TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION - Interim Guide -
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Interim Guide on Traffic Management During Construction was prepared as a team effort. Two teams were set up, namely the WRITE-UP TEAM and the REVIEW TEAM. The Write-Up team is made up of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Ir. Mohamed Shafii Hj Mustafa Abd Karim Mohamed Zahari Abd Aziz Yusof Ahmad Shafinas Saroji Mohd Hizam Hazli Bakri Siti Fairuz Hanim Hj Bahari
Mirage Consultancy T & D Consult Sdn Bhd T & D Consult Sdn Bhd T & D Consult Sdn Bhd JKR Malaysia (UKJ) T & D Consult Sdn Bhd Mirage Consultancy
JKR Malaysia (UKJ) Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur PLUS Sdn Bhd PROPEL PB - TRSS Consultancy Pintar Jurutera Perunding Ahmad Zaki Resources Bhd
The Review team is made up of: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Ir. Mohd Shahrom Mohd Saman Ir Suhaimi Hassan Ir. Muhayadin Md Lip Azmee Nin Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunus Ir. Che Ali Che Hitam Ir. Aik Siaw Kong Ir. Razak Manan
Last but not least, acknowledgement must be given to the Chairperson of REAM Technical Committee (TC 09), Ir. Aishah Othman, for her support and guidance in the preparation of this Interim Guide.
FOREWORD This Interim Guide Traffic Management During Construction is to apply the current best practice in managing the safety of the travelling public through road-work sites throughout Malaysian. The prime focus is to review and upgrade the Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2C/85 “Manual On Traffic Control Devices- Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control” which was published in 1985. After the review, the team decided to propose the following changes to the practice of traffic management at construction work zones: i) ii) iii)
setting up a framework for the practice of designing to monitor and reporting of the site management introducing simplified traffic categories for easier references introducing changes to the “Sign Faces”, focusing more towards the use of symbols rather than words
This document had been reviewed by a team of experts and practitioners and it had been presented in a Workshop at the Malaysian Road Conference in 2007. There were many comments made during the Workshop, and also through e-mails. The Team is thankful to all the people who has taken time to make their valuable comments, which has all been considered in the preparation of this Interim Guide. This document is currently classified as an “Interim Guide”. Professionals and practitioners in the industry are invited to take this opportunity to scrutinize this document during practice and their comments and proposals are welcome. These comments will be reviewed and changes will be made to this document. All comments and proposals should be forwarded to following address before MAY 2010: Unit Keselamatan Jalan Cawangan Kejuruteraan Jalan Dan Geoteknik JKR Tingkat 14, Menara Tun Razak Jalan Raja Laut 50350 Kuala Lumpur Tel :
03 - 91797425
03 - 26916567
E-mail: [email protected]
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION - An Interim Guide – CONTENT 1.0
THE NEED FOR TRAFFIC CONTROL AT WORK ZONES
REQUIREMENTS OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
PLANNING A TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEME
DESIGNING A TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEME
TYPICAL LAYOUTS OF THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN
PLACEMENT AND REMOVAL OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONES
REPORTING & CHECKING
TYPICAL LAYOUTS OF THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLANS
ROAD SAFETY AUDITING OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
FORMAT FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SAFETY REPORT (TMSR)
CHAPTER 1 THE NEED FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
CHAPTER 1 THE NEED FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
Whenever work is done on or near the roadway, drivers are faced with changing and unexpected traffic conditions. These changes may be hazardous for drivers, workers, and pedestrians unless protective measures are taken. Drivers may not be able to differentiate between the various types of construction sites and the unexpected dangers in the work zone areas. Hence, proper traffic control measures and safety considerations are required for all types of work both on major long term projects or minor short duration. This Interim Guideline has been designed and written to explain the application of the standards to the various work situations. The Guidelines should be used by everyone who is involves with planning, designing, installing, maintaining, and inspecting traffic control at work sites. The illustrations can be used for a quick guide and reference for various examples of traffic control schemes. Handling traffic in work zones is challenging because the work activity present an abnormal and often disruptive environment to the motorists. Motorists accustomed to a clear, unobstructed roadway are required to recognize and avoid closed lanes, workers in or near the roadway, and a variety of fixed object hazards. Pedestrians expecting a clear, direct walking path can be faced with closed sidewalks and open trenches closer to the moving traffic. The construction activities may also present a distracting view to many motorists that can divert their attention from the driving task. Work zones are often dynamic, and the layout of the traffic control is changed as the works progress. As such, the motorists and the pedestrians are constantly being confronted with new challenges and disruptive elements on their travel path. There are many instances where this has lead to serious accidents some including fatalities.
Traffic Safety At Work Zones
Traffic safety is a major issue at work zones. When the travelling path of the motorist is occupied for work activity, conflict arises between the requirements of the construction workers and the desires of smooth un-interrupted traffic flow. Work sites create potential hazards because they: • Confront the motorists with unexpected and often confusing situations; • Create obstructions which the motorists have to avoid; • Disrupt the motorist’s attention from the driving task; and • Expose the construction workers to move and often speeding traffic. Much had been said about the worsening problem of traffic safety at roadwork work zones. Numerous daily news reports of mishaps and fatalities had been published; however, not many studies have been conducted to understand the causes of these accidents. Studies on individual accident at work zones have been conducted mostly by the consultants at site but mostly for internal use only, not properly documented or recorded at a central agency such as JKR or the Police Traffic Department. In work zone accidents the following observations have been made: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)
Most crashes occur within the Work Area. The termination area had the least crashes. Most accidents involved rear end collision, particularly in the Advance Warning Area. In the Transition Area, the Side Swipe crashes are most common. In the Work Area, the fixed-object-off-road and angle crashes are the highest incidence. There were more fixed-object crashes and fewer angle and rear-end crashes during nighttimes The potential for severe crashes and fatal crashes are greatest within the work zone area. The proportion of multiple-vehicle crashes was the highest within the work zones.
Accident types that experience increased occurrences during construction are: • Fixed Object • Rear End • Head On Accident types that experience decreased occurrences during construction are: • Right Angle • Turning • Skidded off the Road
Identifying the Problem
As mentioned in the previous section, it is apparently there is insufficient data collection to carry out an in-depth study into road-works accidents. However, the general problems associated with local work zones are attributed to: • Poor management of traffic flow. • Inadequate Traffic Control Devices. • In-appropriate signage. • Lack of maintenance of signage and control devices. • Speeding traffic. • Lack of day time and night time safety auditing of the work zones. • High incidence of traffic accidents. • Removal of inappropriate signage outside working hours. These problems create inconvenience to the travelling public and causes concern to Road Authorities particularly increase in road accidents and fatalities. The Road Authorities had taken a serious stand on the problems of traffic safety at Work Zones. The first question was “why did these problems arise?" There are many reasons attributed to these, but the following reasons are the most common: • Inadequate standards for traffic management • Inadequate Traffic Management Plans • Inadequate allocation for traffic management • Poor method of construction • Poor implementation of traffic management at the construction site • Lack of interaction with the Local Authorities/Local Communities This Interim Guide provides a more updated standard on traffic management at work zones taking into account the volume and composition of traffic on the roads. The existing publications and standard drawings issued by the Road Authorities are sufficient to ensure a good design and practice of a work zone. However, lack of implementation and this should be the prime focus in the future for improving safety at work zones on highways and local roads.
Identifying the Solutions
The solutions to these problems of implementing improvement to traffic safety at work zones include the following remedial actions: i) The road authorities and the engineers whom supervise the works must review the Traffic Management Plans as to ensure these Guideline standards are implemented and currently best practices and optimum materials used. ii) The existing templates for the Traffic Management Plans may requires more detail consideration for the introduction of additional information/guide signs; use of the VMS and promoting appropriate use of barrier systems; and provide for the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists.
Additional statements to the Standard Specifications can be added to reinforce that the requirements of the specifications must be strictly implemented or possible litigation in the event of an accident. iii) A major recent initiative by road authorities as to improve safety at work zones has been implement separate payments for traffic management within the contracts rather than as a general overhead cost or provisional sum. So, now there is a financial incentive to provide quality traffic management because contractors can price separately the traffic management components and treats it as a major element. iv) With more funds available, the contractors can now provide improvement and safer construction practices and dedicate more resources to the implementation of the traffic management. Now, constructors have no excuse not to put into practice the requirements of the standards and specifications for the traffic management at work zones or they could face job suspension by the superintending authority and the possibility of litigation in the event of an accident under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. v) Lastly, there must be constant surveillance both day and night checks to ensure that the good design and practice of traffic management at work zones are adhered to. The Supervision Engineers must enforce the requirements of good traffic management practices and to ensure that the contractors comply with specifications and legal requirements. In addition, there should be a dedicated safety officer or independent safety inspector to audit the design, implementation and maintenance of the traffic control plans. For major projects this can be carried out by an independent Road Safety Auditor who is required to carry out regular checks day and night to meet their legal responsibilities. For further details please refer to APPENDIX C.
CHAPTER 2 REQUIREMENTS OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
CHAPTER 2 REQUIREMENTS OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
Purpose of Work Zone Traffic Management
The purpose of work zone traffic management is to provide a safe work zone for workers and to provide safe passage for motorists, pedestrians, and workers through the road works site. An effective traffic management must incorporate the following key elements:
warn motorists and pedestrians of road-works hazard ahead provide safe travel paths through the works area for the travelling public including pedestrians, at all times, day or night, and in all weather conditions provide a safe work zone for workers,
Objective of Work Zone Traffic Management
To create a safely handle traffic in work zones, the work activity and traffic management controls must be well coordinated to provide safe and smooth movement of traffic, while the work activity progresses as rapidly, safely, and efficiently as possible. When these two objectives come into conflict, tradeoffs between the safety of traffic and workers and the costs of traffic management, work delays may be created; the engineer is expected to use his engineering judgement to come out with an optimal design that meets at least the minimum requirements of these guidelines and the Occupational Safety and Health Act without fail.
Scope of Work Zone Traffic Management
Work zone traffic management is needed for a wide variety of activities on roads and highways as follows: i)
Construction Roadway reconstruction or resurfacing Roadway widening projects Storm drains and sewers Replacement of public utilities Bridge deck replacement
Minor maintenance works shoulder repairs guardrail repair shoulder mowing pavement striping ditch cleaning Major maintenance works pavement joint repair culvert repairs bridge repairs Uti1ity operations Emergency situations such as vehicle breakdowns or road accidents
The Principles of Work Zone Traffic Management
The Principles of Work Zone Traffic Management includes; i)
Make traffic safety an integral and high priority element of every project. Use geometries and traffic control devices that are comparable to those of normal highway situations. Prepare a traffic management plan that is easily understood by all persons responsible for work zone traffic control.
Avoid inhibiting traffic flow as much as possible. Avoid reduced speed zoning except where required. Avoid frequent and abrupt changes in geometrics. Provide for the safe operations of work vehicles Minimize work time to reduce exposure Schedule work during off-peak periods
Guide motorists in a clear and concise way. Use adequate warning, delineation, and channelization to give guidance for all light and weather conditions. expected during the work activity. Remove inappropriate pavement markings. Use flagging only when other methods of traffic control are inadequate.
Perform routine inspection of traffic control elements. Assign individuals trained in safe traffic control the reponsibi1ity for safety at worksites. Make modifications to traffic controls or working conditions when necessary. Monitor work sites under varying conditions of traffic volume, light, and weather. Perform engineering analyses of all accidents in work zones. -
Analyze work zone accident records to guide officials in improving work zone operations. Remove traffic control devices immediately when they are no longer needed.
