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READING TEXT FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
READING MATERIALS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS DEONE
UNIT 1 1. READING
College Life in the United States Instructors at American colleges and universities have many different teaching methods. Some instructors give assignments every day. They grade homework. Students in their classes have to take many quizzes, a midterm exam, and a final exam. Other instructors give only assignments. Some teachers always follow a course outline and usually use textbook. Others send students to the library for assignments. The atmosphere in some classrooms is very formal. Students call their instructor “ Professor Smith,” “Mrs. Jones,” and so on. Some teachers wear business clothes and give lectures. Other classrooms have an informal atmosphere. Students and lectures discuss their ideas. Instructors dress informally, and students call them by they first name. American teachers are not alike in their teaching styles. At American colleges and universities, libraries and learning centers are available to the students. They can often use typewriter, tape recorders, video machines, and computers. They can buy books, notebooks, and other thing at campus stores. There are also services available to the students. They can get advice on their problems from counselors and individual help with their classes from tutors. In addition to facilities and services for study, colleges and universities usually offer facilities for recreation. Some schools have swimming pools and tennis courts. Most have snack bars or cafetarias. (Taken from INTERACTIONS, Kirn, 1985)
2. SPEAKING Activity 1 As a student you have to schedule your routine activities. Fill in the form below. Now ask in turn about routine activities. Follow this model: A : Where are you at 6 o’clock in the morning? B : I am at home.
A : What do you usually do at home at 6 o’clock? B : I usually read a book. Schedule of my daily activities No Time 1 2 3
6 6… 6.10…… ………
4 ……… 20 ………
at home. ………at contract house ………
read a book Wake up, pray, cook ………
Activity 2 Work in pairs with another partner telling him/her your partner’s routine activities you have talked about. Begin like this: A : Please tell me your friend’s routine activities? B : Well, Ani/Anto is at home at 6 o’clock. S(he) usually reads a book. Etc. 3. WRITING Write down a paragraph about your own routine activities. See the example below.I am usually at home at 6 o’clock in the morning. At the time I often read a book,etc.
UNIT 2 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
“How can I get to the Post office?” I have a special rule for travel: never carry a map. I prefer to ask for directions. Sometimes I get lost, but I usually have a good time. I can practice a new language, meet new people, and learn new customs. And I find out about different “styles” of directions every time I ask, “How can I get to the post office?” Foreign tourist often confused in Japan because most streets there don’t have names; in Japan, people use landmarks in their directions instead of their street names. For example, the Japanese will say to travelers, “Go straight down to the corner. Turn left at the big hotel and go past a fruit market. The post office is across from the bus stop.” In the countryside of the American Midwest, there are not usually many landmarks. There are no mountains, so the land is very flat; in many places there is no town or buildings within miles. Instead of landmark, people will tell you directions and distances. In Kansas or Iowa, for instance, people will say,” Go north two miles. Turn east, and then go another mile.” People in Los Angles, California, have no idea of distance on the map: they measure distance in Los Angles in time, not miles. “ How far away is the post office?” you ask. “Oh,” they answer, “it’s about five minutes from here.” You say, “ Yes, but how many miles away is it?” They don’t know. 1 We Girls 2
Will be parents in the future. Will be mothers.
Will be fathers.
All of us
Will not be unemployed.
Some of us
Will not be in Lampung.
(+) Noun or pronoun
Will + be
(-) Noun or pronoun
Will not + be
2. SPEAKING Activity 1 Arrange your planning of the next semester semester. When finished, do the practice again and now change roles. Fill in the form below. Start like this: A : Where will you be in the first week of the next semester? B : Well, I will be at campus. A : What will you do there? B : I will of course meet with my academic guidance. Etc. Planning for the next semester No
week 1 ………
at campus ………
meet with my academic guidance
Tell your friend’s planning you have talked about to another classmate. Begin like this: A : Please tell me his/her planning for the next semester? B : Well, I would like to tell you Toni’s planning for the next semester. At the first week, he will be at campus. He will meet with his academic guidance. Etc. 3. WRITING Write down a paragraph of ten to fifteen sentences about your planning for next semester.
