QCS - 2014.pdf

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QCS 2014

Contents

Page 1

CONTENTS

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SECTION 2 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15

GENERAL Introduction Use and Maintenance of the Site Site Access and Entry onto the Site Protection Interference Project Meetings Submittals Building Demolition Materials Occupational Health and Safety Engineer’s Site Facilities Contractor’s Site Facilities Setting Out of the Works Temporary Works and Equipment Temporary Controls Traffic Diversions Project Co-ordination Other Contractors Regulatory Requirements Clearance of the Site Final Inspection and Handover Procedures New Technologies and Innovations Design and Supervision Consultant Quality Requirement Construction Dewatering

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SECTION 1 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15 Part 16 Part 17 Part 18 Part 19 Part 20 Part 21 Part 22 Part 23 Part 24

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL General Submittals Contractor’s Quality Personnel Document and Data Control Quality Records Quality Audits Inspection And Test Materials Nonconformance Monitoring Laboratories Site Meetings And Reports Failure By The Contractor To Meet Acceptable Quality Performance Suspension of Work APPENDIX A – Sampling and Testing Frequencies APPENDIX B – Templates (Contractors Project Quality Plan Template, Contractors Inspection And Test Plan Template, and Quality Non-conformance Template)

Contents

Page 2

GROUND INVESTIGATION General Boreholes Pits and Trenches Soil Sampling in-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring Laboratory Testing

SECTION 4 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

Foundations and Retaining Structures General Requirements for Piling Work Concrete Works for Piling Shadow Foundations Deep Foundations Retaining Structures

SECTION 5 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15 Part 16 Part 17 Part 18 Part 19 Part 20

CONCRETE General Aggregates Cementitious Materials Water Admixtures Property Requirements Concrete Plants Transportation and Placing Of Concrete Formwork Curing Reinforcement Joints Inspection and Testing Of Hardened Concrete Protective Treatments for Concrete Hot Weather Concreting Miscellaneous Structural Precast Concrete Prestressed Concrete Testing of Water Retaining Structures Personnel Qualifications and Certification

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SECTION 3 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6

SECTION 6 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9

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QCS 2014

ROADWORKS General Site Clearance Earthworks Unbound Pavement Materials Asphalt Works Concrete Road Pavements Asphalt Plants Recycled and Stabilised Road Materials Recycled Aggregate for Roadworks

Contents

Page 3

Vehicle Crash Barriers Kerbs, Footways and Paved Areas Fencing Traffic Signs, Markings and Studs Works in Relation To Services Road Lighting Traffic Signals Road Drainage Geosynthetics Miscellaneous

SECTION 7 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6

GREEN CONSTRUCTIONS Introduction Global Sustainability Assessment System - GSAS Energy Water [W] Indoor Environment Cultural and Economic Value

SECTION 8 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12

DRAINAGE WORKS General Earthworks Pipes and Fittings Materials Pipeline Installation Valves, Penstocks and Appurtenances Miscellaneous Metal Works Miscellaneous GRP Works Protective Coatings and Painting Trenchless Pipeline Construction Pipelines Cleaning and Inspection Survey Sewer Rehabilitation Vacuum Sewerage System

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Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15 Part 16 Part 17 Part 18 Part 19

SECTION 9 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14

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QCS 2014

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT General Submersible Pumps Centrifugal Pumps (Dry Well) Centrifugal Pumps (Split Casing) Archimedian Screw Pumps Surge Control System Lifting Equipment Electric and Pneumatic Actuators Odour Control Equipment-Carbon Type Odour Control Equipment-Scrubber Type Screening Equipment Grit Removal Equipment Aeration Equipment Air Blowers and Compressors

QCS 2014

Contents

Page 4

Settlement Tank Equipment Tertiary Treatment Granular Filters Sludge Thickening and Dewatering Equipment Mixers and Stirrers Chlorination Plant Equipment Washwater Systems Miscellaneous Equipment Ventilation Systems

SECTION 10 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROL AND AUTOMATION General Telemetry/SCADA Primary Elements Panel Mounted and Miscellaneous Instruments Control Panels and Control Room Hardware

SECTION 11 Part 1 Part 2

HEALTH & SAFETY Regulatory Document Safety and Accident Prevention Management / Administration System (SAMAS)

SECTION 12 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

EARTHWORKS RELATED TO BUILDINGS General Excavations Filling Utility Trenches Installation of Protective Membranes

SECTION 13 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

MASONRY General Mortar and Grout Accessories Unit Masonry Masonry Laying

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Part 15 Part 16 Part 17 Part 18 Part 19 Part 20 Part 21 Part 22

SECTION 14 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

ROOFING General Membrane Roofing Metal and Plastic Roofing Roof and Deck Insulation Roofing Tiles

SECTION 15 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

SECTION 15 INSULATION OF BUILDINGS General Building Insulation Cold Stores

Contents

Page 5

STRUCTURAL STEELWORKS General Materials Drawings Fabrication Welding Bolting Accuracy of Fabrication Erection Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Protective Treatment

SECTION 17 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6

METALWORK General Materials Classification Metal Doors and Windows Architectural Metal Work Light Metal Support and Cladding Support Workmanship

SECTION 18 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7

CARPENTRY, JOINERY AND IRONMONGERY General Wood Treatment Structural Timber (Rough Carpentry) Architectural Timber (Finished Carpentry, Millwork) Joinery Fasteners and Adhesives Ironmongery (Hardware)

SECTION 19 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7

PLUMBING WORK General Water Distribution Plumbing Pipework in Trenches Cold Water Storage Hot Water Storage Commissioning of Systems Plumbing for Gases

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SECTION 16 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10

SECTION 20 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7

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QCS 2014

DRAINAGE WORKS FOR BUILDINGS General Internal Drainage Works External Drainage Works Drainage Pipes in Trenches Structures Related To Drainage Work Surface Water Drainage Commissioning Of Systems

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ELECTRICAL WORKS General Provisions for Electrical Installation MV Factory Built Assemblies (FBA’s) Protective Devices Motor Starters Low Voltage Variable Speed Controllers Cables and Small Wiring Conduits and Conduit Boxes Trunking Cable Trays Wiring Accessories and General Power Light Fittings Emergency Lighting Telephone Installations Structured Cabling Systems Electric Motors Power Factor Correction Capacitors Standby Diesel Generator Set Uninterruptible Power Supply Systems Sound and Call Systems Elevators/Escalators Lightning Protection Earthing and Bonding Inspection and Testing Documentation Format Electrical Identification Electromagnetic Compatibility Battery and Battery Charger Small Enclosures Underfloor Ducts Duct Bank and Manholes Power Distribution Transformers 11 kv Switchgear Actuators HV Variable Frequency Drive

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SECTION 21 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14 Part 15 Part 16 Part 17 Part 18 Part 19 Part 20 Part 21 Part 22 Part 23 Part 24 Part 25 Part 26 Part 27 Part 28 Part 29 Part 30 Part 31 Part 32 Part 33 Part 34

Contents

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QCS 2014

SECTION 22 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9

AIR CONDITIONING, REFRIGERATION AND VENTILATION General Central Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment Unitary Equipment Air Handling Equipment Chilled Water Pipework Ductwork and Air-Side Equipment Thermal Insulation Exhaust Fans Accessories

SECTION 23 Part 1 Part 2

FIRE FIGHTING AND FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS General Fire Alarm and Detection Systems

QCS 2014

Contents

Page 7

Analogue Addressable Fire Alarm Systems Fire Fighting System Testing and Commissioning

SECTION 24 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12 Part 13 Part 14

FINISHES TO BUILDINGS General Lath and Plaster Dry Lining (Wall Board) Special Wall Surfaces Tiles Terrazzo Stone Flooring Unit Masonry Flooring Floor Screeds and Treatments Joints, Caulking and Sealants Recessed Duct Covers Carpeting Other Floor Coverings Ceilings

SECTION 25 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

GLASS AND GLAZING General Glass Workmanship Glazed Curtain Walling System

SECTION 26 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4

PAINTING AND DECORATING General Surface Preparation for Painting Primers, Paints and Coatings Wall Coverings of Decorative Papers/Fabrics

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SECTION 27 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9

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Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

SECTION 28 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

EXTERNAL WORKS General Block Paved Areas Fences and Gates Fountains and Aquatic Features Site Furniture Flag Poles Protective or Shade Cover Systems Play Field and Park Equipment Miscellaneous Other External Works LANDSCAPING Landscape Planting Landscape Irrigation System Play Equipment General Specification

QCS 2014

Contents RAILWAYS Design Related Issues Aspects Site Clearance Geotechnical Specifications Tunnel Cut and cover Structure Earthworks and Roadworks Concrete Structures Steel Structures Drainage Railway Track Monitoring and Instrumentation Survey and Setting Out

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SECTION 29 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8 Part 9 Part 10 Part 11 Part 12

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QCS 2014

Introduction

Page 1

INTRODUCTION The purpose of the technical regulation QS 27/2014 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 (QCS2014)] is to provide technical guidance in connection with the execution of constructions in the State of Qatar. Such guidance includes the establishment of the minimum acceptable material quality and workmanship for those kinds of work which commonly occur in engineered projects in the State of Qatar. Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 (QCS 2014) supersedes Qatar National Construction Standards 2010 (QCS 2010) in all respects.

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While working earnestly to benefit from new engineering developments, Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs in the Ministry of Environment requests that all those undertaking works projects in the State of Qatar to implement the specifications contained herein.

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We welcome any observations, suggestions or additions for future issues.

QCS 2014

Document History

Page 1

DOCUMENT HISTORY The purpose of the Document History is to record changes to Qatar Construction Specifications. In the event of a revision to the technical regulation, Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs in the Ministry of Environment will issue the amended pages and re-issue the Document History. The Document History pages should contain a description of the change, the issue reference and the date of issue as noted below. The updated Document History should replace the superseded history and the revised pages of the technical regulation should be placed in the appropriate position in the technical regulation. The technical regulation QS 27/2007 [Qatar National Construction Standards 2007 (QCS 2007)] replaces Qatar Construction Specification 2002 (QCS 2002) and it supersedes in all respects.



The technical regulation QS 27/2010 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2010 (QCS 2010)] replaces the technical regulation QS 27/2007 [Qatar National Construction Standards 2007 (QCS 2007)] and it supersedes in all respects.



Further, the technical regulation QS 27/2014 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 (QCS 2014)] replaces the technical regulation QS 27/2010 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2010 (QCS 2010)] and it supersedes in all respects.

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Description

Date

Original Issue

April 2000

Qatar Construction Specification 2002

Revision I

November 2002

Qatar National Construction Standards 2007

Revision II

July 2007

Qatar Construction Specifications 2010

Revision III

March 2011

Qatar Construction Specifications 2014

Revision IV

October 2014

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Qatar Construction Specification

Issue

QCS 2014

Acknowledgements

Page 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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The Qatar Construction Specifications (QCS 2014) has been drawn upon the technical knowledge and experience of a number of Governmental Ministries, Departments and Authorities in the State of Qatar. The QCS technical committee and associated subcommittees whose members are acknowledged below spearheaded the current revision of QCS 2014.

Eng. Khalid Al-Emadi Chairman of QCS Manager of Q&S Dept. Ashghal

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Dr. Mohammed Saif Al-Kuwari Assistant Undersecretary Ministry of Environment

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Abdul Hameed M. Al-Yahri Sec. of the committee Ministry of Environment

Yousef Mahmoud Ahmed Nooh Asst. Sec. of the committee H/ of the Documents Editing Quality Supervisor -Ashghal

Meshal Saoud Al Mesallam Ministry Of Energy & Trade

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Nasser Al- Naimi Deputy Chairman of QCS Ministry of Environment

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Technical Committee for Preparing and Development of QCS

Dr. Noureddin Daas

Moaaz Hashim

Dr. Khaled Hassan

Osman Elhussien

Chairperson of Concrete Committee Ministry of Environment

Chairperson of Road Committee Member of: Rail committee Quality Expert - Ashghal

Member of Concrete Committee TRL

Chairperson of Rail Committee Member of Road committee Quality Researcher - Ashghal

Sharif Mohamed Chairperson of Drainage Committee Member of Rail Sub-committee Design Engineer- Ashghal

Gareth Thomas Chairperson of: Quality Committee Quality Assurance & Quality Control Expert - Ashghal

Ehab G Saleh Chairperson of: Safety Committee Safety Specialist - Ashghal

QCS 2014

Acknowledgements

Page 2

Sub Committees Members

Adel M. Quraan Reviewers CH2M HILL

Adrian Black Safety Committee MWH

Ahmed Mohd. Sayd Concrete Committee Ministry of Environment

Allan McEwan Quality Committee KBR

Ahmed Sami Roads Committee Ashghal

Amr Elmotasem Concrete Committee AEB

Arthur Hannah Roads Committee (TRL) London

David Matyus Concrete Committee QPMC

David Lewis Roads Committee AMEY

Dick Steer Drainage Committee Ashghal

Dr.Hany Mohamed Reviewers Ashghal

Effrosyni Plexousaki Quality Committee ANAS

Elie Khairallah Concrete Committee ACTS

Essam El Sarag Green Building GORD

Fatih Türk Concrete&RailCommittee Mace / EC Harris

Fraser McCaskill Quality Committee Mace / EC Harris

Gary Cook Roads Committee ANAS

Ghaleb Al Zubi Reviewers ACES

Gireesh Babu Concrete Committee QDC

Hazem Abdel Rahman Roads Committee Ashghal

Huw Woodyatt Roads Committee Exova

Issam A. Sarhan Website Developer MOE

Jaafar. Al-Aloosi Concrete Committee Ashghal

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Abdulrahim Sukik Concrete Committee ACES

Jaafer Mohammed Roads Committee MOE

Jose Vellattukudy Drainage Committee Ashghal

Karunarathna T A Drainage Committee Ashghal

Karen O’Sullivan Roads Committee FUGRO

Kim Catrambone Roads Committee Parsons Brinckerhoff

Konstantinos k Roads Committee Ashghal

Martin Cahalan Quality Committee AMEY

Mathhar Mustafa Concrete Committee Hilti Qatar

Markus Kretschmer Concrete&RailCommittee Qatar Rail

Melina Davies Roads Committee Parsons Brinckerhoff

Mohammed Adil Document Controller Ashghal

Mohammed Al-Yahri Drainage Committee Ashghal

QCS 2014

Acknowledgements

Page 3

Mohanasundaram Concrete Committee QDC

Michael De Roos Safety Committee Ashghal

Michelle Magbojos Roads Committee Ashghal

Neil Courtman Quality Committee Mace

Neil Kirkpatrick Green Building Parsons Brinckerhoff

Nicholas Ray Quality Committee CH2MHill

Packiaraj Drainage Committee Ashgha

Petru Ghicu Drainage Committee Ashghal

Peter E. Sebaaly Roads Committee ANAS

Peter Latham Concrete Committee ReadyMix

Peter Sutton Safety Committee AMEY

Rabih Boukaidbey Concrete Committee ACTS

Rania Hashim Abadi Roads Committee Ashghal

Rawshan Haniffa Document Controller Ashghal

Rabih Fakih Concrete Committee GREY MATTERS

Rolando Matias Quality Committee Parsons Brinckerhoff

Roy Cupples Roads Committee Ashghal

Salah Mousa Safety Committee Ministry of Labor

Richard James Ellis Roads Committee Gulf Laboratories

Robert Overett Roads Committee Parsons Brinckerhoff

Saleem Purayil Purayil Document Controller Ashghal

Shyam Sundar Concrete Committee QDC

Sheik Pahary Safety Committee QPM

Subrato Mukherjee Concrete Committee QDC

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Srinivasan Samiappan Concrete Committee QDC l

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Mohamed El sherbiny Green Building Ashghal

Tom Baines Safety Committee EC Harris

Yasser Berzan Safety Committee Ashghal

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Acknowledgements

Page 4

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QCS 2014

Ministry of Environment Dr Mohamed Saif Al-Kuwari Undersecretary Assistant of MoE

Preparing and Development of Qatar Building Code Committee Technical Committee for Preparing and Development of QCS

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ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

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Eng. Khalid Al-Emadi Chairman of QCS

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Nasser Al-Naimi Deputy Chairman of QCS

Abdul Hameed M. Al-Yahri, Yousef Mahmoud Ahmed Nooh, Gareth H. Thomas, Noureddin Daas, Moaaz Hashim, Osman Elhussien, Sharif Mohamed, Ehab Saleh

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Sub Committees

QUALITY

Gareth H. Thomas Effrosyni Plexousaki Neil Courtman Allan McEwan Martin Cahalan Nicholas Ray Rolando Matias Fraser McCaskill

CONCRETE Noureddin Daas Khaled Hassan Jaafar Isam S. Al-Aloosi Rabih Fakih David Matyus Peter Latham Gireesh Babu.K.M Srinivasan Samiappan Shyam Sundar Rajaram Mohanasundaram Rangasamy Ahmed Mohamed El Sayd Amr Elmotasem Elkady Abdulrahim Mohammed Mathhar Ghazi Mustafa Sabet Hajem Ibrahi Elie Khairallah Subrato Mukherjee Rabih Bahij Boukaidbey Fatih Türk

ROADS

GREEN BUILDING

DRAINAGE

SAFETY

RAIL

Moaaz Hashim Osman Elhussien Jaafer Mohammed Al Saidi Gary Cook Huw Woodyatt Richard James Ellis Arthur Hannah Khaled Hassan Michelle Magbojos

Khalid Al- Emadi Noureddin Daas Mohamed El sherbiny Essam El Sarag Neil Kirkpatrick

Sharif Mohamed Dick Steer Mohammed Homoud Al-Yahri Petru Ghicu Jose Vellattukudy Packiaraj Thangaswamy Karunarathna T A. Kithsiri

Ehab Saleh Yasser Berzan Peter Sutton Tom Baines Salah Mousa Michael De Roos Adrian Black Sheik Pahary

Osman Elhussien Moaaz Hashim Sharif Mohamed Markus Kretschmer Fatih Turk

Contributors to Road Section Peter E. Sebaaly Karen O’Sullivan Konstantinos Kanellaidis Recycling Robert Overett Moaaz Hashim Osman Elhussien Gary Cook Ahmed Sami Sayed Abbas

Road Lighting Work Group

Website Developer

Kim Catrambone Melina Davies Hazem Abdel Rahman David Lewis Roy Cupples Rania Hashim Al-Abadi

Issam A. Sarhan

Reviewers

Document Controllers

Dr.Hany Mohamed Ghaleb Al Zubi Adel M. Quraan

Yousef Mahmoud Nooh Saleem Puthiya Purayil Mohammed Adil Rawshan Haniffa

QCS 2014

Feedback

Page 1

FEEDBACK It is intended that the technical regulation, Qatar Construction Specifications (QCS), will be amended periodically. Any suggestions for amendments to Qatar Construction Specifications should be sent to Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs in the Ministry of Environment. By post:

The Coordinator Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 Laboratories & Standardisation Affairs Ministry of Environment PO Box 23277 Doha, Qatar

By e-mail:

[email protected]

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Section number and title Part number and title Clause and paragraph number Page Your name and contact details

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Please ensure that the following information are included in all correspondences:

Please use the following feedback form where possible and applicable.

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QCS 2014 Feedback

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Section name and title

Clause and paragraph number

Comments / Suggestions / Technical Justifications

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Name and contact details

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Part name and title

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

Page1

1

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 2

1.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4

Scope of this Section Scope of the Qatar Construction Specification References Precedence of Specification and Documents

1.2

COMPLIANCE ............................................................................................... 3

1.2.1 1.2.2

Compliance with the Qatar Construction Specification Compliance with the General Conditions of Contract

1.3

STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 3

1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3

References to Standards 3 Government Published Specifications, Regulations, Notices and Circulars 3 Survey Marks 5

1.4

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS .......................................................................... 5

1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 1.4.10 1.4.11 1.4.12 1.4.13 1.4.14 1.4.15 1.4.16 1.4.17 1.4.18 1.4.19 1.4.20 1.4.21 1.4.22

General Approved Contract Contract Documents Contractor Drawings Engineer Engineer’s Representative Government Government Departments and Utility Services Guarantee Independent Agency Owner Permanent Works Plant Project Documentation Singular and Plural Site Specifications Specified Temporary Works Works

1.5

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ............................................................... 7

1.5.1 1.5.2

General Site Conditions

1.6

LANGUAGE ................................................................................................. 10

1.6.1

Contract Language

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5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 9 10

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

Page2

INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL

1.1.1

Scope of this Section

1

This Section specifies the general clauses applicable to Works being carried out in accordance with this Specification.

1.1.2

Scope of the Qatar Construction Specification

1

The clauses in this Specification are applicable to each and every part of the Works. Their function is to bring together all those statements which are normally common to most types of work.

2

The Qatar Construction Specification applies to the entire Works, whether on the Site or in yards, workshops and factories employed elsewhere in connection with the Works.

1.1.3

References

1

The following standards are referred to in this Part:

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BS 6100......................Building and civil engineering: Vocabulary

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BS ISO 80000 ............Quantities and Units

BS EN 1991-1-4 .........Eurocode 1. Actions on structures. General actions. Wind actions

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BS EN 1992-1-1 .........Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for buildings

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ASCE/SEI 7-05...........Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures Guide to the Design of Concrete Structures in the Arabian Peninsula, 2008

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Seismic hazard and seismic design requirements for the Arabian Peninsula region. The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 2008

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Civil Aviation Authority wind records. Ministry of Communication & Transport, Department of Civil Aviation & Meterology. 1.1.4

Precedence of Specification and Documents

1

The precedence of documents shall be: (a)

Particular Conditions of Contract.

(b)

General Conditions of Contract.

(c)

Project Specific Specification.

(d)

Project Specific and General Drawings.

(e)

Qatar Construction Specification.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

Page3

COMPLIANCE

1.2.1

Compliance with the Qatar Construction Specification

1

Unless otherwise stated in the Project Documentation, the Contractor shall comply with every requirement of the Qatar Construction Specification that is relevant to the type of work forming any part of the Contract and shall adopt whichever permissible option or alternative that is best suited to the needs of the construction work being undertaken.

2

Any information in the Contract documents as to the whereabouts of existing services and mains is approximate and for the guidance of the Contractor who shall not be relieved of his obligations under of the General Conditions of Contract .

1.2.2

Compliance with the General Conditions of Contract

1

The Qatar Construction Specification is intended for use with the General Conditions of Contract.

2

The Contractor shall comply with the provisions of the General Conditions of Contract in the course of construction of the Works.

1.3

STANDARDS

1.3.1

References to Standards

1

Any standard referred to in this Specification shall be deemed to be the version and/or standard(s), that was current forty-two days prior to the date of return of Tenders.

2

Any standard referred to in this Specification shall be taken as a reference to an equivalent Specification.

3

The Contractor shall have copies of all referenced standards applicable to the work being undertaken. Translations of standards not written in English shall be provided where necessary.

1.3.2

Government Published Specifications, Regulations, Notices and Circulars

1

The works shall be executed in accordance with the following Government specifications, regulations, notices and circulars:

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1.2

(a)

The General Conditions of Contract.

(b)

The Qatar Construction Specification (QCS) issued by the Qatar Standards, Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs, Ministry of Environment, 2014 and all revisions and addenda issued by the same ministry prior to the date of the announcement inviting tenderer.

(c)

The Code of Practice and Specification for Road Openings in the Highway prepared by the Ministry of Industry & Public Works, January 1992.

(d)

The Guide for Civil Users of Explosives in Qatar prepared by the former Ministry of Public Works.

(e)

The Qatar Survey Manual prepared by the Survey Section of the former Ministry of Industry & Public Works.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

Page4

The Qatar Traffic Manual prepared by the former Ministry of Public Works and the Qatar Highway Design Manual prepared by MMAA, 1997.

(g)

The Traffic Control at Road Works Manual issued by the former Ministry of Industry & Public Works.

(h)

Rules, Regulations and Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Air Conditioning, Heating, Ventilation & Refrigeration (ACHVR) Systems for Government Buildings, 2nd Edition, 1989, prepared by Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (QGEWC).

(i)

Regulations for the Installation of Electrical Wiring by the former Qatar National Telephone Services.

(j)

The Regulations for the Installation of Electrical Wiring, Electrical Equipment and Air Conditioning Equipment, Feb 2006 Edition prepared by the Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (QGEWC).

(k)

Rules and Regulations for Plumbing Works prepared by the Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (QGEWC).

(l)

Any current and relevant regulations, notices or circulars issued by the Public Works Authority, Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture (including the previous Ministry of Public Works and the previous Ministry of Industry and Public Works), Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation (QGEWC) (including the previous Ministry of Electricity and Water), Qatar Telecom (Q-TEL), the Qatar Standards, the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves or the appropriate local Municipality prior to the date of the announcement inviting tenderer.

(m)

State of Qatar Law No. 30 of 2002 and all subsequent amendments concerning “The Environment and Natural Resources Protection” – Articles 6, 17, 19 & 35.

(n)

State of Qatar Law No. (6) of 1987 and all subsequent amendments concerning Materials and Equipment from Qatar or other CCASG countries.

(o)

The Method of Measurement for Road and Bridgeworks published by the Ministry of Industry and Public Works, Civil Engineering Department , 1987.

(p)

Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works published by the Ministry of Public Works, Engineering Services Department, 1973.

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Safety Rules issued by the Electricity Networks Department of the former Ministry of Electricity and Water.

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(f)

2

(r)

The Jointing Manual prepared by the Electricity Networks Department of the former Ministry of Electricity and Water.

(s)

The Labour Law, No. (14) of The Year 2004 Published by Labour Department of Ministry of Civil Service Affairs & Housing, 2005.

(t)

Developer’s Drainage Guide prepared by the Public Works Authority, 2007.

(u)

Qatar Traffic Law No. 19 of the Year 2007.

(v)

CDD (Civil Defence Department) – Fire Safety Handbook.

(w)

Civil Defence Law No. 9 of the Year 2012.

(x)

Worker Rights Booklet 2009 (National Human Rights Committee).

The Contractor shall be deemed to have his own copy of the Government specifications, regulations, notices and circulars given at (a) to (t) above.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

Page5

Where any standard publication, specification, regulation, notice, etc or any correspondence refers to a Government Ministry, department, division, section, etc it will be deemed to be the same as any successor Ministry, department, division, section, etc which has or may subsequently be officially promulgated by the Government of the State of Qatar.

1.3.3

Survey Marks

1

The Contractor shall consult the Engineer prior to any earth or other works to determine if the work is likely to disturb survey marks. If the Engineer requires a survey mark to be moved the Contractor will be responsible for recreating the survey mark to an approved design and specification, and for resurveying the point using survey companies approved by the Engineer authority.

2

The Contractor shall be responsible for the protection of the survey marks within the boundaries of the site for the duration of the contract period, and shall be liable for all costs of any remedial work required by the Engineer.