Give constant attention to roadside safety. Provide clear roadside recovery area as wide as practical. Use lightweight channelization devices, which will yield on impact. Provide appropriate barriers to protect workers and errant road users. Store construction equipment, materials and debris in a manner, which will minimize the opportunity for run-off-road vehicle impacts. Use latest technology / materials to provide advance information and enhanced visibility to all road users.
CHAPTER 3 STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
CHAPTER 3 STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES The Traffic Management at Work Zones in Malaysia requires thorough planning and design as to ensure a high and satisfactory level of safety is provided for all road users. A well thought out Traffic Management Plan (TMP) will reduce the number and severity of accidents, slow down traffic and minimize public complaints. One of the major aims of this Interim Guide is to propose strategies for the effective implementation of managing traffic at work zones. The new strategies involve the following: i) ii)
new definitions and categories of work zones designs (see Chapter 4 and 5); a framework for the design and implementation of the Traffic Management Plans; a framework for the checking and reporting on the execution of the Traffic Management Plans (TMPs) on site.
The new strategies outline the procedures for planning, designing and implementing the traffic management schemes. It also outlines the roles, authorities and responsibilities of the people involved in the implementation of the Traffic Management at Work Sites. The procedures and steps to be taken are as follows:
Implementation Strategies 3.1.1 During the Design Activities •
Execute appropriate Planning and Design o Carry out full field Checks and Inventory of Existing Facilities o Design of TMPs must be approved by the Supervising Engineers o TMPs must be endorsed by the Road Authorities or Superintending Officers/Project Director or his representative, prior to commencement of work.
Costing of Traffic Management in the Bill Of Quantities o The Road Authorities or the person / parties carrying out works on the road (e.g... Developers) should allocate funds for the execution of traffic management at work zones. o For the purpose of costing, Consultants and Contractors are to refer and comply to the requirements specified in the document titled “Guideline on the Estimation Procedures for Traffic Management during Construction (Nota Teknik Jalan 23/03)” produced by JKR Malaysia
3.1.2 During the Pre-Construction Activities • • •
TMPs must be acceptable to the Local Authorities and Local Communities TMPs must be made known to the road users well in advance of any construction works TMPs must be made known to the JKR District and JKR State; particularly it may involve road/lane closure or major road diversion.
3.1.3 During the Construction Activities •
These activities are to be carried out by the Contractor: o Dissemination of Information on the proposed TMPs o Ensure Proper and Adequate Enforcement from the local Enforcement Units o Set up a formal Traffic Management Team, inclusive of Flagmen, Placement and Removal Crews and Maintenance Personnel's. o Operate an Emergency Response Team o Carry out Maintenance of the Scheme and the Devices o Ensure timely Placement and Removal o Carry out timely cleaning of the control devices o Inform the District Engineer of any road/lane closure and/or diversion
3.1.4 Reporting • •
Traffic Management Safety Reports (TMSRs) o The Contractor needs to prepare the TMSRs at interval of every 3 months Road Safety Audit on the TMPs o Audit on the TMPs (by approved Road Safety Auditors) should be carried on a three monthly or six monthly intervals as deemed appropriate and necessary by the Superintending Officers (SO). o The need for reports and checking to be carried out depends on the requirements of the Road Authorities; and accordingly with the size and duration of the project intervals shall be determined by the Superintending Officers (SO).
During Pre-Construction Activities 3.2.1 Proper Planning and Design Before any planning on Traffic Management Scheme (TMS) commences, the Contractor’s traffic engineer must visit the site for field check and to collect inventory of the existing facilities including existing structure, services and public facilities such as street lighting, traffic light, bus and taxi stop and road furniture’s that may require removal or relocation during the construction stage. In addition, the engineer should assess the existing road capacity, determine the existing travel and distributions pattern and identify potential problems that might arise due to temporary road diversions. The engineer should also carry out discussion with the local authorities on the effect of the construction works on the existing traffic patterns and the occurrence of any local festivities / activities / upgrading programs.
During Construction Activities 3.3.1 Dissemination of Information to Road Users Dissemination of information to the road users through mass media is encouraged. The public need to be informed early in the process in order to assist them to plan for this change. Information should be channelled a week before the implementation of traffic management scheme. A good way of doing this is through public announcements in newspapers, radio and television and approach signboards. 3.3.2 Proper and Adequate Enforcement Support from local Enforcement Units such as the local Traffic Police or the enforcement units of the Road Authorities and Agencies are important as they serve to control the traffic thus easing traffic congestion. The presence of the Enforcement Units also act as reminder to the general public to obey traffic signs and behave courteously on the road as action will be taken against them for any traffic offence. Advance notice must be given to the traffic police to ensure their presence during periods as to avoid any traffic congestion.
3.3.3 Supervision and Execution of Traffic Management Schemes To ensure a smooth construction sequence without compromising public road safety for pedestrians and other road users, the Contractor needs to set up two distinct teams, each with their unique roles and responsibilities. they are the Traffic Management Team and the Emergency Response Team as illustrated below.
CONTRACTOR’s MANAGEMENT TEAM
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OFFICER
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT TEAM (TMT)
EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM (ERT)
Note: 1. 2.
TMT is required for all road works ERT is only required but in its absence will result in undue delay/congestion during construction. (High volume road, protocol road, major diversion) and is to be identified during the detail design stage.
3.3.4 Traffic Management Team The role of the Traffic Management Team is to ensure that the traffic management scheme is implemented in accordance with approved drawings. Their duties include proper installation, maintenance and cleaning of road safety equipments such as plastic barriers, safety cones, plastic hoardings, temporary warnings and directional signboards, arrow flashers, flashing ambers and etc, In addition, they will ensure that all lane closures and traffic diversions are implemented in compliance with all traffic management procedures as per the authority requirement. The team is also responsible to ensure the safety and smooth traffic flow through the period of road closure. The person in-charge of the traffic management team must regularly inspect the situation of traffic flow and update the road authorities on the prevailing traffic conditions. The team must be able to establish an effective line of communication for emergencies and changes in circumstances. There are occasions that necessary to reroute the traffic to opposite traffic lanes in contra flow for activities such as the launching of bridge beams, the construction of a bridge pier and at interchanges in the middle of existing roadways. Traffic management personnel should present at site during construction including weekends, public holidays, and under any weather conditions.
3.3.5 Emergency Response Team (ERT) The role of the Emergency Response Team is to provide a 24-hour patrol for the full domain of the construction zone. They will liaise with the main contractor, tow-truck operators, traffic police in the event of a road accident, stalled vehicles, landslides, ground failures and flash floods that may occur at any time within the construction zone. In addition, the ERT will report to the traffic safety officer on any incidence of poor housekeeping by sub-contractors. They shall be on the lookout for inappropriate or poor condition signboards. Particular attention must be given to public safety in areas of open excavations. The Emergency Response Team are responsible for preparing an Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that will include all likely events that may cause disruptions to the smooth flow of traffic at the approach to and at the construction site. An orderly chain of command needs to be established by the ERT to inform all parties of any emergencies and enable the S.O/P.D and/or his representative to make well informed decisions, including informing the Police and the media, to overcome/mitigate the effects of the emergencies and minimize inconvenience to road users. A copy of ERT and ERP are to be submitted to the State Director and District Engineer for their info and record.
Responsibilities 3.4.1 Responsibilities of the S.O/P.D The duties of the S.O/P.D include the following:•
Initiate/request for the appointment of a qualified Road Safety Auditor as soon as possible upon receipt of Letter of Award preferably within 1 month from receipt of LOA. Chair the commencement meeting and review any Stage 3 Compliance Audit. Chair the Stage 4 Audit meetings to discuss the Road Safety Auditor findings and make decisions based on the Auditor recommendations and response by the Contractor Evaluate the financial, contractual and legal issues arising from compliance/non compliance to Auditor recommendations based on advice from S.O/P.D representative and Road Safety Auditor
3.4.2 Responsibilities of the S.O/P.D Representative The S.O/P.D representative is the engineer who is the supervisor appointed or employed by the Government to carry out supervision of the construction, maintenance or other works which require the use of a traffic management scheme. The S.O/P.D must follow the procedures; i)
Be mindful of the Government’s responsibilities and legal implications of providing, as far as practical, safe and convenient travelling conditions for road users and safe working conditions for personnel and plant under their control.
Ensure that the traffic safety personnel maintain and remove signs and devices carry out their works diligently in accordance to design guidelines and procedures.
Be familiar with, and act in accordance with the provisions of this guideline and all the appropriate legislation.
The duties of the S.O/P.D representative includes:• • • • • • •
Provide scope of Audit works to Road Safety Auditor via the Contractor Call for commencement meeting to discuss scope of Audit works and specific conditions and location of the construction site Call for Stage 4 meetings to discuss Road Safety Auditor findings Prepare minutes of Stage 4 meetings of Road Safety Auditor findings Supervise the corrective/improvement measures as directed by the S.O/P.D. Issue work approvals for the next stage of construction. Liaison with the enforcement agencies such as PDRM on measures to reduce traffic congestion.
Inform major road users including truckers, public transport, Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM), Malaysia Airline System(MAS) Kargo, etc of any major disruptions to major Federal Roads due to construction works.
3.4.3 Responsibilities of the Contractor The Contractor carrying out construction or maintenance operations on roads or bridges will take due care and diligence to minimize the risk of injury to road users or damage to their property as a result of such operations. Actions should be taken to warn the public of prevailing conditions and to guard, delineate, and, where necessary, to illuminate works which may pose a hazard to traffic. The contractor will take all necessary measures to minimize delays and detours which will inconvenience motorists. There is a legal requirement on the part of the Contractor to provide a safe working environment for its employees and the travelling public through the work site. The duties of the Contractor include:• • • • • • • • •
Issue official letter of appointment to Road Safety Auditor Provide scope of Audit works Prepare TMP for all work zones and submit to SO/PD, Local Authority, PDRM and Road Safety Auditor Provide drawings, documents and reports to Road Safety Auditor Provide construction program chart to Road Safety Auditor to enable Road Safety Auditor prepare schedule of Stage 4 Audit works Prepare response to Road Safety Auditor findings Carry out corrective/improvement works as decided upon by the S.O/P.D Inform/advise Road Safety Auditor of the next stage of Audit Disseminate information on TMP to public via newspaper, radio, TV, traffic signs, etc (Preferably 1 week in advance)
3.4.4 Responsibilities of the Traffic Management Officer (TMO) The Traffic Management Officer is the contractor’s representative responsible for all matters related to the safety of the travelling public and construction workers within the limits of the construction works/limits of the contract. He supervises both the Traffic Management Team and Emergency Response Teams. The TMO is to be always aware of the following:i.
To be fully conversant of the Contractor’s responsibilities and their own responsibility as to provide safe and convenient travelling conditions for road users and safe working conditions for personnel and plant under their control.
To monitor that personnel under their control are employees of the Contractor and should at all times be courteous to the travelling public. Personnel should not allow themselves to be provoked by members of the public, by exercising restraint they will strengthen their position both then and at any subsequent enquiry or legal proceedings.
To ensure that the traffic controllers assigned to direct traffic or personnel employed to place, maintain and remove signs and devices, are trained and fully aware of their duties and responsibilities.
Able to act in accordance with the provisions and directives of, this guideline and all the appropriate acts.
The Traffic Management Officer is to provide evidence to the SO that he has the necessary skills and qualification to perform his duties. The role of the Traffic Management Officer is to ensure a smooth construction sequence all throughout the construction period without compromising the safety of all road users including pedestrians and bicyclists. The Traffic Safety Officer is to use his experience to anticipate possible traffic congestions and come out with appropriate mitigating measures. The duties of the Traffic Safety Officer include: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.