UNIT 3 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Women in the Nuclear Family The family is changing. In the past, grandparents, parents, and children used to live together; in other words, they had an “extended family.” Sometimes two or more brothers with their wives and children were part of this large family group. But family structure is changing throughout the world. The “nuclear family” consists of only one father, one mother and children; it is becoming the main family structure everywhere. The nuclear family offers married women some advantages: they have freedom from their relatives, and husband does not have all the power of the family. Family structure in most part of the world is still “patriarchal”; that is the father is the head of the family and makes most of the important decisions. Studies show, however, that in nuclear families, men and women usually make an equal number of decisions about family life. Also, well-educated husbands and wives often prefer to share the power. But wives usually have to “pay” for the benefits of freedom and power. When women lived in extended families, sisters, grandmothers, and aunts helped one another with housework and childcare. In addition, older women in a large family group had important positions. Wives in nuclear families do not often enjoy this benefit, and they have another disadvantage, too; women generally live longer than their husbands, so older women from nuclear families often have to live alone. B. Sentences with non verbal predicates No Subject
Was very active in students’ activities.
Was the captain in this class.
Was not active.
Was one of the beautiful girl in her class.
Were not lazy students.
(+) Noun or pronoun (-)
Noun or pronoun
Was/were Was/were not
2. SPEAKING Activity 1 Work in pairs talking in turn about your past activities. Fill in the form below. Follow the model: A : Where were you at 6 a.m. yesterday? B : I was at home. A : What did you do at home? B : I did jogging. Etc Schedule of Yesterday’s activities No Time
Activity 2 Now ask another friend what your friend did yesterday. Begin like this: A : Where was he at 6 a.m. yesterday? B : He was at home? A : What did he do at home at 6 a.m. yesterday? B : He said that he did jogging. Etc. 3. WRITING Write a paragraph about your own yesterday’s activities.
UNIT 4 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Untitled Most children have achieved remarkably sophisticated language capabilities by the age of three. Their vocabularies have reached about 1000 words, and they can use as many as five of those words in a single sentence. They make up new words, too. They can speak about the past and future as well as the present. They understand that some words have more than one meaning. They can duck when a ball is coming or see a duck on lake. They have began to use negatives (“That’s not mine”) and helping verbs (“I can do it myself”). Over the next two years, their vocabulary will more than double. They will begin to play with words, to repeat silly sounds, to try out “toilet” words or even swear words, just to elicit an adult’s reaction. Newly aware of the power of words, they will begin to argue, and they will start to tell jokes. This language play carries on a process of experimentation that began when child was an infant, first encountering language. At one time, experts thought children learned language simply by imitating adults. Nowadays, most linguists agree that children learn primarily by experimenting-by listening and thinking about what they hear, by making their own sounds, and then by observing the way others react. 2. SPEAKING Language comes first as a great garble of sound. Slowly, children learn to hear individual sound patterns, or words. They try out sounds. For example babies A : Hi, how have you been for a week? B : I have (I’ve) been fine. A : What have you done then? B : I have finished my homework and visited my friends in Jakarta. A : Sounds good. And how has you sister been?
B : She has (She’s) been fine too. A : What has she done for a week? B : As I know, she has just returned home after a vacation in Bali. Summary of my family condition and activities for a week Members Condition Activities of the family You fine finish homework, visit friend father
etc. Activity 2 Now change roles. Practice the activity 1 again. Activity 3 Now tell another friend about the condition and activities of your friend’s family for a week you have talked about. See the example below. A : Please tell me the condition and activities of his/her family for one week. B : Well, he has been fine and he has finished …….etc 3. WRITING Write down condition and activities of your own family for a week.