3

On the practical completion of the Works the Engineer will issue a certificate stating that all survey marks, whether disturbed or otherwise by the Contractor, have been reinstated or protected to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

4

In the event of failure to comply with the requirements of this Clause the Engineer, without prejudice to any other method of recovery, may deduct the costs of any remedial work after the practical completion date carried out by the Engineer, from any monies in its hands or which may become due to the Contractor.

1.4

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

1.4.1

General

1

The following terms and conditions shall apply when used within, or in association with, the Qatar Construction Specification. Terms, which are restricted in their application to certain types of material or workmanship, are dealt with in the appropriate Section.

2

The definitions given in the General Conditions of Contract shall apply to this specification.

1.4.2

Approved

1

means terms such as “approved’, “approved by”, “to the approval”, “as directed” and the like refer always to approval or directions given by the Engineer in writing.

1.4.3

Contract

1

means the binding agreement entered into between the parties and the Contractor for the construction of the Works.

1.4.4

Contract Documents

1

means documents which together form the Contract

1.4.5

Contractor

1

means the party responsible for the construction of the Works.

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Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

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Drawings

1

The drawings included in the Project Documentation.

1.4.7

Engineer

1

means the party appointed by the Owner to administer the Contract

1.4.8

Engineer’s Representative

1

means the party appointed from time to time by the Engineer to perform duties on behalf of the Engineer whose authority and delegated powers shall be notified in writing to the Contractor by the Engineer.

1.4.9

Government

1

means the Government of the State of Qatar, including its ministries and offices

1.4.10

Government Departments and Utility Services

1

means any governmental, semi-governmental, administrative, fiscal or judicial ministry, department, commission, authority, tribunal, agency, municipality or body, and shall include the provider of electricity, gas, water, wastewater and other public services, and any party with a regulatory function under the laws of the State of Qatar.

1.4.11

Guarantee

1

A Guarantee is a written assurance that a material, product, component, item of equipment, finishing or any other part of the Works meets certain defined standards or quality criteria and/or lasts for a certain length of time.

2

A warranty is the same as a Guarantee as defined in Clause 1.4.17.1.

1.4.12

Independent Agency

1

means a party where specified in the Contract Documents or as instructed by the Engineer as an Approved agency who is responsible for specific tasks assigned to that party by the Contract Documents

1.4.13

Owner

1

means the party for whom the Project is being undertaken and to whom the handover of the final product will be made.

1.4.14

Permanent Works

1

means the permanent works, forming part of the Works, to be designed and / or executed and completed by the Contractor under the Contract.

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1.4.6

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Plant

1

means, irrespective of ownership, all plant, facilities, temporary structures and accommodation, equipment, tools, appliances, apparatus, machinery, vehicles and other things required for the design, execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of defects, whether imported or locally supplied, but excluding Temporary Works and any other things intended to form or forming part of the Permanent Works

1.4.16

Project Documentation

1

All documents associated with and applicable to the Project Contract.

1.4.17

Singular and Plural

1

Words importing the singular only also include the plural vice versa where the context requires.

1.4.18

Site

1

Means the places provided by the Owner where the permanent works are to be executed and to which Plant and Materials are to be delivered, any other places that may be specified in the Contract Documents or by an instruction of the Engineer as forming part of the Site

1.4.19

Specifications

1

All specifications contained in the Contract including any modifications or additions thereto as may from time to time be issued or approved in writing by the Engineer.

1.4.20

Specified

1

Specified in the Project Documentation.

1.4.21

Temporary Works

1

means temporary works of every kind (other than Plant) required on the Site for the execution and completion of the Permanent Works and the remedying of Defects.

1.4.22

Works

1

means all works, supplies and services of any kind, including Permanent Works and Temporary Works, required for the project and to satisfy the requirements of the Contract Documents.

1.5

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

1.5.1

General

1

Units shall generally be in accordance with the Systèm International d’Unités and the relevant provisions of BS ISO 80000

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1.4.15

QCS 2014

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microns ampere Celsius centi day diameter gram (me) hour hectare joule kilo litre mega metre milli Newton number number Pascal radius second tonne volt Watt

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µ A C c d dia g h ha J k l M m m N No. nr Pa r sec t V W

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American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials American Concrete Institute American National Standards Institute American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Testing & Materials American Welding Society American Water Works Association British Standard British Standard Institution Cement and Concrete Association Commission of approval of Electrical Equipment Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers Concrete Industry Research and Information Association Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute Concrete Society Deutsches Institute fur Normung (German Institute for Standardization) Electronic Industries Association European Standards (Euro-Norm) Federal Highway Authority Factory Mutual Engineering Division Gulf Standards Institution of Civil Engineers International Electrotechnical Commission Institution of Electrical Engineers

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AASHTO ACI ANSI ASME ASTM AWS AWWA BS BSI C & CA CEE CIBSE CIRIA CRSI CS DIN EIA EN FHWA FM GS ICE IEC IEE

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Reference to a technical society, institution, association or governmental authority is made in the Specifications in accordance with the following abbreviations:

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The following abbreviations are used in this Specification:

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Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

IEEE ISO LPC LPCB MMAA NEMA NFPA PCI PWA QCS QGEWC QS

Page9

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering International Organization for Standardization Loss Prevention Council Loss Prevention Certification Board Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association National Fire Protection Agency Prestressed Concrete Institute Public Works Authority (Ashghal) Qatar Construction Specification Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation Qatar Standards (Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs, Ministry of Environment) Qatar Telecom Provider Swedish Standards Institute United Kingdom Department of Transport Urban Planning and Development Authority Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies)

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Ooredoo SIS UK DOT UPDA VDE

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QCS 2014

Site Conditions

1

The Site conditions shall be assumed to be as follows for tendering purposes:

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1.5.2

Maximum ambient temperature .......................... 50C

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Minimum ambient temperature ........................... 5C

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Design ambient temperature ............................... 50C Maximum metal temperature under the sun ....... 85C

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Maximum ambient humidity ................................ 100% Minimum ambient humidity ................................. 20%

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Design ambient humidity ..................................... 100% 50-year return period Wind Speed:

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(a) Nominal wind speed for 3 sec gust ……… 38 m/s (A per ASCE 7-05 / IBC 2012) (b) Mean hourly wind speed…………….…… 25 m/s (as per BS 6399-2)

(c) Mean 10 minutes wind speed…………… 27 m/s (as per BS EN 1991-1-4)

Yearly rainfall ....................................................... 80 - 150 mm 2

The wind is very directional and that the W-NNW sector predominates for velocities greater than 8m/s (30km/h). However, the wind in coastal areas tends to exhibit a diurnal pattern, with onshore winds during daylight hours changing to offshore at night.

3

The temperature is relatively mild from October to May and hot from June to September.

4

The relative ambient humidity is generally low from October to May and generally high from June to September.

5

Under certain climatic conditions, considerable condensation may take place.

6

A considerable amount of salt is contained in the atmosphere which together with the relatively high ambient humidity, can produce sever corrosion problems.

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Section 01: General Part 01: Introduction

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7

Distribution and occurrence of rainfall events are very erratic. Rainfall events are generally of a high intensity with a short duration and usually occur between December and March.

8

The prevailing wind directions are from the north and west.

9

The seismic design for all building structure shall be based upon local seismic accelerations recommended as per ASCE 7-10, IBC 2012 or BS EN 1998-1:2004. Local seismic spectral accelerations based upon uniform hazard response spectra for 475 year and 2475 year return period as below. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) 2475 year

475 year

2475 year

475 year

0.045

0.10

0.090

0.147

0.045

2475 year

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0.065

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Wind tunnel test is recommended for buildings under below criteria Total building height exceeding 120m from ground.

(b)

Structure with irregular geometry or shape.

(c)

Unusual terrain or surrounding structure in the area.

(d)

Any other factor as per design requirements or designer recommendation.

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(a)

The ratio of the wind speed for any return period to the 50 year return period wind speed as per Peterka & Shahid Equation is

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1 second Spectral Acceleration (g) – S1

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0.2 second Spectral Acceleration (g) - Ss

Building structure design working life shall be minimum as specified below

10

Examples

Temporary structures (a)

10 to 25

Replaceable structural parts, eg. Gantry girders, bearings

3

15 to 30

Storage and similar structures

4

50 to 75

Building structures and other common structures

5

120

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Indicative design working life (years)

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Design working life category

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12

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VT / V50 = [0.36+0.1 ln (12T)]

(a)

Civil engineering structures like bridges, tunnel etc.

Structures or parts of structures that can be dismantled with intention of being reused, aren’t temporary structures.

1.6

LANGUAGE

1.6.1

Contract Language

1

All communications, meetings and documentation shall be in English. END OF PART

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Page 1

10

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY .................................................... 3

10.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 10 10 11

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10.1.1 Scope 10.1.2 Responsibility 10.1.3 Organisation for Occupational Health and Safety 10.1.4 Reporting Accidents 10.1.5 General Sanitation 10.1.6 Safety Notice Board 10.1.7 Compensation for Damage 10.1.8 Occupational Health and Safety Performance 10.1.9 Occupational Health and Safety Leadership and Accountability 10.1.10 Safe-working Arrangements 10.1.11 Labour Rights, Benefits & Obligations 10.1.12 Language barriers and communications issues 10.1.13 Communications, Consultations and Participation 10.1.14 Management Review

CONTRACTOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN ............. 11

10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.4 10.2.5 10.2.6

General Occupational Health and Safety Policy Risk Assessment and Job Hazard Analysis Intervention Requirement for Training Method Statements

10.3

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP) .................................................... 19

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10.3.1 General

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11 16 16 16 17 19 19

EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN ............................... 20

10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.4.4 10.4.5 10.4.6 10.4.7

Background Requirements Phase One: Gap Analysis (‘as is’) Phase Two: Implementation (‘to be’) Phase Three: Future Requirements What Should We Do During An Earth Quake? What Should We Do After An Earth Quake?

10.5

SPECIAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND PRECAUTIONS ..................... 24

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10.5.1 Permits 10.5.2 Guarantee 10.5.3 Mechanical Plant, Machinery and Equipment 10.5.4 Existing Utilities 10.5.5 Excavations 10.5.6 Warning Signs 10.5.7 Confined Spaces 10.5.8 Lifting Operation 10.5.9 Lifting Gear 10.5.10 Scaffolding

20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 24 25 26 28 28 30 30 31

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10.5.11 Hot work and Welding 10.5.12 Compressed Gas Cylinders 10.5.13 Working at Height 10.5.14 Electrical 10.6

32 33 34 36

FIRST AID ................................................................................................... 37

10.6.1 First Aid and Clinic 10.7

37

FIRE PRECAUTION AND PREVENTION ................................................... 37

10.7.1 General 10.7.2 Emergency Equipment 10.7.3 Hazardous Substances

SAFETY OF THE PUBLIC ........................................................................... 41

.

10.8

37 39 40

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41

WELFARE, SAFETY AND PROTECTION OF WORKMEN ........................ 42

10.9.1 10.9.2 10.9.3 10.9.4 10.9.5 10.9.6 10.9.7

General Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) / Attire Safety Equipment Support Facilities for Contractors Staff and Labour Summer Working Conditions and fatigue Additional Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Plant and Equipment Test Certificates

10.10

LABOUR ACCOMODATION ....................................................................... 46

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10.9

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10.10.1 General 10.10.2 Quality of Labour Accommodation 10.10.3 Provision for Fire Safety 10.10.4 Provision for Health Care 10.10.5 Access to Transport 10.10.6 Access to Religious, Social and Domestic Facilities 10.10.7 Access to Communications 10.10.8 Number, Quality and Location of Sanitation Facilities 10.10.9 Food Preparation Areas 10.10.10 Pest and Vermin Control 10.10.11 Security at Labour Accommodation 10.10.12 Social Issues 10.10.13 Competence of Labour Accommodation Management 10.10.14 Environmental Conditions at Labour Accommodation 10.10.15 Health and Safety for Labour Accommodation Residents

42 42 42 43 45 45 46 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 52

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10

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

10.1

GENERAL

10.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the Health, Safety and Welfare requirements for construction and its associated practices.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows.

Section 11

Health and Safety

.

Protection Building Demolition Materials Engineer’s Site Facilities Setting-out of the Works

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This Section

Responsibility

1

It is the Contractors responsibility to implement an Occupational Health and Safety Management System meeting as a minimum the requirements of BS OHSAS 18001. It shall be the duty of the Contractor to provide the following:

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10.1.2

Safe plant and equipment;

(b)

Safe means of handling, transporting and storage of articles and substances;

(c)

Adequate training, instruction, information and supervision;

(d)

A safe place of work with safe access to and egress from the place of work;

(e)

A safe and healthy environment; and

(f)

Adequate welfare facilities.

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(a)

It is the Contractor’s responsibility to conduct his operations in such a manner as to prevent injury to persons or damage to property. The Contractor shall take precautions for protection against risks and shall inspect Occupational Health and Safety conditions where the Works are being executed.

3

The Contractor shall conform to all Acts, Orders and Regulations made by any official authority with respect to Occupational Health and Safety.

4

The Contractor shall note that Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) shall be treated with high importance at all stages of the Contract. Contractor shall understand that the Contract Price includes the Execution Programme for provision and implementation of an Occupational Health and Safety Policy and Plan to ensure the highest standards are enforced throughout Construction, Pre-commissioning and Commissioning.

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The Contractor’s attention is drawn to the requirements of latest revision of: Qatar Construction Specification – QCS,

(b)

Qatar Law No.14 of the Year 2004 – The Labour Law, and the ministerial decisions issued in implementation of the provisions of the Labour Law issued by Law No. 14 of 2004,

(c)

Qatar Traffic Law No. 19 of the Year 2007,

(d)

Environmental Protection Law No. 30 of the Year 2002 and Decision No. (4) for the year 2005 by issuing the executive regulations of Environmental Protection Law,

(e)

Civil Defence Law No. 9 of the Year 2012,

(f)

CDD (Department of Civil Defence) – Fire Safety Handbook; and

(g)

Worker Rights Booklet 2009 (National Human Rights Committee).

.

(a)

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The Contractor is required to fully comply with the stated requirements relating to Occupational Health and Safety. In the event that legislation is updated the latest version shall be followed. The Contractor shall ensure that Contractor Personnel and Subcontractor’s employees comply with all requirements of latest revision of QATAR legislation mention above (but not limited to). Compliance with the standards shall be considered as a minimum requirement and Contractor shall establish additional arrangements as circumstances may require. Any failure by Contractor to obtain copies of that mentioned laws applicable to the Contract shall in no way relieve the Contractor from any responsibilities or obligation under the Contract.

7

The Contractor’s Representative shall be responsible for all Occupational Health and Safety matters during the performance of the Work up to and including the Completion Date. The Contractor’s Representative shall ensure that an effective Occupational Health and Safety management organization is maintained at all times to undertake the duties to comply with this requirement.

10.1.3

Organisation for Occupational Health and Safety

1

The Contractor shall submit an Occupational Health and Safety Organisation Plan detailing planning and management considerations for construction at an organisational level for the Engineer’s approval within Thirty (30) days of the award of the Contract.

2

The Occupational Health and Safety Organisation Plan shall provide the names, qualifications, experience and skills of all the Safety Team and key support staff.

3

The Contractor shall submit the names of the following to the Engineer for approval:-

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(a)

The details of its proposed competent and experienced Occupational Health and Safety Manager. The minimum education for the proposed Occupational Health and Safety Manager are but not limited to Bachelor degree in Engineering / Science or equivalent with 10 years experiences in the same field as Safety Manager and the ability to communicate with all nationalities, plus Professional OHS Qualification by Examination (NEBOSH, IOSH Managing Safely, OSHA 30 hours, ... etc), Management Qualification prefer certified as BS OHSAS 18001 lead auditor, implementation and continues improvement Relevant Training Attendance. The Engineer shall review the details and if necessary interview the proposed individual to assess his/her suitability for the position prior to giving approval for appointment. The Contractor is not

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permitted to execute any form of Work on the Worksite until such time as an approved Occupational Health and Safety Manager has been deployed on a full time basis to the Worksite. The Contractor shall not remove the appointed Occupational Health and Safety Manager without prior approval from the Engineer. (b)

Deputy Occupational Health and Safety Manager who is capable of performing all of the duties of the Occupational Health and Safety Manager in the event of his absence. The requirements and procedure outlined in Clause (a) above applies equally to the appointment of the Deputy Occupational Health and Safety Manager.

The Contractor shall appoint Occupational Health and Safety Officers and support staff in sufficient numbers to ensure the effective function of the Occupational Health and Safety discipline within the Contractor’s organisation. The minimum education for the Occupational Health and Safety Officer are HND / HNC with 4 years experiences in the same field as Safety officer, certified from NEBOSH, IOSH or OSHA 30 hours, Professional in control and monitoring the site activity. The Contractor shall appoint and deploy full time on the Worksite one Occupational Health and Safety Officer for each and every 50 persons employed at the Worksite. For a less than 50 persons employed at the Worksite, a minimum of one (1) Safety Officer shall be present on site during all working hours each day throughout the Contract period. This is in addition to the Occupational Health and Safety Manager and his Deputy.

5

The Safety Officers shall have no other duties, either on-site or off-site, other than Occupational Health and Safety duties, and shall be exclusive to one site.

6

The Contractor shall ensure that each and every Subcontractor employed on the Worksite appoints suitably competent and experienced qualified Occupational Health and Safety staff to ensure the effective function of the Occupational Health and Safety discipline within the Subcontractor’s organisation. The requirements and procedure outlined above for contractor Occupational Health and Safety staff to be applies equally to the appointment of the Subcontractor Occupational Health and Safety Staff. The Subcontractor shall appoint and deploy full time on the Worksite one Occupational Health and Safety Officer for each and every 50 persons that they employ at the Worksite. Any Subcontractor that employs more than 100 persons will appoint an Occupational Health and Safety Manager. This is in addition to the Occupation Occupational Health and Safety Officers.

10.1.4

Reporting Accidents

1

The Contractor shall promptly report to the Engineer any accident whatsoever arising out of, or in connection with, the Works whether on or adjacent to the Site which caused death, personal injury or property damage, giving full details and enclosing statements of witnesses.

2

Promptly shall mean immediately by telephone where it impacts on the operation of the project and electronically in all cases never more than 24 hours.

3

The Contractor shall implement arrangements for effectively managing any emergency incident that may occur as a result of Work and/or on the Worksite.

4

The Contractor shall make all necessary arrangements for emergency preparedness including, but not limited to, medical equipment and facilities, trained personnel, communication systems, transportation, search and rescue equipment.

5

The Contractor shall produce and submit to the Engineer monthly performance reports and incident reports. Reports shall be in the format approved by the Engineer.

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6

The Contractor shall refer to, and in particular, QCS 2013 (Section 11, Part 2) for all incident classifications and definitions.

7

Incident Investigation final reports to be submitted for all lost time major / reportable Incidents within 10 days of the incident. All incidents that result in lost time from work, near miss, dangerous occurrence or damage to property (asset) shall be reported. The normal steps to be taken after an incident shall be; Submit incident notifications immediately;

(b)

Conduct the investigation;

(c)

Prepare the report with conclusions and recommendations;

(d)

Prepare appropriate plan of corrective action;

(e)

Include in monthly Health and Safety statistics report;

(f)

Submit to Engineer for review and re-submittal if required.

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General Sanitation

1

The Contractor shall maintain the Site and all working areas in a sanitary condition and in all matters of health and sanitation shall comply with the requirements of the Supreme Council of Health and the Public Works Authority.

2

The Contractor is responsible for all measures necessary to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes on the Site for the duration of the Contract.

3

The Contractor shall ensure that pests are not permitted to the Site facility by initiating a routine pest control program. Non-toxic pest control methods shall be used.

4

The disposal surplus water and the accompanying growth of trees and the proliferation of insects and rodents. Does the site cause an environmentally danger to the surrounding area?

10.1.6

Safety Notice Board

1

The Contractor shall set up and maintain (cleaned and legible) throughout the course of the Contract safety notice boards in prominent places on the Site. These notice boards shall be located in positions approved by the Engineer such that they are clearly visible to the Contractor’s employees. They shall be fully illustrated and provide details of key safety procedures to be followed.

2

The notice boards shall be in Arabic, English and;

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10.1.5

(a)

In all other languages which are the mother tongue of five or more of the Contractor’s employees, or

(b)

The preferred languages (can be understood) by the workers on the Worksite.

3

The Contractor’s employees shall be made fully aware of the notice boards prior to commencing duties on Site.

4

The Contractor shall maintain up to date copies of all industry codes and standards that apply to the Work.

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Compensation for Damage

1

Claims for compensation arising from damage or injury caused by the Contractor’s failure to provide adequate Occupational Health and Safety measures shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor.

2

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of any claim made against him which is in any way connected to the Contract.

3

The Contractor is required to copy to the Engineer any formal Occupational Health and Safety related communication between the Contractor and enforcing authorities or government organizations.

10.1.8

Occupational Health and Safety Performance

1

The Contractor shall ensure acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of all Subcontractors, visitors, vendors, public and other parties that may enter the Worksite or the amounts identified in the Bills of Quantities.

2

Should acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance not be maintained by the Contractor then the Engineer may, in addition to any other amounts withheld under the Contract, withhold up to 10% of the amount of any interim invoice issued by the Contractor.

3

The Contractor shall develop and implement programmes which shall act as incentives for their teams at all levels, to make a positive contribution to good health and safety performance.

10.1.9

Occupational Health and Safety Leadership and Accountability

1

The Contractor shall be committed to Health and Safety leadership and this is to be achieved through working in partnership with the main project stakeholders including the Engineer and the Client.

2

The Contractor shall demonstrate commitment to the safety, health and welfare of all stakeholders and workers on projects and shall demonstrate leadership in achieving the following objectives:

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10.1.7

(a)

A safe, healthy workplace

(b)

Be consulted on their working conditions, to be heard, and to influence their working conditions

(c)

Return home from work unharmed at the end of each working day; to which everyone has a right to.

3

The Contractor shall provide opportunities through forums and meetings involving important project stakeholders, including the Client, The Engineer, sub-contractors and other relevant contractors to raise health and safety issues, assist in the development of leadership programmes, share good practice and be recognised for good performance.

4

The Contractor’s senior management shall visibly demonstrate support, commitment, Leadership and Accountability on all health and safety issues by the following actions: (a)

The Engineer’s Zero Harm Initiative;

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Section 01: General Part 10: Occupational Health and Safety

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Training employees to work safely;

(c)

Recognizing and rewarding employees;

(d)

Identify risks to health and safety and develop mitigation/control plans and communicate these to workers;

(e)

Reinforce safe work practices;

(f)

Place health and safety as the first item on the agenda at meetings.

(g)

Allocate adequate resources for health and safety management and implementation

(h)

Develop health and safety targets and objectives and measure and review performance;

(i)

Foster positive health and safety culture and behaviour through their own actions;

(j)

Treat health and safety as a core value equal in importance with productivity, quality and ethical standards;

(k)

Participate in health and safety meetings and safety walkabouts;

(l)

Develop efficient contingency plans and allocate adequate emergency resources;

(m)

Provide trained and competent workforce;

(n)

Promote personal health and well-being; and

(o)

Seek to exceed current legislation in relation to welfare and labour facilities.

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10.1.10 Safe-working Arrangements

The Contractor shall have arrangements to empower their staff to make sensible decisions about their own safety and the safety of others affected by what they do, and not put themselves or others at risk of harm.

2

Contractor to have safe-working arrangement that ensures:

Employees can stop work immediately where they believe they or others are at risk of harm

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That health and safety concerns can be raised and associated actions taken

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(c)

No disciplinary action is taken against those who use the worksafe arrangement to raise a genuine health and safety concern

(d)

That the process is cascaded to their subcontractors

3

All such arrangements shall be briefed to all staff, including any agency or sub contract staff before they start work.

4

Where safety concerns are raised or a stop work process has been invoked employers shall document them and the action taken to resolve them; and shall advise others working on the project were the issue is likely to impact on them or be similar to those faced by other organisation

10.1.11 Labour Rights, Benefits & Obligations 1

The Contractor shall document implementation of Labour Law, in particular with respect to the following:

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Recruitment – The Contractor shall maintain an up-to-date list of all agents/agencies used and should provide copies of licences for same to the Engineer. The Contractor shall, through their best endeavours, satisfy themselves, and the Engineer, that recruitment agents/agencies used do not charge recruits any fees inconsistent with those allowed for under the Labour Law (Qatar Law no.14 of the year 2004).

(b)

Contracts – The Contractor shall retain, for inspection by the Engineer, copies of written employment contracts for all employees working on the project. Such employment contracts shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Labour Law and no contract clause may contravene the Labour Law.

(c)

Wages – A Wage Register shall be retained in accordance with the requirements of the Labour Law. The Contractor shall update the Wage Register to ensure that employee wages, including relevant overtime payments, are paid in a timely fashion and in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Labour Law. These records shall be available for inspection by the Engineer and shall clearly identify overtime payments and rates.

(d)

Severance Pay – The Contractor shall retain records to demonstrate that payment of severance payments have been made, where appropriate, in accordance with Article 132 of the Labour Law.

(e)

Records & Files – These shall be retained in accordance with the Labour Law, and shall be made available to the Engineer for inspection.

(f)

Work Rules & Disciplinary Rules – These shall be in accordance with the Labour Law, shall be conspicuously displayed, and shall be provided to the Engineer.

(g)

Working Hours & Leave - The Contractor shall retain records to demonstrate that all employees’ working hours and leave allowances are consistent with the requirements of the Labour Law.

(h)

Collective Labour Disputes - Any/all collective labour disputes shall be dealt with in accordance with the requirements of the Labour Law. Complete records of all such disputes shall be retained by the Contractor for review by the Engineer. As a minimum, the Contractor shall inform the Engineer immediately, on receipt of complaint/claim from the employees. Subcontracts As such, obligations, relating to Recruitment, Contracts, Wages, Records & Files, Work Rules & Disciplinary Rules, Working Hours & Leave and Collective Labour Disputes shall be passed on to the subcontractor in the event that works are subcontracted by the Contractor. Similarly, subcontractor records shall be made available to the Engineer.

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2

The Contractor shall provide copies of Contracts, Work Rules, Disciplinary Rules, Pay Slips, etc. to employees in a range of appropriate languages, as widely understood by the workforce.

3

The Contractor shall submit a monthly declaration to the Engineer outlining compliance with Labour Law in relation to payment of wages and working hours for the preceding period.

4

The Contractor shall facilitate contact between project employees and relevant independent bodies such consulates, NGOs, or other relevant organisations offering social support. A list of such local contacts shall be provided to new employees during their induction process. An up-to-date list of contact details for these organisations shall also be displayed in public areas such as the canteen, recreational areas, etc.

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10.1.12 Language barriers and communications issues 1

The Contractors shall ensure that their workforce fully understand site health and safety requirements, including emergency arrangements and site rules in place. The language needs of personnel shall be addressed during induction and through training. Emphasis should be placed on ensuring proper supervision of all staff, but in particular those who may have difficulties in understanding verbal or written communications. Where practicable, signage shall make maximum use of pictograms.