Designing the TMP’s Monitoring the placements and removal of the Traffic Control devices Monitoring the operations of the Traffic Control devices equipment Maintain the effectiveness of the traffic control plans Analysing the occurrences of road accidents within the work zones Preparing and displaying up-to-date TMP for inspection and audit Preparing the tri-monthly Traffic Management Safety Report (TMSR) Oversee the Emergency Response Team (ERT). This include 24 hr patrol, liaison with PDRM, tow truck operators and local authorities Prepare Emergency Response Plan (ERP) that shall include all contingencies that can affect the smooth flow of traffic at the approach to and within the construction site (E.g. floods, landslides, stalled vehicles, major sporting events, etc) Give special attention to abnormal traffic operations such as contra flow, bridge diversion, etc.
3.4.5 Responsibilities of the Road Safety Auditor The role of the Road Safety Auditor is to audit the TMP at the approach to and within the construction site. This includes the observation of the effectiveness of the TMP’s and the traffic control devices employed during the day and night. The duties of the Road Safety Auditor include: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii.
Visiting the site (Preferably together with the Contractor and/or the Consultant) Auditing the TMP at the beginning of the construction to ensure workability and suitability throughout the duration of the construction period. Auditing the Work Zones during the Construction Phase. This is to be carried out every three months (Subject to request by S.O/P.D). Preparing the Road Safety Audit reports and sending them directly to all the relevant parties (JKR, Contractor and Consultant). Presenting the findings of the Audit reports Providing best advice to the S.O/P.D for him to make well informed decisions Providing advice to the S.O/P.D on matters related to traffic management plan during construction, as and when required.
CHAPTER 4 PLANNING TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEMES
CHAPTER 4 PLANNING TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEMES The development of work zone traffic management begins with the planning process. This Section details the importance of the planning process and gives an overview of the steps in the process with emphasis is on the relationship between planning and design.
The Planning Process
The overall purpose of the planning process is to select the most appropriate traffic management strategy. “Work Zone Traffic Management Strategy” is the basic scheme of moving traffic through or around a construction, or maintenance activity. The type of work zone is the most significant element of the control strategy, which are also includes length of work zone, time of work, number of lanes, width of lanes, speed control method and right-of-way control method. The planning process involves seven steps: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5:
Step 6: Step 7:
Assemble Data- Describe the construction data base Select the Traffic and Construction Duration Categories. Determine Extent of Roadway Occupancy – Assessment of the roadway capacity. Identify Feasible Work Zone Types – The work zone types may be selected from the “Typical Work Zones” Impact Analysis for Environmental, Safety, Traffic flow and cost. Analyse Volume/Capacity Relationships – Detailed analysis of capacity constraints, queue lengths and delay. (For short duration construction, this may not be necessary) Select preferred Strategy – Document implementation plan. Check for any mitigation required
A flow chart of the process is as shown in Figure 4.1. Step 1 Assemble Data Step 2 Determine Traffic and Construction Duration Category
Step 3 Determine Extent of Roadway Occupancy
Step 4 Identify Feasible Work Zone Types
Step 5 Impact Analysis - Environmental, Safety, Traffic flow and Cost - Analyze Volume/Capacity Relationships (not for Temporary and Short Term Diversions) Step 6 Select Preferred Traffic Management Plan Alternative
Step 7 Check for any mitigation required
Traffic Management Plan Conceptual Proposal
The Planning Process
Step 1: Assemble Data The basic data required is a complete description of the work to be performed which covers a wide range of activities such as: i) ii) iii)
Construction of new roadside drainage which may have no direct disruption of traffic flow. Adding a new lane, reconstructing a highway ramp, or resurfacing a pavement can have extensive impact on traffic. Replacing a bridge or culvert which may involve roadway closure and detours with very extensive disruption to traffic.
The Degree of Impact will suggest the extent of the data required. Table 4.1 summarizes some basic guidelines. The basic requirements are described in the top half of the table which will be sufficient for most projects the bottom half describes the requirement for detour routes or where additional information is required to appraise various options available. It is important that the designer of the Traffic Management Plans and his/her team to visit the site for field check and collate an inventory on the existing facilities including existing structures, services and public facilities such as street lighting, traffic light, bus and taxi stops and roadside furniture that may require removal during the construction stages. Data collection, assessment of existing road capacity with traffic movement including the numbers of lanes, existing islands, medians, kerbing, geometry, existing travel and distribution patterns. Identify potential problems that may arise due to temporary road widening or diversions to be used by main contractor. Desk top studies of existing traffic data will also assist in the planning processes.
TABLE 4.1 – Suggested Data Base
Basic Requirements Description of Construction Project - Type of work - Roadway encroachment should include the space required by the work activities and equipment, the safety buffer required for adequate work site protection and the physical space occupied by the barricades or other traffic control devices. - Limits of work - Tentative work sequence and schedule - Estimated cost - Construction category Traffic Data - 24 hour volume counts - Roadway geometrics - Speed data - Description of potential detour routes
Additional Information Roadway Data - Right of way limitations - Horizontal and vertical profiles - Type and location of traffic control devices - Adjacent lane use Traffic Data - Daily and seasonal volume variations - Intersection and Interchange turning movement counts - Volume of trucks - Signal timing data - Accident history
Select the Traffic and Construction Duration Categories
For the purpose of standardization, ease of strategy identification and design, the Work Zone Types are divided into the following categories:
TABLE 4.2: TRAFFIC CATEGORIES ROAD CLASSIFICATION URBAN
< 60 km/hr
> 60 km/hr
< 70 km/hr
> 70 km/hr
< 90 km/hr
> 90 km/hr
TABLE 4.3: CONSTRUCTION DURATION CATEGORIES
< 1 Day
Short Term Diversion
< 1 Month
Long Term Diversion
> 1 Month
Determine Extent of Roadway Occupancy
The type of construction will dictate the degree to which the roadway will be occupied and closed to normal traffic, the extent of which will be determined by the following factors: i) The total project length of the beginning and ending points. ii) The length of the occupied roadway at any one time and during the 24-hour period. iii) The portion of the roadway that will be closed to normal traffic.
The expected number of working days to complete the project. The cross section of the road
Each of the above factors is a function of the work zone strategy and has some flexibility such that traffic disruption can be minimised. As a guide, the number and size of lanes provided through the work zones should where possible be the same as the existing permission at the discretion of the SO. The Level of Service (LOS) during the construction period where possible, should be maintained. Step 4:
Identify Feasible Work Zone Types
Step 4 and Step 5 serve to identify possible work zone types such as: 1. Lane Constriction 2. Lane Closure 3. Shared Right of Way 4. Median crossover and contra flow 5. Detour 6. Temporary Bypass 7. Intermittent Closure 8. Use of Shoulder or Median Based on the extent of roadway occupancy, the cross-sectional characteristics (lane width, shoulder width, right of way, etc.) and considering the constraints imposed by regulations and policies, feasible work zone types can now be chosen. Typically, only a small number of work zone types will emerge as being feasible for a particular project, and in many cases only one may be possible. Identification of these types in this early stage of the planning process can significantly reduce the analysis effort in subsequent steps.
The purpose of this step is to conduct impact assessment related to environment, safety, traffic flow and cost to evaluate in detail the extent of each impact due to the construction activities. For the Temporary and Short Term Diversions, there is no need to carry out the volume/capacity analysis. For the Long Term Diversion the general level of roadway congestion should also be recognized. The purpose of this step is to analyze in detail and investigate the volume/capacity relationships to allow a complete consideration of each possible strategy. This step will also determine the roadway capacities of the various work zone strategies and to compare them to the anticipated traffic volumes. When volume exceeds capacity, an estimate of queue length will also be calculated. Depending on the length and duration of the queue, the strategy may have to be abandoned unless additional measures can be taken to increase capacity or reduce demand. Such measures may include restricting work to certain times, making signalization improvements, removing parking, and diverting traffic to other facilities.
Select Preferred Alternative Traffic Management Plan
When all critical impacts are analysed, the most effective strategy will often has less impact on all measures. Step 7:
Check for Mitigation Requirement
Finally mitigation measures will be necessary for the preferred alternative to minimise impact caused by the construction works. This complete analysis should be carefully documented and used as input to the overall work zone traffic control process.
4.2.1 Relationship Between Planning and Design Selecting the appropriate traffic management strategy that develop plans and specifications requires to implement the two distinctly activities. Although planning and design are different activities, a strong relationship exists between them. During the planning process when strategies are being defined, the traffic management plan for each strategy sketched. The cost of the traffic control is also a factor in the selection of the most cost effective traffic management strategy that meets the requirement of these guidelines and the relevant acts. When the planning process is complete, the sketch of the traffic management plan is a natural starting place for the design process. If the design process reveals major impacts that were not considered during the planning process, then it may be necessary to include these impacts and re-evaluate the planning results.
CHAPTER 5 DESIGNING A TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEME
CHAPTER 5 DESIGNING A TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEME This Chapter discusses the design of Traffic Management Plans (TMPs) including the details of the plan, typical layout and adapting typical layout to actual site conditions.
Traffic Management Plans (TMPs)
The Traffic Management Plans show the placement and type of traffic control devices to be used in a work zone as well as details about the type of work zone to be used in each phase of the work. The Traffic Management Plan should be prepared and must be understood by all responsible personnel before the site is occupied. Any changes in the traffic management plan should be authorized by an official trained in safe traffic control practices. A formal Traffic Management Plan (TMP) is required with the plans, specifications, and estimates for all road projects. TMP's may range in scope from a very detailed plans designed for specific projects, to simply a reference to typical plans. The details of the TMP depend on the complexity of the project and on the amount of traffic interference introduced by the work activity. Materials developed for the TMP may include, but are not limited to: Scaled drawings of the control zones A list of devices selected for installation Identification of special manpower needs such as flagmen Approvals and Endorsement by Supervising Engineers and the Road Authorities respectively. Copies of permits should also be displayed if applicable. Phone numbers of officials to be contacted in an emergency Scaled drawings of construction stages, including detours, lane closure, U-turns Placement and Removal dates Identification of special needs such as nighttimes delineation, temporary signals, pedestrian crossing facilities, contra flow along dual carriageways Development of the traffic management plan actually starts during the planning process. The planning process will generally specify the most appropriate work zone type, the phases of work, and scheduling considerations.
Construction staging determined during the planning process, should be re-examined to determine the complexity of each stage, overlapping of stages, periods or work activities that were overlooked and special problems expected.
Areas that must be considered in detail include: Existing rules and restrictions on/within the construction area The location of work (on roadway, shoulders, or sidewalks) The number of lanes required for the work activity, Hazards created by the work activity within the recovery area such as boulders, drains, pipe, headwalls, blunt ends of guardrail, and sign supports, Delays during the placement and removal (preferably during low traffic volume periods) Maximum length of work zone allowed by the road authority Special needs of local traffic
Factors that should be considered in the TMP are shown in TABLE 5.1.