UNIT 5 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Advertising: The Selling of a Product A consumer walks into a store. He stands in front of hundreds of foxes of laundry detergent. He chooses one brand, pays for it, and leaves. Why does he pick that specific kind of soap? Is it truly better than the others? Probably not. These days, many products are nearly identical to each other in quality and price. If products are almost the same, what makes consumers buy one brand instead of another? Although we might not like to admit it, commercials on television and advertisements in magazines probably influence us much more than we think they do. Advertising informs consumers about new products available on the market. It gives us information about everything from shampoo to toothpaste to computers and cars. But there is one serious problem with this. The “information” is actually very often “misinformation.” It tells us the products’ benefits but hides their disadvantages. Advertisings not only lead us to buy things that we don’t need and can’t afford, but it also confuses our sense of reality. “Zoom toothpaste prevents cavities and give you white teeth!” the advertisement tells us. But it does not tell us the complete truth: that a healthy diet and a good toothbrush will have the same effect. Advertisers use many methods to get us to buy their products. One of their most successful methods is to make us feel dissatisfied with ourselves and our imperfect No Tenses Examples 1
Simple Present Tense We like Information Technology.
Simple Future Tense Simple Past Tense
We will learn English for two semesters.
Simple Past Tense
We have learned English for 6 years.
We did not learn English seriously at SMU.
B. Sentences with non verbal predicates
Simple Present Tense We are students of STMIK Darmajaya.
Simple Future Tense
We will not be bad English learners.
Simple Past Tense Simple Past Tense
We were not very serious students at SMU. We have been university students for a year.
2. SPEAKING Activity 1 Please interview your friend about his/her routine activities, future planning, past activities, and activities for one week you have talked about. Use only yes-no questions. Follow this model: Reporter
: Excuse me, are you usually at home at 6 o’clock in the morning?
: yes I am.
: Do you read a book at that time?
: No I don’t. I usually take a bath.
: Will you be at home tomorrow?
: Will you study at home?
: yes I will. : what about yesterday, were you at home yesterday?
: Yes they do
: Is it small?
: yes it is.
: it is a pen? : yes.
3. WRITING Write down ten to fifteen sentences about the characteristics of your friends or things you have guessed. See the example below. His name is …… He always wears glasses. He looks rather thin. He always brings a bag. His hair is curly and his skin is rather black, etc.
UNIT 6 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Television: How it Affects Us How does television affect our lives? It can be very helpful to people who carefully choose the shows that they watch. Television can increase our knowledge of the outside world; there are high-quality programs that help us understand many fields of study: science, medicine, the arts, and so on. Moreover, television benefits very old people who can’t often leave the house, as well as patient in the hospitals. It also offers non-native speakers the advantage of daily informal language practice; they can increase their vocabulary and practice listening. On the other hand there are several serious disadvantages to television. Of course, it provides us with a pleasant way to relax and spend our free time, but in some countries, people watch the “boob tube” for an average of six hours of more a day. Many children stare at a t.v. screen for more hours each day than they do anything else, including studying and sleeping. It’s clear that the tube has a powerful influence on their lives and that its influence is often negative. Recent studies show that after only thirty seconds of t.v., a person’s brain “relaxes” the same that it does just before the person falls asleep. Another effect of television on the human brain is that it seems to cause poor concentration. Chidden who view a lot t.v. can often concentrate on a subject for only fifteen to twenty minutes; they can pay attention only for amount of time between commercials. To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper! 1 2 3 4 5
What is the main idea of the text? What does the word stare in line 11most nearly mean? What does it in paragraph 3 line 2 refer to? What does it in paragraph 3 line 3 refer to? What are the effects of television on human brain?
2a. ORAL REPRODUCTION Discuss with you friends about the following questions: 1 2 3 4
How many hours do you watch television every day? Which show do you like most? Why? Which shows/ programs don’t you like? Why? Does t.v. help you in any way? If so, how?
3a. GRAMMAR FOCUS How does television affect our lives?The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Simple PresentTense. Interrogatives in Simple Present Tense A. For subjects Purpose
does not like accounting?
What What class
makes you happy? is not interesting?
is the most difficult one?
How many people
study in this university?
to assist = ………………………………………… populace = …………………………………………
4. COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper! 1 2 3 4 5
What does the passage talk about? What are the benefits of the computer in the near future? The word transparent in line 6 nearly means ……… The word unobtrusive in line 7 means ………… The word prevalent in the last line most nearly means…….
