlas. Rev. ed Maplewwod ,N.J.; Hammond, Inc., 1990.
The Philippine Atlas: a Historical. Economic and Educational Profile of the Philippines. Vol. 1 Manila: FAPE, 1975 Rand McNally New Cosmopolitan World Atlas. Rev. ed. Chicago: Rand McNally Co., 1990. Thematic Maps and Atlases Historical Atlas of the United States. Washington: National Geographic Society, 1989 Rand MacNally Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1976 to date. The Times Atlas of the World History. Maplwood, N.J.: Hammond Inc.,1989 Gazetteers Webster’s New Geograpphic Dictionary. Re. Ed. Springfield, Ma: Merriam-Webster, 1985 Travel Guides American Automobile Association. Tour Book. Washington: AAA, various dates, titles. 6. Index a. Definition: Index comes from the Latind verb “dicare” which means literally “ to sho”. A detailed alphabetical list of topics, names of persons, places, etc., treated or mentioned in a books, pointing out their exact positions in the volume, usually by page number (sometimes with an additional symbol indicating a portion of a page) but often by section, or entry number . (Harrod) b.Traditional Indexes 1. Periodicals a. General – deal with many periodicals in a broad or specific subject field.
b. Subject indexes – cover not only some periodicals but also other materials found in newly published books, pamphlets, reports, and government documents. c. Indexes to single magazines. These were very popular before mid-1940’s. At present the most popular single index is The National Geographic Index covering 1888-1988. Washington: National Geographic, 1989. 2. Newspapers – The best known newspaper index in the U.S. is ”The New York Times Index”. 3. Serials – A researcher will find this index useful for information found in published or unpublished reports and government documents and all other materials that fall under serials (these are publications issued in parts over and indefinite period of time). 4. Materials in collections – The scope under this type of index covers collections of poems, plays, fiction, songs, etc. ex. Speech Index and Granger’s Index of Poetry 5. Other indexes – Covers almost everything like concordances, collections of quotations, etc indexes like those that have something to do with scientific which includes formulas, standards, prospectuses. Librarians use these indexes more in items of the subject matter covered rather that index per se. ex. Book Review Index c. Points for evaluation 1. Publisher – Read reviews about the publisher. Publishers with excellent reputation like The H.W. Wilson Company, University of Microfilms. And Information Access Company are highly reliable. Databases – online and CD-Rom. H.W. Wilson Company, Information Access Company. (Info-Trac magazine Index) 2. Scope – This concerns the coverage of the index. Look into the number of materials index. What kinds of periodicals are indexed? Does the number meet adequately the fields that are represented? What other materials are indexed – books, reports, monographs, etc? 3. Duplication and Gaps
The ideal approach of index and abstract publishers is to determine the scope of work each has to accomplish. But this is usually not followed. The librarian therefore should check on how much duplication exists between two indexes. Database – Select the index that does not carry much duplication.
4. Depth of Indexing How much indexing has been done on a certain subject field? Particularly on work like a book, an article, a document? Database – There is no problem regarding the comprehensiveness in the manner of indexing. As a matter of fact the more information there is to offer to researchers, the better the research work becomes. There is an advantage if one uses electronic device because search becomes handy and fast. Index publishers should design index entry arrangement which will offer easy access to information. 5. Timeliness of material – The more recent the material, the more useful it is. Database – electronic database can be updated very easily. Some drawbacks, however, are experienced with the use of Electronic database because this does not offer retrospective searching. More or less, this may only go back from three to five years. Librarians should take note of cut-off dates. 6. Format – The following are among the things to consider: a. ease in understanding the index. This normally depends upon the arrangement. Alphabetical arrangement is easy to follow. b. readability. A computer print out might be a problem. c. completeness of citation. The entries are with bibliographical information to identify the material.
d. accuracy of citation and information in the index for researchers to find proper source, page, or book. Databases – modern methods of research would find format as an important aspect of research. The use of computers makes search procedures easy. c. Classification of indexes: 1. Indexes are classified according to arrangement as follows: a. Alphabetical – This follows a straight dictionary arrangement. b. Classified – This follows an arrangement of materials according to logical order. c. Concordance – Entries arranged in an alphabetical manner with reference to their occurrence in a particular text. d. Fact Index 2. Indexes are also classified according to types of materials indexed like a. printed materials e.g. books, periodicals, pamphlets, monographs, etc. b. non-printed materials e.g. A.V. materials – films, filmstrips, slides transparencies, pictures, musical recordings, tapes, etc. 3. indexes are also classified according to forms of materials indexed like a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.
poems plays/dramas fiction/novels essays orations songs laws patents trade names other indexes
GENERAL PERIODICAL INDEXES Access. Evanston, III. : Access, 1975 to date. Index to Philippine Periodicals. Diliman, Q.C. : University of the Philippines, 1955 to date.