2

Those who have responsibility for managing Contractor personnel on construction site shall be able to communicate in both written and oral English to a standard appropriate to the tasks being performed. Note that there may be personnel who are not competent in the English language, and this is permitted provided that the Contractor can demonstrate that:

(b)

Such team members shall receive the required health and safety training / briefing (including any emergency procedures) before commencing work in a form that they understand

(c)

Appropriate arrangements are made to ensure that instructions are effectively communicated to and understood by all team members

(d)

Particular attention has been given to the communication requirements of safety critical workers. ensuring a translator is available who is capable of instructing the nonEnglish speaking personnel in safety and other operational matters, and

(e)

Maintaining a reasonable ratio of non-English speaking personnel to each translator at all times.

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Such team members are able to give oral instructions and warnings to others

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Special provisions for safety critical instructions conveyed by the translator shall be recorded as being received and clearly understood by each non-English speaking person. Such records shall include those for safety induction, emergency procedures, safety method statements and safety awareness talks.

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10.1.13 Communications, Consultations and Participation The Contractor shall be required to disseminate and transfer information regarding Health and Safety issues. Typical information to be communicated should include but not be limited to; any new policies or procedures and general awareness.

2

The Contractor shall ensure communications arrangements are in place to inform of key health and safety issues. These will include lessons learnt from incidents, sharing of good practice, health and safety campaigns and initiatives. Contractors shall have processes in place to ensure an appropriate cascade to all site personnel.

3

The following methods of communication but not limited to shall be observed;

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(a)

Meetings; Health and safety meetings shall be conducted on a weekly basis separate from other meeting that have safety on the agenda

(b)

Safety Alerts; Safety alerts shall be produced by the Contractor after a Major Accident/Incident or when appropriate.

(c)

Notice Boards; Information that shall be included as a minimum on an office notice board is any relevant emergency procedures, policy statement, safety alerts or updates

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(d)

Campaigns; Health and safety campaigns must be initiated by the Contractor to implement throughout the year. At least 4 campaigns must be run annually on a prorata basis. One of the campaigns must detail heat stress before the summer months.

(e)

Posters/Signs; Must be focused on themes relevant to site specific work activities/hazards

(f)

Safety Awards; The Contractor shall initiate a scheme whereby he recognises and rewards for positive health and safety related performance by individuals. This shall be on a monthly basis and communicated throughout the project workforce.

10.1.14 Management Review The Contractor has to supply evidence that their senior management have carried out a management review, at least annually, of their OHSE systems to ensure continuous improvement.

2

The review shall include, but not limited to, where appropriate, an evaluation of and / or changes to:

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Health and safety policy;

(b)

Objectives and targets;

(c)

Action plans;

(d)

Follow-up action from previous meetings;

(e)

Health and safety system suitability;

(f)

Audit results;

(g)

Preventive and corrective actions;

(h)

Regulatory changes;

(i)

Continual improvement measures;

(j)

Performance measures;

(k)

Major procedure and risk review changes; and

(l)

Health and safety plans.

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CONTRACTOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN

10.2.1

General

1

The Contractor shall prepare a Contract specific Occupational Health and Safety Plan (the “Safety Plan”) and submit a Safety Plan to the Engineer for review and approval within thirty (30) days of the award of the Contract. The Contractor is not permitted to Work on the Worksite until such time as the Plan has been approved by Engineer. It will be a condition precedent to starting the works that the Contractor will have an approved Health and Safety Plan, Traffic Management Plan, and an Emergency Response Plan.

2

The Safety Plan shall include the Contractor’s proposals for the maintenance of safety on the Site. These proposals shall address the safety measures applicable with respect to all tasks to be undertaken in the construction of the Works.

3

The Safety Plan shall include the Contractor’s proposals for accident prevention. Accident prevention shall include but not be limited to training, monitoring and review of safety related procedures, enforcement of safety related matters and promoting safety awareness.

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The Safety Plan shall include a safety organisation chart showing the names and responsibility of all safety personnel deployed both on and off the Worksite to maintain acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of the Contract and the Work at all times, even outside the normal working hours, in particular night-time and holiday working. (refer to 10.1.3)

5

The Contractor is required to work in areas where dangerous concentrations of gases may be present in manholes, trench excavations and the like. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to provide all necessary detection equipment and to ensure that, if toxic or explosive gases are found, adequate measures are taken to protect his staff, workmen and members of the public.

6

The Safety Plan shall be specific to one Contract.

7

The Contractor shall regularly review the suitability of the Safety Plan. The Contractor shall undertake a full formal review of the Safety Plan annually on the date of award of the Contract or when necessary but no less than 6 monthly intervals and submit the findings of the review to the Engineer within 14 days of that date along with an amended plan should any amendment be required.

8

The Safety Plan shall contain the Contractor’s Occupational Health and Safety Policy. (refer to 10.2.2)

9

The Plan for construction works shall support and supported by the Contractor’s systems for risk management in particular risk assessment and method statement (refer to the Regulatory Document Section 11 Part 1 in particular section 1.1.7: Risk Assessments and Method Statement and Guidance document Section 11 Part 2 Section 2.4: Guidance on Risk Assessment and Method Statement). The plan shall include a schedule of risk assessments for all work activities in relation to the project. The plan shall include a list or schedule of identified work activities for which method statement will be developed before their execution..

10

The Safety Plan shall include the contract risk assessment and detail the arrangements for ensuring that it is updated to reflect any changes throughout the duration of the Work.

11

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for undertaking job hazard analysis and ensuring that such analysis is included in each and every method statement.

12

The Safety Plan shall detail the management arrangements and standards to be used for each of the following:

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(a)

Scaffolding

(b)

Suspended Working Platforms

(c)

Fall Prevention and Fall Arrest

(d)

Prevention of Falling Objects

(e)

Excavations

(f)

Electricity

(g)

Structural Steel Erection

(h)

Demolition and Dismantling

Section 01: General Part 10: Occupational Health and Safety False work and Formwork

(j)

Reinforcement and Concreting

(k)

Cladding and Roof work

(l)

Confined Spaces

(m)

Lifting Appliances and Lifting Gear

(n)

Mobile Plant and Vehicles

(o)

Mobile Elevating Working Platforms

(p)

Construction Lifts

(q)

Machinery and Equipment

(r)

Power Tools

(s)

Hazardous Substances

(t)

Hot Work and Welding

(u)

Fire Prevention and Protection

(v)

Access and Egress

(w)

Housekeeping

(x)

Warning Signs and Barricades

(y)

Material Handling, Transportation and Storage

(z)

Lock Out and Tag Out

(aa)

Temporary Works

(bb)

Temporary Facilities

(cc)

Underground and Overhead Utilities

(dd)

Working Over or Adjacent to Water

(ee)

Working Environment

(ff)

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Personal Protective Equipment Site Traffic Control (including setting and taking down of all temporary traffic devices)

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The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall use to ensure acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of all Subcontractors that may enter the Worksite. It shall detail the arrangements for evaluating Subcontractors prior to them being contracted to undertake Work. It shall detail the methods that the Contractor shall use to monitor their work and the penalties that shall be imposed should acceptable standards not be maintained.

14

The Safety Plan shall detail the manner in which the Contractor shall review, approve and incorporate all Subcontractor Occupational Health and Safety plans, risk assessments and method statements and incorporate them into their Occupational Health and Safety management system.

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The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall use to ensure acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of all persons on the Worksite. In particular it shall detail the arrangements for penalties and disciplinary action that shall be taken should Contractor Personnel, Subcontractor employees or any other person on the Worksite not comply with Occupational Health and Safety requirements.

16

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall use to control and ensure acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of visitors and delivery personnel that may enter the Worksite.

17

The Safety Plan shall detail the Contractor’s arrangements for effectively managing any emergency incident that may occur as a result of Work or on the Worksite. The detail shall include the facilities required for emergency preparedness.

18

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for notification and investigation of any incident that may occur as a result of Work or on the Worksite.

19

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for the Contractor’s monthly performance reporting and incident reporting.

20

The Contractor shall ensure that their project monthly health and safety statistics report is completed and submitted by the agreed date to the Engineer and Quality & Safety Department. The Engineer will provide the necessary format for this report. The information collected will be submitted to the Engineer and Quality & Safety Department.

21

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for assessing the general Health of employees and any job specific Health checks that may be required.

22

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for self-inspection and auditing that shall be used to monitor the Work.

23

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for tracking and effectively closing any Occupational Health and Safety related nonconformity or deficiency that may be identified as a result of monitoring. Written records of inspection, auditing and tracking shall be maintained and made available to any representative of Client on request.

24

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for ensuring that all Contractor Personnel and Subcontractor employees are trained and competent to undertake their work in accordance with the required standards. In particular the Safety plan shall detail the training and competence requirements for the following employees;

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(a)

Supervisors

(b)

Electricians

(c)

Mobile plant and vehicle operators

(d)

Crane and lifting appliance operators

(e)

Riggers

(f)

Excavation Supervisors

(g)

Machinery operators

(h)

Scaffolders

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(i)

Scaffolding Supervisors

(j)

Confined space workers

(k)

Confined space supervisors

(l)

All persons working at height

Page 15

The Safety Plan shall detail the training arrangements specify the type and nature of training to be given including but not limited to induction, pre-work briefings, tool box talks, general awareness training, skills training and formal training conducted by training professionals or agencies. Written records of the attendees, training given and assessment of competency shall be maintained by the Contractor and made available for inspection by any representative of Client upon request.

26

The Safety Plan shall detail the Contractor’s arrangements for promoting the awareness of Occupational Health and Safety issues through notices, posters, newsletters, booklets, Occupational Health and Safety alerts and any other means. All such information shall be provided in the languages preferred by the training recipients of the training.

27

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall make to reinforce good performance. Such arrangements shall include incentive schemes to reward Contractor Personnel, Subcontractor employees or areas of Work that demonstrate exemplary Occupational Health and Safety performance.

28

The Safety Plan shall include details of all meetings that are held to specifically deal with Occupational Health and Safety issues. In particular the Contractor shall hold a monthly meeting chaired by the Contractor’s Representative, which Client shall be invited to attend, with the following items on the agenda;

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Suitability of the Contractor’s Occupational Health and Safety organization for the ongoing and planned Work;

(b)

Effectiveness of the Contractor’s system;

(c)

Significant areas of planned activity and associated risk;

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(f)

Incident review;

(g)

Occupational Health and Safety promotion planning;

(h)

Training needs assessment;

(i)

Auditing and inspection planning;

The Occupational Health and Safety Plan shall describe the Contractor’s Safety Management System that will be used throughout and shall conform with all requirements defined within the Contract and related documentation The contents shall include but not be limited to the following: (a)

Front Cover

(b)

Table of Contents

(c)

Project Scope, Requirements and Occupational Health and Safety Objectives

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Occupational Health and Safety Policy and BS OHSAS 18001 Certificate (if applicable)

(e)

Control of Occupational Health and Safety Plan

(f)

Reference Documentation

(g)

Safety Organisation and Responsibilities

(h)

Subcontractor Occupational Health and Safety

(i)

Risk Assessments and Method Statement

(j)

Non-conformance, Corrective and Preventative Action

(k)

Incident Reporting

(l)

Audits

(m)

Training

(n)

Key Performance Indicators and Continual Improvement

(o)

Management Review

(p)

Safety Meetings

(q)

Monthly Safety Report

(r)

Appendices

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Occupational Health and Safety Policy

1

The Contractor shall comply with the Client vision, mission and strategic objectives.

2

The Contractor shall develop and implement its own written Occupational Health and Safety Policy which shall be Project specific and demonstrate the Contractor’s understanding of and commitment to maintaining standards of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) that are consistent with and an integral part of the Contractor’s business strategy.

3

The Contractor must set objectives and targets that shall be applicable to SMART - Specific, Measurable, Achievable, and Realistic and to a Time scale.

10.2.3

Risk Assessment and Job Hazard Analysis

1

Refer to Section 11 Part 1 (Regulatory Document) in particular section 1.1.7 and Section 11 Part 2 (SAMAS) in particular section 2.4

10.2.4

Intervention

1

A system of positive intervention shall be used throughout the Project and the Contractor shall adopt the system by authorizing and requiring all Contractor Personnel and Subcontractor employees to intervene in any unsafe act or condition and take immediate corrective action to prevent any incident occurring.

2

Work may be monitored by any representative of Client who may intervene in any unsafe act or condition and require the Contractor to take immediate corrective action to prevent any incident occurring.

3

The Contractor is required to acknowledge that the system of positive intervention in use on the Project is one that shall enhance the following;

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(a)

levels of understanding and awareness of Occupational Health and Safety issues throughout the Project;

(b)

levels of personal responsibility and accountability for Occupational Health and Safety issues;

(c)

levels of proactively towards Occupational Health and Safety issues;

(d)

levels of compliance with contractual requirements and Project Occupational Health and Safety standards;

(e)

incident and injury prevention

The Contractor may be the focus of Occupational Health and Safety audits conducted by any representative of Client. The Contractor is required to cooperate with such audits and to acknowledge all audit findings. The Contractor shall take all corrective and preventive actions that may be required to address any nonconformity identified during such auditing.

5

The Contractor may be the focus of Occupational Health and Safety inspections conducted by any representative of Client. The Contractor is required to cooperate with and acknowledge such inspections and take all corrective and preventive actions that may arise as the result of such inspections.

6

The Contractor shall undertake routine Occupational Health and Safety inspections and audits for the on-going Work. Written records of inspections and audits shall be maintained and made available to any representative of Client upon request.

7

The Contractor may be issued with stop work instructions from the Engineer for any observed cases of serious or imminent danger associated with the Work. On receipt of a stop work instruction the Contractor shall refrain from work until such time as remedial action has been taken to alleviate the serious or imminent danger and to prevent it reoccurring.

8

The Contractor shall stop work if any unknown or unplanned conditions occur that give rise to serious or imminent danger. In such circumstances the Contractor shall assess the risks associated with any remedial work required and revise the method statements and job hazard analysis. The revised method statement shall be reviewed and approved by the Contractor’s Occupational Health and Safety Manager. Revised method statements shall be approved by the Engineer before recommencing Work.

10.2.5

Requirement for Training

1

The Contractor shall conduct training including contract specific induction, pre-work briefings, tool box talks, general awareness training, skills training and formal training conducted by training professionals or agencies. The contract specific induction will be at least 2 hours duration, approved by the Engineer and provided for all persons that enter the Worksite. Such induction training will be reviewed, revised and repeated for all persons that enter the Worksite at periods not exceeding 6 months throughout the duration of the Work. All training shall be provided in the languages preferred by the recipients of the training.

2

The Contractor is required to provide employees of Client with Occupational Health and Safety training relating to Work undertaken by the Contractor. Training is an integral part of job performance.

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The Contractor shall provide all Contractor Personnel and Subcontractor’s employees with individually unique Contract specific photo identity cards. Such cards shall be made available to any representative of Client on request. The Contractor shall not permit any Contractor Personnel or Subcontractor’s employees to access the Worksite unless they have been issued with their individually unique photo identity card. Such cards will not be issued prior to the Contractor Personnel or Subcontractor’s employee attending the Contractor’s induction training course.

4

The Contractor shall appoint a competent supervisor for each and every area of the following Work activities Temporary & permanent electrical installation

(b)

Crane and lifting appliance operations

(c)

Scaffolding erection, alteration and dismantling

(d)

Confined space entry

(e)

Excavation

(f)

Working at height

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The Contractor shall produce a health and Safety Training Matrix based on training needs analysis of all personnel working on the project. The matrix must detail positions against the training courses required from the analysis. All training courses provided to employees shall be free of charge, i.e. the cost will be borne by the Contractor.

6

The training topics will be based on a number of factors, such as but not limited to;

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(b)

Objectives that have been set;

(c)

Recurring issues on site; and

(d)

Accident/incidents on site.

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Courses designed to meet the needs of specific operatives involved in specialized trades including their roles and responsibilities must be provided through training. The following training could be consider as specialist, but not limited to: Safe entry into confined spaces;

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(b)

Crane operation;

(c)

Slingers/banks men;

(d)

Scaffolding/ false work/temporary works;

(e)

Abrasive wheels;

(f)

Woodworking machinery;

(g)

Excavation support equipment;

(h)

First aid;

(i)

Fire Marshall;

(j)

Accident Investigation;

Note – any external training must be delivered by a competent organisation (i.e. 3th Party).

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The Contractor shall provide training and instruction to their employees in relation to the performance of their work. This training shall be provided during working hours and immediately after an employee commences employment. It shall include: (a)

Occupational hygiene.

(b)

Essential elements of local laws and regulations.

(c)

Policies and procedures concerning aspects of human rights those are relevant to operations.

The Contractor shall actively encourage the following for their workforce: Creating employment opportunities.

(b)

Facilitating training opportunities for employees with a view to improving skill levels.

(c)

Ensuring non-discrimination in hiring and promotion practices.

(d)

Promoting life-long learning and on-the-job training.

(e)

All training shall be provided in appropriate languages, based on the demographics of the labour accommodation facility.

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The Contractor shall retain records of all training provided to labour accommodation residents. Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of those attending the training course/session and the type of training provided. These records shall be available for inspection by the Engineer.

11

The Contractors shall conduct Emergency Drills to thoroughly test its emergency preparedness and response within 6 months of the date of award of the Contract and thereafter at periods not exceeding 6 months throughout the duration of the Work.

12

The Contractor shall hold a Contract Specific Occupational Health and Safety Meeting chaired by the Contractor’s representative on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the WORK. Additionally the Contractor shall include Occupational Health and Safety as an item on the agenda for each and every meeting held and ensure that the subject is actively discussed.

13

The Contractor shall provide contract specific Safe Practice Booklets for each and every person employed on the Worksite and provide training on the content of the booklet.

10.2.6

Method Statements

1

Refer to Section 11 Part 1 (Regulatory Document) in particular section 1.1.7 and Section 11 Part 2 (SAMAS) in particular section 2.4

10.3

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP)

10.3.1

General

1

The Contractor shall prepare an emergency response plans for the project and the following but not limited to shall be addressed;

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(a)

Responsibilities;

(b)

Risk assessment and hazard identification and controls for potential emergencies;

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Hazard identifications and controls;

(d)

Coordination with outside emergency response organizations;

(e)

Arrival of outside emergency response groups;

(f)

Emergency response equipment;

(g)

Emergency drills;

(h)

Tests of emergency preparedness and response program;

(i)

Crisis management plan - major events emergency response plan;

(j)

Evacuation procedure;

(k)

Medical facilities;

(l)

Site fire prevention and response reporting;

(m)

Environmental spills and releases;

(n)

Security including (bomb threat);

(o)

Malicious threats; and

(p)

Severe weather conditions.

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(c)

It shall be mandatory that all personnel are aware and understand what actions to take and when to take them in the event of an emergency situation. The Contractor shall provide such information, instruction and training as may be required to assist the personnel to respond appropriately, in the event of an emergency.

3

The Contractor shall develop ERPs for review by the Engineer in order to verify the suitability and capability of arrangements. The Contractor shall ensure a schedule is produced to conduct drills and exercises on a regular basis at the sites under its control.

4

Records of drills and exercises conducted shall to be kept together with details of follow up actions and performance assessments for audit purpose.

5

The first emergency drill shall be conducted within first the 30 calendar days following commencement of operations; afterwards emergency drills shall be conducted on a 6 monthly basis as a minimum.

6

All ERPs’ shall be reviewed and whenever necessary revised and updated every 6 months, periodic auditing must be carried out to ensure compliance.

10.4

EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN

10.4.1

Background

1

During the month of April 2013 earthquakes occurred in Iran with varying degrees of tremors felt in the State of Qatar and the wider Middle East Region.

2

April 16th 2013 was by far the larger earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale with the tremors physically being felt in numerous locations and buildings across the region. Whilst events of this type are rare, the impacts could be serious both from a human and business scale.

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Following these events it is clear that should have an earthquake evacuation procedure. This emergency management plan has been developed; however it requires integration into the existing emergency and evacuation plans.

4

It is to be advised that the earthquake procedure whilst very important is one element of a much larger requirement for Emergency Management Planning to ensure that all scenario’s and eventualities are addressed inclusive of crisis management and business continuity.

10.4.2

Requirements

1

Outlined below is a suggested approach that could be taken to take into account those other elements of emergency planning starting with a review of the current arrangements for buildings, towers and associated structures inclusive of car parks.

2

The suggested overall approach would be a three phase priority approach. The first phase identifying the ‘as is’ situation to the desired outcome of ‘to be’ and the ‘future’ requirements, but this is not limited and may require additional elements as recommended by other experts.

10.4.3

Phase One: Gap Analysis (‘as is’)

1

Engage the relevant technical experts for the various aspects of the review, inclusive of but not limited to Fire Design Engineer, Health and Safety Consultant, training providers etc.

2

Review all existing emergency process, procedures, plans and protocols within the organisation and engage with other stakeholders such as Civil Defence to understand any wider requirements, etc.

3

Review of all buildings physical emergency evacuation systems to ensure they meet relevant codes and legislative requirements.

4

Review all evacuation assembly points and engage other building owners nearby the organisation building.

5

Develop work assignments for the organisation personnel and Safety Wardens during earthquakes.

6

Review the organisation buildings maintenance department records.

7

Identify relevant codes, legislative requirements and specific procedures needed for forward planning.

8

Identify salient issues for consideration namely high rise building, crowded indoor public places, indoor safety, outdoor safety, automobiles etc.

9

Identify non-structural hazards such as file cabinets, rack storage units, book shelves, HVAC ...etc.

10

Involve other stakeholders such as the organisation Health and Safety Section, Civil Defence, Ministry of Environment, other building owners in the immediate district etc to ensure their views, requirements, interests and responsibilities are established.

11

Review existing business resiliency and continuity plans, process and procedure.

12

Review existing crisis management plans, process and procedure.

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Indicate future planning and requirements inclusive of the proposed new and existing car park.

14

Include training and awareness plan for the wider organisation based upon the identified training needs.

15

Undertake training and awareness for any developed process and procedures.

16

Produce gap analysis report detailing all required changes, upgrades to process, procedures, plans, training requirements, emergency systems etc.

17

Present outcomes of gap analysis.

18

Develop an initial implementation plan, methodology and programme for Phase 2 and 3 based upon the outcomes of the Gap Analysis.

19

Review plans to backup computer records and equipment of vital records.

10.4.4

Phase Two: Implementation (‘to be’)

1

Implement agreed gap analysis outputs/approach inclusive of all manuals, procedures, technical information required.

2

Develop administrative processes and procedures to support the plan.

3

Communicate the plan to all those affected at different level of the business.

4

Include for planning of any associated drills and lessons learnt.

5

Implement lessons learnt into plan, processes and procedures.

6

Establish periodic review of emergency systems.

10.4.5

Phase Three: Future Requirements

1

Advise if engagement of further consultants/engineers to undertake seismic survey of existing buildings.

2

Development of business continuity plans.

3

Development of post-earthquake assessment procedures.

4

Development of crisis management plans.

5

Undertake training and awareness for any developed process and procedures.

6

Include for planning of any associated drills and lessons learnt.

7

Development of all related support materials.

8

Development of coordination procedures with Civil Defence and other authorities during earthquakes.

9

Periodic review of emergency planning systems.

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What Should We Do During An Earth Quake?

1

Stay calm!

2

If you're indoors, stay inside and if you're outside, stay outside.

3

If you're indoors, stand against a wall near the centre of the building, stand in a doorway, or crawl under heavy furniture (a desk or table i.e. cover your head and neck).

4

Drop down onto your hands and knees.

5

Stay away from windows and outside doors.

6

If you're outdoors, stay in the open away from power lines or anything that might fall. Stay away from buildings.

7

Don't use matches, candles, or any flame.

8

Broken gas lines and fire don't mix.

9

If you're in a car, stop the car and stay inside the car until the earthquake stops.

10

Don't use elevators or put yourself at risk.

11

For impaired mobility, if you cannot drop to the ground, try to sit or remain seated so you are not knocked down. If you are in a wheelchair lock your wheels. Protect your head and neck with a large book, a pillow, or your arms.

10.4.7

What Should We Do After An Earth Quake?

1

Check yourself and others for injuries. Provide first aid for anyone who needs it.

2

Check the building, water, and electric lines for damage. If any are damaged, isolate if possible and report to relevant authorities.

3

Turn on the radio. Don't use mobile phones unless it's an emergency.

4

Stay out of damaged buildings.

5

Stay inside buildings unless directed to do otherwise.

6

Evaluate and critique once a crisis situation is stabilised.

7

Expect further aftershocks.

8

Stay away from beaches. Tsunamis sometimes hit after the ground has stopped shaking.

9

If you're at work follow the emergency arrangements and instructions for the particular building after the earthquake.

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10.4.6

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SPECIAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND PRECAUTIONS

10.5.1

Permits

1

A permit-to-work system (Hot work, Excavation, Scaffolding & Electric work) shall be observed (correctly issued, Signed & Client requirement enforced) when undertaking any work on an existing utility, service, item of equipment or structure.

2

A permit-to-enter system shall be observed (correctly issued, Signed & Client requirement enforced) when undertaking any work in a confined space.

10.5.2

Guarantee

1

Where the Contract requires work to be carried out within or adjacent to any pipeline or at a sewage treatment plant, the Contractor shall comply with any requirement of the Public Works Authority.

10.5.3

Mechanical Plant, Machinery and Equipment

1

Sufficient suitable standby plant shall be immediately available in cases where the safety of the Works or of personnel depends upon mechanical plant.

2

Test and thorough examination by a competent person of all equipment that is capable of storing energy, such as air receivers and pressure vessels, is required at periods not exceeding 12 months. Reports of such test and examination will be held on the Worksite and made available to the employer on request.

3

The Contractor will make arrangements for all mobile plant and vehicles that enter the Worksite to be checked by 3rd party certification to ensure the following are provided and in good working order: Braking systems

(b)

Steering systems

(c)

Gauges and warning lights Operating controls

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(e)

Windscreens and wipers

(f)

Reversing alarms

(g)

Rear view mirrors

(h)

Roll over protection devices

(i)

Wheels, tyres, track

(j)

Pneumatic and hydraulic hoses

(k)

Seat belts and anchors

(l)

Fuel lines and tanks

(m)

Electrical control systems

(n)

Suspension and stabilization systems

(o)

Bodywork, covers and panels

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Mobile plant and vehicles that are defective will be removed from use in work areas and taken to a repair facility on the Worksite or removed from the Worksite.

5

Repair work will only be carried out by trained and authorised mobile plant and vehicle repair technicians.

6

Whenever maintenance work is ongoing the machinery or equipment will be isolated and deenergized.

7

All mobile plant and vehicle operators will hold relevant Qatari driving licenses for the category of plant or vehicle that they operate. In addition operators of mobile plant will be in possession of a 3rd party training certificate to verify that they have the skills necessary for safe use of the plant.