TABLE 5.1: FACTORS IN DESIGN OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLANS
Economic and community commercial business districts, residential locations, recreation areas, shopping centres, railroad crossings, rural areas,
volumes, peak hours, including holiday, special event and recreation traffic, pedestrians, bicycles and motorcycle traffic large vehicles such as trucks and buses, speed of traffic, (Peak and off peak period) capacity of roadway, traffic signal operation (effect on existing vehicle detectors); bus stops,
Maintenance loss of visibility and damage to devices during rain , drainage during heavy rain, maintenance of traffic control devices includes cleaning and cutting vegetation away from signs. period of construction
Worker Provisions parking of private vehicles, protection near travel way flagmen access to each part of work area and break area
Traffic Control Zones
The design of the traffic management scheme must follow the basic concept of a typical work zone. A typical work zone should have the following areas: -
Advance Warning Area
If no lane or shoulder closure is involved, the transition area will not be used. In this Chapter, each of the “Zone/Area” will be examined for one direction of travel. If the work activity affects more than one direction of travel, the same principles apply to traffic in all directions. FIGURE 5.1: section.
illustrates the five parts of a traffic control zone to be discussed in this
Figure 5.1: Areas in a Traffic Control Zone Ref. Manual on Traffic Control Devices Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control (ATJ 2C/85)
5.2.1 ZONE A:
Advance Warning Area
An advance warning area is necessary for all traffic control zones because drivers need to be made aware that they are approaching the construction area. Before reaching the work area, drivers should be given enough time to alter their driving patterns. The advance warning area may vary from a series of signs starting 2 km in advance of the work area to a single sign or flashing lights on a vehicle
When the work area, including access to the work area, is entirely off the shoulder and the work does not interfere with traffic, an advance warning sign may not be needed. An advance warning sign should be used when any problems or conflicts with the flow of traffic may be anticipated.
The advance warning area, from the first sign to the start of the next area, should be long enough to give the motorists adequate time to respond to the changing conditions. For most operations, the advance warning distance requirement for various road types are: a) 2 km to 1 km for expressways b) 500m for most rural roadways or open highways conditions c) at least 250m for urban roadways.
TABLE 5.2: ADVANCE WARNING ZONES ROAD CLASSIFICATION
5.2.2 ZONE B:
When work is performed within one or more travelled lanes, a lane closure(s) is required. In the transition area, traffic is channelized from the normal highway lanes to the path required to move traffic around the work area. The transition area includes the taper transition length.
The transition area should be clearly visible to drivers. The correct driving path should be clearly marked with channelizing devices and pavement markings. Existing pavement markings need to be removed and new markings placed when they conflict with the transition. Pavement marking arrows are useful in transition areas.
With moving operations, the transition area moves with the work area. A shadow vehicle may be used to warn and guide traffic into the proper lane.
A taper is a series of channelizing devices and pavement markings placed on an angle to move traffic out of its normal path. Four general types of tapers used in traffic control zones are: a) Lane closure tapers are those necessary for closing lanes of moving traffic (sometimes referred to as channelizing tapers) b) Two-way traffic tapers are those needed to control two-way traffic where traffic is required to alternately use a single lane (commonly used when flagman is present) c) Shoulder closure tapers are those needed to close shoulder areas. d) Downstream tapers are those installed to direct traffic back into its normal path.
Lane Closure Taper a) The length of taper used to close a lane is determined by the speed of traffic and the width of the lane to be closed (the lateral distance traffic is shifted). There are two formulas for determining the length of a taper (L) used for lane closures (See Table 5.3). If restricted sight distance is a problem, the taper should begin well in advance of the obstruction such as on sharp vertical or horizontal curves. Table 5.4 shows the taper lengths, the recommended number and spacing of channelizing devices b)
Generally, tapers should be lengthened, not shortened, to increase their effectiveness. Observe traffic to see if the taper is working correctly. Frequent use of brakes and evidence of skid marks is an indication that either the taper is too short or the advance warning is inadequate.
Two-Way Traffic Taper a) The two-way traffic taper is used in advance of a work area that occupies part of a two-way road in such a way that the remainder of the road is used alternately by traffic in either direction. In this situation, the function of the taper is not to cause traffic to merge, but rather to resolve the potential head-on conflict. A short taper is used to cause traffic to slow down by giving the appearance of restricted alignment. Drivers then have time to decide whether to proceed cautiously past the workspace or to wait for opposing traffic clear. A flagman is usually employed to assign the right-of way in such situations. b)
Two-way traffic tapers should be 15 to 30 meters long, with channelizing devices spaced a maximum of 3 to 6 meter respectively, to provide clear delineation of the taper.
Shoulder Closure Taper a) When an improved shoulder is closed on a high-speed roadway, it should be treated as a closure of a portion of the roadway, which the motorists may expect to use in an emergency. The work area on the shoulder should be preceded by a taper that may be shorter than for lane closures. One-half of the length from Table 5.4 is suggested as a maximum for shoulder closure’ tapers provided the shoulder is not used as a travel lane. If the shoulder is being used as a travel lane, either through practice or through use caused by construction, a lane taper closure should be placed on the shoulder.
Downstream Taper a) A downstream taper is used at the downstream end of the work area as to indicate to drivers that they can move back to the normal traffic lane and it should be placed within the termination area. While closing tapers are optional, they may be useful in directing traffic flow except when material trucks enter or leave the work area. b)
Closing tapers are similar in length and spacing to two-way traffic tapers.
5.2.3 ZONE C:
The buffer zone is the open or unoccupied space between the transition and work areas. With a moving operation, the buffer space is the space between the shadow vehicle, if one is used, and the work vehicle.
The buffer space provides a margin of safety for both traffic and workers. If a driver does not see the advance warning or fails to negotiate the transition, a buffer space provides room to stop before the work area, It is important for the buffer space to be free of equipment, workers, materials, and workers’ vehicles.
Place channelizing devices along the edge of the buffer space. The suggested spacing in meters is equal to two times the spacing for lane closure taper.
Situations may occur where opposing streams of traffic are transitioned so one lane of traffic uses a lane that is normally in the opposite direction. In these situations, a buffer space should be used to separate the two tapers for opposing directions of traffic as to avoid head-on collisions.
5.2.4 ZONE D:
The work area is that portion of the roadway, which contains the work activity and is closed to traffic and set aside for exclusive use by workers, equipment, and construction materials. Work areas may remain in fixed locations or may move as work progresses. An empty buffer space may be included at the upstream end. The work area is usually delineated by channelizing devices or shielded by barriers to exclude traffic and pedestrians.
Conflicts between traffic and the work activity or potential hazards increase as: a) The work area is closer to the travelled lanes b) Physical deterrents to normal operation exist, such as uneven pavements, vehicles loading or unloading. c) Speed and volume of traffic increase d) The change in travel path gets more complex, shifting traffic a few meters in comparison with shifting traffic across the median and into lanes normally used by opposing traffic.
Work areas that remain overnight have a greater need for delineation than daytime operations.
Guidelines a) b)
c) d) e)
5.2.5 ZONE E:
Use traffic control devices to make the work area clearly visible to traffic. Place channelizing devices between the work area and the travelled way. Devices placed on a tangent (along the work area) to keep traffic out of a closed lane should be spaced in accordance with the extent and type of activity, the speed limit, vertical and horizontal alignment such that it is clearly visible that the lane is closed. For high speed roadways, the devices should be spaced 2 to 4 times the spacing for lane closure taper. For low-speed roadways, a closer spacing may be adopted. Provide a safe entrance and exit for work vehicles. Protect mobile and moving operations with adequate warning on the work and/or shadow vehicles. Flashing lights and flags should be considered on work vehicles exposed to traffic.
The termination area provides a short distance for traffic to clear the work area and to return to the normal traffic lanes. It extends from the downstream end of the work area to the “PEMBINAAN TAMAT” sign. A downstream taper may be placed within the termination area.
For some minor work operations, such as single location utility or maintenance repair, it may not be necessary to display a sign as it will be obvious to drivers that they had passed the work area.
There are occasions where the termination area could include a transition. For example, if a taper were used to shift traffic into opposing lanes around the work area, then the termination area should have a taper to shift traffic back to its normal path. This taper would then be in the transition area for the opposing direction of traffic. It is advisable to use a buffer space between the tapers for opposing traffic.
Avoid ‘gaps’ in the traffic control that may falsely indicate to drivers that they had passed the work area, for example, if the work area includes intermittent activity throughout a 1 kilometre section, the drivers should be reminded periodically that they are still in the work area.
Refer also to Figure 5. 4 for area distances and spacing of traffic control devices
TABLE 5.3: FORMULAS FOR TAPER LENGTH Posted Speed
70 km/h or under
L= WS2 155
70 km/h or over
L= WS 1.6
Where L = taper length W = width of lane or offset S = posted speed, or off-peak 85 percentile speed Ref. ATJ 2C/85 - Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control
Taper Length Speed Limit km/hr 30 40 50 55 65 70 80 90
Lane Width in Meters 3 17 30 50 60 80 130 150 170
3.5 20 35 55 70 95 155 175 195
3.75 22 40 60 75 100 165 190 210
Number of Channelizing Devices for Taper *
Spacing of Devices Along Taper in Meters
5 6 7 8 9 13 13 13
6 7 9 10 12 13 15 16
TABLE 5.4: Taper Lengths for Lane Closures-Distance L *
Base on 3.75-meter wide lane. This column is appropriate for lane widths less than 3.75 meters Ref. ATJ 2C/85 - Temporary Signs and Work Zones Control
SPACING OF DEVICES
min. 50 m apart
Rural Roadways or Open Highways
350 m (min.)
min. 50 m apart
250 m (min.)
min. 15 m apart
Lane closure Taper
As in Table 5.4
As in Table 5.4
2-way Traffic Taper
15 - 30 m
3 - 6 m apart
Half the values of Table 5.4 (max.)
As in Table 5.4
15 - 30 m
3 - 6 m apart
Double the values of Table 5.4
Double or four times the values of Table 5.4
15 - 30 m
3 - 6 m apart
AREA ADVANCE WARNING AREA Expressways
Shoulder Closure Taper
TERMINATION AREA Downstream Taper
TABLE 5.5: Details of Traffic Control Zone Areas
CHAPTER 6 TYPICAL LAYOUTS OF THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN
CHAPTER 6 TYPICAL LAYOUTS OF THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN
New Typical Layouts
In this Interim Guide, a new set of Temporary Signs is being proposed. The main focus of the new proposal is the use of “symbols” rather than “words” in the sign faces. The new sign face proposals are as shown in APPENDIX A. The new temporary signs are also proposed to have different shapes for the “Expressway” categories and the “Urban and Rural” categories. For the purpose of standardization; ease of strategy identification; and design, it is proposed that the Work Zone Types are divided into two, i.e.: i) ii)
the Traffic Category , and the Construction Duration Category
6.1.1 The Traffic Category The traffic category will determine the sizes of the Traffic Control Zones. These are illustrated in Table 6.1 and Figure 6.1.
TRAFFIC CATEGORIES ROAD CLASSIFICATION
< 60 km/hr
> 60 km/hr
< 70 km/hr
> 70 km/hr
< 90 km/hr
> 90 km/hr
TABLE 6.1: The Traffic Categories
FIGURE 6.1: SIZES OF TRAFFIC ZONES
ZONE A ADVANCE WARNING
URBAN Low Speed High Speed RURAL Low Speed High Speed EXPRESSWAYS Low Speed High Speed
ZONE B TRANSITION
ZONE C BUFFER
ZONE D WORK AREA
Note: 1. 2.
Max length of work zone is 5km and the maximum area allowed for each excavation area is 200m. All barriers to be continuous
ZONE E TERMINATE
6.1.2 The Construction Duration Category
The Construction Duration category will determine the type of the Traffic Control Devices. These are illustrated in Table 6.2 and Figure 6.2.