InfoTrac (Magazine Index). Foster City, California: Information Access Co. Philippine Science and Technology Abstracts. Taguig, M.M. : Dept. of Science and Technology, 1983 to date. Reader’s Guide Abstracts. Print Ed., 1985 to date. Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature. New York: The H.W. Wilson Co., 1900 To date. Popular Periodical Index. Roslyn, Pa.: Popular Periodical Index, 1973 to date. Wilson Disc: CD-ROM, 1983 to date. Wilsonline (i.e. online), 1983 to date. RETROSPECTIVE PERIODICAL INDEX Poole’s Index to Periodical Literature. 1802-1906: Vol.1, 1902-1881, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1981; vols. 2-6 (supplements 1-5), (6 volumes reprinted in 7 vols.), Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith Publisher, 1963. CANADIAN AND BRITISH REFERENCE INDEX British Humanities Index. London: Library Association, 1962 to date. Canadian Literature Index. Toronto, Ontario: EGW Press, 1987 to date. Canadian Periodical Index. Toronto, Ontario: Info Globe, 1938 to date. INDEXES TO MATERIAL IN COLLECTIONS Easy and General Literature Index. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1900 to date. Play Index. New York: The H.W. Wilson 1953 to date. 7. Government Documents a. Definition
4. Information from serials are easily accessible through the use of indexes. c. Points fir evaluation 1. scope 2. authority 3. inclusion of serial title in standard indexes and/or abstracting tools. III.
THE REFERENCE PROCESS A. Reference process involves three basic factors. These are: 1. Information – This is obtained from books and nonbook materials. 2. user – This is considered from whom the question comes. 3. reference librarian – This is the person who is considered the primary constituent in the reference equation. He analyzes the question and identifies the exact source for answer. B. Categories of reference questions which necessitate information are divided into four types. These are: 1. direction – This type is considered as the general information or the directional type of question. The answers generally call for location or geographic knowledge of things around the library. Examples of questions range from search to the card catalog, the dictionary 2. ready reference – Desired information are usually located in standard reference works like encyclopedias, dictionaries, almanacs, etc. Examples of questions are – Who is the President of the Senate? What is capital of Japan? What is the population of China today? 3. specific-search questions – This type of question requires a deeper examination of details. 4. research – a specific-search question may result in this type of question. A wide variety of materials to choose from for a research maybe needed. Usually questions concerning research come from adult udders.
C. Search procedures 1. The following is an illustration of a search procedure with a view to finalize successfully a reference transaction. a. b. c. d. e.
Reference question = Reference problem Reference interview Identification of problem Analysis of research materials Evaluation of reference answers
D. Points for evaluation of reference service 1. success in the search for information is based on librarian’s or user’s report 2. the cost and the effort involved in the reference service 3. the reference interview and how questions are grouped or classified for search. 4. the quality of reference collection 5. the quality of reference staff E. Points for evaluation of librarians 1. the ability of the librarian to keep up with trends in library work e.g. CD-ROM, on-line searching, microfilms, networks, etc. 2. librarian’s knowledge of reference and related materials. 3. librarian’s ability to negotiate reference interview, the search, and the analysis of result. 4. librarian’s personal as well as professional approaches to people. F. Duties of the reference librarian: Reference Service Guidelines There is a need to define the services of reference librarian. He should clearly understand his responsibilities as the key to the proper dissemination of information. Katz, in the “Introduction to Reference Work states six points for the librarian to consider in reference work. 1. Services. The reference librarian aims at the satisfaction of the researcher in his quest for the right information. Satisfactory answer to the simplest or the most complicated reference question is his business.