8

Operators will use mobile plant and vehicles only in accordance with their operating manuals.

9

The Contractor will conduct a job hazard analysis for each item of machinery and equipment that will be used.

10

The following site rules will be observed by all mobile plant and vehicle operators:

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Mobile plant and delivery vehicles will not be reversed without a banks man in attendance.

(b)

No passengers will be carried on mobile plant or vehicles other that in seats that are specifically designed for carrying passengers.

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The Contractor shall prevent oil / fuel leak causing environmentally pollution.

12

The Contractor will eliminate or reduce the associated hazards for construction lift such as, construction lift failure, falling persons and falling objects by meeting or bettering these specifications. And: All construction lifts will have flat base plates without holes or openings, enclosed sides and roof that are designed to prevent from falling objects. All construction lifts will have overload protection devices that prevent movement of the platform if it is overloaded.

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10.5.4

Existing Utilities

1

Prior to excavating in any area, the location of existing utilities shall be confirmed from asbuilt drawings, contact with utility authorities and trial holes.

2

Excavation in the vicinity of any utility shall be carried out to the requirements of the utility owner.

3

Protection for utilities is the least effective means of controlling any associated risk. Where Contractors use this method the following will be provided: (a)

Marker posts or blocks that clearly indicate the nature, depth and path of all underground utilities.

(b)

Where traffic routes pass over underground utilities temporary protection will be provided. Warning signs stating the maximum vehicle weight that may safely cross the utility will be positioned on the access route at each side of the utility.

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(c)

Temporary barriers or fences that run parallel to the route of any overhead utilities. Warning signs detailing the nature of any overhead utilities on the barriers or fences.

(d)

Where traffic routes pass below overhead utilities warning signs stating the maximum vehicle height and height restrictors will be positioned on the access route at each side of the overhead utility.

Where any construction activity adjacent to a utility is undertaken the minimum clearance distances will be clearly established and communicated to each and every person involved with the construction activity.

5

Traffic routes and material stockpile areas will be clearly identified and established prior to excavation work commencing. All excavation areas, traffic routes and stockpile areas are to be surveyed for overhead services. Any services identified are to be removed or clearly marked with height restrictors and warning information.

10.5.5

Excavations

1

During the planning stage all materials and equipment required for the safe excavation work must be clearly identified. Such equipment and materials may include the following:

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Shoring

(b)

Solid Barriers

(c)

Vehicle stop blocks

(d)

Access ladders or scaffolding

(e)

Ventilation

(f)

Lighting

(g)

Signage

(h)

Pumps

(i)

Generators

(j)

Air Monitoring Devices

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Rescue Equipment

2

For all excavation work a competent excavation supervisor will be appointed. The level of training and experience required to determine competence will vary depending on the complexity of the excavation. He will have previous experience of the type of excavation work to be undertaken and formal Occupational Health and Safety training relating to the safety of excavation work.

3

Temporary safety barriers should be used to protect workers and the travelling public from excavations that are more than 300mm deep in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide.

4

Once the design requirements are known a job hazard analysis of the excavation work will be completed by the excavation supervisor with the assistance of Occupational Health and Safety staff and engineers as required. The Job Hazard Analysis will clearly identify the job specific risks and control measures for the excavation work.

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5

Prior to commencement of any excavation work all persons involved will be given a pre-work briefing based on the Job Hazard Analysis relating to the risks and required control measures for the excavation work. The appointed excavation supervisor will be responsible for presenting and recording the briefing.

6

Prior to commencement of work all materials, plant and equipment will be checked to ensure that they are in good condition. In particular the condition of all mechanical excavators will be checked to ensure that: All windows in the drivers cab are clean, unbroken and unobstructed.

(b)

Rear view mirrors are securely attached, unbroken and clean.

(c)

All track plates and connectors are in good condition and secured with proprietary locking pins.

(d)

All dipper arm joints and attachments are secured with proprietary pins and locking pins.

(e)

All task and indicator lighting is in working order.

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Trucks will only be operated by persons with valid Qatari driving licenses. Plant such as excavators, loading shovels etc shall only be operated by trained and competent operators that hold valid 3rd Party certification for the type of plant being operated. This certification is required in addition to Qatari driving license requirements.

8

When the reversing of trucks is necessary for the collection or delivery of materials a banks man will be in attendance. All banks men will be provided with high visibility clothing and be trained in the safety aspects of reversing vehicles. Where vehicles are reversing up to an excavation or travelling alongside an excavation vehicle stop blocks or vehicle barriers will be provided to prevent them falling into the excavation.

9

Continuous adequate solid barriers will be placed around all excavations over 1.2m deep at a distance at least of 1.2m. Where night time pedestrian or vehicle access is adjacent to excavation then all solid barriers will be fitted with warning lights.

10

Pedestrian access to and from all excavations will be by means of ladder or adequately constructed staircases. The possibility of a person falling from a height of more than 2m from the access will be prevented. The horizontal distance between access points will not exceed 15m.

11

All ladders used on the Project will be manufactured in accordance with an internationally recognised standard. Any ladder that is found to be defective will be removed from use immediately.

12

All straight ladders will be positioned at an angle to minimize the risk of slipping or falling backwards. The distance between the base of the vertical plane and the base of the ladder will be 1 unit out for each 4 units in height of the vertical plane.

13

Ladders that are used to gain access from one level to another will extend at least 1m above the upper level surface. Where a general access ladder run extends a distance of more than 6m a landing point with a firm level platform and fall prevention measures will be provided at each and every 6m.

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Excavations shall be kept clean and tidy at all times. Accumulated waste and unused materials will be removed from excavations on a daily basis. All excavations will be thoroughly cleaned prior to any backfilling operations commencing.

15

To prevent the risk associated with falling objects excavated materials, other materials and equipment shall not be stored at the edge of any excavation. A clear distance of 2m shall be maintained around all excavations.

10.5.6

Warning Signs

1

The Contractor shall set up and maintain (cleaned and legible) throughout the course of the Contract enough traffic diversion signs in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide and additional warning signs & guides.

2

Additional areas that require warnings signs and barriers are: Excavations over 1.2m deep

(b)

Any edge, opening or platform from where a person may fall more than 2m

(c)

Electrical transformers and substations

(d)

Confined space entry points

(e)

Areas below and around working at height and heavy lifting operations

(f)

Areas of open water more than 1m deep

(g)

Areas where flammable goods are stored

(h)

Areas where radiation sources are used or stored

(i)

Areas within Worksites that are classed as non-construction areas

(j)

Areas within non construction areas where construction activity is on-going

(k)

Areas below overhead utilities

(l)

Areas above underground services

(m)

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Areas where test and commissioning activities are on-going

Warning signs will clearly state the nature of the hazard and instruct people of the correct actions to take. Warning signs will be manufactures in accordance with internationally recognised standards. All signs will be in English, Arabic and the languages preferred (can be understand) by the workers on the Worksite.

4

All safety barriers and barricades are to comply with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide..

10.5.7

Confined Spaces

1

Entry into a confined space will only be permitted where a competent person is appointed to directly supervise the work. The competent person will hold a certificate of training or license that is issued by a 3rd party. The competent person will be appointed in writing by the Contractor and the appointment will be copied to the employer.

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Any person that enters into a confined space will have received formal training in the safe methods of entry and working in a confined space. Such training will include the arrangements for emergency communication and response. In addition every person that enters into a confined space will be given a briefing by the appointed competent person relating to the specific hazards of the work and the control measures that have been detailed in the job hazard analysis.

3

Any person that acts as an attendant for confined space work will have received formal training in the safe methods of rescue from a confined space and the arrangements for emergency communications with external emergency services.

4

The contractor will only permit trained workers, under the direct supervision of an authorised competent person, with confined space attendants present, to enter a confined space.

5

Internal combustion engines will not be taken into a confined space or operated in a position where their exhaust gasses may be drawn into the confined space.

6

Persons entering into a confined space will wear a full body rescue harness that is attached to a rescue line anchored outside the confined space

7

The contractor will implement a safe working procedure for confined space entry that includes the following: Preparation of a confined space entry permit

(b)

Provision of all equipment necessary for entering into and working in the confined space including access, lighting, mechanical ventilation, gas detectors, communication, personal protective equipment and emergency rescue equipment. All such equipment will be manufactured in accordance with internationally recognised standards

(c)

Provision of warning signs and barriers around the confined space entry point

(d)

Setting up emergency communication and rescue equipment

(e)

Issue of a permit to enter the confined space

(f)

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Checking of the atmosphere inside the confined space and installation of ventilation equipment

(g)

Installation of lighting

(h)

Entry into and work in the confined space.

(i)

Monitoring of conditions in the confined space.

(j)

Continuous checking and recording of all persons entering into and exiting from the confined space by the confined space attendant

(k)

Completion of work and removal of all equipment from the confined space

(l)

Accounting for all persons and equipment that entered the confined space

(m)

Securing the entry point to the confined space

(n)

Closing the confined space entry permit

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Lifting Operation

1

The Contractor will appoint a competent lifting operations supervisor for the Worksite. The lifting operation supervisor will ensure that the requirements of this specification are met at all times.

2

Rigging of loads and signalling of cranes will be undertaken only by trained and competent persons. All riggers will be required to wear a blue construction safety helmet and a red high visibility vest for the purpose of easy identification on the Worksite.

3

Cranes will only be operated by trained and competent operators who are in possession of an operator’s license issued by a 3rd party. In addition appropriate Qatari driving licenses are required for all mobile equipment’s.

4

A thorough examination of each lifting appliance will be made by a 3rd party inspector at periods not exceeding 12 months and after substantial re-erection, alteration or repair. Load capacity to be displayed.

5

All lifting appliances on the Worksite will have a copy of the manufacturers operating manual and load rating charts available for use and kept with the operator cabinet or machine.

6

Before a mobile crane is positioned for a lift, attention will be paid to the condition of the ground upon which the crane will stand, as this will be subjected to high point-loadings from outriggers or tyres. Dependent upon the nature of the ground and/or the size of the crane to be used, a special hard standing may have to be prepared.

7

The maximum safe working wind speeds for all construction activity and in particular lifting operations and Working at height activity is 25 Knots. The construction will monitor the weather conditions and suspend work when wind speeds in excess of the maximum safe working speeds are anticipated.

8

Outriggers will be properly set and locked if a locking device is provided. When controlled remotely from the cab, the operator will make a physical check to ensure that each pad has an adequate bearing before a load is lifted. Sound timber packing or metal plates will be used under each outrigger pad to distribute the load. It is essential that outriggers are supported at the jacking points and not under the outrigger beams. Also, lifting location to be barrier off.

9

A method statement and job hazard analysis will be provided to the Engineer for all structural steel erection activity. No structural steelwork erection will commence prior to approval of the method statement and job hazard analysis by the Engineer. All structural steel erectors will be fully conversant with the construction method, sequence and hazard control measures prior to any work activity commencing.

10.5.9

Lifting Gear

1

Lifting gear means any chain sling, rope sling, or similar gear, and any ring, link, hook, plate clamp, shackle, swivel or eye bolt, used on the Worksite.

2

All lifting gear will be subjected to a thorough examination by a competent person from 3rd party at intervals not exceeding 6 months. Identity number and SWL to be check.

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10.5.8

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3

A wire rope used in raising, lowering or suspension of a load, will not be used if it is kinked, significantly rusted, the core is visible or the rope has visible broken wires, exceeding 5% of the total or in any length equal to 10 times the diameter of the rope.

4

Riggers will check the condition of lifting gear prior to each and every lift.

5

Any lifting gear that is found to be defective will be removed from service and sprayed with red paint to indicate that it is not to be used. All defective equipment will be removed from the Worksite.

6

A system will be established on the Worksite for storage of all lifting equipment not regularly in use. Such equipment will not be left in the work areas.

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10.5.10 Scaffolding For all scaffolding construction activity and dismantling activity a competent scaffolding supervisor will be appointed. The level of training and experience required to determine competence will vary depending on the complexity of the scaffolding structure to be erected or dismantling. Industry standards and codes detail competency requirements.

2

All employees involved in scaffolding construction activities and dismantling activity will be trained in the safe methods of working and in particular the manner in which fall prevention or arrest is to be achieved. Contractors will maintain detailed information of the training provided and the methods that they have used for assessment of competency and suitability for all employees undertaking scaffolding construction activities.

3

All scaffolding erection areas and dismantling areas will be provided with barriers and warning signs to exclude all personnel that are not specifically involved with the scaffolding construction and dismantling activity. Where such areas are adjacent to roadways barriers with a capability to prevent vehicles entering the area will be erected or dismantling. Where such areas are adjacent to members of the public or 3rd parties then screening and falling object protection will be provided. The appointed scaffolding supervisor is to be made responsible for ensuring that exclusion zones are in place and maintained at all times whilst scaffolding construction and dismantling activity is on-going.

4

All materials being used for scaffolding construction will be checked prior to them being used to ensure they are in good condition. Any materials found to be defective will be clearly marked as defective and discarded or removed from the construction area to ensure that they are not used.

5

Scaffolding that has been constructed in accordance with the design will be inspected for use by displaying green scaff tag at all access points of the scaffolding detailing the following information:

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(a)

the unique identification and location of the scaffolding inspected

(b)

the name of the person making the inspection

(c)

the date that the inspection was completed

(d)

the intended use and capacity of the scaffolding

(e)

the required re-inspection frequency for the scaffolding

The person making the scaffold inspection will maintain written details of the inspection that they have conducted to enable them to verify their scaff tag system.

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All scaffolding that does not display green scaff tag for use will be fitted with red scaff tag states that the scaffolding is not fit for use and the access points will be removed or made unusable.

8

Users of scaffolding will at all times conduct their work in a manner that eliminates the possibility of falling objects.

9

Users of scaffolding are to be prohibited from altering or dismantling any part of scaffolding.

10

Users of scaffolding are required to maintain unobstructed access and egress at all times. All debris and materials no longer required will be removed from scaffolding on a daily basis. All materials and equipment used on scaffolding will be stored in a manner that does not obstruct the free movement of the people using the scaffolding.

11

The frequency of re-inspection of scaffolding – every 7(seven) days – will be displayed on the green scaff tag. Users of scaffolding are required to check that the period of re-inspection has not been exceeded before using the scaffolding. In any case where the re-inspection date has been exceeded the user will request the appointed scaffolding supervisor to make the re-inspection and to re-sign the green scaff tag for use. The user will not access the scaffolding until such time as the re-inspection has been made.

12

Before any dismantling activity is undertaken on scaffolding it will be removed from use. All green scaff tag will be removed and replaced with red scaff tag which is not fit for use and all scaffolding access points will be removed or made unusable.

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The contractor will only use electric welding equipment in accordance with the following requirements: Welding cables and equipment will be properly maintained and inspected before use. Defective equipment will be removed from use and arrangement for repair will be made.

(b)

Electric welding cables are to be kept as short as possible and routed away from pedestrian walkway areas.

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(d)

All connections between welding equipment and welding cables will be securely bolted.

(e)

Pipelines containing flammable liquids or gases, or electrical cables will not be used as a ground.

(f)

When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes will be removed and the holder placed where it is protected from unintentional contact.

(g)

A fire resistant container will be provided for spent electrode stubs.

(h)

Welding machines will be turned off when being moved or when the equipment is not in use.

Electric welding operations will only be undertaken with earth return electrodes connected to the work piece.

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10.5.11 Hot work and Welding

2

Tanks, vessels and drums that have contained flammable or toxic liquids will be filled with water or thoroughly cleaned before hot work or welding is undertaken on them.

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3

Where coatings are present on materials to be heated the coating will be removed to prevent the coating being heated.

4

Suitable portable fire extinguishing equipment will be located within 6 meters of any hot work location.

10.5.12 Compressed Gas Cylinders The Contractor will only use compressed fuel gasses in accordance with the following requirements; Cylinders will not be transported with regulators, gauges and hoses attached.

(b)

Cylinders will be transported in an upright position and will not be hauled in equipment beds or truck beds on their side.

(c)

Cylinders lifted from one elevation to another will be lifted only in racks or containers designed for that purpose. Cylinders will not be hoisted by the valve cap or by means of magnets or slings.

(d)

Cylinders will not be used as, or placed where they may become part of, an electrical circuit.

(e)

Cylinders will be protected from extreme heat and from being struck by moving equipment and falling objects.

(f)

Cylinders will not be taken into a confined space.

(g)

Cylinders will not be used as rollers; will be transport on appropriate trolley.

(h)

Damaged or defective cylinders will not be used or be permitted to remain on the Worksite.

(i)

Type of gas clearly marked on cylinders and segregation of incompatible gases is required.

(j)

Oxygen cylinders will be kept free of oil and grease.

(k)

Cylinders will be secured in place during use and storage. Securing shall be around the body of the cylinder, securing around the cylinder neck or cap will be prohibited.

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Cylinder valves will be closed at all times when cylinders are not in use.

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A key wrench is required to be in place on the valve of acetylene cylinders at all times during use.

(n)

Fuel gas and oxygen hoses will be of different colours and will not be interchanged.

(o)

All hose, valve and regulator assemblies will incorporate a flashback arrestor.

(p)

Hoses are to be kept as short as possible and routed away from walkway areas.

(q)

Under no circumstances are damaged hoses or torches to be used.

(r)

Torches will be ignited by friction lighters or other approved devices only.

(s)

Fuel gases will only be used for the purposes of cutting or heating. They will never be used for pressure testing or ventilation.

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10.5.13 Working at Height Contractors are required to reduce the risk of persons falling from height by providing a means of fall prevention or arrest for every person on the Worksite that is exposed to a risk of falling a distance of 2m or more.

2

Supervisors of persons using fall arrest systems will be trained in the correct installation, use and maintenance of fall arrest systems. Training will be provided by a 3rd party. All persons required to use fall arrest systems will receive formal training in safe working at height prior to using such systems.

3

The use of safety belts as part of a fall arrest system is prohibited.

4

Safe access to the point at which a person will attach themselves to a fall arrest system will be provided. In cases where a person using a safety harness has to detach the lanyard from the anchor point and reattach it to a different anchor point, whilst being in a position where the risk of falling exists, double lanyards will be used with one of the lanyards remaining attached to the anchor point at all times.

5

Where any form of fall arrest system is used the contractor will put in place arrangements to rescue any person that is caught by the fall arrest system. The rescue system and equipment will be capable of rescuing any person that may be unconscious whilst suspended and or suffering from suspension trauma. The system will be capable of rescuing the suspended person within 3 minutes of the fall being arrested.

6

All edges of working platforms and work areas that objects may fall from will be provided with securely fixed continuous toe boards that are at least 200mm high.

7

All holes and openings in floor areas will be fitted with temporary covers to prevent objects falling to lower levels of the structure.

8

Where work is on-going on the exterior faces of structures the working platforms that are used to gain access will be fitted with lightweight mesh or netting to prevent objects falling from them.

9

Materials and equipment will not be stored or located within 2m of edges of working areas or platforms.

10

All materials and waste that may be blown by the wind from raised structures will be secured and stored in a manner that prevents them from being blown from the structure.

11

Where designated pedestrian walkways, entrances or exits are located beneath edges or openings where work is on-going steel framed and sheeted canopies will be erected to protect pedestrians from falling objects.

12

The contractor will produce a method statement and job hazard analysis for all roof and canopy work activity. For work on new structures safety information will be obtained from the designers and incorporated into the method statement and job hazard analysis. For work on existing structures where design information is not available then a survey of the existing structure will be made to identify hazards such as:

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Fragile coverings

(b)

Holes and openings

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(c)

Exposed edges

(d)

Lack of safe access

(e)

Damage or disrepair of the existing structure

(f)

Adjacent structures, facilities or services

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A method statement and job hazard analysis will be provided to the Engineer for all roof and canopy work activity. No work will commence prior to approval of the method statement and job hazard analysis by the Engineer. All roof and canopy installation workers will be fully conversant with the construction method, sequence and hazard control measures prior to any work activity commencing.

14

The contractor will meet the following roof and canopy work specific Occupational Health and Safety requirements:

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The storage of materials on roof surfaces will be minimized at all times

(b)

Storage of materials on roof surfaces is not permitted within 2m of any edge or eave

(c)

All openings and non-walkable areas will be protected by barriers and signage to prevent pedestrian access

(d)

All waste will be removed from the work areas on a daily basis and prior to any areas being left unattended

(e)

All areas of roof or canopy covering will be fully fixed at the time of positioning. The practice of laying large areas of unfixed coverings is prohibited

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The structure that the suspended working platform is attached to or mounted on will be surveyed and assessed to ensure that it is capable of supporting the loads that the equipment will impose on it.

16

The installation, maintenance, use and dismantling of suspended working platforms will be under the control of a competent person that is appointed by the Contractor. The competent person will be fully familiar with each and every type of suspended working platform in use on the Worksite. Persons who work from suspended working platforms will have received formal training to ensure the safety of themselves and of other persons that may be affected by the operation with particular emphasis on the correct use of the equipment, working at height and falling object prevention.

17

The following requirements will be met for all use of suspended working platforms;

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(a)

Users will not alter or interfere with any part of the suspended working platform, control or safety devices.

(b)

The work area below the suspended working platform will be clearly marked a pedestrian exclusion zone will be created.

(c)

The user will check all controls and safety devices on a daily basis to ensure that they are functioning correctly.

(d)

Use will cease whenever wind speed in excess of the maximum permissible is anticipated.

(e)

The suspended working platform will be maintained in a horizontal position whilst it is in use.

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(f)

The practice of transferring people or materials from the suspended working platform is prohibited other than at the designated access points.

(g)

Every person working from a suspended working platform shall wear a full body safety harness that is attached to an independent lifeline.

(h)

The platform will be kept free of loose materials or articles liable to endanger or interfere with the worker’s hand hold or foot hold

(i)

The power supply will be disabled whenever the suspended working platform is left unattended.

10.5.14 Electrical This specification applies to all temporary electrical systems on the Worksite and all electrical equipment used for construction, commissioning and testing purposes. The requirements given are minimum requirements and Contractors are required to equal or better them.

2

A competent electrician or electrical engineer will be appointed or employed on every contract. The competency requirements will be determined by the nature of the temporary electrical system that will be installed on the Worksite

3

The Contractor will reduce risk by using cordless tools or electrical equipment that is operated at reduced voltages. Only intrinsically safe electrical equipment will be permitted for use at any location where flammable atmospheres may exist or confined space.

4

All electrical equipment used on the Worksite will be manufactured in accordance with an internationally recognised standard.

5

Portable Power Tools will be of a double insulated type.

6

Jointing of all electrical cables and wires shall be by means of proprietary terminations or connectors. The practice of twisting and taping electrical components together to create a connection is prohibited.

7

Temporary power supplies for the Worksite may be provided from generators or via a Worksite specific transformer connected to the national power network. All generators and transformers on the Worksite shall be located in areas that are fenced and secured to prevent any unauthorized entry. Each such location will be provided with portable fire extinguishers. All electrical systems shall be bonded to the earth.

8

All electrical circuits that are created will be protected by earth leakage circuit breakers (ELCB). All metal components of an electrical system shall be earthed. Distribution of electrical power shall be provided through distribution panels and switches that are enclosed or housed in securely closed and locked boxes or cabinets.

9

Warning signs that clearly indicate electrical hazards shall be fixed to all electrical switch boxes and distribution panels. Similar signs shall be displayed at all transformers, generators and overhead power line locations.

10

All signs and notices shall be in English and Arabic and the language preferred (can be understand) by the workers employed on the Worksite.

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All electricity supply cables shall be buried or properly supported and protected and shall be armoured. Flexible cable shall only be allowed for hand lamps and hand held tools and shall not exceed 6 metres in length. Industrial type plugs and sockets shall be used. All electrical installations shall be in charge of a competent person who shall accept full responsibility for its use and any alterations or additions thereto. The name, designation and telephone number of such person shall be prominently displayed close to the main switch or circuit breaker of the installation, and also in the Contractor’s site office.

10.6

FIRST AID

10.6.1

First Aid and Clinic

1

The Contractor shall provide and maintain first aid Boxes / Clinic (according to number of workers as per Qatar Law No.14 of the Year 2004 – The Labour Law) complete with all first aid kits and equipment (as a minimum but not limited to Clean room with potable water supply, Stretcher, Ambulance, Standby Vehicle, ... etc) necessary for the initial care of any of the Contractor’s or Engineer’s personnel who may be injured.

2

The box shall be kept in a conspicuous place in the establishment and shall be available to the workers.

3

The use of the box shall be entrusted to a worker trained in providing first-aid medical services.

4

As a minimum, there should be a first aid box with Medical record book in all areas where work is in progress.

5

The Contractor shall ensure that the first aid Kits and equipment at each first aid box / clinic is complete and within expiration date in all respects at all times.

6

At each first aid box / clinic the names and contact Telephone numbers of the Contractor’s staff who are trained to render first aid shall be displayed.

7

The Contractor shall provide and maintain Periodic medical examinations for workers and follow up (maximum every year from employment date).

10.7

FIRE PRECAUTION AND PREVENTION

10.7.1

General

1

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions against fire as required by the insurance company insuring the Works, the Department of Civil Defence and the Engineer.

2

Quantities of flammable materials on site shall be kept to an absolute minimum and shall be properly handled and stored. Any handling and storage recommendations made by Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and the manufacturers of flammable materials shall be strictly adhered to.

3

All flammable materials storage areas will be located at least 20m away from other structures, areas where combustible materials are stored and areas where sources of ignition are found. Storage areas will be freely ventilated to eliminate any possible build up of flammable vapour or gas. Flammable material storage facilities will not be constructed of combustible materials.

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Except as otherwise provided herein, the Contractor shall not permit fires to be built or open type heating devices to be used in any part of the Site.

5

The Contractor shall provide, regularly checked and maintain approved by Department of Civil Defence fire fighting equipment in the site offices, the stores and about the Works where applicable. The type, amount and location of fire fighting equipment shall be to the requirements of the Department of Civil Defence. The Contractor shall confirm to the Engineer in writing that the requirements of the Department of Civil Defence have been met.

6

The Contractor shall make arrangements with the Department of Civil Defence to inspect the Works and promptly carry out their recommendations at his own expense if requested to do so by the Engineer.

7

Combustible fuel oils shall be stored in designated storage areas. Fuel oil shall only be contained in tanks or containers that are in good condition. Tanks and containers will be located in bounded areas capable of containing any spillage or leak. Bounded areas will be kept free of water and debris. All pump equipment and fuel oil lines or hoses will be maintained regularly to ensure that there no leaking parts. Fuel oil lines and hoses will be terminated with filler nozzles or valves that stop the flow of fuel oil when the device is not held. Any electrical equipment such as lighting and pumps that is located in fuel oil storage areas shall have an operating voltage of 110V or less.

8

Hot work and welding operations at height require particular controls to prevent people or materials below being exposed to the risks of the work activity, the following controls will be put in place;

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All work activity will be coordinated with other activities in areas below

(b)

Areas below will be cleared of all combustible and flammable materials.