CONSTRUCTION DURATION CATEGORIES
< 1 Day
# Flagmen are always required during temporary diversion works
Short Term Diversion
Long Term Diversion
> 1 Day < 1 Month
> 1 Month
TABLE 6.2: The Construction Duration Categories
THE CHOICE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES (Depending on the Construction Duration)
ZONE A ADVANCE WARNING
ZONE B TRANSITION
ZONE D WORK AREA
Adv Sign – MUST The other signs are advantageous to have
- Arrow Signs -Cones
-Arrow Signs -Cones
Adv Warning Signs - Apply the full set
-Arrow Signs -Plastic NJBs
-Work Area, Speed Signs -Plastic NJBs -Delineators, Strings
Adv Warning Signs – Apply the full set
-Arrow Signs -Plastic NJBs -Add. TCDs
-Work Area, Speed Signs -Concrete, Plastic NJBs -Delineators, Strings
ZONE C BUFFER
ZONE E TERMINATE
It is the intention of the Interim Guide to standardize the application of the temporary signs in the work zones. This is to ensure drivers’ familiarize and compliance to the TMP proposal. It is recommended that a uniform arrangement of signs be adopted throughout the work area. The proposed arrangement of signs is in Figure 6.3. The detailed signing of each zone is as follows:
ZONE A: ADVANCE WARNING AREA (the example given here is for the Rural High Speed Traffic Category)
See Figure 6.4. Sign 1 – Identification Sign -
This sign gives an advance warning to the motorists of a work area ahead. It should also identify the Road Authority responsible for the work. This is usually a “worded” sign.
This sign should be installed 500m from Transition Area in the case of the Rural High Speed Traffic Category.
Sign 2 – Information Sign -
This sign also provides advance warning to the motorists of a work area ahead. This is usually a “symbol” sign.
This sign should be installed 400m from Transition Area in the case of the Rural High Speed Traffic Category.
Sign 3 – Speed Sign -
This is the Speed sign indicating the first “step-down” speed for the motorists. The speed step-down should not exceed 20km/hr.
This sign should be installed 300m from Transition Area in the case of the Rural High Speed Traffic Category.
Sign 4 – Information Sign -
This sign provides information to the motorists of what to expect ahead and what manoeuvres he will need to make. This is usually a “symbol” sign.
This sign should be installed 200m from Transition Area in the case of the Rural High Speed Traffic Category.
Sign 5 – Speed Sign -
This is the Speed sign indicating the second “step-down” speed for the motorists.
This sign should be installed 100m from Transition Area in the case of the Rural High Speed Traffic Category.
FIGURE 6.3: SIGN ARRANGEMENTS
ZONE A ADVANCE WARNING
USE 1st Sign2nd Sign3rd Sign4th Sign5th Sign-
Identification Sign Info Sign Speed Sign Info Sign Speed Sign
ZONE B TRANSITION
ZONE C BUFFER
ZONE D WORK AREA
ZONE E TERMINATE
WORK AREA SIGNS And SPEED SIGNS
FIGURE 6.4: SIGN ARRANGEMENTS FOR ADVANCE WARNING AREA
ZONE A ADVANCE WARNING
1st Sign2nd Sign3rd Sign4th Sign5th Sign-
Identification Sign Info Sign Speed Sign Info Sign Speed Sign
ARROW SIGN at the start of Transition Area to be placed on high post
ZONE B: TRANSITION AREA (See Figure 6.5). Sign 6 – Arrow Sign -
This is the Arrow Sign at the start of the Transition Area.
This sign should be installed at the beginning of the Transition Area. It is advisable to install all the Arrow Signs on high posts.
Signs 7 & 8 – Arrow Signs -
The Arrow Signs are repeated for Sign 7 and Sign 8.
Sign 7 is placed at the middle of the Transition Area.
Sign 8 is placed at the end of the Transition Area.
* The number of “Arrow Signs” in the Transition Area can be more if the conditions at the site demand it.
ZONE D: WORK AREA (See Figure 6.6). Sign 9 – Speed Sign -
This is the Speed Sign informing the motorists the safe speed to drive through the Work Area.
This sign should be installed at the beginning of the Work Area. It is advisable to install the Speed Signs on high posts.
This sign is repeated for Sign 11. This sign should be placed about 50m – 100m after Sign 10.
Sign 10 – Work Area Sign -
This is the Work Area Sign reminding the motorists driving through the Work Area.
This sign should be installed at 50m – 100m into the Work Area. It is advisable to install this sign on high posts.
This sign is repeated for Sign 12. This sign should be placed about 50m – 100m after Sign 11.
* The number of “Speed Signs” and “Work Area Signs” in the Work Area can be more if the conditions at the site warrant it.
ZONE E: TERMINATION AREA Sign 13 – “PEMBINAAN; TAMAT” - Install 30m after the downstream taper
Figure 6.7 gives an overall sign arrangement layout for the typical Rural High Speed Traffic Category work zone.
FIGURE 6.5: SIGN ARRANGEMENTS FOR TRANSITION AREA
ARROW SIGNs at the Transition Area - To be placed on high post - The numbers of Arrow signs can be increase if needed
ZONE B TRANSITION
FIGURE 6.6: SIGN ARRANGEMENTS FOR WORK AREA
ALL SIGNS at the Work Area - To be placed on high post - Number of signs should be increased if the Work Area is long.
ZONE C BUFFER
ZONE D WORK AREA
ZONE E TERMINATE
FIGURE 6.7: OVERALL SIGN ARRANGEMENTS FOR RURAL HIGH SPEED
100m 100m 100m 500m ZONE A ADVANCE WARNING
150m ZONE B TRANSITION
ZONE C BUFFER
ZONE D WORK AREA
100m ZONE E TERMINATE
Modification of Typical Layouts
Each work zone is different, with variables such as speed, volume, location of work, pedestrians, and intersections changing the needs for each zone. The goal of work zone traffic control is safety, and the key factor in effective traffic control in work zones is application of proper judgements. Plans contained in the Guide are called “typical applications.” In this respect, they represent the layouts for the general situations found in the field. When unusual conditions are found, the typical layouts must be adapted to the particular roadway and worksite configuration. Furthermore, these typical layouts are minimum requirements. When needed, either additional device may be used to supplement the layout, or the sign spacing and taper lengths can be increased to give drivers additional response time or shortened for low-speed situations. When difficult situations or unusually hazardous conditions are encountered, a higher-type treatment than that shown as typical may be required. The types of modifications that may be desirable or needed include the following: i)
Additional devices - additional signs (but care must be taken not to “oversign” especially in the advance warning and transition areas of the work zone) - flashing arrow panels - more channelizing devices
Upgrading of devices - improved pavement markings or raised pavement markers - larger signs - higher type channelizing devices - barriers in place of channelizing devices - variable message signs
Improved geometrics at detours or crossovers
Increased distances - longer advance warning area - longer tapers
Lighting and Delineation - steady-burn lights for channelization - flashing lights for isolated hazards - illuminated signs - floodlights - string delineators (along high speed rural roads)
The following points should be considered when designing a TMP for a specific field condition:
Drivers may not perceive or understand one or more of the devices placed in the traffic control zone. Therefore, some extra signs or devices may be required to improve safety for motorists and workers, however, be aware of the possibility of over signing.
Consideration must be given to the risks involved if the motorist does not get the required information. The level of protection used and the delivery of the message should be proportional to the level of hazard. More emphatic messages and a higher level of protection are needed for high hazard situations.
Where possible, a recovery space (buffer zone) should be provided.
Devices must be evaluated on an overall system basis to determine if the safety objectives for the travelling public and workers in the work zone are achieved.
Classification of Typical Layouts
The classification of typical plans is difficult because of many different parameters that must be considered. The following list defines the basic parameters and the range of their characteristics. i)
Type of facility two-lane multilane, undivided multilane, divided intersection interchange
Regional and traffic characteristics rural/urban low speed/high speed low volume/high volume
Work activity duration short, intermediate or long term slow or fast moving intermittent or continuous
Worksite location in right-of-way on shoulder in road
Closure configuration shoulder closed lane or lanes closed shoulder used as travel lane roadway closed crossover and/or contra flow on-site detour (bypass) off-site detour
When making modifications to the typical solutions it is best to establish a set of plans, which covers the range of conditions commonly found rather than a plan for every possible combination of parameter values.
Considerations to Modifying the Typical Layouts
Each traffic control zone is different, with variables such as speed, volume, location of work, pedestrians and intersections changing the needs for each zone. The primary goal of traffic control zone is safety, and the key factor in ensuring the control zone works is the application of sound judgment principles. The examples in this chapter are guides showing how best to apply the standards. The typical applications include use of various traffic control methods, although they do not include a specific layout for every conceivable work situation. Typical applications may be modified to suit the conditions of a particular work area. On many of the typical applications, the existing pavement markings have been either marked or changed to indicate those that should be modified for long-term projects. If the project is short-term, such as 1-day maintenance operations, the pavement markings will not need to be removed and replaced although guidance should be provided with other channelizing devices. Figures 1 to 7 in APPENDIX B show typical traffic control devices that are required for various types of work zones. It indicates how traffic control increases as traffic volumes increase, however some of the less complicated work zones are not illustrated. i)
Work Entirely Beyond Shoulder or Parking Lane i)
Traffic control depends primarily on devices such as advance warning signs, flashing vehicle lights and flags. An advance warning sign should be used when any of the following conditions occur; (a) Work performed immediately adjacent to the roadway at certain stages of the activity. (b) Equipment movement along or across the highway. (c) Motorist distraction by the work activity.
Work On Or Over Shoulder Or Parking Lane i)
No encroachment in the travelled lane means there is little or no direct interference with traffic. When shoulder is occupied or closed, the motorist should be warned and the workers should be protected. In most cases a single warning sign is adequate. When a sealed or constructed shoulder is closed on a high-speed roadway, it should be treated as a closure of a portion of the road system because the motorist expects to be able to use this area in the event of an emergency. The approach to the work area on the shoulder should be closed off by a taper of channelizing devices.
Minor encroachment in the travelled lane means when work on the shoulder or takes up part of a lane, traffic volumes, type of traffic (buses, trucks and cars), speed, and capacity should be analyzed to determine whether the affected lane be closed. For high-speed traffic conditions, a full lane closure should be considered or narrowing of the traffic lanes. Work On Two-Lane Roadway i)
When one lane is closed on a two-lane, two-way road and the remaining lane is used by traffic travelling in both directions, the short two-way traffic taper of 15 meters minimum is used to slow traffic as it approaches the work space. Alternatively a one-way traffic control may be affected by the following means: a) Two flaggers, one at each end of the work area. b) One flagger can assign right-of-way at a short work area with low volumes. c) For very short work areas at a spot location where traffic volumes and speeds are very low, the movement may be self-regulating but should not be used in areas of restricted sight distance on horizontal or vertical curves. d) A pilot car e) Temporary traffic signals for long duration projects.
If the work area ends near the curve or hill, a flagger should be stationed at both ends of the work area. The transition area should be adjusted so that the flagger and the entire taper will be visible before the curve or hill to provide adequate stopping sight distance.
Mobile Operations i)
Mobile operations are work activities that make frequent short stops up to a 15-minute period, such as litter cleanup or pothole patching and are similar to stationary operations. Warning signs, flashing vehicle lights, flags, and/or channelizing devices should be used.
Moving Operations i)
Do not decrease safety by using fewer devices simply because the operation will change its location frequently. Flaggers may be used but caution must be taken so they are not exposed to unnecessary hazards. Portable light weight devices should be used and moved periodically to keep them near to the work area.
Moving operations are work activities where workers and equipment move along the road without stopping, usually at slow speeds, the advance warning area moves with the work area and traffic should be directed to pass safely. Parking may be prohibited and work should be scheduled during off peak hours. For some moving operations, such as street sweeping, if volumes are light and sight distances are good, a well marked and signed vehicle may suffice. If volumes and/or speeds are higher, a shadow or backup vehicle equipped as a sign truck should follow the work vehicle. Where feasible, warning signs should be placed along the road and periodically moved as the work in progress. In addition to improve visibility and worker safety, vehicles may be equipped with flags, flashing vehicle lights, and large signs.