2b. ORAL REPRODUCTION With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the text you have read. 1 How is the development of the current computer different from computers in the near
future? 2 Ask your friends the benefits of computers in the near future especially for students who are physically handicapped, blind, and at risk. 3b. GRAMMAR FOCUS “What will we expect from computers in the near future?”The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Simple FutureTense. Interrogatives in Simple Future Tense To check your understanding, answer the questions below in a separated paper! 1.What is
the name of Steven Jobs often associated with? What did Steven Jobs experiment and make money from it? What was the practical use of his work? Where did he begin his business? How was his business after six years he began his business?
1 2 3 4
3. ORAL REPRODUCTION With your partner in your class, practice expressing your ideas orally based on the text you have read Discuss with your partner 1.the type of computer that most students use the advantages and disadvantages of using computers the computer programs that university students should use
4. GRAMMAR FOCUS “Who named the Apple computer?”The sentence taken from the text is a question or interrogative in Simple PastTense. Interrogatives in Simple Past Tense A. For subjects Purpose
did not join our party?
made you happy?
was not interesting?
was your parents’ house?
was here yesterday?
How many people
came to the meeting?
UNIT 9 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
How has a computer application influenced our attitudes? Attitudes are associated with almost every learning activity. An attitude is an internal state that affects our tendency to respond in a certain way. People generally have a positive or negative emotional reaction to any learning situation. That emotional reaction influences our attitudes about what we have learned. Our attitudes influence how we respond with respect to our knowledge and skills. Attitudes are involved in choices made about smoking cigarettes, attendening an opera, studying, following safety procedures, and obeying traffic laws. Attitudes can be influenced and changed through the use of classical condition, reinforcement, and human modeling. Any computer application will have some influence on student attitudes. If the program is designed to adapt to individual needs, then the student will experience success and have a positive emotional reaction. If the program is too easy or too difficult, the student will become bored or frustrated, which leads to negative attitudes. If appropriate gaming elements are incorporated into the application, then the students will be motivated to continue to interact with the program. When students have a choice, they will engage in those learning activities that are enjoyable and relevant to their interests. Computer-based videodisc applications can be used to demonstrate or model appropriate choice behaviors. (Taken from Computers in Education by Merrill, et al.)
UNIT 10 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Food Personalities People express their personalities in their clothes, their cars, and their homes. Astudy shows that our diets are also an expression of our personalities. Perhaps wedon’t choose foods only for taste and nutrition. We might choose them becausethey “tell” people something about us. For example, some people mainly eatgourmet foods, such as caviar and lobster, and they eat only in expensiverestaurants (never in cafeterias or snack bars). They might want to “tell” the worldthat they know about the “the better things in life.” Human beings can eat many different kinds of foods, but some people choose notto eat meat. These vegetarians often have more in common than just their diet.Their personalities might be similar, too. For example, vegetarians in the UnitedStates may be creative people, and they might not enjoy competitive sports or jobs.They worry about their health of the world, and they probably don’t believe in war. Some people eat mostly “fast food”. One study shows that many fast food-eatershave a lot in common with each other, but they are very much different fromvegetarians. They are competitive and good at business. They are also in hurry.Many fast food eaters might not agree with this description of their personalities,but it is a common picture of them.Some people also believe that people of the same astrological sign have similar foodpersonalities. Arians (born under the sign of Aries, between March 21 and April 19) 1 Do you know gourmet eaters? Vegetarians? Fast-food eaters? In your opinion, what kind of people are they? 2 Do you believe the information in this reading? Why or why not? 4. GRAMMAR FOCUS “People with the sign of Taurus (April 20 to may 20) prefer healthful fruits andvegetables to other food”The sentence above is expressed by using a preference.There are some types of
preference. Subject University students
Predicate in preference forms like computers better than typewriters
prefer computer books to accounting books
would rather study than play The forms are as follows:
Predicate like noun better than noun prefer noun to noun would rather verb 1st than verb 1st
Note:Instead of would rather, we may use would sooner We may also use gerund instead of noun, e.g. I like swimming better than hiking.
Please list a number of the subjects provided in this semester. Put a tick (V) on the subjects you like and a cross (x) on the subjects you dislike. Ask your friend’s likes and dislikes as given in the example below. A
: Do you like all the subjects you are studying in this semester?
: No, I don’t.
: What subjects do you like then?
: management, history, etc.
: How do you like them?
: I think I like them very much (I am crazy about them).