(c)

Fire blanket / Fire retardant material will be used to cover any combustible materials that cannot be cleared.

(d)

Fire blanket / Fire retardant material must be removed after hot work and welding activities are completed.

(e)

A fire watchman will remain at the site of hot work activity for 30 minutes after work is finished.

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The Contractor will provide training in the correct selection and use of portable fire extinguishers for every person employed at the Worksite.

10

Portable fire extinguishers will be provided at the following locations:

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(a)

Every electrical generator, transformer and main distribution panel

(b)

Every piece of mobile plant and equipment

(c)

Every area of flammable materials storage and use

(d)

Every area of hot work activity

(e)

Every temporary structure

(f)

Every work area where combustible materials are present.

Smoking will be prohibited in any areas where flammable or combustible materials are stored. It will also be prohibited in any temporary structure other than in clearly designated and defined smoking areas. Smoking areas will be cleaned on a daily basis, a means of extinguishing cigarettes will be provided.

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Fire escape routes, exits and assembly areas will be provided for all enclosed temporary structures and permanent structures under construction. All such areas will be kept free from obstructions at all times. Wherever possible in permanent structures under construction the fire escape routes, exits and assembly areas used will be those designed for use in the occupied structure.

13

Information and warning signs will be provided at the following locations or areas: Flammable materials stores

(b)

Combustible materials stores

(c)

Temporary fire systems

(d)

Portable fire extinguishers

(e)

Fire escape routes, exits and assembly areas.

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The Contractor shall make all arrangements to keep access for Fire Brigade cleared and Emergency Alarms audible in all areas.

10.7.2

Emergency Equipment

1

Temporary fire protection equipment for the Worksite will be provided by the Contractor for the duration of the contract. Such equipment may include but is not be limited to: Portable fire extinguishers

(b)

Fire sand buckets

(c)

Fire water storage and distribution systems

(d)

Fire suppression systems

(e)

Fire / Smoke / Gas detection systems

(f)

Fire warning / Alarm / Emergency Evacuation systems

(g)

Procedures

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(j)

Torches

(k)

Loud Hailer

(l)

Emergency lighting

(m)

Adequate and safe Emergency Exit / Doors are provided

(n)

Assembly / Muster point

2

Escape routes, access ways to alarm points, extinguishers, hydrants and other fire fighting equipment and first aid kits kept clear of obstruction at all times

3

All structures that are normally occupied by five to twenty five people will be provided with the following: (a)

Portable fire extinguisher equipment.

(b)

First aid kit.

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(c)

Trained first aider.

(d)

Emergency contact information notices.

(e)

Telephone or radio communication equipment.

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All temporary facility structures that are normally occupied by twenty five to one hundred people will be provided with the above plus the following: (a)

Smoke detectors

(b)

One first aid kit for each 25 people.

(c)

Designated emergency evacuation routes.

(d)

An emergency preparedness and evacuation plan.

(e)

An emergency alarm system.

(f)

An emergency evacuation drill at periods not exceeding 6 months.

(g)

An area set aside for the heating and consumption of food.

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All temporary facilities structures that are normally occupied by more than 100 people will be provided with the above plus the following: A fire water system

(b)

An appointed nurse

(c)

Emergency lighting system

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All temporary fire protection equipment will be manufactured, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the Department of Civil Defence or internationally recognised standards.

10.7.3

Hazardous Substances

1

The Contractor will control the use, handling, transportation and storage of hazardous substances to reduce the associated health risks. These requirements below are the minimum that the Contractor will meet to comply with their contractual Occupational Health and Safety obligations.

2

Radioactive materials are hazardous substances and any use of such materials on Site will require a method statement and job hazard analysis to be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to any radioactive material being delivered to the Worksite.

3

Where any spillage of liquid occurs the contractor will take action to immediately clean the spillage and remove any contaminated materials from the Worksite.

4

To effectively control the hazards associated with the use, storage, handling and transportation of hazardous substances the Contractor will:

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(a)

Maintain a register of all hazardous substances on the Worksite

(b)

Obtain Material Safety Data Sheets for all hazardous substances

(c)

Make an assessment of the health risks associated with the intended use of each hazardous substance

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(d)

Provide the control measures required to reduce the risks identifies to acceptable levels. Acceptability will be based on internationally recognised best practices and standards

(e)

Train people that use, handle or transport hazardous substances in the associated risks and control measures

(f)

Provide routine health checks for employees that are exposed to hazardous substances

(g)

Provide appropriate spill containment and disposal Spill kit

(h)

Toxic/ hazardous substance correctly tagged/ labelled/ signage and secured

(i)

Adequate storage provided and Class B fire extinguisher near by

SAFETY OF THE PUBLIC

10.8.1

Working in Public Areas

1

The Contractor must ensure that control measures are in place to protect the public, workforce and assets by providing appropriate lighting, fencing, barricades, and lockable units. Adequate levels of security including the use of trained security guards will be required. The Contractor must also ensure appropriate warning signage is displayed and where appropriate safe pedestrian walkways are identified and maintained.

2

Safety and security procedures shall be implemented in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide and as required by the Department of Civil Defence and the police. These shall be included, as a minimum, warning signs and lights, adequate barricades, railings, road hump for reduced & control speed and other safeguards as required by the nature and location of the work being undertaken.

3

Access to all properties shall be maintained by adequately sign posted diversions, temporary bridges or other facilities.

4

A night watchman shall be assigned to ensure that all barricades, lights and other protective apparatus are maintained during the hours of darkness.

5

Designated pedestrian routes will be clearly signed and with firm even surfaces that are free from distractions. Where such routes traverse level changes they will be slopped at gradients not exceeding 10% or cut with steps of even height and a tread width of at least 400mm. Slopes and steps will have anti-slip surfaces. Where the edges of pedestrian routes are raised more than 1.2m above the surrounding level solid barriers will be provided at each raised edge to prevent people from falling.

6

All such equipment shall be routed away from pedestrian access areas. Where such equipment crosses pedestrian areas it will be located under the pedestrian area or over it at a height of at least 2.5m above the surface. Where such equipment is routed over a pedestrian area it will be clearly marked with warning signs.

7

No electrical cables, hoses or pipes shall be routed along any staircase, ladder access or across any doorway. This applies to both temporary and permanent works.

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Contractor shall provide Client with photocopies of passports, police clearances and any similar personal security documentation necessary to obtain Client temporary identification cards and passes for Contractor Personnel to enter Client STP / PTP / premises. Contractor shall ensure that Contractor Personnel display such identification at all times when they are on Client STP / PTP / premises.

9

The Contractor will provide a method statement and job hazard analysis for all demolition and dismantling activities. Everyone involved in the work needs to know what measures are to be taken to control the risks and a pre work briefing based on the method statement and job hazard analysis will be given and recorded by the supervisor. Workers will be closely supervised to ensure that the control measures required are put into practice. An exclusion zone will be created around the demolition or dismantling area to prevent persons not directly involved with the work activity around the work area gaining access. The Contractor will not allow materials to fall into any area where people are working or passing through. Protection screens, fences or canopies may be needed to control falling objects.

10.9

WELFARE, SAFETY AND PROTECTION OF WORKMEN

10.9.1

General

1

The Contractor must make arrangements for suitable welfare facilities to be present from the start of the work. There are specific requirements for provision of welfare facilities in the (Section 11, Part 1 Regulatory Document, 1.1.8, Appendix 1)

10.9.2

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) / Attire

1

All the Contractor’s personnel shall be provided with safety helmets, eye protection and foot protection. Safety helmets, eye protection and foot protection shall be worn at all times by all Contractor’s personnel on the Site except.

2

All the Contractor’s personnel shall be provided with gloves, hearing protection, safety reflecting vests, dust mask and other protective clothing suitable for the nature of work they are performing and their working environment (Shorts and sleeveless shirts are prohibited).

3

All the Contractor’s personnel shall wear high visibility clothing as the outer layer of clothing at all times when working on a road or within a road works zone in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide.

4

The need for other types of PPE will be identified by the contractor as part of their job hazard analysis or risk assessment process.

5

The Contractor will display signage detailing the requirements for mandatory PPE throughout to Worksite. Signage shall be in a format that is easily recognisable to all persons on site regardless of their preferred language.

10.9.3

Safety Equipment

1

Construction equipment must only be used in the manner and limitations for which it is designed, inspected regularly with colour code sticker and Qatar license for driver / operators must be available.

2

Adequate hard barricading, temporary bridges, temporary footpaths, lighting, warning tape and sign posting shall be provided at all excavations.

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3

Adequate bracing and shoring shall be provided at all excavations. 2m spoils clearance from the excavated pit and sloping shall be maintained (if applicable).

4

Correctly made ladders must be provided for access into excavations and onto scaffolding and buildings. Contractor’s self-made ladders shall not be used.

5

Scaffolding shall be erected in accordance with the international recognize standard, best practises and manufacturer’s recommendations and shall be fitted with toe boards, guardrails (top & mid rail), proper access, fully boarded platforms, tagging system and hand railing (refer to 10.3.10).

6

The following basic safety equipment is required for any works in confined spaces and shall be supplied by the Contractor: gas detectors/monitors complete with carrying case, rechargeable batteries and battery charger, calibration kit, all to the approval of the Engineer; consumable items and sensors to be replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations during the course of the Contract (2 No.)

(b)

full body rescue safety harness with lifelines and shackles (6 No.)

(c)

lifting frame complete with fall arrest device (1 No.)

(d)

constant flow escape breathing apparatus complete with storage cases (2 No.)

(e)

automatic positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus complete with storage case (1 No.)

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The Contractor shall maintain all safety equipment in good working order with up to date calibration and test certificates where appropriate.

8

The Contractor shall ensure that any personnel working above 2 m using fall protection devices with valid 3rd party certificate and to provide them proper training in the selection and use of fall protection devices.

9

The Contractor shall provide and maintain in good working order one compressed air escape respirator set (Dräger “Saver Auto PP” or similar) in the Contractor’s site office.

10

One oxygen resuscitation unit shall be provided in the Contractor’s site office.

11

Truck or Trailer Mounted Attenuators (TMAs), or lorry mounted crash cushions must be used in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide.

10.9.4

Support Facilities for Contractors Staff and Labour

1

The Contractor shall provide, regularly clean and maintain for the duration of the Contract potable water, washing facilities and sufficient Toilets (with steel exhaust fan) & sanitary facilities for use by workmen in accommodation areas, at messing facilities and in areas where work is in progress.

2

The Contractor shall provide and maintain for the duration of the Contract messing facilities and a separate designated area for the consumption of food for his staff and labourers.

3

Cooking and dining facilities that are provided will be operated and maintained in a clean and hygienic condition. Food preparation and storage areas will be separated from eating areas.

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(a)

No person with any communicable disease will be permitted to work in any kitchen or dining room

(b)

Kitchen workers who have cuts or skin conditions on their hands will not be permitted to work in any kitchen or dining area

(c)

Kitchen workers that handle or serve food will wear latex gloves, hairnets and clean clothing.

When allowed for in the Project Documentation, the Contractor may provide accommodation facilities for his staff and labourers at the Site. Such facilities shall be maintained in a proper manner and to the satisfaction of the appropriate government departments and the Engineer.

5

The Contractor shall provide transportation between staff accommodation and areas of work for his staff and labourers.

6

The Contractor shall provide sufficient bins for waste and scrap regularly collected, segregated and removed from site.

7

Arrangements for the temporary storage of waste on site shall be made in clearly designated and defined areas that have fences and signs to clearly indicate the nature of the waste where combustible wastes are stored portable fire extinguishers will be provided.

8

Waste collection points will be provided throughout the work areas and will be clearly marked with signage to indicate the nature of the waste that is to be collected. Waste will be separated and collected in the following categories: Metals

(b)

Oils

(c)

Concrete & Stone

(d)

Tyre & rubber

(e)

Glass

(f)

General

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Where temporary facilities are created for the storage of materials and equipment such areas shall be clearly defined and fenced. Notices will be displayed to indicate the nature of the storage area. (a)

Any hazardous substances that are stored shall only be kept in accordance with the supplier’s recommendations and the requirements of the Hazardous Substances Specifications.

(b)

Flammable materials and fuel oil storage areas must be separated from other temporary structures or works under construction by a distance of 30m.

(c)

Where materials are stored in stacks they will not be stacked to a height of more than 1.5 m where the materials are to be manually handled. Materials for mechanical handling that are on pallets or contained in bins will not be stacked more that 3 units high with the base bin or pallet being on firm level ground.

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Circular materials such as pipes and tubes will be stored in a manner that prevents item from rolling. They will be placed in a container or frame, or have timber wedges of an adequate size inserted between the materials and the ground to prevent rolling.

The Contractors will make arrangements to maintain an adequate working environment and take into account the requirements of this specification to fulfil their contractual obligations relating to Occupational Health and Safety. Adequate arrangements will be based on internationally recognised standards. Ergonomics and proper layout of work area.

(b)

Darkness or poor visibility increases the risk of persons on the Worksite slipping, tripping or falling. It also increased the risk of operator error for plant, vehicle, machinery and equipment operations. To reduce such risks the Contractor will provide the following:

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(a)

Temporary lighting for all Worksite access areas and roads that will be used during the hours of darkness.

(ii)

Task lighting for all work activity at night or in areas with poor visibility.

(iii)

Emergency lighting for pedestrian access routes in areas of poor visibility and those used during night time working.

(iv)

Ensure the absence of glare.

(v)

Proper lighting in corridors.

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Summer Working Conditions and fatigue

1

During the period from June 15th until August 31st, work under direct sun rays is prohibited from 11:30 am to 3:00 pm unless special arrangement is taken by the Contractor to control and ease effect of the direct sun on the workers. This arrangement should be approved by the Engineer’s Representative and should be agreed upon before implementation.

2

High outdoor temperatures expose persons on the Worksite to the risk of dehydration. The Contractor will provide shaded rest areas, rest periods and drinking water supplies for all persons on the Worksite.

3

Sunlight exposes persons on the Worksite to the risk of skin disorders. Employers will provide work wear that covers the skin for employees working in direct sunlight. Sunlight may also cause glare for operators of mobile plant, vehicles, machinery and equipment which increases the risk of operator errors. The Contractor will provide shaded operating positions to reduce such risks.

4

Contractor shall develop suitable management arrangements to control working hours and/ or shift patterns in order to address and manage the risk of fatigue.

10.9.6

Additional Environmental Protection and Pollution Control

1

The Contractor shall comply with all conditions of Environmental Clearance issued for the Contract by the Ministry of Environment (MoE), and also where relevant, the predecessor to the MoE, the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

2

The Contractor shall comply with all rules and regulations regarding environmental protection and pollution control issued by the MoE, and also where relevant, the predecessor to the MoE, the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

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Plant and Equipment Test Certificates

1

Cranes, whether used to construct the Works or provided as part of the permanent Works, must have a current test certificate.

2

Each sling, shackle or other item of loose lifting tackle, whether used to construct the Works of provided as part of the permanent Works, must have either a current manufacturer’s test certificate or a current test certificate.

3

Test certificates must be issued by a competent testing authority approved by the Engineer.

4

The Contractor must have a copy of each test certificate on site available for inspection by the Engineer.

5

The following British Standards and Code of Practice shall be complied with:

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Mobile and Tower Cranes: BS 1757, BS 2799 and CP 3010

(b)

Overhead Cranes: BS 466 and BS 5744

(c)

Slings: BS 1290

(d)

Chain Blocks: BS 3243

(e)

Shackles: Alloy : BS 3551, High Tensile Steel : BS 3032

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10.10.1 General

These specifications for workers' accommodation can be accepted for implementation as long as in the interest of the worker provided they do not disturb the labour accommodation requirements of the decision of the Minister of Labour No. (17) for the year 2005 or any other matters developed in this context.

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10.9.7

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10.10.2 Quality of Labour Accommodation The Contractor shall provide space per person that meets or exceeds what is required by local legislation or 4.5 m2 per person within each room/accommodation unit.

2

The residential density shall not exceed (the lower of): that specified by appropriate local regulation or 4 persons per room/accommodation unit.

3

The Contractor shall provide personal storage space for residents’ belongings including secure storage for valuables.

4

The Contractor shall provide allowances for open spaces and pedestrian movement (e.g. hard surface walkways with minimum 0.75 m width) and shaded communal areas.

5

Where permissible under local planning guidelines, the Contractor shall provide air conditioned communal areas such as television/games rooms.

6

The Contractor shall designate pick up and drop off points (for buses) in such a way as to minimize walking distances for residents and to minimize noise and air quality impacts on residential buildings.

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The Contractor shall configure buildings/units in such a way as to create a sense of place and community.

8

The Contractor shall provide tea and coffee making facilities in kitchen and mess areas.

9

The Contractor shall provide physical barriers (e.g. fencing or landscaping) to visually screen the camp from adjacent worksites, etc.

10

The Contractor shall provide written evidence that all local planning guidelines have been adhered to when designing large scale, project related, labour accommodation facilities. Local planning guidelines indicate the numbers and type of community facilities which should be provided for a given population. Consideration shall be given at planning stage to the availability and capacity of communal facilities and spaces in the surrounding area. Where such facilities are not readily accessible, provision of public transport to access such facilities shall be considered.

11

The Contractor shall be aware of any changes in law relating to the provision of temporary labour accommodation.

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10.10.3 Provision for Fire Safety

The Contractor shall provide for adequate fire-fighting equipment in the labour accommodation (notwithstanding other local laws and regulations requiring same).

2

All relevant signage, notices, documentation and training relating to fire safety at labour accommodation shall be provided in appropriate languages, based on the demographics of the facility.

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10.10.4 Provision for Health Care

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The Contractor shall retain detailed records of all medical treatment carried out on-site. Records shall be retained for all instances of residents being transported for off-site medical attention. Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of the treated party, and the nature of the complaint. These records shall be used to identify medical trends and implement proactive treatment to reduce absenteeism.

2

The Contractor shall provide all labour accommodation residents with access to a level of healthcare beyond basic first aid. Such facilities shall be readily accessible by residents, staffed by professional medical staff and have appropriate provisions and equipment. The exact specification of the facility shall be determined on a case-by-case basis, depending on the location and population of the labour accommodation.

3

The Contractor shall provide a facility to transport those requiring medical attention from the labour accommodation to and from appropriate off-site medical facilities, free-of-charge and in a timely manner.

4

The Contractor shall provide medical insurance for all workers in accordance with Qatar Labour Law.

5

The Contractor shall include a Public Health Training module as part of induction training for all new labour accommodation residents. As a minimum, this shall address:

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(a)

Personal hygiene and the appropriate use of the sanitary facilities provided (flush toilets, showers, hand washing, waste disposal facilities etc.).

(b)

Awareness of communicable diseases (including Sexually Transmitted Diseases), their transmission and prevention.

(c)

Practical information regarding residents’ rights and means of access to on-site and off-site medical facilities.

(d)

Food safety.

(e)

Littering, safe disposal of waste and related community hygiene standards.

The Contractor shall promote public health awareness throughout all facets of the accommodation. This shall include: (a)

Signage in kitchens, bathrooms etc. promoting hygienic practices.

(b)

Educational videos and presentations.

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The Contractor shall provide access to transport, free-of-charge to/from: Worksites, including backup services from worksite to labour accommodation for those who failed to access scheduled services.

(b)

Availability nearby for community facilities, shops and recreation areas during leisure time.

(c)

Religious facilities at suitable times.

(d)

Off-site medical facilities, including emergency access at all times.

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10.10.5 Access to Transport

Transport services shall be scheduled in such a way as to minimise waiting times and maximise accessibility.

3

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10.10.6 Access to Religious, Social and Domestic Facilities 1

The size and number of religious, social and domestic facilities shall be relative to and appropriate to the population of the labour accommodation.

2

The Contractor shall facilitate access to religious facilities for those required to work on Fridays.

3

The Contractor shall provide an on-site hall to facilitate religious practices. Alternatively, transport may be provided to facilitate off-site worship.

4

The Contractor shall provide adequate shaded areas to facilitate social interaction. Similarly, an appropriately sized, air-conditioned communal area(s) shall be provided (e.g. television and games room). The size and number of these facilities shall be relative to and appropriate to the population of the labour accommodation.

5

The Contractor shall provide preferably on-site, open spaces (for sports and recreation). Where space constraints are such that this is impossible, readily accessible off-site spaces shall be provided.

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The Contractor shall provide access nearby to basic domestic amenities. include, as a minimum:

These shall

(a)

Access to banking/money transfer services, including transportation to banking/money transfer facilities.

(b)

Laundry facilities.

(c)

Retail outlet(s) selling, as a minimum, essential items (e.g. food items, clothing, toiletries, phone cards, stamps etc.).

(d)

Communications.

These services shall preferably be available on or within walking distance of the labour accommodation.

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10.10.7 Access to Communications The Contractor shall provide a telephone, available at all times, for calling the emergency services. This facility shall be centrally located, conspicuous and all residents shall be aware of this facility.

2

The Contractor shall provide access nearby to the following:

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Retail outlet selling mobile phone credit.

(b)

Postal service, both inward and outbound.

(c)

Facility for residents to receive emergency messages (e.g. in case of family emergency abroad).

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10.10.8 Number, Quality and Location of Sanitation Facilities The Contractor shall adhere to an appropriate standard for the provision of toilets and showers etc. These facilities shall be maintained in good working order and shall be cleaned regularly.

2

The Contractor shall develop and implement a Waste Management Plan for the labour accommodation. This plan shall address the collection, segregation, storage, transport (offsite) and disposal (recycling) of wastes.

3

The Contractor shall provide adequate sanitary means for the disposal of waste water (including sewerage) from labour accommodation. The Contractor shall provide adequate management of surface water runoff to prevent the accumulation of standing/stagnant water (and the associated health risks).

4

The Contractor shall provide laundry areas, separate from washrooms and food preparation areas. Such laundry areas shall be adequately drained.

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10.10.9 Food Preparation Areas 1

The Contractor shall adhere to relevant local regulations relating to food preparation facilities. In the absence of such local regulations, an appropriate regional standard shall be applied The Contractor shall provide adequate food preparation facilities to allow cultural sensitivities to be respected such as separate preparation areas for meat and vegetables, and appropriate labelling and handling of food products.

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Where meals are provided to residents, the food offered shall be culturally appropriate based on the demographics of residents.

10.10.10 Pest and Vermin Control 1

The Contractor shall engage a pest control company to service the labour accommodation site.

2

Self closing doors fitted with fine mesh shall be installed at the entrances to food premises, washrooms, living areas and any other enclosed spaces.

10.10.11 Security at Labour Accommodation The Contractor shall provide adequate security personnel, based on the size, layout and population of labour accommodation.

2

The Contractor shall provide Protocols (Codes of Conduct) for the security personnel operating at labour accommodation. These Protocols shall clearly define the nature and permitted magnitude of response to security incidents. They shall also set out the circumstances under which security incidents should be handed over to Police control. Protocols will be developed in consultation with the Engineer

3

The Contractor shall ensure that all security personnel are adequately trained in the Protocols for security personnel.

4

The Contractor shall retain records of all security incidents arising at labour accommodation. Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of all those involved (including security personnel), and the nature of the incident. These records shall be made available to the Engineer.

5

The Contractor shall provide labour accommodation residents with secure facilities for the storage of personal items and valuables.

6

The Contractor shall manage the movement of goods and personnel onto the accommodation facility.

7

The Contractor shall maintain adequate lighting on and around the labour accommodation at all times, therefore making it safer for residents to move around at all times.

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10.10.12 Social Issues 1

Any social issues arising at labour accommodation shall be addressed at regular project Quality, Health, Safety and Environment (QHSE) meetings.

2

The Contractor shall include an Intercultural Understanding module as part of induction training for all new labour accommodation residents. This shall include: (a)

Basic introduction to cultural norms and practices of other accommodation residents.

(b)

An explanation of native or local customs, festivals or religious rites.

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The Contractor shall enforce a ban on the sale, possession and consumption of solvents, alcohol and inhalants, for the purposes of intoxication, on labour accommodation sites. The Contractor shall use its best endeavours to prevent these substances from entering labour accommodation facilities.

4

The Contractor shall provide residents with contact details for relevant bodies such as consulates, NGOs, or other relevant organisations offering social support. A list of such local contacts shall be provided to new employees during their induction process. An up-to-date list of contact details for these organisations shall also be displayed in public areas such as the canteen, recreational areas, etc.

5

Any incidents of suicide or attempted suicide shall be investigated as a social issue to try to determine the root causes with a view to reducing the likelihood of a recurrence. This may include the engagement of qualified medical personnel to assist in this process (such as psychiatrists or psychologists).

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10.10.13 Competence of Labour Accommodation Management

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The Contractor shall provide Protocols (Codes of Conduct) for the labour accommodation management personnel. These Protocols shall clearly define the nature of issues and incidents which are considered within the remit of labour accommodation management. They shall also include guidelines outlining appropriate parties to whom incidents should be referred and at what stage. Protocols will be developed in consultation with the Engineer

2

The Contractor shall retain records of all issues and incidents, at labour accommodation, which are reported to or dealt with by labour accommodation management. Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of all those involved (including members of the accommodation management team), and the nature of the issue or incident. These records shall be made available to the labour accommodation management company.

3

The Contractor shall ensure that no member of labour accommodation management accepts any form of payment by way of bribery or extortion or for any reason. Similarly the Contractor shall commit to permanently removing any member of labour accommodation management, from the accommodation, if they are found to have accepted or demanded such payments. In this event, the Contractor shall report any such offences to the appropriate local authorities to determine if a criminal offence has been committed.

4

The Contractor shall maintain labour accommodation facilities to a high standard and not allow them to fall into disrepair.

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10.10.14 Environmental Conditions at Labour Accommodation 1

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with copies of the relevant environmental permits relating to the construction and operations of their labour accommodation facilities. The nature of the permitting requirements will be dependent on the jurisdiction of the facility.

2

Where labour accommodation is to be sited on or close to work sites/industrial sites, the accommodation facilities shall be located up-wind (based on prevailing wind) of the site and the distance between the camp and air discharge points around the site shall be maximised. Noise levels shall not exceed the requirements for night time hours – residential areas, as outlined in local laws and regulations.

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The accommodation area shall be separate from the work site and shall not be used for any operation activities (e.g. storage, workshops, etc.).

4

Where on site facilities such as a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) are located on or close to the accommodation, planning requirements in relation to buffer zones, etc. shall be respected and integrated into site layout. Similarly, adequate buffer zones shall be included to ensure that sleeping accommodation is not immediately adjacent to main roads.

5

Appropriate waste management, storage and disposal facilities shall be provided on site. There shall be no burning of wastes on site. Similarly, there shall be no fires onsite.

6

Use of labour accommodation facilities shall be restricted to those normally resident in the accommodation. Where necessary, separate facilities, e.g. toilets, etc., shall be provided for adjacent work sites, etc.