Short-Term Utility Operations Despite the shortness of “short-term” operations, certain traffic controls are necessary:
In urban areas, the work vehicle may be used for warning if it is equipped with flashing lights, rotating beacons, or flags.
When entering or leaving a manhole, workers should always face oncoming traffic, as to that they need to get out of the way quickly. Materials or equipment should be stored away from the manhole opening.
Urban Areas Urban traffic control zones may be subdivided into 3 areas: (a) Vehicular traffic control - how many lanes are required; or whether any turns should be prohibited at any intersection. (b) Pedestrian traffic control - if work will be done on the sidewalk, decide whether it will be necessary to close the sidewalk and assign the pedestrians to another path.
(c) Maintain access - to business, industrial and residential areas. Even if the road closed to vehicles, pedestrian access and walkways should be provided.
When there is pedestrian traffic in the area, specific walkways need to be provided. If nearby buildings are being demolished or built, covered walkways may be needed. Do not force pedestrians to walk through the work area or into travelled lanes. If a sidewalk closed, provide a temporary walkway around the work area or direct the pedestrians to an alternate protected route.
The following situations normally warrant walkways in the TMPs at: a) sidewalks cross the work zone, b) designated school route crosses the work zone, c) significant pedestrian activity or evidence of such activity exists (i.e. a worn path), and d) existing land use generates pedestrian activity. (such as bus stops, factories, places of worship, night market, etc.)
The following principles govern the design and construction of pedestrian facilities: a) Pedestrians and vehicles should be physically separated with barriers, barricades, or similar devices. b) Walkways should be maintained free of any obstructions and hazards such as holes, debris, mud, construction equipment, stored materials, etc. c) Temporary lighting should be considered for all walkways used at night, particularly if adjacent walkways are lighted. e) Walkways should be minimum 1.2m wide. e) All hazards (ditches, trenches, excavations, etc.) near walkways should be clearly delineated. f) Walkways under or next to elevated work activities such as bridges or retaining walls may need to be covered. g) Where safe direct passage cannot be provided, pedestrians should be directed to the other side of the street by appropriate traffic control devices.
h) Signs and traffic control devices should not be a physical hazard to pedestrians. i) Signs located near or adjacent to a sidewalk should have a 2.5m clearance. j) Where construction activities involve sidewalks on both sides of the street, work should be staged so that both sidewalks are not out of service at the same time. In the event when sidewalks on both sides of the street must be closed, pedestrians should be guided around the construction site. k) Retro reflectorized traffic control devices are of little value to pedestrians. Warning lights should be used to delineate the pedestrian’s pathway and to mark any hazards. l) Where possible, the scheduling for the construction of the overhead pedestrian bridge should be brought in to the beginning of the program to minimise probability of accidents involving pedestrians crossing multi lane roads.
Bicycles Bicycles also need protection or access to the roadway. If a bicycle path closed because of work being done, an alternate route should be provided. Give guidance to bicyclists of available alternate routes but should not be directed into the same path being used by pedestrians.
Motorcycles If a motorcycle route either in the form of an exclusive motorcycle lane or paved shoulder is closed because of construction works, an alternate route needs to be provided. Appropriate guidance in the form of signs, markings, street lighting is to be provided. The motorcycle route should never be directed onto the same path used by pedestrians and/or bicycles.
On limited access highways with interchange ramps, access to these ramps should be maintained even if the work area is in the lane adjacent to the ramp. If access is not possible, close the ramp, using signs and barricades. Early coordination with officials having jurisdiction over the affected crossroads is needed prior to ramp closure.
The access to the exit ramp should be clearly marked and outlined with channelizing devices. For long-term projects existing markings should be removed and new ones placed. As the work area changes, the access may be modified.
Use advance-warning signs, devices and markings as appropriate on all crossroads. The effect of the work upon signal operation should be considered such as signal phasing for adequate capacity and for maintaining or adjusting detectors in the pavement.
Detour signing is usually handled by an authorized traffic engineer because it is considered a traffic routing item. Detour signs are used to direct traffic onto the alternative roadway. When the detour is long, install “Arrow” symbol signs to periodically remind and reassure drivers that they are still on a detour.
When an entire roadway is closed, a detour should be provided and traffic should be warned of the closure well in advance.
Sign the detour so that traffic will be able to get through the entire deviation and return back to the original roadway.
Contra Flow i)
Where traffic is moved from its right of way onto an opposing carriageway, appropriate signs and line markings are to be placed in advance of and all along the contra flow area.
Appropriate channelizing devices can be used to separate the opposing flow of traffic
6.14 Cross Section The cross section of the road in terms of lane width and number of lanes is to be maintained all throughout the construction period.
CHAPTER 7 PLACEMENT AND REMOVAL OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES
CHAPTER 7 PLACEMENT AND REMOVAL OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES This Chapter discusses the important aspects of the process of placing and removal of traffic control devices in work zones including preparation, the order of device placement, the treatment of existing signs, and the use of “shadow” or protection vehicles. 7.1
Preparation for Placement Process
The placement, modification, and removal of traffic control devices for road construction and maintenance operations can be enhanced by adequate preparations. This is particularly important because of the hazard associated with these activities. The installation and removal of worksite traffic control devices create situations that are often far more hazardous than the operation of the completed zone. These hazards are often greater than those during the work activity because: i)
Workers placing advanced warning and channelizing devices must be in the roadway at points of high conflict without the full protection of the devices being placed. The placement operation constitutes an unexpected situation for the motorists as they are confronted with a roadway partially closed and a partial traffic control devices.
The inherent danger of these operations can be lessened by using techniques that emphasize safety. Also, to reduce the exposure, the installation should be done as quickly as possible. To this end, several elements must be considered before the installation of the traffic control zone. 7.1.2 Coordination with Affected Groups Advance time as: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii)
coordination should be done with all affected organizations and groups such Police, Traffic Department of affected Local Council, Emergency services such as the fire dept, hospitals, etc. News media, Businesses and industries, Public transportation, and Residents and Residents’ Representatives
Coordination prior to the Placement of the traffic controls at a site greatly improves the safety and efficiency of the installation. The coordination includes the following considerations: i) Advance publicity ii) Selection of the day and time-of-day for the installation iii) Analysis of traffic volumes iv) Selection of crew work hours v) Consideration of emergency requirements in case of utility breakdown, road accidents, etc. 7.1.3 Inventory and Storage All traffic devices required for the placement and maintenance of the zone should be onhand and in good condition. Also, special equipment, trailers, and trucks should all be operating properly and safely. Devices maintained in inventory need to be formally organized to assure that all items are actually in stock and can be rapidly retrieved. Traffic control devices need to be stored properly to avoid marring, and all devices need to be kept clean. All mechanical and electrical elements and equipment require routine maintenance to assure that they will function properly. Devices should be inspected carefully when they are returned to inventory. All devices found to be non-standard or in poor condition should be replaced, modified, or repaired. Equipment for the roadway worksites must be in good operating condition, otherwise there will be occurrences of breakdowns, delays, and increased site occupancy time. Good practice suggests that devices be marked to identify ownership. The name and phone number of the owner may be shown on the non-reflective surface of the barricades. This procedure pinpoints responsibility and minimizes “borrowing.” Standard inventory packages of organized traffic control devices can be established for activities by prepackaging and ensuring checklists for each activity and location. 7.1.4 Training and Instruction All crew members should be trained for their tasks, with particular emphasis on safety. In addition, to ensure that all crew members know their installation assignments, and to assure an efficient and speedy operation, the supervisor should review the installation process with his crew before going into the field. If either a new or different procedure is to be used, or if new people are in the crew, these instructions are essential. In some cases, a rehearsal on an abandoned segment of roadway may be desirable.
7.2.1 Placement Sequence Devices are installed in the direction that traffic moves that is, moving “downstream”. The first device placed is the first advance warning sign. The installation then proceeds with the i) Advance warning zone ii) Transition zone iii) Buffer zone, iv) Work zone, and v) Termination zone. If traffic in both directions will be affected, such as with work in the centre lanes, the devices can be placed in both directions at the same time, starting at each end farthest from the work area. Alternately one direction can be installed before the other. When one direction of traffic will be directed into opposing traffic lanes, the signs, devices, and pavement markings for the opposing traffic should be placed first. It is essential to channelize opposing traffic out of its lane before moving the oncoming traffic into the lane. When all signs and devices are placed for opposing traffic, the devices for the oncoming direction can then be set up. When signs or channelizing devices are to be installed and removed several times during the work operation, a spot should be painted where each device is located. This way the installation can be repeated quickly and properly. The devices should either be stored off the roadway, out of sight, or transported to another location. Channelizing devices should not be stored on the shoulder of the roadway, as this appears to be a shoulder closure. Drivers do not expect workers in the roadway setting up a traffic control zone. Since the goal is to make the entire operation safe, high-level warning devices, flagmen, or flashing vehicle lights should be used to warn the drivers of the presence of workers. Flashing arrow panels are valuable to assist the workers during placement or removal of channelizing devices for lane closures. 7.2.2 Placement Procedure Work vehicles should park in a safe location to unload crews and devices. Locations such as these should be the priority; i) ii) iii)
At kerbs On shoulder On side street
The work vehicle may serve as the advance warning device by using its flashing/rotating lights while the first warning signs are being placed. To protect the crew, the device truck should be located upstream of the crew. This can be awkward, however, if the signs are unloaded from the rear of the truck.
On high-speed roads, a “backup,” “shadow,” or “protection,” vehicle should be used. This vehicle should first be positioned on the shoulder some 30 meters or more behind the device truck when the first signs are placed. The shadow vehicle uses special lights or a flashing arrow panel to warn traffic. When the crew needs to work on the roadway, the shadow vehicle is moved into the travelled lane. Truck mounted attenuators are desirable for these vehicles. 7.2.3 Placing Channelizing Devices When closing a lane, tapers are laid out in a straight line starting at the shoulder. Each channelizing device is then placed in sequence moving downstream. When placed by hand, the devices should be moved out from the shoulder with the worker looking toward traffic as he moves into the lane to place the device. When channelizing tapers are installed, each device is placed 30cm further into the lane that being closed. 7.2.4 Lateral Position For some closures, traffic doesn’t have to be excluded from the entire width of the lane to establish a safe workspace. Under these circumstances, the work area channelizing devices should be placed a few meters back from the lane line as to: i) ii)
Reduce the chances of the devices being hit, and Provide increased lateral clearance, thereby increasing capacity.
7.2.5 Cone Placement Cones may be placed either by workers on foot or from a moving vehicle. When working from a vehicle, the truck should be equipped with a suitable worker platform and railing. On high-speed roadways, a shadow vehicle should be used to protect a workman who is working from the back of the truck. 7.2.6 Expressway Lane Closures Expressway lane closures should be more carefully carried out and are categorised into of two types. “Exterior” lanes are those with a shoulder along one edge. “Interior” lanes, such as the centre lane of a three lane roadway, are bordered by lanes on both sides. 7.2.7 Exterior Lane Closures The protection vehicle travels along the shoulder or exterior lane if no shoulder is available. It is equipped with a warning light and a flashing arrow panel. The protection vehicle then stops in a blocking position at least 30m upstream while the first warning sign is located. This operation is repeated for all warning signs -- first for one side, then the other side of the roadway.
