July 24, 2017 | Author: David Web | Category: Mediation, Risk, Architect, Real Estate Appraisal, Evaluation
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QUANTITY SURVEYOR’S DUTIES BOQ preparation Definition In simple form it is a shopping list as we see the definition of computer as a calculating machine.By more sophisticated way it is a “Hypothetical construct” of the building in accordance with the designs & intents of the various client & design parties at the day it is completed. It is of course by necessity subject to eternal variation as the forces surrounding it vary. Clients have been impressed with the QSs skilful use of preambles to schedules of prices, “rates to include for” clauses & the detailed approach to item descriptions. A tradesman best work is done by the correct tool. The QS’s tool for contract is the BOQ. A professionally prepared BOQ is undoubtedly the superior cost management tool in our industry & plays a significant part in the estimation & cost planning process. These are prepared according to the SLS 573 (building contracts). Although specifically designed & developed for a particular project, it is the key element in cost data banks.

Estimating (pricing the BOQ) Every estimate has three phases, ¾ Stage one :-The measurement of various parts in greater or lesser detail depending on the availability of design information. ¾ Stage two :-The application of labour, material, transport & plant rates to those quantities ¾ Stage three :-The application of construction & other risk factors i.e contingencies, foreign exchange, escalation, requirements of infrastructure & accommodation in remote areas etc.

Cost data maintenance Due to the QS’s traditional role in the building industry, the profession has been able to build up cost libraries & databases to draw upon to produce conceptual estimates. To be able to provide realistic information and advice, the Quantity Surveyor must have a bank of cost related data. o Cost analysis of previous projects undertaken. o Materials supply data both in cost and suppliers


ICBT Cost planning/preliminary project estimation Bowen et al (1985) explains “ estimating & forecasting would seem to have basic similar meanings, but that a ‘forecast’ is exclusively reserved for a future (not certain) event, whereas an ‘estimate’ may also be applied to existing observable situations. Early budgetary advice should be dynamic view rather than static, so that designers can be informed about the cost consequences of their decisions as or before the decisions are made. Therefore, QSs must become more sensitive to the dictates of design process & to the importance of the performance aspects of design.

Tender documentation The tender documents mostly used are:•

Tender conditions and

Priceable documents e.g. bills of quantities, specifications and drawings etc.

All this process is necessary to arrive at cost and time to execute.

Tender evaluation Tender Evaluation follows receipt of tender documents and tender report must be explicit on recommendation. At this stage there are specific recommendation basis. •

Undertake reductions and works re-organization to meet clients budget.

Recommend the lowest tenderer if tender sum meets clients budget or re-organized budget.

Prepare cash flow data where needed to match recommended tender.

Tender evaluation means, scrutinizing the priced BOQ of the tenderers for the preparation of tender evaluation report as well as recommending the contractor to the Client/Architect. The selection of a suitable contractor to construct a project is an essential, which requires careful way of analyzing the documents.

Post contract administration The major thing in good contract administration assist the contractor to confirm that all work completed has been claimed. It also helps clients & their financiers in knowing that funds spent on


ICBT the project do not at any time exceeds the value of work completed. Contract administration can be roughly divided into three sections such as cash flow, accounts & claims. The QS is expected to prepare a cash flow plan & monitor this against payment made to the contractor.

Preparation of monthly statements Measure the work carried out & prepares interim payment application is the another major duty of QS. He should be able to ensure that the amount is both realistic & covers all the work executed during the month. Subcontractors work, variations, increased cost claims are also part of the interim valuation.

Preparing final accounts Contractor QS is responsible to do this. Final accounts includes variations, all measured items & increased cost items etc. QS should be smart enough to incorporate all the day works, variation in the bills if not included in interim bills.

Selection of subcontractors Generally, the structural works are done by the main contractor & the rest is left to subcontracting (waterproofing, aluminium works etc.). Therefore their quotations is needed, while pricing the BOQ. So the contracting QS would call of about three subcontractors for a work and analyze the rates & include it to the BOQ. If the contractor is selected to the project, then QS has to negotiate with the subcontractor in order to give any discounts (if needed).

When all is said and done the Quantity Surveyor who wishes to perform diligently must ensure that contracting parties and consultants do not get involved in any form of conflict and at the end of the day the Client is happy that he got value for money and the Contractor is happy that he was paid for what he contracted to do.

The QS as expert witness. A qualified quality QS may also be required to act as an expert witness in the court of law. QSs are venturing into new fields. One of this is the role of the expert witness in which they become very much embroiled in the legal world. They under take claims formulation & analysis & advice


ICBT clients & lawyers upon the advisability of pursuing an action. Unlike a witness in general, he is special & can give his opinion in an impartial manner & submit a expert witness report including the evidences. QS may be part of a team on a case. For example, there may be an architect & an engineer involved to deal with their specific disciplines, & it will really depend upon the circumstances of the case as to whether or not the QS plays a leading or subsidiary role.