: Which one do you like better, management or …….?
: I like management better.
: And which subjects you dislike?
: I dislike (can’t stand of) mathematics
: Why do you dislike mathematics?
like very much/ be crazy about ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ……….. ………..
………….. ………….. …………. …………. …………. …………. ………….. …………..
OK …… …… …… …… …… …… …… ……
dislike/hate/can’t stand ………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. …………..
Activity 2 Tell another friend your friend’s likes and dislikes you have talked about. 6. WRITING Write a paragraph about your friend’s like and dislikes.Start like this:S(he) likes some subjects s(he) is studying this semester such as, ………. But s(he)…… Commands are expressed by the imperative. In the second person imperative, the subject you is rarely used. Subject (You)
select Bold Italic from the Font Style list
bring your own diskettes
click on the Browse button in the Create Shortcut dialog box
The formula is as follows: verb 1st Note: For negative commands, we put do not (don’t) before the verb. For example: -Don’t bring the bad diskettes. For non verbal predicates, we use be. For example: -Be quiet. -Don’t be lazy.
5. SPEAKING ¢
Activity 1 Ask a friend of you the procedure for making or doing something for example, the procedure for making the ice cream. Firs list the ingredients and tools as shown in Table below. Start like this: A : Excuse me, tell me how the ice cream is made? B : Well, first two eggs are broken into the bowl. Then one cup of sugar is added and everything is blended together, etc.Example of Ingredients and tools for making ice cream No
two eggs one cup of sugar …………… ……………
bowel blender …………… ……………
Activity 2 Now change roles and practice activity 1 again. 6. WRITING Now write up a description for making or doing something.
UNIT 12 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Are Men More Creative Than Women? Through out history it has been men, for the most part, who have engaged in public life. Men have sought for public achievement and recognition, while women obtained their main satisfactions by bearing and rearing children. In women’s eyes, public achievement makes a man more attractive as a marriage partner. But for men the situation is reversed. The more a woman achieves publicly, the less desirable she seems as a wife. There are three possible positions one can tackle about male and female creativity. The first is that males are inherently more creative in all fields. The second is that if it were not for the greater appeal of crating and cherishing young human beings, females would be as creative as males. If this were the case, then if men were permitted the enjoyment women have always had in rearing young children, male creativity might be reduced also. (There is some indication in the United States today that this is so.) The third possible position is that certain forms of creativity are more congenial to one sex than to the other and that the great creative acts will therefore come from only one sex in a given field. (Taken from Mozaic, Wegmann & Kenezevic, 1985) “if it were not for the greater appeal of crating and cherishing young human beings,females would be as creative as males”The sentence above is called a conditional sentence. Conditional sentences have two parts: the if clause and the main clause. There are three types of conditional sentences: Type 1: the action at present or future = probable to happen Type 2: contrary to the facts at present = impossible to happen Type 3: contrary to the facts in the past = impossible to happen
Type Type 1
If clause If you do not study hard, (it is probable that you do not study hard)
Main clause you will not pass the exam. (it is probable that you do not pass the exam)
You would see the earth above you. (impossible that you see the earth above you)
If you lived in the moon, (impossible that you live in the moon)
If we had got independence in 1940, (we did not get independence in 1940)
Japanese would not have colonialized our country. (Japanese colonialized our country)
If subject verb 1st
Subject will verb 1st
If subject verb 2snd If subject had verb 3rd
Subject would verb 1st Subject would have verb 3rd
Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Note:
Possible variations of the basic forms:Conditional sentences may take negative forms.In type 1 instead of will, we may use can, may, might, must, or should.In type 2 instead of would, we may use might or could.In type 3 instead of would have, we may use might have, or could have.
5. SPEAKING Activity 1 Please imagine that your friend is the one in the list below. Ask him/ her that s(he) would or could do if s(he) were the one in the list. Change roles and practice the activity again. Start like this: A : If you were the President what would you do? B : If I were the president, I would raise the fund for education. Here are the lists:President, an artist, a bird, a rector, Activity 2 Now imagine that your friend has something that s(he) doesn’t really have, or can do some thing that s(he) really can’t do. Ask your friend, starting like this: A
: What would you do if you had Rp. 100.000.000?