7

Roads and parking areas shall be paved, or where this is impractical, dust suppression techniques shall be used to keep dust levels down within labour accommodation.

8

The Contractor shall appoint/engage a team of personnel dedicated to cleaning communal areas around the camp on a regular (daily) basis.

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10.10.15 Health and Safety for Labour Accommodation Residents The Contractor shall extend Workmen’s Compensation and Employer’s Liability Insurance to cover their staff while resident in labour accommodation.

2

The Contractor shall extend the accident reporting requirements, to include accidents occurring at off-site labour accommodation directly associated with the Project.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

ENGINEER’S SITE FACILITIES .............................................................................. 2

11.1 11.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2

11.2 11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3 11.2.4

ENGINEER’S SITE OFFICES ................................................................................. 2 General 2 Type 1 Offices 2 Type 2 Offices 3 Car Parking Facilities 6

11.3 11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.3.4 11.3.5

UTILITY CONNECTIONS ........................................................................................ 6 General 6 Electricity 6 Water 6 Telephone 7 Internet 7

11.4 11.4.1 11.4.2 11.4.3 11.4.4 11.4.5 11.4.6 11.4.7

PROVISION OF EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES ...................................................... 7 General 7 Computers and Scanners/Printers 7 Photocopier 8 Measuring and Recording Equipment 9 Stationary Supplies 9 Safety Equipment and Clothing 10 Telephones and Facsimile Machines 10

11.5 11.5.1 11.5.2

ATTENDANCE ...................................................................................................... 11 Assistance to the Engineer 11 Contract Administration 11

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11

ENGINEER’S SITE FACILITIES

11.1

GENERAL

11.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements for the Engineer’s temporary site facilities and includes site offices, utility connections, provision of equipment and supplies and attendance.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows Part 10 Part 13

Occupational Health and Safety Setting Out of the Works

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ENGINEER’S SITE OFFICES

11.2.1

General

1

The Contractor shall provide site offices the type and number as stated in the Project Documentation. The position of the site offices shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

2

Upon removal of the site offices, the area occupied or otherwise affected by them shall be reinstated to its original condition.

11.2.2

Type 1 Offices

1

Unless described elsewhere in the Project Documentation the Contractor shall provide, maintain and remove on completion of the Works the Engineer’s site offices described in this Clause.

2

The Contractor shall proceed with the provision of a site office for the exclusive use of the Engineer immediately following the award of the Contract and shall provide temporary alternative accommodation to the Engineer’s approval until such time as the office is made available.

3

The office shall have a minimum area of 20 m and shall comply with the following:

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11.2

2

(a)

The structure shall be weatherproof.

(b)

The windows and doors shall be dust-proof and the windows shall be fitted with fly screens.

(c)

The office shall be air-conditioned to maintain a maximum steady dry bulb temperature of 25ºC at a relative humidity of 50% under the expected climatic conditions expected at the Site.

(d)

Adequate effective lighting and power outlets shall be installed in accordance with the latest requirements of the Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation.

(e)

The walls and ceilings shall be painted with emulsion paint.

The office shall be provided with the following furniture to the approval of the Engineer: (a)

1 No. kneehole pattern desk with a total of six lockable drawers, approximately 1500 x 800 x 760 mm in size.

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Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

(b)

1 No. swivel chair with armrests.

(c)

2 No. stacking or folding chairs.

(d)

1 No. hanging file or plan chest suitable for AO size prints.

(e)

1 No. wastepaper basket.

(f)

1 No. two drawer filing cabinet.

(g)

1 No. wall mounted pin board, 1000 x 2000 mm in size.

Sanitary and washing facilities shall be provided for the exclusive use of the Engineer and shall include a WC and a wash-hand basin an adequate supply of hot and cold water shall be provided at all times.

6

The Contractor shall insure the site offices against fire, burglary and other risks.

7

The Contractor shall keep on site at all times an adequate supply of clean, fresh, chilled drinking water for the consumption of the Engineer.

8

The Contractor shall maintain the offices in a clean and sanitary condition.

11.2.3

Type 2 Offices

1

The Engineer’s site offices described in this Clause shall be provided in lieu of Type 1 Offices only where it is a stated requirement of the Project Documentation.

2

The offices shall be portable units, mounted on skids or similar and where directed in the Project Documentation shall become the property of the Government on completion of the Contract. On completion of the Contract, the offices which are to become the property of the Government shall be repaired and redecorated to the satisfaction of the Engineer; they shall then delivered to a location designated by the Engineer within 50 km of the Site.

3

The buildings shall conform to the general configuration shown below. The number of each type of unit shall be as stated in the Project Documentation.

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The Contractor shall proceed with the provision of the portable offices, which shall be for the exclusive use of the Engineer immediately following the award of the Contract and shall provide temporary alternative accommodation to the Engineer’s approval until such time as the offices are made available.

5

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval a comprehensive specification and drawings showing the accommodation proposed complete with furnishings, equipment and fittings before placing any orders.

6

The units shall be mounted on adequate concrete foundations and shall be provided with concrete access steps where necessary.

7

The units may be constructed of composite timber framed panels with wood or metal cladding, any combination of these, or alternative forms or construction which comply with the following levels of performance:

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Walls

Thermal conductance Fire resistance -

0.60 w/m ºC ½ hour

Roof

Thermal conductance Roof resistance -

0.60 m ºC ½ hour

2

8

Roof coverings shall be selected for durability, freedom from excessive maintenance, and the ability to withstand extreme exposure to sun, heat and humidity.

9

The units shall be finished internally and externally with low maintenance materials.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

10

The offices shall be air-conditioned with wall mounted units to maintain each room at a maximum steady dry bulb temperature of 25ºC at a relative humidity of 50% under the expected climatic conditions expected at the Site. Extract fans capable of 10 air changes per hour shall be provided in the kitchen and toilets.

11

The installation and testing of wiring and electrical equipment in the units shall be in accordance with the latest requirements of the Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation.

12

Each office shall be provided with the following furniture to the approval of the Engineer:

1 No. swivel chair with armrests.

(c)

No. stacking or folding chairs.

(d)

1 No. hanging file or plan chest suitable for AO size prints.

(e)

1 No. wastepaper basket.

(f)

1 No. two drawer filing cabinet.

(g)

1 No. wall mounted pin board, 1000 x 2000 mm in size.

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Each toilet shall be provided with the following sanitary fittings to the approval of the Engineer and an adequate supply of hot and cold water at all times: 1 No. low level WC suite.

(b)

1 No. Wash-hand basin.

(c)

1 No. shower tray, mixer fittings, rose and shower curtain.

(d)

1 No. toilet roll holder, towel rail, soap dish and mirror.

(e)

a suitable number of cups, saucers and drinking glasses.

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The samples and meeting room shall be provided with the following furniture to the approval of the Engineer: (a) (b)

No. folding or stacking chairs.

(c)

1 No. wall mounted blackboard, 1000 x 2000 mm in size.

(d)

1 No. wall mounted pin board, 1000 x 3000 mm in size.

(e)

1 No. shelf unit for approved samples with 5 tiers of shelves 400 mm wide x 2400 mm long overall.

2 No. tables, each approximately 1200 x 2000 mm in size.

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1 No. kneehole pattern desk with a total of six lockable drawers and approximately 1500 x 800 x 760 mm in size.

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(a)

15

All furniture and equipment shall remain the property of the Contractor and shall be removed following completion of the Works unless otherwise noted in the Project Documentation.

16

The Kitchen shall be provided with the following equipment to the approval of the Engineer (a)

1 No. stainless steel single bowl single drainer sink with hot and cold water and cupboards underneath

(b)

1 No. floor mounted two door cupboards to match sink.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

(c)

Cabinets and shelves to match sink, as required.

(d)

2 ring cooker and microwave.

(e)

1 No. Refrigerator/Freezer with a capacity no less than 500 litres.

(f)

1 No. three pint kettle and sufficient crockery and cutlery.

(g)

A suitable number of mugs, cups, saucers and drinking glasses.

(h)

Table coasters for use on desk tops.

(i)

Hand towels and drying up cloths, laundered regularly.

(j)

Dishwashing facilities, clothes, sponges and washing up liquid, all replaceable.

(k)

Cleaning brushes, mop, bucket and floor clothes.

The Contractor shall insure the site offices against fire, burglary and other risks.

18

The Contractor shall keep on site at all times an adequate supply of clean, fresh, chilled drinking water for the consumption of the Engineer.

19

The Contractor shall maintain the Offices in a clean and sanitary condition.

20

Each type of unit shall be provided with fire extinguishers and water cooler.

11.2.4

Car Parking Facilities

1

Parking areas shall be paved or have a finished surface as approved by the Engineer and shall be covered with a suitable canopy to provide shading.

2

The number of shaded car parking spaces required shall be 2 No. for Type 1 Offices and 6 No. for Type 2 Offices unless otherwise stated in the Project Documentation.

11.3

UTILITY CONNECTIONS

11.3.1

General

1

The Contractor shall make all arrangements and pay all charges in connection with the installation, maintenance, operation and removal of the service utilities described in this Clause.

11.3.2

Electricity

1

The Contractor shall arrange for the provision of an uninterrupted electrical power supply to the Engineer’s offices during all working hours and any at other time as requested by the Engineer for the duration of the Contract.

11.3.3

Water

1

The Contractor shall arranged for the provision of an uninterrupted water supply to the Engineer’s offices during all working hours and at any other time as requested by the Engineer for the duration of the Contract.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

The Contractor shall provide inline filters on all water supplies into Employer and Engineer’s site Facilities. The Contractor shall maintain these at regular intervals as per manufacturer instruction throughout the duration of the Work order.

11.3.4

Telephone

1

The Contractor shall arrange for the provision of two (2) land lines for the sole use of the Engineer for Type 1 Offices and three (3) land lines for the sole use of the Engineer for Type 2 Offices.

2

The Contractor may recover the net cost of international calls made by the Engineer.

11.3.5

Internet

1

.The Contractor shall arrange for the provision of a dedicated and uninterrupted internet access to the Engineer’s offices during all working hours and at any other time as requested by the Engineer for the duration of the Contract. The internet connection should be provided with a bandwidth running at a minimum of 1 mbps upload capacity.

11.4

PROVISION OF EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

11.4.1

General

1

The following items of equipment, supplies and associated level of service shall all be provided unless detailed elsewhere in the Contract Documentation.

11.4.2

Computers and Scanners/Printers

1

The Contractor shall provide new network/internet capable computers and scanners/printers for the sole use of the Engineer. The number of computers and scanners/printers required and their performance specification shall be as detailed in the Project Documentation. The Contractor shall also supply and install any computer software as detailed in the Project Documentation.

2

The Contractor shall maintain the computers and scanners/printer for the duration of the Contract and provide all consumables necessary for its operation.

3

The Contractor shall be responsible for installing legal copies of operating system and software, trouble shooting, supplying of required consumables and maintenance of the system.

4

Operating system and software requirements shall be as specified by the Engineer, with the following as a minimum:

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(a)

Latest version of Microsoft Windows Operating System

(b)

Latest version of Microsoft Office

5

All software must be of latest version and Arabic enabled, to the approval of the Engineer.

6

The Contractor shall ensure that all computers and scanners/printers provided for the Engineers use are networked within the Engineers facilities to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

7

The Contactor shall provide new desktop computers and laptops as shown in the Schedule of Rates minimum 20-inch Flat Panel VGA/analogue colour monitors for use by the Engineer.

8

The Desktop and laptop computers shall comply with the following: Intel Core 2 Duo Processor (1.86GHz,1066MHz,2MB cache)

(b)

1000GB(7200rpm)Serial ATA Hard Drive

(c)

56k Modem

(d)

32X DVD+/-RW Drive

(e)

Wireless network adaptor (Wi-Fi)

(f)

Wireless Keyboard & Mouse

(g)

Card Reader

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(a)

The Desktop and laptop computers shall comply with the following: New licensed copies of MS Windows, MS Office Professional, MS Project and AUTOCAD, Primavera P6 and Primavera Contract Manager (PCM) SOFTWARE SHALL BE PROVIDED.

10

Colour printer shall be of the laser type suitable for A3 size paper and having scanning and copying facilities built in. It shall be quiet in operation (Hewlett Packard Desk Jet (latest model) or similar).

11

The Computer equipment shall be returned to the Contractor at the end of Maintenance Period. The Contractor shall be responsible for supply of all necessary cartridges and paper and for maintenance of the equipment by the manufacture’s agent throughout the period of the Work order.

12

The Contractor shall provide all necessary voltage stabilization equipment to ensure troublefree operation of the computer equipment.

13

All computers and printers shall be networked.

11.4.3

Photocopier

1

The Contractor shall provide a new photocopier for the sole use of the Engineer. The performance specification for the photocopier shall be as detailed in the Project Documentation.

2

The Contractor shall maintain the photocopier for the duration of the Contract and provide all consumables necessary for its operation.

3

Contractors shall provide a new floor standing, stationary platen, and plain paper colour photocopier for use and approved by the Engineer.

4

The photocopier shall be provided with an automatic document feeder capable of copying both sides.

5

The Range of copy sizes of the photocopier shall be from A3 size (297×420mm) to A4 size (210×297mm), portrait and landscape. Three paper storage trays shall be provided.

6

The photocopier shall be capable of reducing/enlarging originals by 50% to 200% in 1% increments.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

The photocopier shall have an A4 size rotating paper cassette and automatic paper size/zoom ratio selection.

8

Throughput shall be not lesson than 40 A4 copies per minute.

9

The photocopier shall be able to scan and email documents.

10

The photocopier shall be returned to the contractor at the end of period of Maintenance. The contractor shall be responsible for supplying the necessary paper and maintenance of the equipment by the manufacture’s agent throughout the work order.

11.4.4

Measuring and Recording Equipment

1

The Contractor shall provide measuring and recording equipment for the sole use of the Engineer. The following items, which shall be to the approval of the Engineer, shall be provided for the duration of the Contract:

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1 No. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) station.

(b)

1 No. 1” Total Station theodolite (or equivalent) including all necessary tripods, prisms etc.

(c)

1 No. Automatic engineer’s level including tripod.

(d)

1 No. Metric levelling staff.

(e)

1 No. Calibrated steel survey band 50m long.

(f)

2 No. 30m nylon tapes.

(g)

2 No. 25 m metal tapes.

(h)

4 No. 5m pocket tapes.

(i)

6 No. Ranging rods.

(j)

1 No. Mason’s Spirit level.

(k)

1 No. Bitmac thermometer.

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1 No. digital camera. Level and field books as required.

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Other equipment such as pegs, tools, etc, which are necessary for the checking of the Works shall be provided as requested by the Engineer.

3

The Contractor shall maintain and replace as necessary the equipment for the duration of the Contract. Surveying instruments shall be new or in as good as new condition, of an approved make with a current certificate of adjustment.

11.4.5

Stationary Supplies

1

The Contractor shall supply stationary for the Engineer for the duration of the Contract. Stationary items shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following: (a)

Files and file dividers (A4 and A3 size).

(b)

Paper (A4 and A3 size).

(c)

Writing pens, marker pens, highlighter pens (various colours).

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

(d)

Pencils (various colours).

(e)

Pencil sharpeners.

(f)

Erasers.

(g)

Staplers and staples.

(h)

Hole punches.

(i)

Paper chips and bull dog clips.

11.4.6

Safety Equipment and Clothing

1

The Contractor shall supply safety equipment and clothing for the Engineer and his staff. Safety equipment and clothing shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following: Safety helmets, boots, gloves, High visibility vests, safety glasses (Clear and tinted)

(b)

Safety belts and harnesses.

(c)

Boiler suits.

(d)

Any other PPE identified by the Contractors job hazard analysis or risk assessment process

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The Contractor shall also supply gas detection equipment and breathing apparatus in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 10 of this Section, Occupational Health and Safety.

11.4.7

Telephones and Facsimile Machines

1

For Type 1 Offices, the Contractor shall supply and install a telephone and facsimile machine. The telephone and facsimile machine should conform to the relevant provisions of any Telecom Provider standard or requirement.

2

For Type 2 Offices, the Contractor shall supply and install a telephone in each office and the meeting room. Each telephone shall be connected to a private address box exchange (PABX) system. The Contractor shall also supply and install a facsimile machine. The telephones, PABX system and facsimile shall conform to the relevant provisions of any Telecom Provider standard or requirement.

3

The Contractor shall provide a new A4 size plain paper desktop facsimile machine complying with the following:

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(a)

2 Line × 24 character LCD Display

(b)

ITU compatible

(c)

Resolution horizontal scanning 8 pixel/mm

(d)

Vertical scanning Standard 3.85 lines/mm

(e)

Fine 7.7 lines/mm

(f)

150 sheet paper tray (80g/m2

The facsimile machine shall be returned to the contractor at the end of maintenance period. The Contractor shall be responsible for supply of all necessary toner or ink cartridges and plain white paper and for maintenance of the equipment by the manufactures’ s agent throughout the Work order.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 11: Engineer’s Site Facilities

The Contractor shall provide six digital cameras and one digital video camera for the exclusive use of the Engineer or his designated representative and supply software, batteries, cables and USB flash drives or external hard drives as required. The Digital camera shall have a minimum specification of 35-105 zoom, with a minimum of 16.0 megapixels for prints up to 20”×30”, 8GB internal memory and video/audio facility. The cameras shall be returned to the contractor at the end of the contract period

11.5

ATTENDANCE

11.5.1

Assistance to the Engineer

1

The Contractor shall provide every assistance to the Engineer in carrying out his duties.

2

The Contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer’s Representative and his staff, any chainman/assistants to carry out any duties whatsoever, as required by the Engineer’s Representative.

11.5.2

Contract Administration

1

The Contractor shall provide secretaries, cleaners and tea persons for the exclusive use of the Engineer for the duration of the Contract.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 12: Contractor’s Site Facilities

Page 1

12

CONTRACTOR’S SITE FACILITIES GENERAL ........................................... 2

12.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

12.1.1 Scope 12.1.2 References

2 2

12.2

CONTRACTOR’S SITE FACILITIES ............................................................. 2

12.2.1 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4 12.2.5

Buildings Site Fabrication Areas Materials Storage Area Power, Water, Lighting and Heating Miscellaneous

12.3

PROJECT SIGN BOARD............................................................................... 3

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12.3.1 Project Sign Board

ADVERTISING .............................................................................................. 4 4 4

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12.4.1 Photographs 12.4.2 Name Boards and Other Advertising

PROVISION OF HAMAD MEDICAL CORPORATION AMBULANCE SPOKE STATION ....................................................................................................... 4

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12

CONTRACTOR’S SITE FACILITIES GENERAL

12.1

GENERAL

12.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements for the Contractor’s temporary site facilities.

12.1.2

References

1

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: Part 9 Materials.

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CONTRACTOR’S SITE FACILITIES

12.2.1

Buildings

1

The Contractor shall provide all offices, sheds, stores and other buildings necessary for him to undertake all duties, obligations and activities associated with the construction of the Works.

2

All buildings shall be supplied and maintained in good condition and shall be of neat appearance.

3

The position of all the Contractor’s temporary site buildings shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

4

The Contractor shall maintain an office at the Site for the duration of the Contract. This office shall be open at all times during Site working hours.

5

Upon completion of the Contract, all temporary site buildings shall be removed and the area occupied or otherwise affected by them reinstated to its original condition.

6

The Government of Qatar will grant a right of access only within the road reservation. Should the Contractor need to use adjacent areas of land for camps, plant site etc, he shall arrange for the right to use the said land himself.

7

This clause in no way invalidates the obligations of the General Conditions of Contract.

12.2.2

Site Fabrication Areas

1

The Contractor shall provide an area suitable for assembly and fabrication purposes.

2

Fabrication areas shall simulate factory conditions if required in the Project Documentation.

12.2.3

Materials Storage Area

1

The Contractor shall provide sufficient and appropriate materials storage areas. The storage areas shall be suitable for the materials to be stored in them and shall offer necessary protection where required.

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Page 3

The Contractor shall ensure that the storage areas comply with the relevant provisions of Part 9 of this Section, Materials.

12.2.4

Power, Water, Lighting and Heating

1

The Contractor shall provide, maintain and subsequently remove temporary services for power supply, water supply, lighting and heating.

2

All electrical installations shall be in the charge of a competent person who shall accept full responsibility for its use and any alterations or additions thereto. The name, designation and telephone number of such person shall be prominently displayed close to the main switch or circuit breaker of the installation, and also in the Contractor’s site office.

3

Site work power tool supplies (except for operation of pumps) shall be of 110 volts (55 volts to earth). All electricity supply cables shall be buried or properly supported and protected and shall be armoured. Flexible cable shall only be allowed for hand lamps and hand held tools and shall not exceed 6 metres in length. Industrial type plugs and sockets shall be used.

4

All site electrical installations shall comply with the requirements of the current regulations of QGEWC.

12.2.5

Miscellaneous

1

The Contractor shall provide, maintain and subsequently remove temporary roads, paths, parking areas and refuse disposal areas. The area occupied by temporary roads, paths, parking areas and refuse disposal areas or otherwise affected by them shall be restored to their original condition on completion of the Contract.

12.3

PROJECT SIGN BOARD

12.3.1

Project Sign Board

1

Standard Signboard: The Contractor shall provide and erect a temporary signboard at the location of his approved site compound. In addition he shall provide signboards at the start and end of each ongoing work location for all works whether major or minor.

2

Project Identification Signboard: Information signboards shall be clearly displayed on approaches to works in the highway at each ongoing work location for all works whether major or minor. These shall be provided by the Contractor and shall be positioned so as not to cause hindrance to the movement of vehicular or pedestrian traffic. The signs shall be mounted on sturdy metal frames, be mobile and reusable, and shall be illuminated at night.

3

The Project sign boards shall comply with the standard details, as updated by the project drawings and specifications, and shall be to the approval of the Engineer. In addition, the Contractor shall obtain all necessary approvals from the relevant authorities prior to erection. The Contractor shall be responsible for the structural stability of the signboards but shall submit details of his proposals for support to the Engineer for approval.

4

The Contractor shall maintain, move and adapt the signboards as required during the progress of the Works and shall remove them upon completion.

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Section 01: General Part 12: Contractor’s Site Facilities

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ADVERTISING

12.4.1

Photographs

1

The Contractor shall not use photographs or any details of his work in connection with the Contract in any form of publicity or advertisement in any part of the world without having first obtained the Engineer’s approval to its content and context.

12.4.2

Name Boards and Other Advertising

1

Details of any further sign boards other than as designed in Clause 12.3.1 or advertisements that the Contractor may wish to erect on site shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

12.5

PROVISION OF HAMAD MEDICAL CORPORATION AMBULANCE SPOKE STATION

12.5.1

General

1

Ambulance Spoke Station is a temporary structure. This can be relocated quickly to any location in a rapidly changing infrastructure, which is a vital component of the design. It is designed to provide covered parking for up to two ambulances and accommodation for a small crew room for up to four paramedics. The crew need shelter from the summer heat in a safe environment in a prime response location to be ready for emergency calls. The stations are versatile and designed to be completely self-contained. It doesn't require to be connected to Electricity, Water or Sewerage or require any physical links to service providers. All of its power is provided by solar panels. The cabin can be dismantled and moved to another site within 48 hours, enabling Hamad Medical Corporation to relocate these small stations. The station does not require any form of building foundations, just level ground. Depending on the location, some stations may require minor works for access to and from the road.

2

The contractor will in no way be relieved of his responsibility under Qatari law to provide medical care, facilities, insurance, etc. to workers on site, and that Hamad Medical Corporations facility is mainly for the purpose of the general public (so that Hamad Medical Corporation can respond more quickly to emergency incidents in a rapidly changing infrastructure)

12.5.2

Requirements

1

If instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall make provision within or adjacent his site facilities for an Ambulance Spoke Station.

2

The Contractor is only required to provide an area for the for the facilities. The Ambulance Spoke Station and vehicles will be provided and installed by Hamad Medical Corporation or an entity on their behalf.

3

The area shall be a minimum of 10 metres by 17 metres.

4

The area must be levelled as the surrounding area of the Contractor facilities.

5

The areas shall be provided with clear access to the road network.

6

Access to the Ambulance Spoke Station is required 24hours/day 7 days/week.

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Section 01: General Part 12: Contractor’s Site Facilities

Page 5

7

Ambulance vehicle access is required to at least one long side.

8

Access for maintenance (water resupply, cleaning, removal of waste etc.) is required to one short side.

9

The allocated area shall be approved in writing by the Engineer after consultation with Hamad Medical Corporation.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

13

Section 01: General Part 13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 1

SETTING OUT OF THE WORKS .................................................................. 2

13.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2 13.1.1 Scope 2 13.2 SITE INFORMATION AND INSPECTION ..................................................... 2 13.2.1 Site Information 2 13.2.2 Site Inspection 2 13.3 LEVELS AND REFERENCE GRID ................................................................ 2 13.3.1 Temporary Bench Marks 2 13.3.2 Site Grid 3

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13.4 SURVEYING .................................................................................................. 3 13.4.1 Site Survey 3

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13.5 SETTING OUT ............................................................................................... 3 13.5.1 Setting Out of the Works 3 13.5.2 Setting Out of Works Sited on Private Land 4

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 2

13

SETTING OUT OF THE WORKS

13.1

GENERAL

13.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements for setting out of the Works and includes locating existing services, surveying the Site and establishment of temporary bench marks.

2

The Engineer reserves the right to order levels to be taken at any time considered necessary for the full and proper supervision and measurement of the Works.

3

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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Engineer’s Site facilities.

Part 11

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This Section

SITE INFORMATION AND INSPECTION

13.2.1

Site Information

1

Before commencing the setting out of the Works the Contractor shall ascertain the location of all existing underground services within the Site boundary. The Contractor shall prepare a plan detailing the location of the services.

2

Any conflict between existing services and any part of the proposed Works shall be brought to the attention to the Engineer without delay.

3

Any re-work resulting from the Contractor’s failure to locate and identify services shall be undertaken at the Contractor’s cost.

13.2.2

Site Inspection

1

Before commencing the setting out of the Works, the Contractor and the Engineer shall make an inspection of the Site.

2

Where appropriate, the Engineer shall require the Contractor to arrange for surveys to be undertaken, in conjunction with the owners or occupiers, of the condition of roads, properties, lands and crops which may be affected by the Works. Before any work affecting such roads, properties, lands or crops is commenced, the Contractor shall confirm in writing to the Engineer that the relevant survey is a true and accurate record of their condition.

13.3

LEVELS AND REFERENCE GRID

13.3.1

Temporary Bench Marks

1

. The Contractor shall establish accurate temporary bench marks on permanent blocks from which the levels to which the Works are to be constructed may be transferred. The location of temporary bench marks shall be agreed with the Engineer. The level of temporary bench marks shall be related to the Qatar National Height Datum.

2

The Contractor shall prepare a plan detailing the location of the bench marks and temporary bench marks and keep it up to date for the duration of the Contract.