2. Resources. The maximum use of all available materials must be attained. 3. Access. Researchers aim to have the best possible result in any study, experiment, etc. they conduct. It is therefore the duty of a reference librarian to make available all materials he can possibly offer. 4. Personnel. Needless to mention, reference personnel should be familiar and knowledgeable in the use of reference and information sources, “their retrieval and storage systems, telecommunications methods and interpersonal communications skills. 5. Evaluation. An appraisal of personnel performances, library facilities and resources is necessary. 6. Ethics. The Code of Ethics for Librarians specifies the manner by which the librarians should conduct themselves in serving the readers. IV. USER’S SERVICE The is identified as services given to individual or group of individuals which relate to the use of the library and its collection. User’s service are popularly given through the following. A. Library orientation – This has already become an integral part of school activities in relation to the use of books and the library. The aim is to acquaint students with their library and everything about it. The students are taught among other things the use of the card catalog, rules and regulations, etc. B. Access to Library materials and facilities – Books and other library materials are organized to provide library users easy access to the different collections of the library. Indexes, guides, bibliographies, abstracts, etc. should be prepared to enable students to have maximum use of library materials. Attention should be given to the library facilities to make the library a conductive place for study and research. C. Referral service – There are instances when some needed reference materials are not available in the library. The researcher is referred to other libraries. This is where the library consortium becomes very effective. D Library publicity. It is obligation of the library to make known to library users the resources and services in the library. Library publicity plays its role in this aspects of library work. E Photocopying service – Copying machines should be available. These help prevent vandalism in the library. With these machines, library users can easily acquire research materials.
G Library hours – The librarians should look into the possibility of offering extended library hours to give ample time to researchers to accomplish their task. Schedule of library services should be arranged in such a way as to accommodate them during their free time. BIBLIOGRAPHY Definition: The term bibliography has been defined in “a list of books”. But some authorities consider this as a critical and historical study of printed books. Other definitions have been given the most generally use definition is that “it is concerned with materials. The term bibliography comes from the Greek words biblion which means books and graphein which mean to write. SYSTEMATIC ENUMERATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY Search for information may necessitate the use of bibliographies. When the use of bibliographies comes, the librarian is referring to the use of SYSTEMATICE ENUMERATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY that is the list of printed or nonprinted materials. This bibliography comes in different form namely: 1. Universal Bibliography – This form does not limit itself to time, place, language, subject or form. 2. National Bibliography – This form is confined to materials published in a country. Division of national bibliography: a. Time – This refers to works already published, works being published and works to be published. b. Form – In terms of bibliographical form these are: 1.) collection of works, monographs, components (e.g. essays, periodical articles, poems, etc.) 2.) physical form; books, database, recordings, pamphlets, microfilm. 3.) Published and unpublished works e.g. manuscripts, dissertations, theses. 3. Trade Bibliography – The main emphasis is on purchasing data. 4. Subject6 Bibliography – This is intended for researchers in special areas.
5. Guides to reference materials – These are lists which are prepared by the library for special purpose like the “best” and “recommended” lists for specific groups e.g. children and young adults, students, etc. 6. Analytical and Textual Bibliography – Analytical bibliography is more concerned with the physical aspects of a book. Textual bibliography with contents of the book. In other words, textual bibliography is concerned with the text as the author meant it to be. Elements of effective bibliography 1. Completeness 2. Access to a part 3. Various Forms 4. Identification and verification 5. Location 6. Selection Points for evaluating a bibliography: 1. Purpose – The title of the bibliography should clearly specify the subject that is covered by it. The preface or the introduction reveal the objectives of the work. 2. Scope – This emphasizes the coverage of the work. 3. Methodology – The compiler should examine all materials listed in the bibliography. All items should follow standard bibliographic style and should reflect the basic elements of bibliographic entry. 4. Organization – To have easy access to the work, it is necessary to organize it. There should be a clear cut way to use the data where information can be retrieved right away. There should be clear explanation on how to use the bibliography. 5. Annotations and abstracts – If descriptions, explanations or comments accompany the bibliographical entry, these should be clear and informative. 6. Bibliographic Form – This is a standard entry with the information one needs to identify and locate them. 7. Current – Recency is a factor to consider here. But where there is a need to list retrospective work it may not be a point to consider.
8. Accuracy – This is the name of the game in bibliographic citations. Arrangements should be made where there is a need for further corrections. 9. Format – Find out if the bibliography is available in print, on CD-ROM, online, etc. Uses of Bibliographies 1. They locate materials on subject in question. 2. They provide a means of verifying such items as authors name, complete title of works, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, edition, and number of pages. 3. If they are annotated, they indicate the scope of the subject and the manner in which it is treated; if annotation is critical/evaluative, it comments upon the usefulness of the publication. 4. They point out material, including parts of book which cannot be analyzed in the card catalog. 5. They group works according to form, location, and period.