Project management It is immediately visible that many QSs have diversified into providing PM services & building management. This is especially so in the last decade. No doubt the QS wearing a PM’s hard helmet would be able to control & monitor the cost aspect of the project by introducing It is definitely not an easy task for a QS to switch to PM without having the pre-requisite skills in managing the project in terms of time, quality, human elements of the team, & money, let alone the entire complex construction process. Development appraisal Feasibility studies and proposals of alternative land use. Advise on return on capital investment. The preparation of the developer’s budget & other, matters concerned with the developer’s appraisal of a proposed project are now being carried out by a handful of QSs in Sri Lanka. Understanding the relationship between these factors is an important aspect of the development process & requires an in-depth knowledge of the property market. That understanding generally comes from the traditional QS (Brandon, 1992).

Value management VM is a philosophy concerned with providing the product desired by the customer & the required quality & the optimum cost (Brandon, 1992). The QS inherent ability to assimilate & manage data in a logical manner & ultimately to communicate such data clearly & consciously means that they are well suited for the role of value manager or team coordinator.

Facility Management Facility management in the broad sense means to building management from design to construction, commissioning, use & maintenance to disposal. It suggests a birth to depth approach


ICBT to properly portfolio management, & provides an opportunity for one step management services from the inception to demolition. To do this the QS further need to assemble information & skills in premises management & in particular maintenance needs & cost.

Quantity Surveyor in Maintenance / Post occupancy evaluation The recognition of local government & the increase in maintenance works has meant that many QSs have become more aware of the needs of such work. Both private & public sectors have produced workloads of a substantial nature meriting the attention of QSs. When Colin Roy describe the difference between maintenance work & mainstream QS. He pinpointed the lack of drawings as a major difference, the increased time spent on pre & post contract site visits & emphasized the need for a system.

Whole life costing / Life cycle costing It is typically adopted by owners as part of the strategic reassessment of their facilities. It influences the procurement of new buildings & engineering structures & the choices about the renewal, refurbishment & disposal (Ashworth, 2002).

Risk management Construction industry always involves risk of unpredictability events (weather forecast, exchange rates etc.). The risk can be on both sides, to the client & the contractor. Which one does the QS should manage is the critical thing. The contractor is continuously faced with the variety of situations involving many unknown, unexpected frequently undesirable & often unpredictable factors. These factors can be grouped in together in the category of risk & uncertainty (Ammeerullah, 1995).

Construction IT The extent to which QS is exposed has increased tremendously. Generally computing applications for QS have concentrated an relatively routine task measurement, document preparation, cost reporting & so on. The emphasis has been on improving speed & efficiency by automating manual


ICBT task. Although at the moment the majority of this is commonplace application, future developments may be far reaching. QS have to be updated with new developments to safeguard his profession. For e.g. Auto CAD, expert systems etc.

Arbitration / Dispute resolution A qualified quality QS is expected to have sufficient knowledge of, & comply with, legislation, planning & building control requirements & codes of practice. QSs can utilize their construction background also.

Mediator Apart from arbitration, mediation seems to be taking a new role in setting disputes in Sri Lanka. Unlike arbitration, a mediator acts as a facilitator or a ‘middle man’ in an effort to close the gap of differences between two parties in disputes. It is quite similar to negotiation that has long been practised in Sri Lanka, but with proactive role on the part of the mediator. QSs, having an understanding of construction process, are one of the suitable candidates to act as mediators.

Quantity Surveyors in specialist services In the past in Sri Lanka QSs have ignored or in some case have not been asked to cost or measure the specialist services component of major building projects which often represents some 25% to 35% of the total cost. It is true that the cost skills of quantity surveyors, used to control mechanical, electrical, fire, lifts & building automation systems, has been beneficial both to the client & the specialist consultants. A strong resistance could have been expected from the specialist consultants, as it might appear we were assuming one of their roles. If we can produce the level of expertise & knowledge by both education & training surveyors it will grow & become an important part of QS practices.

Duties and Responsibilities of Consultant Quantity Surveyor Pre-Contract Stage • • •

Advice on cost Preliminary estimating Cost planning


ICBT • • • • • • •

Comparative cost studies of design proposals Preparation of Bills of Quantities (BOQ) Preparation of tender documents Organize pre qualification Organize calling of tenders Evaluation of tenders Selection of a contractor

Post- Contract Stage • • • •

Award of contract Certify interim bill given by the contractor Evaluation of variations/claims Preparation of financial statements

Post contract administration Settlement of final accounts



Duties and Responsibilities of Contractor Quantity Surveyor Pre-Contract Stage • • • •

Pricing and estimating tenders Adjudication (Adding markup) Obtain quotations from suppliers/ sub contractors Make site visits and investigate site conditions Preparation of construction programmes

Post- Contract Stage • • • • • • • • •

Taking site measurements Preparing interim bills Negotiate with consultant QS in relation to the interim bills submitted Prepare and submit claims and negotiate with consultant QS Managing the cost of the project on behalf of contractor Preparing final accounts Keep relevant site records Assist in ordering materials by giving quantity and list of materials Check and pay sub contractor bills

Special Services of a Quantity Surveyor •

Project management

• • • •

Risk management Value management Preparation of feasibility reports Life cycle costing

S.J.Jeyamathan Lecturer University of Moratuwa


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