When all signs are in place, channelization devices are then placed. The protection vehicle gradually encroaches upon the exterior lane as the workers install the taper in front of the protection vehicle. Finally, the protection vehicle is positioned in the closed lane while the work zone channelization is placed. 7.2.8 Interior Or Center Lane Closures When work is necessary on an interior or center lane, the recommended procedure is to also close the adjacent exterior lane to avoid an “island” closure. In locations where, due to volumes or geometrics traffic, it must be carried around both sides of an interior lane work space, the preferred procedure is to first close an exterior lane upstream from the work space, particularly for high-speed conditions. Next, interior lane traffic is channelized into the previously closed exterior lane. Warning signs are placed on both sides of the approach warning area. The exterior lane is then closed as described above to create an “empty” work space. To continue the setup, the protection vehicle moves carefully into the closed exterior lane and workers complete the exterior lane channelization and closing taper. The protection vehicle then moves to the downstream end of the closed exterior lane and blocks the adjacent center lane. The taper which moves traffic from the interior lane to the previously closed exterior lane is placed, and worksite channelization is established on both sides of the closed centre lane. In the final configuration, the protection vehicle can be moved inside the work space behind the taper. Traffic may now flow around either side of the work space. 7.3
Modification and Removal
When possible, traffic control zones should be removed by picking up the devices in a reverse sequence to that used for installation. This requires moving backwards or upstream through the zone. With no shoulders, the removal of advance warning signs is made in the downstream direction. Where extensive modifications to the traffic control zone are required, as when switching a closure from one side of the roadway to the other, it may be necessary to remove the entire zone and then re-install it in the new configuration. Portable concrete barriers require special care and planning to place and remove. Normally the lane next to the barrier must be closed while the barriers are placed or moved. This operation should be scheduled to cause as little disruption as possible.
Special Equipment and Techniques
Some Maintenance Agencies may have special equipment to facilitate and expedite the placement process, such as, trucks with racks in which signs are loaded in the reverse sequence to that needed; that is, the last sign put on is the first one to be taken off. Special traffic control vehicles should be available for traffic control zone placement, maintenance and removal. These vehicles should be employed for: i) Carry devices to worksites. ii) Facilitate handling. iii) Help to organize and protect signs and devices. iv) Emergency situations. Special features of these traffic control vehicles may include; i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x)
Appropriate colour (orange), Flashing/rotating lights or beacons, Flashing arrow panels, Changeable message signs, Sign racks, Cone chutes, Power lift tailgates, Worker platform and protective railing, Crash cushions on shadow vehicles, and Variable message signs.
CHAPTER 8 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONES
CHAPTER 8 MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC CONTROL ZONES
Traffic control zones should be maintained so that they remain as effective as when first installed. Documentation of maintenance and inspections is necessary in the event of lawsuits resulting from accidents or other grievances suffered by an injured citizen. This Chapter will explain the types of inspections and maintenance required and methods to document inspections and actions taken.
Inspection and Maintenance Program
Once the traffic control zone is established, it is important that it continues to function effectively. The traffic control devices must be maintained as it was installed or modified to ensure the motorists are not misled with unnecessary changes to the work zone shape and sizes. Maintenance is needed to service the equipment and make corrections required by any combination of the following factors: i) ii)
iii) iv) v) vi) vii)
Traffic accidents Device displacement by; vehicular contact slip stream from trucks workers Wind Damage caused by construction activities Weather damage Malfunctions and burn outs Physical deterioration Dust, dirt, grime and bitumen over spray. on sign faces on drums or cones on reflectorized rails or string delineators Dirt and debris on roadway. Vandalism and theft.
8.1.1 Elements of an Inspection Program A comprehensive inspection and maintenance program should include the following elements. i) A formalized plan ii) Defined inspection procedures iii) A form to record the findings of the field inspection iv) A repair program v) An adequate inventory of devices for emergency replacements or repairs vi) Day and night review of the marking of the travel path through the work zone vii) Procedures to assure that specified repairs are made viii) Formal documentation of inspections and repairs ix) Identification of possible causes of accidents and skid marks The inspector will need to make decisions during the inspection. He must exercise judgement in establishing appropriate practices. As deficiencies are observed, the following choices are available: i) Make on-the-spot corrections ii) Call for emergency repairs (radio or phone) iii) Instruct the work crew to make routine repairs during the next work day iv) Schedule deferrable corrective actions, such as sign cleaning A key element of the program is the procedure that ensures that the required maintenance is performed. Corrective action should be fully documented with date, time and action taken. 8.2
8.2.1 Responsibility For each project, one person should be responsible for traffic control. On construction projects, the contractor should designate a person by name and telephone number. This person is the “Road Safety Officer” for the project. In addition, on large projects, the traffic control responsibility should be assigned to an employee in the agency’s organization. Routine inspections of the traffic control installation should be carried out by these individuals. Less frequent but periodic inspections should be performed by senior staff of the contractor (typically his superintendent), the Superintending Engineer and the Road Authority (the resident engineer and/or the traffic engineer). Lines of communication and responsibility must be clearly established between the person conducting routine inspections and senior contractor or agency personnel. This communication is especially important between those in control of routine maintenance activities and those with greater authority. Effective communication ensures that urgent problems can be brought promptly to the attention of officials who can respond immediately.
8.2.2 Frequency To determine the frequency of inspections, the following factors must be considered. i) Project size and duration ii) Degree of liability iii) Severity of hazards iv) Frequency at which damage is occurring v) Number of deficiencies observed during previous inspections. vi) Traffic volumes and speed. Traffic controls left in place overnight should he inspected during hours of darkness at the same frequency as during the daylight hours. Inspections should also be carried out during adverse weather conditions to ensure safety requirements are met and adequate road drainage is maintained during the construction period. 8.2.3 Documentation Documentation is an essential part of the traffic control maintenance function. It is necessary for good planning and for project accounting. Documentation serves to: i) ii)
Ensure the integrity of the project traffic control; and Provide a means of identifying the maintenance needed, providing a tool for getting maintenance started, checking to see that maintenance is done, documenting that maintenance was done.
Well maintained traffic control maintenance records provide substantial support for the project in the following ways. i)
The records aid in the evaluation of the effectiveness of the planned and modified traffic control installation.
Traffic control maintenance records provide evidence of a proper traffic control installation in the event of a lawsuit arising from an accident at the worksite.
8.2.4 Record Keeping Record keeping begins with an inventory of traffic control devices located in both the shop and field. With this information, future material needs can be estimated based on planned projects and anticipated damages and thefts. Costs can be budgeted, and needed material can be purchased (or fabricated) prior to beginning work.
Good record keeping procedures suggest that the time and location of the installation and removal of traffic control devices be noted. Although this record keeping can be time consuming for a moving maintenance operation, significant traffic control actions taken by the field crew should be recorded. These records should include: i) ii) iii) iv) v)
Starting and ending time of work Location of work, Names of personnel, Type of equipment used, and Any changes in temporary or permanent regulatory devices
Major projects will require more detailed record keeping since they may involve greater amounts of funds from the contract BQ, and longer distances and times of physical exposure with resulting potential danger to the worksite employees and the motoring public. Several methods of recording traffic controls are available. These include: i)
Photographs either keyed to a diary or containing a brief description of Date time, Location with GPS co-ordinates if possible. direction, and photographer’s name.
Videotaping of work zone drive-through can also be used to document the placement and condition of traffic control devices.
Special notes on construction plans (preferably the traffic management plan sheet); and
Diary entries of times, location and names of individuals (when known) involved in the; installation, change, and removal of traffic control devices.
Work orders also serve as a reference, and should be keyed to the diary when used. When the maintenance inspection process reveals a condition that requires correction, the documentation should include: i) ii) iii) iv)
Description of the correction needed, when it was noted, and by whom; Corrections made or deferred and why; Replacements made or deferred and why; and Any other needed actions.
Each agency should have general checklist for different types of operations and conditions. These can be modified to meet the requirements of an individual worksite. Inspection sheets should be developed for major projects from the general checklists and schedule guidelines. For typical worksites, standard inspection sheets can be prepared and used.
Training And Equipment Needs
8.3.1 Training Several elements should be considered in preparing for and performing traffic control zone inspections and maintenance. Personnel designated to perform these tasks must understand the general traffic control process, have a deep appreciation for safety, and be trained in device maintenance procedures. Training should include: ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix)
Proper cleaning methods for the various types of equipment and reflective materials. Maintenance techniques for mechanical and electrical equipment, Proper placement and ballasting of traffic control devices Methods to check sign reflectivity, Knowledge of the hazard potential of various types of situations Solutions that may be used to solve various problems. Situations requiring special technical assistance, (such as hazardous materials)and procedure to be followed in securing such assistance, and Documentation techniques.
8.3.2 Personnel, Equipment and Materials Sufficient equipment and materials should be readily available to perform required tasks. Usually, a dedicated vehicle will be needed to keep all the required material on-hand. The following items may be needed. i)
Communications equipment Two-way radio
Safety equipment for personnel safety and emergency situations flashing warning lights or beacons spot/flood lights flares first aid kit hard hats high visibility vests
Tools and hardware for on the spot repairs Hammers Screwdrivers pliers and wrenches (crescent) wrecking bar Shovel saw nails, nuts, bolts and washers tape measure Knife
Spare parts and materials Batteries Bulbs Fuel Sandbags Posts Hardware wire and rope pavement marking tape reflective tape washing materials
Spare devices Barricades Cones Signs barricade lights
Reference materials Traffic Control Device Handbook traffic management plan contract specifications inspection forms and checklist Logbook Pencils pad of paper accident guidelines and report forms emergency procedures and telephone numbers
CHAPTER 9 REPORTING & CHECKING
CHAPTER 9 REPORTING & CHECKING
To ensure proper adherence to the standards and specifications and also to ensure adequate implementation, there must be constant reporting and checking carried out at the work zones. Based on the scope of activities required, the documents and reporting requirements are as follows: i)
Traffic Management Plans (TMP) Traffic Management Plans are required for all Work Zones of the project. Each work zone will have a specific TMP with a specific reference number to it. These TMPs shall have reference numbers and it needs to be displayed for easy access during the inspection and audit visits. Whenever there is a change of traffic management on the site, these must be reflected in the TMPs being displayed. The TMPs will have to be approved by the Supervising Engineers. A copy of the agreed TMP shall be forwarded to the S.O. for final approval and acceptance. However, it is a requirement that any major TMP shall also be audited by Road Safety Audit prior to endorsement by S.O
Traffic Management Safety Reports (TMSR) The Traffic Management Safety Reports (TMSR) is essential documents in the execution of the project. These reports are submitted within 3 month intervals to the Supervision Engineers, the S.O. and the Road Safety Auditor. These reports are to be prepared by the Traffic Safety Officer and shall include the following: TMPs prepared and enforced on the ground TMPs for the next three months’ work Estimated duration of each TMP (Placement dates and expected Removal dates) are required. Accident occurrences and analyses
Work Zone Audit Reports The Road Safety Auditor will be required to audit the Traffic Management at the work zones within 3 month intervals or other interval as specified by the S.O. Preferably, the audit should be done immediately (not more than 2weeks) after receipt of the TMSR from the Contractor. The auditor shall ascertain any deficiency of the TMP implemented at the site and make recommendation as to how these can be improved. A suggested format for the Audit of the TMSR is as shown in APPENDIX D.
APPENDIX A TEMPORARY SIGNS
APPENDIX A TEMPORARY SIGNS
GENERAL NOTES ON TEMPORARY SIGNS Temporary operations, such as maintenance operations or short construction activities, represent unusual roadway conditions and warrant special attention. If the temporary operations require measures different from those normally use, the existing permanent traffic signs shall be removed or covered and superseded by the appropriate temporary sign. In other words, temporary signs are used to notify road users of specific hazards, which may be encountered when temporary operations are underway. Temporary signs shall be placed in positions where they are most effective and placement must therefore take into consideration road geometry. The signs shall be so placed that road users will have adequate time for response. As a general rule, signs shall be located on the left-hand side of the highway. For additional safety duplicate signs may be placed on both sides of the carriageway. Within a construction or maintenance zone, however, it is often necessary to erect signs on light weight portable supports placed within the roadway itself. It is also permissible to mount warning or direction signs on barricades. Temporary signs should be mounted on portable supports that are suitable for temporary conditions. All such installations should be so constructed to yield upon impact and to minimize hazards to motorists. For maximum mobility on certain types of maintenance operations, a large sign may be effectively mounted on a vehicle stationed in advance of the work or moving along with it. This may be the working vehicle itself, as in the case of shoulder mowing or pavement marking equipment, or a vehicle provided expressly for this purpose. These mobile sign displays may be mounted on the maintenance vehicle.