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Section 01: General Part 13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 3

The Contractor shall protect and maintain the temporary bench marks until the Works are complete. Upon completion of the Works the Contractor shall clear away the temporary bench marks to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

4

The Contractor is responsible for checking the accuracy of temporary bench mark. Any rework resulting from incorrect or inaccurate temporary bench marks shall be undertaken at the Contractor’s cost.

13.3.2

Site Grid

1

When it is a requirement of the Project Documentation, or unless otherwise notified by the Engineer, the Contractor shall establish a Site Grid. The orientation of the Site Grid shall be determined by the layout of the proposed works and as agreed with by the Engineer. Grid spacing shall be 20m in each direction unless otherwise notified by the Engineer. Grid notation shall be numerical in one direction (y-axis) and alphabetic in the other (x-axis).

2

The grid shall be tied to the Qatar National Grid. An existing control station related to the Qatar National grid will be indicated by the Engineer for this purpose.

13.4

SURVEYING

13.4.1

Site Survey

1

The Contractor shall provide the Site survey and the correctness of that survey shall be entirely the Contractor’s responsibility.

2

The Site survey shall comply with the requirements of the Qatar Survey Manual as a minimum.

3

The Contractor shall, within 3 weeks of the date of commencement of the Works, carry out a check of the co-ordinates and levels of all permanent monuments, bench marks and survey markers used in the determination of the site survey model and proposed to be used for the setting out of the Works.

13.5

SETTING OUT

13.5.1

Setting Out of the Works

1

The Contractor shall carry out at his own cost the setting out of the Works.

2

The Contractor shall be responsible for:

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(a)

True and proper settings out of the Works in relation to reference data given in the Project Documentation.

(b)

Accurately setting out the positions, levels and dimensions of all parts of the Works.

Any delay or loss resulting from errors in the setting out of the Works shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. Setting out shall be reviewed by the Engineer before commencing the Works, but such approval shall in no way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the correct execution of the Work.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 4

The Contractor shall provide measuring and recording equipment for the Engineer in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 11 of this Section, Engineer’s Site Facilities. The Contractor shall maintain all measuring and recording equipment in good working order at all times.

5

The Contractor shall provide all assistance which the Engineer may require for checking the setting out and taking measurements of the Works, including labour, equipment and transportation.

13.5.2

Setting Out of Works Sited on Private Land

1

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing fourteen (14) days in advance of his intention to set out any of part of the Works that lies in private land.

2

The Contractor shall ensure that all requirements and instructions of private land owners are strictly adhered to.

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Section 01: General Part 14: Temporary Works and Equipment

Page 1

TEMPORARY WORKS AND EQUIPMENT ............................................................. 2

14.1 14.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2

14.2 14.2.1

TEMPORARY WORKS ........................................................................................... 2 General 2

14.3 14.3.1

TEMPORARY EQUIPMENT .................................................................................... 2 General 2

14.4 14.4.1

TEST CERTIFICATES FOR CRANES AND LIFTING TACKLE ............................... 3 General 3

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Section 01: General Part 14: Temporary Works and Equipment

Page 2

14

TEMPORARY WORKS AND EQUIPMENT

14.1

GENERAL

14.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements for Temporary Works required in connection with construction of the Works and temporary plant and equipment required in connection with aiding the construction of the Works. It does not include overpumping activities in respect of sewers and drains.

2

Related Parts and Sections are as follows: Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Section 11

Health and Safety

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Section 2

Occupational Health and Safety concerning temporary works and equipment is covered in Section 11 Health and Safety

4

Quality Controlling temporary works and equipment’s is covered in Assurance and Quality Control

14.2

TEMPORARY WORKS

14.2.1

General

1

Everything used for and in connection with the Temporary Works shall be fit for the purpose, in serviceable condition and in compliance with any relevant standard.

2

The Contractor shall design his Temporary Works to be of adequate strength, stability and suitability.

3

The Contractor shall submit details of any Temporary Works proposed to the Engineer for review before commencing the work. Such details shall include, but not be limited to design calculations and drawings. The submission to the Engineer of any such details shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for sufficiency of the Temporary Works or of his other duties and responsibilities under the Contract.

4

The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that Temporary Works are not in any way detrimental to existing structures in any way. Particular care shall be taken with scaffolding to avoid staining or mechanical damage to finishing.

5

The Contractor shall make safe and reinstate all areas affected by Temporary Works.

14.3

TEMPORARY EQUIPMENT

14.3.1

General

1

The Contractor shall provide and maintain in good condition on the Site all plant, tools and vehicles necessary for the proper and safe execution of the Works.

2

Temporary equipment shall be fit for the purpose for which it is to be used.

Section 2 Quality

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Section 01: General Part 14: Temporary Works and Equipment

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Temporary equipment shall only be operated by personnel who are trained and qualified.

14.4

TEST CERTIFICATES FOR CRANES AND LIFTING TACKLE

14.4.1

General

1

Cranes, whether used to construct the Works or provided as part of the permanent Works, must have a current test certificate.

2

Each sling, shackle or other item of loose lifting tackle, whether used to construct the Works or provided as part of the permanent Works, must have either a current test certificate.

3

Test certificates must be issued by a competent testing authority approved by the Engineer.

4

The Contractor must have a copy of each test certificate on site available for inspection by the Engineer.

5

The following Standards and Code of Practice shall be complied with and where such documents are replaced or superseded the Contractor shall comply with the latest version:

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Mobile and Tower Cranes: BS 1757, BS 2799 and CP 3010.

(b)

Overhead Cranes: BS 466 and BS 5744.

(c)

Slings: BS 1290, BS EN 1492, ISO 4309 / 3481 Pt 2, ASME B30.9.

(d)

Chain Blocks: BS 3243.

(e)

Shackles: Alloy: BS 3551/ BS 6994.

(f)

Chain: BS 4942 part 1 & 6.

(g)

Hooks: BS 2903, ASME B30.10.

(h)

Ring and link: BS 2902.

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A monthly inspection of lifting appliances shall be carried out by a competent person employed by the Contractor. Full records of all such inspections and tests shall be kept by the Contractor in an approved form and shall be made available to the Engineer immediately upon demand. Copies of monthly inspection reports shall be submitted to the Engineer.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 15: Temporary Controls

Page 1

TEMPORARY CONTROLS ..................................................................................... 2

15.1 15.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2

15.2 15.2.1 15.2.2 15.2.3 15.2.4 15.2.5 15.2.6 15.2.7

TEMPORARY CONTROLS ..................................................................................... 2 Construction Cleaning 2 Dust Control 2 Noise 2 Nuisance and Trespass 2 Pollution Control 3 Surface Water and Groundwater Control 3 Environmental protection 4

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 15: Temporary Controls

Page 2

15

TEMPORARY CONTROLS

15.1

GENERAL

15.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the Contractor’s responsibilities with respect to temporary controls needed to protect the Works and the environment.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

Part 5

Interference

TEMPORARY CONTROLS

15.2.1

Construction Cleaning

1

The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper upkeep and maintenance of the Site and Works and shall remove from the Site all rubbish and other waste as it accumulates. Materials and equipment shall be positioned, stored and stacked in an orderly manner.

2

Properly constructed rubbish chutes shall be used for clearing the debris from upper floors. Debris shall be accumulated in suitable pre-determined areas and removed from the Site as often as is practical.

3

On completion of the Works, any protective tape and other temporary coverings shall be removed and the internal and external surface of the structure shall be thoroughly cleaned to completely remove all dust, dirt, stains, handmarks, paint spots, plaster, mortar droppings and other blemishes.

15.2.2

Dust Control

1

The Contractor shall conduct his operations and activities in such a manner that no operation shall be included which will emit into the atmosphere any flying dust or dirt which might constitute a nuisance.

15.2.3

Noise

1

The Contractor shall restrict the use of plant, machinery, equipment and work practises likely to produce unacceptable noise levels to normal working hours.

15.2.4

Nuisance and Trespass

1

All reasonable means shall be used to avoid inconveniencing owners and occupiers of adjacent properties. All plant, machinery or equipment shall be placed and used on the Site so as to avoid any nuisance or trespass on adjoining property.

2

Should it be necessary for any plant, machinery or equipment to project or operate over adjoining property, the Contractor shall obtain the permission of the adjoining owner or occupier. Details of approvals shall be submitted to the Engineer in writing.

3

No workmen employed on the Works shall be allowed to trespass upon adjoining properties.

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If in the execution of the Works it is necessary for the Contractor to enter adjacent properties, he shall firstly obtain the permission of the owners of the property. The Contractor shall ensure that any instructions made by the owners of the properties are strictly adhered to.

5

The Contractor shall be held responsible for and shall indemnify the Employer against all claims, which may arise out of his failure to comply with provisions of items 1. 2. 3 and 4 of Clause 1.15.2.4

15.2.5

Pollution Control

1

The Contractor shall ensure that none of his operations or work practises result in the polluting of the air, underground strata or any existing watercourse, canal, lake, reservoir borehole and aquifer.

2

The Contractor shall rectify any problem resulting from pollution caused by the Contractor to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

3

The Contractor will be held responsible for and shall indemnify owner against all claims in connection with noise, vibration, dust, smoke, diesel spillage and any other nuisance arising from the execution of the Works.

15.2.6

Surface Water and Groundwater Control

1

The Contractor shall keep the Work well drained until the Engineer certifies that the whole of the Works is substantially complete and shall ensure that so far as is practicable all work is carried out in the dry. Excavated areas shall be kept well drained and free from standing water.

2

The Contractor shall construct, operate and maintain all temporary dams, water courses and other works of all kinds including pumping and well-point dewatering that may be necessary to exclude water from the Works while construction is in progress. Such temporary works shall not be removed without the approval of the Engineer.

3

Notwithstanding any approval by the Engineer of the Contractor’s arrangements for the exclusion of water, the Contractor shall be responsible for the sufficiency thereof and for keeping the Works safe at all times, particularly during periods of rainfall that may result in flooding. Any damage to the Works arising through the Contractor’s failure to provide sufficient protection against water, including flooding, shall be made good at his own expense.

4

It is the Contractor’s responsibility to dispose of all extracted groundwater and collected surface water. The Contractor shall submit details of his proposed disposal methods to the Engineer for approval. Discharge of groundwater and/or surface water to existing drainage facilities shall only be permitted if written approval is given by Public Works Authority and/or concerned other authorities; copies of such approvals shall be submitted to the Engineer.

5

The Contractor is to take all necessary precautions to avoid floatation of any structure.

6

The Contractor shall ensure that his groundwater control activities do not adversely affect any existing structure or service.

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15.2.7

Environmental protection

1

The Contractor shall comply with all conditions of the environmental clearance issued for the project by the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

2

The Contractor shall comply with all rules and regulations regarding environmental protection and pollution control issued by the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 16: Traffic Diversions

Page 1

16

TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS................................................................................. 2

16.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

16.1.1 16.1.2 16.1.3 16.1.4 16.1.5

Scope Conformance Safety System Description Traffic Police Requirements

16.2

TEMPORARY TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS ......................................................... 3

2 2 2 2 2 3 3

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 16: Traffic Diversions

Page 2

TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS

16.1

GENERAL

16.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies requirements associated with traffic diversions. Traffic diversions include for work in, or affecting the use of, roads, footpaths and right of ways and may comprise the construction and maintenance of paved and unpaved detour carriageways including all earthworks and the provision of adequate drainage, lighting, sign posting, street furniture and traffic control devices.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: Part 4

Protection

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16

Conformance

1

Signs, control and control devices associated with traffic diversions shall conform to the relevant provisions of “Traffic Control at Roadworks” produced by the Ministry of Public Works (latest edition/version) and shall be to the approval of the Traffic Police and the Public Works Authority.

16.1.3

Safety

1

The Contractor is responsible for all safety issues associated with the installation, operation, maintenance and removal of traffic diversions.

2

The Contractor shall provide lighting in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 4 of this Section, Protection.

16.1.4

System Description

1

Where the diversion of any existing road, footpath or public right or way is temporarily necessitated by the Works, the Contractor shall provide and maintain an alternative which shall be operational before interference with the existing facility.

2

Temporary traffic control devices as well as any other traffic management requirement shall be erected and maintained by the Contractor for the duration of any activity in, or affecting the use of, roads, footpaths and right of ways.

16.1.5

Traffic Police Requirements

1

Before any work in, or affecting the use of, any road, footpath, and right of way is commenced, the Contractor’s proposed method of working shall be agreed with, and confirmed in writing to, the Engineer and the Traffic Police.

2

Throughout the execution of the Works and the maintenance period, the Contractor shall cooperate with the Traffic Police concerning works in, or access to, roads, footpaths and right of ways. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer of any requirements of, or arrangements made with, the Traffic Police.

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16.1.2

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 16: Traffic Diversions

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TEMPORARY TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS

16.2.1

General Requirements

1

The Contractor shall prepare detailed plans showing any proposed traffic diversions. The plans shall fully detail the diversion in all respects and shall include construction details if necessary. The plans shall show the position of ramps, traffic signs, cones, barriers, demarcation posts and tape, flashing lights and any other traffic control devices. The plans shall be submitted to the Engineer for review and shall be approved by the Traffic Police. Traffic diversion apparatus shall not be erected until the Traffic Police have reviewed and approved the traffic diversion plans.

2

Persons acting as flagmen shall be physically and mentally qualified, trained in their duties and courteous. Each flagman on duty shall be identified with appropriate and distinctive apparel approved by the Engineer and equipped with bilingual STOP/GO signs. Reflective apparel is required for flagging duties during darkness.

3

Where paved carriageways, unpaved carriageways or ramps are required, they shall be provided and maintained to a standard suitable in all respects for the class or classes of traffic or pedestrians requiring the use of them.

4

On completion, all traffic diversion works and apparatus shall be removed and land affected by them reinstated to its original condition.

16.2.2

Maintenance of Traffic flow

1

The Contractor shall allow for the construction of temporary diversions to permit all existing traffic movements for the duration of the Contract period.

2

All diversions shall be constructed in accordance with the latest edition/version of Qatar Traffic Manual “Traffic Control at Roadworks” booklet and the Qatar Highway Design Manual, and shall be approved prior to the implementation by both the Engineer and Traffic Police. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to ensure that any traffic diversion required is properly signed, demarcated, illuminated, controlled and maintained at all times.

3

Upon the Engineer’s request, the Contractor shall install and commission temporary traffic signals capable of handling the diverted traffic.

4

Sequential arrow boards operating on a 24-hour basis (engine or solar powered) must be used at all diversion points.

5

Within the limits of the project where pedestrian traffic is present, all excavated areas, regardless of depth, must be cordoned off by means of wired mesh panels of height no less than 1.8m connected together to form a continuous barrier wall.

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16.2

END OF PART

QCS 2014

17

Section 01: General Part 17: Project Co-ordination

Page 1

PROJECT CO-ORDINATION ........................................................................ 2

17.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2 17.1.1 Scope 2 17.1.2 Responsibility 2

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CO-ORDINATION .......................................................................................... 2 Contractor’s Activities 2 Sub-Contractors 3 Other Contractors 3 Other Ministries 3 Liaison with the Public Utility Authorities and other Contractors 3

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17.2 17.2.1 17.2.2 17.2.3 17.2.4 17.2.5

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17

PROJECT CO-ORDINATION

17.1

GENERAL

17.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the co-ordination activities for which the Contractor is responsible.

2

Related Parts and Sections are as follows: Part 18

Other Contractors

Part 19

Regulatory Requirements

.

This Section

Responsibility

1

The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper co-ordination of all his activities associated with the construction of the Works including that required between the Engineer, utility owners, government departments, sub-contractors and other contractors.

2

No major operations shall be commenced or work outside the usual working hours be carried out without the consent in writing of the Engineer or without full and complete notice also in writing being given to him sufficiently in advance of the time of operation so as to enable him to make such arrangements as he may deem necessary for its inspection.

17.2

CO-ORDINATION

17.2.1

Contractor’s Activities

1

The Contractor shall undertake the following co-ordination activities:

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Co-ordinate construction activities under the various Sections of these Specifications to assure efficient and orderly installation of each part of the Works. Co-ordinate construction operations included under the various Sections of this Specification that is dependent upon each other for proper installation, connection, and operation.

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17.1.2

(c)

Where installation of one part of the Work is dependent on installation of other components, either before or after its own installation, the Contractor shall prepare schedules and construction activities in the sequence required to obtain the best results.

(d)

Where availability of space is limited, co-ordinate installation of different components to assure maximum accessibility for required maintenance, service and repair.

(e)

Make adequate provisions to accommodate items scheduled for later installation.

(f)

Where necessary, prepare memoranda for distribution of each party involved outlining special procedures required for co-ordination; include such items as required notices, reports and attendance at meetings.

(g)

Prepare similar memoranda for the Engineer, separate contractors and subcontractors where co-ordination of their work is required.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 17: Project Co-ordination

Page 3

(h)

Take special care and precautions for specific co-ordination requirements for the installation of plant and items of equipment.

(i)

Co-ordinate the scheduling and timing of required administrative procedures with other construction activities to avoid conflicts and ensure orderly progress of the work.

Sub-Contractors

1

The Contractor is responsible for co-ordinating the work of his sub-contractors in all respects.

17.2.3

Other Contractors

1

The Contractor shall co-ordinate his work as necessary with other contractors in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 18, Other Contractors, of this Section.

17.2.4

Other Ministries

1

The Contractor shall co-ordinate his work as necessary with other Ministries in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 19, Regulatory Requirements, of this Section.

17.2.5

Liaison with the Public Utility Authorities and other Contractors

1

The Contractor shall liaise with all public utility authorities for water, electricity, telephones, etc and shall:

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17.2.2

Provide public utility authorities with storage areas where applicable.

(b)

Assist in unloading of stores and equipment.

(c)

Ensure that all services or diversions of services are installed under the carriageway and footways before they are surfaced.

(d)

Work out an overall programme for any works to be carried out by public utility authorities and ensure that this programme is maintained.

(e)

Keep public utility authorities informed of the Contractor’s own progress.

(f)

Arrange for supply of services for all the affected permanent and temporary accommodation, buildings, shops, trading areas etc even if it is not clearly mentioned in the Project Documentation for the duration for the Contract:

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Give the appropriate public utility authority adequate notice in writing that he intends to install dry ducts so that a representative of the utility concerned may attend the installation and record the location of the ducts together with the Contractor.

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(a)

2

The Contractor shall make due allowance for carrying out the works, whilst public utility authorities are working on the Site, during the Contract period. This due allowance shall include programming of the works to suit the programmes of the public utility authorities.

3

The Contractor shall at all times be responsible for the compliance with these requirements of his sub-contractors.

4

Before final surfacing of any carriageways or footways takes place, the Contractor is responsible for ascertaining from all public utility authorities that their underground works have been completed. In the event that the Contractor failing to carry out this obligation to the satisfaction of the Engineer and completed surfacing is subsequently disturbed, the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to carry out work at his own expense. END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 18: Other Contractors

Page 1

18

OTHER CONTRACTORS.............................................................................. 2

18.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

18.1.1 Scope 18.2

2

ACCESS FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS ..................................................... 2

18.2.1 Unhindered Access 18.3

2

CO-OPERATION AND CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER CONTRACTORS 2

18.3.1 Co-operation at Site Level 18.4

2

FACILITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS ................................................. 2 2

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18.4.1 Site Facilities for Other Contractors

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 18: Other Contractors

Page 2

OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.1

GENERAL

18.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements for access to the Site for other contractors, for co-operation and co-ordination with other contractors and for the provision of facilities with other contractors.

18.2

ACCESS FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.2.1

Unhindered Access

1

The Contractor shall allow other contractors unhindered access to any part of the Works when in the opinion of the Engineer those parts are sufficiently completed.

18.3

CO-OPERATION AND CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.3.1

Co-operation at Site Level

1

The Contractor shall carry out his work in a manner that causes the minimum amount of interference to other contractors working on the Site.

2

The Contractor shall co-ordinate his operations with the activities of other contractors where necessary in order to avoid conflicts and ensure orderly progress of the Works.

3

Those works associated with existing or future service installation shall only be carried out by a contractor or sub-contractor approved by the public utility authority concerned. The Engineer shall require proof of such approval in writing prior to the commencement of works.

18.4

FACILITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.4.1

Site Facilities for Other Contractors

1

If specified in the Contract, the Contractor shall provide site facilities for other contractors.

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18

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 1

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 GENERAL---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

19.1.1

SCOPE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

19.1.2

REFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

19.2

NOTICES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.2.1

GENERAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3

19.2.2

NOTICE OF INTENT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.3

MISCELLANEOUS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.3.1

W ORK REQUIRED TO BE CARRIED OUT BY THE DEPARTMENT ----------------------------------------------- 3

19.3.2

REGULATIONS OF ROAD OPENINGS----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.4

PROVISION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ----------------------------------------------------- 4

19.4.1

SCOPE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

19.5

THERMAL COMFORT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.6

THERMAL INSULATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.7

ACOUSTICAL CONTROL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.8

W ASTE MANAGEMENT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.8.1

CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION W ASTE --------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.8.2

BULK W ASTE COLLECTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.8.3

W ASTE STORAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.8.4

W ASTE COLLECTION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.8.5

RECYCLABLE W ASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES: ------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.9

BUILDING FACADE/ EXTERNAL CLADDING MATERIAL -------------------------------------------------------- 7

19.9.1

CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

19.9.2

MATERIAL PROPERTIES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

19.10

EXTERNAL FACADE CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS -------------------------- 8

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19 19.1

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19.10.1 GENERAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8 19.10.2 MAINTENANCE MANUAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

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19.10.3 ACCESS OF CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE -------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 19.10.4 CLEANING ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 19.10.5 INSPECTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 19.11

PROVISION OF ABLUTION FACILITIES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS ------------------------------------------------- 9

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 2

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

19.1

GENERAL

19.1.1

Scope

1

This part specifies the requirements for co-ordination, co-operation and liaison with the following utility and infrastructure owners:

This part also specifies the requirements for co-ordination, co-operation and liaison with the following authorities and departments:

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ASHGHAL- Infrastructure Affairs ASHGHAL- Building Affairs ASHGHAL- Assets Affairs Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation- KAHRAMAA Qatar Telecom - Provider Qatar Petroleum, QP Q Rail

.

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Civil Aviation Authority Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs Ministry of Environment

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Authorities having Municipal jurisdiction (Ministry of Energy & Industry, New Industrial area, RLIC, MIC etc.)

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Ministry of Interior (Civil Defense Department, Traffic Police, Department of Immigration, Security Systems Department, etc)

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Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Urban Planning (MMUP) Private Engineering Office The above shall collectively be known as “Department” in this Part.

4

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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Traffic Diversions Project Co-ordination

Section 7 Section 11 Section 15 Section 25

Green Construction Health and Safety Insulation of Buildings Glass and Glazing

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This Section Part 16 Part 17

5

Where any requirement(s) conflict with any other requirement(s) of Authorities or Departments in the State of Qatar, the most stringent requirement(s) shall prevail.

19.1.2

References Al Wakra City Zoning Plan and Regulations Report, 2008, Ministry of Municipality & Urban Planning, State of Qatar Civil Defense Regulations, Fire Prevention Department, General Administration of Civil Defense, Ministry of Interior, State of Qatar

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 3

Code on Barrier-Free Accessibility in Buildings, 2002 (ver 1.0), Building and Construction Authority, Singapore Conditions and Descriptions of the Expedient Workers Residences, Resolution of the Minister of Civil Service and Housing Affairs No. (17) of 2005, State of Qatar NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, 2012 Edition, National Fire Protection Association, U.S.A. Planning and Building Regulations for Flats & Flat Complexes, 1994, Planning Department, Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture, State of Qatar Planning and Building Regulations for Villas & Villa Complexes, 1995, Planning Department, Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture, State of Qatar Qatar Highway Design Manual, 1997 (Rev 0), Civil Engineering Department, Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture, State of Qatar Qatar Survey Manual, UPDA, The Centre for GIS – State of Qatar.

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Qatar Traffic Manual – Vol. 1 Qatar Traffic Manual – Vol. 2

Universal Design Guidelines, 2006, Building and Construction Authority, Singapore

NOTICES

19.2.1

General

1

All notices required to be given by the Contractor to the Department shall be in writing and delivered by hand. The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a copy of all notices issued by the Contractor.

19.2.2

Notice of Intent

1

The Contractor shall give at least seven days notice to the Department of the date upon which it is intended to operate plant or equipment or carry out any work for which permission has been given in writing by the Department: such operations or work shall only be carried out in the presence a representative of the Department unless written confirmation shall have been obtained that this unnecessary.

19.3

MISCELLANEOUS

19.3.1

Work required to be carried out by the Department

1

If the Department requires work to be carried out on its installations during the execution of the Works, the Contractor shall provide all facilities to the Department’s contractor or workmen. The Contractor shall co-ordinate the work of the Department and his own activities, and when necessary shall amend his programme to suit the requirements of the Department and shall keep the Engineer informed of all arrangements made.

19.3.2

Regulations of Road Openings

1

For Works including road openings, the Contractor shall comply with all relevant provisions of the following Parts of this Section or direction of the Engineer.

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19.2

Part 16 Part 21

Traffic Diversions. Final Inspection and Handover

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 4

19.4

PROVISION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

19.4.1

Scope

1

The aim of this provision is to set out the fundamental design and construction requirements and guidelines for making those buildings specified in Table 1 accessible to persons with disabilities. Table 1: Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities No

Accessible areas

Residential buildings: (a) 3-storeys and below

All communal areas and facilities at ground floor.

(b) 4-storeys and above

All communal areas and facilities.

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Types of buildings

Office buildings

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

3

Shophouses

The ground floor for non-residential use shall be accessible to employees or public.

4

Shopping complexes and multipurpose complexes

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

5

Hotels and boarding houses

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

6

Religious buildings and Mosques

All areas intended for access by worshippers or public.

7

Places of public resort

8

Cinemas, theatres, concert halls, stadia or other places of public resort where permanent seating arrangement is provided

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

9

Schools, colleges, universities or institutions of learning

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

10

Hostels, halls of residence or dormitories All areas intended for access by staff, students or public.

11

Sports complexes and public swimming pools

All areas intended for public access.

12

Restaurants and eating establishments

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

13

Markets and hawker or food centres

All areas intended for public access.

14

Hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, nursing homes, homes for the aged and welfare homes

All areas intended for access by staff, patients, inmates or public.

15

Factories, workshops and industrial buildings 4-storeys and above

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

16

Transport stations, interchanges, passenger terminals and administration buildings in depots

All areas intended for access by employees or public.

17

Vehicle parks (surface parking or vehicle parking buildings)

Prescribed areas.

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All areas intended for access by employees or public.

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Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 5

The Owner is recommended to follow and adopt suitable and relevant international barrier free access guidelines which will allow persons with disabilities to enter, move around and leave an establishment without hindrances.

