Ready to Write More Ch-1

August 30, 2017 | Author: ukeducation | Category: Semiotics, Writing, Text, Communication, Human Communication
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THE ELEMENTS OF GOOD WRITING Not everyone is a naturally gifted writer. Writing is a skill that can be practiced and mastered. In many ways, it is like driving a car. If you have ever driven in another country, you know that some of the rules of the road may be different. Just as the rules for driving differ from country to country the conventions for writing may change from language to language.

\Triting in a different

language involves more than mastering its vocabulary and grammar. Language, including written language, is a reflection of the thought pattems of native speakers. In order to write well in a different language, it is important to understand the way native speakers of that language organize their thoughts. That is why it rarely works to write something in your native language

and then translate it into English. The words may be in English, but the logic, organization, and thought patrems reflect those of your native language. To write effectively in English, you must conform to the accepted pattems of organization. Practicing these pattems will put you on the road to becoming a better writer.





Getting ReadY to Write Determini

Your Attitude Toward Writing

affects your success Your attitude toward anything that you do in life greatly toward your attitude about in doing it. Writing is no exc"eption. Think exercises. following writing in yoo" ,,"ii.r. language as you complete the

A.Circ|etheappropriateresponsestothefo||owingstatementsabout writing in Your own language.

. 2,


Take the number from the box on page 2 and divide it by ten. The final number is

your aveEge score for the ten questions. Overall, it will tell you how much you like to write. The closer your score is to "1,'f the more you like to write. The closer your score is to "5," the less you like to write.

Based on your answers, what general conclusions can you make about your attitude toward writing in your native language?


Write a paragraph about your general attitude toward writing.





WTElH mm?

Small-Group Discussion In small groups discuss your main ideas from the paragraph you wrote above (number 4), and then answer the following questions.

1. \Uhat kinds of things do you enjoy writing about? Z. What kinds of writing do you think will be required in university

3. what types of writirig does your job or future profession 4. What do you hope to gain from this course?




Elements of Good Writing: SPA and audience-three of the most spA is an acronym that stands for subject, purpose' important elements of good writing'

,za suhlectthat you know well You will find

it easier to write if you have

Keeping these three elements in mind


!u \

and understand'

a"u' Purpose for writing' un audlence that you have identified'

will help your writing stay focused'

interests You and that You know an angle or focus of that subject suallY-have to go through a ct until you find an appropriate topic' E



The Rolling Stones World Tour has been nanowed down In the next example, the same general subject, entzrtnimnpnt, to the silentfihn era.


Silent Film Era

Finding a Subiect

the following general subjects until Go through the process of narrowing down each of y." ?L"a i,necrfic a.,gl. that you would be interested in writing about'





Write a few narrowed topics on the chalkboard. Different srudents will probably have very different topics. Discuss and compare the various topics with your classmates.

PURPOSE whenever you write something, it is importanr to think abour your purpose. To determine your purpose, you should ask yourself the question, "Why am I writing?" The three most common purposes for writing are to entertain, to inform, and to persuade. However, these three purposes are not always mutually exclusive. It is possible for a piece of writing to accomplish several purposes at the same time. For example, an article may be amusing but also educational and/or persuasive.

ldentifying Purpose


Read each of the following selections and decide whether the author's purpose is to entertain, to inform, or to persuade. Some selections may have more than one purpose. Write your answer on the line.



ruino is the name given to an unusual warming of the Pacific Ocean that can

cause weather changes all over the

world. El Nifio has troubled much of the world with disruptive weather for several years now, but researchers at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced yesterday that El Nifro's strength has decreased. Long-range climate forecasts for events like El Nifio can help farmers successfully choose which crops to plant. Forecasts in Peru, for example, have helped increase the nation's overall economic product by preventing millions of dollars'worth of crop losses.