DESIGN OF TEMPORARY SIGNS Temporary Signs are divided into two categories: i. Temporary Signs for use on Expressways ii. Non-Expressway Roads. These signs differ in shapes, sign faces and colour.
Temporary Signs for Expressways
The temporary signs for use on the expressways shall have a HEXAGONAL shape sign as follows:
Temporary Signs for Other Roads
The temporary signs for use on roads other than the expressways shall have a RECTANGULAR shape sign as follows:
TYPICAL STRING DELINEATORS
A form of delineation, particularly useful along rural areas without street light COLOUR Fluorescent Red or Orange DIMENSIONS
APPENDIX B TYPICAL LAYOUTS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLANS
TRAFFIC CATEGORY ROAD CLASSIFICATION NO.
SPEED PROFILE Urban
TRAFFIC CATEGORY & WORK ZONES CONTROL
TRAFFIC CATEGORY SPEED PROFILE
WORK ZONES CONTROL DRAWING REFERENCE
NO. ROAD CLASSIFICATION
APPENDIX C ROAD SAFETY AUDITING OF THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES
ROAD SAFETY AUDITING OF THE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AT WORK ZONES (TMP)
In an effort to spur the economic growth of the country, the Federal Government has embarked on a massive program to provide new construction contracts especially in the road sector. Many projects, worth billions of ringgit had been identified and currently being designed and implemented. Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR), being the implementation agency for the Federal Government, is very concerned about the effect of the construction activities to the possibility of increased accident occurrences at the construction work sites. As a mitigation effort, JKR has introduced the following steps in the road construction projects: i)
Preparation of Traffic Management Plans (TMP) during the Design and Construction Phases Cost of management and provision of Traffic Management at construction sites to be priced as a BQ item Contractor to designate a qualified Traffic Management Officer (TMO) responsible for the operations and maintenance of the traffic management of the work zones Submission of a three monthly Traffic Management Safety Report (TMSR) Audit of the Traffic Management at Work Zones every three months
Role of Road Safety Auditor
The role of the Road Safety Auditor is to audit the activities of the road safety at the construction site. This includes the observation of the effectiveness of the TMPs and the devices employed during day and nighttimes. The role of the Road Safety Auditor includes: i) ii)
Auditing the TMPs during the Design Phase. Auditing the Work Zones during the Construction Phase. This is to be carried out every three or six months as deemed appropriate by the Superintending Officer (S.O). Preparing audit reports.
The following reports must be prepared for the Audit work: i)
Traffic Management Plans (TMP) Traffic Management Plans are required for all Work Zones of the project. Each work zone will have a specific TMP with a specific reference number to it. These TMPs are to be displayed for easy access during the inspections and audit visits. Whenever there is a change of traffic control on the site, these must be reflected in the TMPs being displayed. The TMPs will have to be approved by the Supervising Engineers and endorsed by the Superintending Officer. The displayed copy must have these approval and endorsement.
Traffic Management Safety Reports (TMSR) The Traffic Management Safety Reports are essential documents in the execution of the project. These reports are to be prepared by the Traffic Safety Officer and shall include the following: TMPs prepared and enforced on the ground TMPs for the next three months’ work Estimated duration of each TMP (Placement dates and expected Removal dates) are required. Accident occurrences and analyses The TMSR must be submitted by the first week of the third month to: the Supervising Consulting Engineer the S.O. the Unit Keselamatan Jalan,. Cawangan Jalan. Unit Pengurusan Projek & Pembinaan (UPPP), Caw. Jalan the Road Safety Auditor
Project Work Zone Audit Reports The Road Safety Auditor will be required to audit the Traffic Management Plan at the work zones at a three monthly interval or other intervals agreed by the SO. Preferably, the audit should be done immediately after receipt of the TMSR from the Contractor. The Audit Report is to be submitted within 2 weeks after receiving the TMSR.
FLOWCHART FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AUDIT Traffic Management Plans (TMP) -
Contractor prepare TMP for all work zones of the project
Traffic Management Safety Reports (TMSR) a) b) c) d) -
Traffic Mgmt Officer prepare TMSR that includes: TMPs prepared & enforced on the ground TMPs for the next three months work Estimated duration of each TMP (Expected placement & removal dates) Accident occurrences and analyses Submit report to S.O/P.D and Road Safety Auditor. Extend copy to HOPT (first week of the third months)
Work Zone Audit - Road Safety Auditor to carry out audit on a) TMSR submitted b) Traffic management at work zones (every 3 months/as per nos. agreed) -
Road Safety Auditor to prepare audit report (within 2 weeks after receiving TMSR) and submit to S.O/P.D. Extend copy to HOPT
Approving Traffic Management Plans -
S.O/P.D Reps approved TMPs and may use recommendations of road safety auditor in work zones audit reports
Approved Traffic Management Plans (TMP) -
Approved TMPs to be used at work zones
Notes: i) S.O – Superintending Officer ii) P.D – Project Director iii) HOPT – Unit Pengurusan & Penyelarasan Projek (Cawangan Jalan) iv) (*) Supervision Team need to ensure comments / recommendations by Road Safety Auditor is adhered by contractor v) All copies of audit reports to be extended to UKJ for monitoring and record purposes
RSA STAGE 4 (PART 1) PROCESS
COMMENCEMENT MEETING (*) - Called & chaired by Road Branch Director - Scope of audit given to Road Safety Auditor
CONSTRUCTION & TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT DRAWING - S.O / P.D submit drawing to Road Safety Auditor.
VERIFICATION AUDIT STAGE 4 (PART 1) Road Safety Auditor prepared RSA Stage 4 (Part 1) report & send to S.O / P.D and Contractor. Extend copy to HOPT RESPONSE REPORT -Contractor prepares response report and submits to Road Safety Auditor. Extend copy to S.O / P.D and HOPT RSA STAGE 4 Pt 2 COMPLETION MEETING - Called & chaired by HOPT - Road Safety Auditor to present findings - Designer present response - Decisions are made & minute
CORRECTIVE ACTION - By contractor
WORK APPROVAL (*)
Notes: Next Stage Of Audit i) S.O – Superintending Officer ii) P.D – Project Director iii) HOPT – Unit Pengurusan & Penyelarasan Projek (Cawangan Jalan) iv) (*) Supervision Team need to ensure comments / recommendations by Road Safety Auditor is adhered by contractor v) All copies of audit reports to be extended to UKJ for monitoring and record purposes
RSA STAGE 4 (PART 2) PROCESS
DIRECTIVE TO DO RSA -
S.O / P.D instruct Road Safety Auditor to do RSA Stage 4 (Part 2)
ROAD SAFETY AUDIT Road Safety Auditor prepared RSA Stage 4 (Part 2) report & send to S.O / P.D and Contractor. Extend copy to HOPT RESPONSE REPORT Contractor prepares response report and submits to Road Safety Auditor. Extend copy to S.O / P.D and HOPT RSA STAGE 2 COMPLETION MEETING - Called &chaired by S.O / P.D - Road Safety Auditor to present findings - Contractor present response - Decisions are made & recorded
Required Corrective Action CORRECTIVE ACTION - By Contractor
No Corrective Action Required
WORK APPROVAL (*)
Next Stage Of Audit Notes: i) S.O – Superintending Officer ii) P.D – Project Director iii) HOPT – Unit Pengurusan & Penyelarasan Projek (Cawangan Jalan) iv) (*) Supervision Team need to ensure comments / recommendations by Road Safety Auditor is adhered by contractor v) All copies of audit reports to be extended to UKJ for monitoring and record purposes
RSA STAGE 4 (PART 3) PROCESS DIRECTIVE TO DO RSA STAGE 4 (PART 3) - S.O / P.D instruct Road Safety Auditor to do RSA Stage 4 (Part 3)
ROAD SAFETY AUDIT Road Safety Auditor prepared RSA Stage 4 (Part 3) report & send to S.O / P.D and Contractor. Extend copy to HOPT
RESPONSE REPORT - Contractor prepares response report and submits to Road Safety Auditor. Extend copy to S.O / P.D and HOPT RSA STAGE 4 (PART 3) COMPLETION MEETING - Called &chaired by S.O / P.D - Road Safety Auditor to present findings - Contractor present response - Decisions are made & recorded
Required Corrective Action
CORRECTIVE ACTION - By Contractor
No Corrective Action Required
WORK APPROVAL (*)
Yes Next Stage Of Audit Notes: i) S.O – Superintending Officer ii) P.D – Project Director iii) HOPT – Unit Pengurusan & Penyelarasan Projek (Cawangan Jalan) iv) (*) Supervision Team need to ensure comments / recommendations by Road Safety Auditor is adhered by contractor v) All copies of audit reports to be extended to UKJ for monitoring and record purposes
APPENDIX D FORMAT FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SAFETY REPORT (TMSR)
FORMAT FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SAFETY REPORT (TMSR) 1.0 Introduction objective of the report objective of the Traffic Management Plans objective of the TMSR report photos of the site schedule of the TMSR reports for the project 2.0 Background of Project Project details Traffic data Strip map Construction Program The importance of the road The conditions of the road and surrounding area 3.0 Project Contractor’s Site Organisation Organization chart of the project TMT and ERT organization List the tasks and responsibilities of each member of the TMT and ERT 4.0 Work Progress and Traffic Management Plan Construction Progress and TMPs for the last 3 months o Give detail of the work done and the TMPs o Records of workers, traffic control devices and inventories used Construction Schedule and TMPs for the next 3 months o Give detail of the work to be carried out and the TMPs proposed o Records of workers, traffic control devices and inventories to be used Photos of site where TMPs to be applied o Give detail of the work to be carried out and the TMPs proposed o Records of workers, traffic control devices and inventories to be used 5.0 Photos during the operation of the Traffic Management Plans Provide photos of the TMPs for the last 3 months 6.0 Methods of Assessing Performance of TMPs The Contractor should propose suitable methods of assessment o Acceptable methods are; Degree of Congestion, Queue Length, Travel Time, Number of Accidents, Number of Complaints, and other quantifiable items o “Before” and “After” data should be collected
7.0 Emergency Response Plan (ERP) and Emergency Response Team (ERT) Emergency Response Plan (ERP) o Give detail of the plan and show “alternative route” Emergency Response Team (ERT) o Give detail of the organization chart and “Line of Communication” 8.0 Records of Public Complaints Provide records of public complaints through hotline, letters, newspapers, etc 9.0 Damage to Vehicles Provide records and photos of vehicles experiencing problems within the work zones 10.0 Accident Analyses Provide records of Accidents within Work Zones during the last 3 months o Give detail of dates, time, collision diagram, location, damages. Show photos. Provide records of Accidents within the Project Work Zones from the start of project. o Give detail of dates, time, collision diagram, location, damages. Show photos. 11.0 Evaluation Evaluate the effectiveness of the TMPs during the last 3 months Highlight main issues for the next 3 months Propose steps to upgrade the situations Alert JKR on the issues which are sensitive and propose mitigations 12.0 Recommendations Provide recommendations for actions to reduce accidents, public complaints. Provide recommendations on how to improve the conditions at site.