: If I had Rp. 1000.000.000, I would go around the world.
: and what would you do if you could fly planes. : If I could fly planes I would ………
No Imagination have Rp.1.000.000.000,fly planes ……………. …………….
Activity 3 Tell another friend about your friend’s imagination you have already asked in activity 1 and 2. 6. WRITING Write down your friend’s imagination. You have talked about.
UNIT 13 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Charlie Chaplin, Creator of Comedy Charlie Chaplin has broken all records in making people laugh. No one has so set a whole world laughing as the little man with the bowler hat, the cane, and the overlarge shoes. Much has been written about Chaplin’s art and his legendary career, and opinions have varied widely. But perhaps the commentator who called him “the most universal human being of our time” comes closest to the truth. Those who have called him a genius stress the timeless and universal qualities in his work. It is an art filled with tragic undertones and deep human feeling, with which an audience cannot help but become involved and identified. It is for these reasons, I believe, that the figure of “Charlie” has kept its grip on generation after generation. All his biographers agree that Chaplin’s miserable childhood in the London slums was the decisive influence in his development and in the type of films he made. Chaplin himself emphasizes it in his memories. The more one reads about his earliest period, the more one is inclined to agree. For Chaplin, his suffering youth has a lingering fascination: it gave him a world that he could transform with his imagination onto the movie screen. Chaplin was never afraid of tackle controversial subjects in his films. He released a parody on war (Shoulder Arms) only a few weeks before the American troops came home from the hell of the trenches in World War I (1918). This was regarded as 1 What our comedian program do you dislike? Why? 2 What is your pinion about the comedian groups in our country? Why or why not? 3 How is program of comedy in our country different from that of comedy in other countries? 4. GRAMMAR FOCUS For instance, he refers to the Trobriand Islanders who differentiate between what he defines
as fairy tales, legends, and myths. (The underlined clause is called relative clause).
The woman The woman The man The man The man The girl
who that whom who that whose
teaches you English teaches you English we met yesterday we met yesterday we met yesterday hair is long
lives here. lives here. is his father. is his father. is his father. will see you.
The cat The cat The house The house The car
which that which that whose
bit you bit you you have painted you have painted color you like
will be killed. will be killed. is very good. is very good. is very old.
color you like
is very old.
Object Possessiv e
Note:The formula is as follows: B
: I think a good tv program is first, the program that deals with education, second the program that doesn’t show any violence, third, ……….
6. WRITING Please write down the characteristics of person or someone you have talked about.
UNIT 14 1. READING You have to read the following text at home
Thinking Skills Many teachers today believe that they teach thinking skills. In most instances, however, what they actually do involves putting students into situations where they are simply made to think and expected to do is as best they can. Most methods teachers customarily use to “teach” thinking are indirect, rather than direct. These methods are based on the questionable assumption that by doing thinking, students automatically learn how to engage in such thinking. Educational researchers have pointed out time and again that learning to think is not an automatic by-product of studying certain subjects, assimilating the products of someone else’s thinking, or simply being asked to think about a subject or topic. Nor do youngsters learn how to engage in critical thinking effectively by themselves. There is little reason to believe that competence in critical thinking can be an incidental outcome of instruction directed, or that appears to be directed, at other ends. By concentrating on the detail of the subject mater being studied, most common approaches to teaching critical thinking so obscure the skills of how to engage in thinking that students fail to master them. If we want to improve student proficiency in thinking, we must use more direct methods of instruction than we now use. First, we must establish as explicit goals of instruction, the attitude, skill, and knowledge components of critical thinking. Second, we must employ direct, systematic instruction in these skills prior to,
5. SPEAKING Activity 1 Ask a friend of you the procedure for making or doing something for example, the procedure for making the ice cream. First list the ingredients and tools as shown in Table below. Start
like this: A : Excuse me, tell me how the ice cream is made? B : Well, first two eggs are broken into the bowl. Then one cup of sugar is added and everything is blended together, etc. Example of Ingredients and tools for making ice cream No
one cup of sugar
Activity 2 Now change roles and practice activity 1 again. 6. WRITING Now write up a description for making or doing something.