Selection 1:

"Photography is art,"

saundra Lane. she is a trustee of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and a photo collector. She says that whether or not photography is arr was a debatable point until the 19?0s. All that changed when one of Ansel Adams's photographs was chosen for the cover of Tirne magazine. Ever since, the value of photography as an art form has no longer been open to question. Exhibitions of the works of great photographers are now regularly featured in museum shows the world over. says

Selection 2:


(authsr wrkrwqm)

Selection 3:

fund'raising finnel.the The president is due in Atlanta on February 13 for a campaign in Atlanta aboard his arrive to expected is president white House said yesterday. The of Health and private plane, Air ForceOrw,after giving a speech at the Department lvhite later that night' House the Human services in washingtorr, D.C. He will retum to

Selection 4:

good food' ft has been sid that there is no love more sincere than the love of at dinner for you You witl surety agree when ioin us

Tlte Atelier'1#{;{ and fancy Our highly acclaimed chef will attend to your every whim fine ut you cttoose from our impressive menu of ;;J".h cuisine, artfully prepared, presented, and served in our tastefully decorated restaurant' Whether you'te in New York for a special occasion or not' we'll make this occasion special' You'll fall in love'

Selection 5:

make sudden left turns without signaling,

Source: Dase Bcrrr's Onlr TiavelGuideYou'IlEwrNeed'

Selection 6: CHAPTEF


by Dave Barry


Complete the chart below by putting each type of writing in the appropriate box. Some types of writing may go in more than one box.

plays memos











newspaper articles novels letters

textbools instmctions



Look through your local newspaper and find one example of writing that entertains, one that informs, and one that persuades. Bring your artictes to class to share with your classmates.

1. Which kind of article (entertaining, informational, or persuasive) was thb easiest to find?

2. Which kind

was the most

difficult to find? Whv?

3. which kind of writing do you think students

are usuallv asked to do?



(purpose) ale greatly you wrire about (subject) and your reason for writing will usually be writing for you *.itirrg for (audience). Because affected by whom vo" "r. effectively,rf you keep that audience an audience, you will communicate your ideas more those expectations vary rni"a. Remember that all audiences have expectations, but from one audience to another'



be your teacher or classmates' As you work through this book, your audience will usually audience in mind' This Fi;;;;;,;o,, will".*ri"""fiy'b" asked to write with another youl tone' will give you practice in choosing the appropriate words and varying




In small grcups, make a list of the differences between the two e-mails. Which one

uses more formal language? Which one is more conversational? 1.

z. 3. 4.

Writing for Different Audiences A letter you would write to your best friend asking him or her to lend you some money would be quite different from a letter to a bank loan officer. The rwo letters would probably include different expressions and have a different tone.


On a separate piece of paper; write a letter to your best friend asking to borrow money.


Then write a letter to the loan officer at a bank asking to borrow money.


Compare your two letters and answer the following questions.

1. Which



letter was easier for you to write? \Vhy?

In which letter did you use a more formal style?



choose one of the following general subjects to write a paragraph about.

. . .

your hometown your school your family

After you have chosen your subject, decide on a specific focus that interests you. Then determine your purpose and identify your audience. Subject: Focus:




Finally, write your ParagraPh'

Now find another focus of the same subiect that you want to explore. Choose a different purpose for your writing and pick another audience. Subject: Focus: Purpose:

Audience: Write a second paragraPh.

How are your two paragraphs alike? How are they different?

The Writing Process Very few people pick up a pen or sit down at a computer and produce a perfect piece of writing on the first try. Most writers spend a lot of time thinking before they write and then work through a series of steps while they are composing. The final product is often the result of several careful revisions. It takes patience as well as skill ro write well. You should think of writing as a process involving the following sreps: Step One: Prewriting generating ideas, planning, and organizing your ideas I


Step Two: Writing using your ideas to write a first draft I

I Step Three: Revising and Editing improving what you have written

In this and the next two chapters, you will leam more about these three steps and

practice them.

Step One: Prewriting For many people, the hardest part of writing is gemng stnrted. Whether you enjoy writing or not, you will find it easier to write if you do some prewriting exercises to get started. Prewriting is a way to warm up your brain before you write, just as you warrn up your car's engine before you drive.

GENERATING IDEAS Following are several prewriting techniques that writers use to generate ideas. Some of the most popular methods are hairctanning, clustering, freeunitiig, arrd l
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