3

Universal Design is a continuous process of innovation targeted at improving usability for everyone. It is also known that Universal Design is the design of products and environment to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design. It is highly recommended that the Owner adopt Universal Design until the authority (MMUP) approve reference.

19.5

THERMAL COMFORT

1

The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system must be capable of providing the following range of conditions for 95% of the year Lower Limit DB: 22.5 ˚C

Relative humidity

RH: 30% (min)

Upper Limit

DB: 25.5 ˚C RH: 60% (max)

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Dry bulb temperature

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2

For occupant comfort, normal occupied spaces should have a terminal air velocity between (0.2-0.3) m/s.

19.6

THERMAL INSULATION

1

As specified in section 15

19.7

ACOUSTICAL CONTROL

1

As specified in section 15

19.8

WASTE MANAGEMENT

19.8.1

Construction and Demolition Waste

1

For all new buildings unless or until specified otherwise, at least fifty percent (50%) by volume or weight of waste material generated during the construction and/ or demolition of buildings must be diverted from disposal in landfills. Diverted materials must be recycled or reused.

2

This should be done through one or more of the following three paths:

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(a)

Concrete and Asphalt waste must be diverted to Construction Waste Treatment Plant.

(b)

Excavated soil, land-clearing debris and hazardous waste must be diverted to places designated by the concerned Department of MMUP.

(c)

Other recyclable materials such as woods plastics and metals can be used at site or diverted to a Recycling Facility.

The following materials are exempt from the calculation of the percentage of waste diverted from disposal at landfill facilities: (a)

Excavated soil and land-clearing debris; and

(b)

Hazardous waste

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 6

Bulk Waste Collection

1

For all new residential apartment buildings, an area must be provided for residents to place items of bulky waste such as furniture, electrical appliances and sanitary ware. The area 2 provided must cover a space of approximately ten square meters (10 m ). The area does not have to be designated solely for the purpose of bulky waste collection (eg: set aside to the car park).

2

The bulky waste storage area must be reachable, must not restrict access to the building and comply with safety and fire requirement.

19.8.3

Waste Storage

1

For all new villas and apartments (single family units), domestic kitchen must be provided with a minimum storage facility of two ten (10) liter waste receptacles clearly labeled for ‘recyclable’ and ‘non-recyclable’. The storage facility should be in a proper place within the kitchen.

19.8.4

Waste Collection

1

All new buildings which require chute for general waste, in accordance with Qatar MMUP Regulations, one of the following must be provided:

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19.8.2

A second chute must be provided to handle recyclable material and discharge into a separate receptacle within the waste management area; or

(b)

The garbage room on each floor must have a minimum floor area of two square 2 meters (2 m ) where recyclable waste can be stored until collected daily by the building operator. Waste must be transported through designated medium (chute, service elevator etc.) into the waste management area.

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(a)

All new buildings which does not require chute for general waste, in accordance with Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Urban Planning Regulation, the garbage room on each floor must 2 have a minimum floor area of three square meters (3 m ) where non-recyclable and recyclable waste can be stored until collected daily by the building operator. Waste must be transported in a service left discharge into a designated receptacle within the waste management.

19.8.5

Recyclable Waste Management Facilities:

1

For all new buildings other than villas, a sorting and storage facility for recyclable materials must be provided.

2

This facility must be easily accessible and comply with the requirements of the location, access and specifications of general waste areas in accordance with Qatar Municipality Building Regulations.

3

The sorting and storage facility may be part of the general waste management facility or a separate facility.

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(a)

Recycled waste facility incorporated into the general waste collection: 2

The size of the room must be increased by 10% and not less than 5 m , to allow additional room to sort and store the recyclable waste.

QCS 2014

(b)

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 7

Recycled waste facility separated from the general waste collection: The recycled waste facility must be sized as a percentage from the total Built Up Area (BUA) of the building in accordance with Table 2.

Where the Total Built Up Area (BUA) of the building falls between the figures outlined in the Table, linear interpolation must be used to determine an appropriate percentage area for the recyclable storage space. Table 2: Sizing Requirements for Storage of Recyclables Built Up Area (BUA)

Minimum Space for Storage of Recyclables

Less than 500 m2

7.5m

2

1.5% of BUA

5,000 m

2

0.8% of BUA

.

1,000 m

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2

0.35% of BUA

2

10,000 m or greater

0.25% of BUA

BUILDING FACADE/ EXTERNAL CLADDING MATERIAL

19.9.1

Certification and approval

1

External Cladding material must be tested by an approved 3 manufacturer shall have certified ISO 9000 compliant QMS.

2

External Cladding materials that are combustible must be submitted to the Qatar Civil Defense for review and approval. Submissions shall include copies of relevant test reports and details on the proposed fixings used to secure the material to the building. On approval, a Qatar Civil Defense certificate for the External Cladding material will be issued to the submitting party.

19.9.2

Material properties

1

External Cladding Material (ECM) fixed to buildings shall be non-combustible and shall be composed of environmentally friendly materials and substances.

2

ECM not complying with 19.8.2.1 above must have the following fire propagation and flame spread properties.

rd

party test laboratory. The

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19.9

(a)

(b)

When tested in accordance with BS 476 Part 6: (i)

Fire Propagation index, no greater than 4.0

(ii)

any sub index must not be greater than 2.0, and

When tested in accordance with BS 476 Part 7: (i)

flame spread after 10 minutes must be less than 25 mm

3

Alternative test methods and Standards such as AS, BSI and ISO may be used to verify compliance in test reports provided the method of testing is demonstrated to be equivalent and verifies an equal or better fire performance result to those nominated in 19.8.2.2 above.

4

Details of the ECM's approval and listings, its method of fixing and the extent of usage shall be included in the proposed Building Plans fire safety submission for compliance verification.

QCS 2014

19.10

Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 8

EXTERNAL FACADE CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

19.10.1 General 1.

Any building measuring 28 meters or above in height is classified as a high rise building as per Qatar Civil Defense Department. This section is intended to provide a framework for the cleaning and maintenance of the façade for high rise buildings. The façade will require both cleaning and maintenance to achieve its anticipated life and desired purpose. Failure to undertake this work can considerably reduce the life of materials, components and finishes. The provision of correct documentation and instruction at the completion of construction will permit the building owner to gain the best achievable performance from the façade.

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A maintenance manual should be produced for the completed works. The number and specific requirements for the manual should be specified at tender stage. The manual should be developed in parallel with the design and should include, but not be limited to, the following information: The name, address and telephone number of each firm and/ or sub-contractor involved in the supply of materials, components, assemblies and finishes.

(b)

A clear and concise description of the construction used to form the various areas of façade on the particular project.

(c)

Copies of material, component and finishes certification and test reports as required by the Specifier.

(d)

A method statement showing the means of access to all parts of the wall and safe loadings.

(e)

A method statement covering the procedures for replacement of damaged or otherwise defective materials or components, and materials and components that have a design life less than the design of the façade and will therefore require replacement during the life of the façade.

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(a)

Recommendations for routine maintenance, cleaning, suitable cleaning agents and any lubrication/adjustments to working parts.

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19.10.2 Maintenance Manual

(g)

A full set of construction drawings updated to include any changes made up to the time of completion.

(h)

The terms and conditions of any guarantees.

19.10.3 Access of Cleaning and Maintenance 1

The Building Owner/ Specifier should provide a means of access which enables all parts of the façade to be safely reached for the purpose of cleaning, inspection and maintenance. The intended method of access should be established at the design stage and the relevant loads catered for. Particular care should be made to define all possible imposed loads including impact loads and uplift forces on projections by snagging.

2

The access system should comply with the appropriate British Standards (BS 6037, BS 5974). Specifiers should also make themselves aware of any statutory obligations related to Occupational Health and Safety at Work.

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Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 9

3

The access system should not be capable of imparting forces upon the cladding system exceeding those agreed at the design stage. It is important that the various parties agree the design parameters early in the design process.

4

The access equipment should be maintained, examined periodically by a competent person and certified in accordance with statutory regulations.

19.10.4 Cleaning The supplier of the façade should provide instruction for the proper cleaning and routine maintenance of the façade.

2

Cleaning of the façade should be undertaken by trained personnel working to an agreed procedure, based upon the façade contractor’s recommendations, at a frequency not less than the recommended intervals.

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19.10.5 Inspection

The façade should be inspected at regular intervals to an agreed method. The façade contractor, in consultation with the project team, should suggest methods and procedures to be utilized. The purpose of this inspection includes, but is not necessarily limited to, the following:

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To review the effectiveness of cleaning methods employed.

(b)

To monitor the performance of the materials and components of the façade system against their anticipated life.

(c)

Inspecting for damage or failure of any part of the system.

(d)

Checking on the effectiveness of maintenance or remedial work.

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It is recommended that a detailed inspection plan is drawn up at the time of construction in consultation between the design and construction teams. The inspection plan should include procedures and recording methods to enable a systematic monitoring of the condition of the Curtain wall and assist in the prediction of the need for preventative maintenance or replacement of component parts.

3

Inspections should be carried out by suitably experienced persons to the specific procedures detailed in the inspection plan. The results of these inspections should be compared with previous inspections where appropriate. The building owner should ensure these results are available for reference.

19.11

PROVISION OF ABLUTION FACILITIES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

1

The public buildings, for the purpose of provision of Ablution facilities are considered to be Offices, Shopping Centres, Malls and Hypermarkets.

2

The occupant load (population) for each building type shall be calculated as per guidelines of Qatar Civil Defense Department.

3

Separate Ablution facilities are to be provided for Men and Women close to the Prayer Area.

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QCS 2014

Page 10

The number of Ablution stalls shall be calculated as per Table 3 below. Table 3: Provision of Ablution Facility Facility Type

Occupant Population

No. of Ablution Stalls

Up to 50

02

For 51 and above

01 For each additional 50

Up to 200

02

For 201 and above

01 For each additional 200

Up to 200

02

Office Building

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Shopping Mall

01 For each additional 400 01 For each additional 1000

201- 2000 people

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END OF PART

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Section 01: General Part 19: Regulatory Requirements

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 02: Use and Maintenance of the Site

Page 1

USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE ............................................................... 2

2.1 2.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2

2.2 2.2.1

USE OF THE SITE .................................................................................................. 2 General 2

2.3 2.3.1

MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE................................................................................ 2 General 2

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Section 01: General Part 02: Use and Maintenance of the Site

Page 2

2

USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the uses and maintenance requirements of the Site.

2

Related Sections and parts are as follows: This Section

Part 10 Part 11 Part 12

Occupational Health and Safety Engineer’s Site Facilities Contractor’s Site Facilities

USE OF THE SITE

2.2.1

General

1

The Site shall not be used for any purpose other than that of carrying out the Works.

2

Temporary camps, housing and cooking facilities shall not be permitted on the Site unless otherwise stated in the Project Documentation. When temporary camps, housing and cooking facilities are permitted they shall comply with Section 1 Part 10.

2.3

MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE

2.3.1

General

1

In accordance with the Conditions of Contract the Site, the equipment used upon it and the Works shall be kept clean at all times.

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2.2

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 20: Clearance of the Site

Page 1

CLEARANCE OF SITE ............................................................................................ 2

20.1 20.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2

20.2 20.2.1 20.2.2 20.2.3 20.2.4

FINAL CLEARING ................................................................................................... 2 General 2 Internal and External Surfaces 2 The Site 2 Miscellaneous 3

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 20: Clearance of the Site

Page 2

CLEARANCE OF SITE

20.1

GENERAL

20.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements for the final clearance of the Site.

20.2

FINAL CLEARING

20.2.1

General

1

Final clearing shall be done before the final inspection.

2

All waste materials shall be removed from the Site and disposed of properly.

20.2.2

Internal and External Surfaces

1

The Contractor shall clean all interior and external surfaces exposed to view. The Contractor shall undertake the following to the satisfaction of the Engineer:

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Remove temporary labels, stains and foreign substances.

(b)

Polish transparent and glossy surfaces.

(c)

Clean roofs, gutters, downspouts, and drainage systems.

(d)

Remove debris and surface dust from limited access spaces.

(e)

Broom clean concrete floors and unoccupied spaces.

(f)

Clean light fixtures and lamps so they operate at maximum efficiency.

(g)

Other cleaning tasks as specified by the Engineer.

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The Site

1

The Contractor shall clean the Site and shall undertake the following to the satisfaction of the Engineer:

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2

(a)

Sweep paved areas and rake all other surfaces.

(b)

Remove litter and foreign substances.

(c)

Remove stains, chemical spills and other foreign deposits.

(d)

Any other cleaning tasks as specified by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall abide by the latest regulations of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture and relevant municipalities in clearance of construction works refuse.

QCS 2014

3

Section 01: General Part 20: Clearance of the Site

Page 3

Clearance and transportation of construction works refuse: (a)

The Contractor shall undertake to carry out the following within a maximum period of 30 days after completion of the agreed building or project and preparing it for use or stoppage of work for an indefinite period. (i)

Removal of the entire Contractor’s equipment, machinery and other belongings from the work site.

(ii)

Clearance of all earth, debris and refuse whatsoever and transporting them to the location designated by the concerned municipality, delivering the building or project absolutely clean and free of any such materials and delivery of the surrounding area levelled to the natural level of the street pavement.

In the case of Contractor’s delay or refusal to carry out such a job, he shall have to pay a penal compensation as defined in the contract for delay for each day or part of day. This compensation shall be final and the judiciary shall not be entitled to mitigate it and it does not require establishing the occurrence of any damage to the owner.

(c)

In addition, the Owner shall be entitled to clear the refuse himself and transport it to the location designated by the concerned municipality. The Owner shall deduct the cost of refuse clearance, transport and any other related costs including the office expenses and overhead cost from the payment or the money due to the Contractor. He may also stop the final payment due to the Contractor until such refuse has been cleared and a certificate confirming this has been obtained from the concerned Municipality.

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(b)

Miscellaneous

1

The Contractor shall clean or replace all mechanical filters for equipment included in the Works and for equipment directly affected by the construction of the Works.

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20.2.4

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 1

21

FINAL INSPECTION AND HANDOVER PROCEDURES .............................. 2

21.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR INSPECTION AND HANDOVER .............. 2

21.1.1 21.1.2 21.1.3 21.1.4

Scope Pre-requisite for Final Inspection Approvals from Public Authorities Hand Over

21.2

ITEMS TO BE PROVIDED BY THE CONTRACTOR .................................... 4

2 2 3 3

21.2.1 Provision of Tools, Spare Parts and Maintenance Materials 21.2.2 Guarantee Warrantees and Bonds

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21.3.1 Operation Data 21.3.2 Operation and Maintenance Manuals 21.3.3 Operational, Field and Performance Testing

.

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKS ................................................. 4

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4 4 4 4 5

PROJECT RECORD DOCUMENTS.............................................................. 5

21.4.1 21.4.2 21.4.3 21.4.4

General Record Drawings Record Specifications Maintenance Period Final Inspection

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5 6 6 6

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 2

21

FINAL INSPECTION AND HANDOVER PROCEDURES

21.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR INSPECTION AND HANDOVER

21.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the requirements and procedures associated with the inspection and handover of the Works.

2

Related sections and Parts are as follows: Part 7 Part 9 Part 20

Submittals Materials Clearance of Site

Section 2 Section 9

Quality Assurance and Quality Control Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

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Pre-requisite for Final Inspection

1

The Contractor shall complete the following to the satisfaction of the Engineer before requesting the pre-handover Inspection:

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21.1.2

Submit final manufacturer certification, guarantees, warranties and similar documents.

(b)

Submit occupancy permits, operating certificates, final inspection and test certificates and similar releases enabling full and unrestricted use of the Works.

(c)

Submit record drawings, operation and maintenance manuals, final project photographs, damage or settlement surveys, property surveys and similar physical items.

(d)

Complete submittal of record documents.

(e)

Make final changeover of locks and deliver the keys to the Engineer.

(f)

Complete start-up, testing of system, and training of the Owner’s operations and maintenance personnel; submit equipment operating data as well as all test reports and test data required by the Contract.

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(g)

Dismantle and remove temporary facilities and services from the Site; this includes utilities, construction tools, buildings and facilities, mock-ups, and similar elements

(h)

Complete final cleaning.

(i)

Repair and restore exposed finishes which have been marred or otherwise damaged.

(j)

Handover all spare parts, tools and maintenance equipment.

(k)

In Network Projects, partial handling over would be acceptable, if it completely met all the above mentioned requirements.

(l)

Closure of all identified Non-conformance and deficiencies to the satisfaction of the Engineer

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 3

When the Contractor has completed and cleaned the Works to the satisfaction of the Engineer the Contractor shall request a final inspection. The request shall be forwarded to the Owner by the Engineer’s Representative and a suitable date for the inspection shall be arranged. The Contractor, Engineer’s Representative, maintenance department (if any) and the supervising consultant (if any) shall be present. A list of outstanding items (if any) shall be agreed and issued to the Contractor.

3

Upon completion of the listed outstanding items a further inspection shall be requested by the Contractor, the request shall be forwarded to the Owner by the Engineer’s Representative and a suitable date for the inspection shall be arranged. The Contractor, Engineer’s Representative, maintenance department (if any) and the supervising consultant (if any) shall be present.

4

A list of any items still outstanding shall be issued to the Contractor. If any of these are deemed to be significant the Contractor shall complete these items and then request another inspection as described in clause 21.1.2-2.

5

In respect of pumping station or Works involving mechanical or electrical equipment if items outstanding are deemed not to be significant or if no outstanding items remain then a 7 day commissioning and running test shall be initiated. On completion of all tests and agreement by the Engineer’s Representative that the plant is considered operable then it shall be handed over. A 14 day training period for the maintenance department staff on the operation of the pumping station shall commence.

6

For works that have no mechanical or electrical equipment if the outstanding items are deemed not to be significant or if no outstanding items remain the Works inspected shall be handed over.

21.1.3

Approvals from Public Authorities

1

The Contractor shall obtain all clearance certificates and approvals required as a prerequisite to connecting the Works to the permanent water and/or power supply.

2

The Contractor shall co-ordinate with the Engineer to obtain the necessary documents from the Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation regarding connection to the permanent water and/or power supply.

21.1.4

Hand Over

1

When the Contractor considers that the Works are complete he shall submit the following:

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(a)

A certificate stating that the Works are complete and that all the requirements of the Project Documentation have been met.

(b)

A certificate stating that the Works have been inspected.

(c)

A certificate from the appropriate Municipality regarding cleanliness of the Site.

(d)

Approval from the PWA regarding satisfactory trench reinstatement in the Highway (if applicable).

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 4

ITEMS TO BE PROVIDED BY THE CONTRACTOR

21.2.1

Provision of Tools, Spare Parts and Maintenance Materials

1

The Contractor shall provide all tools, spare parts and maintenance materials specified in the Project Documentation.

2

The Contractor shall provide an itemised list of all the items to be furnished under this Clause. Each item to be furnished shall be given a unique reference number. The list shall include the reference number, a description of the item and the appropriate Specification Section and Paragraph.

3

All the items furnished under this Clause shall be packaged for long term storage. Any items requiring special storage conditions shall be brought to the attention of the Engineer.

4

All items furnished under this Clause shall be provided with a mark or tag for identification purposes. The mark or tag shall include the reference number detailed in Clause 21.2.1-2.

5

Unless otherwise instructed, all items furnished under this Clause shall be delivered to the Government Stores in accordance with the relevant provision of Part 9 of this Section, Materials.

21.2.2

Guarantee Warrantees and Bonds

1

The Contractor shall provide notarised copies of all guarantees, warranties and bonds as required by the Project Documentation. The guarantees, warranties and bonds should be assembled in a binder with a durable plastic cover, complete with a table of contents.

2

The start of the warranty or guarantee period shall be either:

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21.2

The date when any item is placed into full time operation for the Government’s benefit and with the Engineer’s approval.

(b)

The date of issue of the completion certificate.

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MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKS

21.3.1

Operation Data

1

The Contractor shall provide all operating data for all mechanical and electrical equipment supplied under the Contract.

2

The operating data shall be presented on A4 size paper in ring binder with a durable plastic cover.

21.3.2

Operation and Maintenance Manuals

1

The Contractor shall provide approved Operation and Maintenance Manuals in accordance with the relevant provisions of Section 9, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment and Part 7 of this Section, Submittals.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 5

Operational, Field and Performance Testing

1

After all construction and starting is complete and before taking-over of any part of the Works, the Contractor shall perform operational, field and performance tests as called for in the Project Documentation.

2

The Contractor shall demonstrate operation of the facilities of the Engineer showing proper sequence of operation as well as satisfactory performance of the system and individual components. Any improper operation of the system or any improper, neglected or faulty construction shall be repaired or corrected to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor shall make such changes, adjustments or replacement of equipment as may be required to make same comply with the Specifications, or replace any defective parts or material.

3

Failure of the system to perform at the specified level at the time of testing will be the responsibility of the Contractor. In the event of failure of equipment to meet the specified performance, the Owner reserves the right to reject such equipment or system, withhold retention money or make claims on the Performance Bond.

4

The Contractor shall submit a consolidated schedule of operation, field and performance tests no later than three (3) months before the schedule start of the first test and weekly a schedule of tests to be carried out the following week. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer not later than 24 hours in advance of changes in the scheduling of a test.

5

For all specified performance tests, the Contractor shall prepare and submit the following:

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A draft test procedure no later than two (2) months in advance of the schedule test date.

(b)

A final test procedure no later two (2) weeks in advance of the scheduled test date.

(c)

A test report within two (2) weeks of the successful completion of the test.

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PROJECT RECORD DOCUMENTS

21.4.1

General

1

Project Record Documents shall be kept separate from construction/working documents.

2

Project Record Documents shall be stored in facilities that provide a suitable environment to prevent damage or deterioration and to prevent loss.

3

Project Record Documents shall include, but not be limited to the following:

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(a)

Drawings.

(b)

Specifications.

(c)

Addenda.

(d)

Variation orders.

(e)

Correspondence.

(f)

Transmittals

(g)

Inspection and Test Records

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 6

Record Drawings

1

Record drawings shall be clearly and correctly “red-marked” by the Contractor to show all changes made during the construction process. The record drawings shall show the Works as executed in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 7 of this Section - Submittals.

21.4.3

Record Specifications

1

Record specifications shall be clearly and correctly annotated to show all changes made during the construction process.

21.4.4

Maintenance Period Final Inspection

1

During the last month of the period of maintenance the Engineer will notify the maintenance department that the maintenance period is about to expire. An inspection of the Works by the Engineer’s Representative, maintenance department, and the Contractor shall be undertaken to verify that all outstanding items have been completed.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 22: New Technologies and Innovations

Page 1

22

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONS............................................... 2

22.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR APPROVAL............................................... 2

22.1.1 22.1.2 22.1.3 22.1.4 22.1.5

Scope Pre-requisite for Approval Technologies And Innovations Of Interest Documentation Final Inspection And Approval

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2 2 2 3 3

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 22: New Technologies and Innovations

Page 2

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONS

22.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR APPROVAL

22.1.1

Scope

1

Qatar is committed to researching and using new technology and innovations within construction industry. Because of this commitment it is open to proposals from outside agencies in the use of new technologies and innovations.

2

This Part specifies the requirements associated with the proposal and approval of new technologies and innovations for use in construction in Qatar.

22.1.2

Pre-requisite for Approval

1

New technologies / innovations are allowed for use in any project on experimental or research basis after getting an approval from National Committee For Construction and Building materials Specifications (NCCBS) of the Ministry of Environment and any other concerned parties.

2

The period allowed for such an experiment or research shall be limited to a trial period of a maximum of two years after which it will be evaluated prior to approval or otherwise by the concerned parties.

3

The supplier will be required to submit a guarantee certificate for an agreed period of time.

4

The supplier shall submit a written warranty to bear all fiscal and legal responsibilities as a result of using the experiment if not meeting the suppliers’ claims/specifications. He shall remove any material or debris left from the experiment.

22.1.3

Technologies And Innovations Of Interest

1

The following are of particular interest to Qatar : (a)

Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) Superpave

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2

(c)

Performance Grade Binders suitable for the climatic conditions of Qatar (i.e. PG 76-10)

(d)

Cold Laid Asphalt

(e)

Rubber Recycling

(f)

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)

(g)

Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes

(h)

Polyethylene (PE) Plain and Corrugated pipes

(i)

Fibre Reinforced Concrete

(j)

Recycling of materials from demolished buildings and roads

Notwithstanding the above Qatar wishes suppliers to propose technology and innovations that it believes can benefit Qatar and the environment.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Part 22: New Technologies and Innovations

Page 3

22.1.4

Documentation

1

The technology provider shall be requested to submit with his proposals the following documents: Drawings

(b)

Specifications

(c)

Technology Reference and Manual

(d)

Specifications and Source

(e)

Reference from previous clients

(f)

Transmittals

(g)

Inspection and Test Records

(h)

Health and Safety requirements

(i)

Environmental requirements

(j)

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) regarding but not limited to transportation, handling & storage, and First Aid requirements

(k)

Financial arrangements

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Final Inspection And Approval

1

Final approval of the technology will be dependant on NCCBS visits, inspection and tests. Upon satisfaction of the committee, written approval shall be given and the specifications incorporated into the QCS.

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22.1.5

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Page 1 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

DESIGN & SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS................................ 2

23.1 23.1.1 23.1.2 23.1.3

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Definitions 2

23.2 23.2.1 23.2.2 23.2.3 23.2.4 23.2.5 23.2.6

DESIGN CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS ............................................ 3 Quality Responsibility and Duties 3 Quality System Documentation 3 Quality Plan 4 Construction Inspection and Test Requirements Specification 5 Design Consultant Verification of Sub Consultants 5 Quality Records 5

23.3 23.3.1 23.3.2 23.3.3 23.3.4 23.3.5 23.3.6 23.3.7 23.3.8 23.3.9 23.3.10 23.3.11 23.3.12 23.3.13 23.3.14 23.3.15

SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS.................................. 5 Quality Responsibilities and Duties 5 Quality System Documentation 7 Quality Plan 8 Inspection and Test Plan’s (ITP’S) 9 Technical Procedures, Work Instructions and Method Statements 9 Monitoring by Supervision Consultants 10 Review of Contractor Quality Documentation 10 Inspection Responsibilities 11 Inspections and Test Surveillance Points 11 Visits 12 Supervision Consultant Verification 12 Interfacing 12 Punch Lists 12 Protection of the Works 12 Quality Records 12

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Page 2 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

DESIGN & SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

23.1

GENERAL

23.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the Quality Assurance activities to be performed by Design and Supervision Consultants during all phases of the Contract and should be read in conjunction with all other parts of the Contract.

2

The purpose of this part is to define Design and Supervision Consultants responsibility for demonstrating that the work under the contract is executed to the quality standards required by the contract and to outline verification activities.

23.1.2

References

1

The following standards are referred to in this part:

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Quality Management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary

BS EN ISO 9001:2008

Quality Management systems. Requirements

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BS EN ISO 9000:2005

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BS ISO 10006:2003 ...Quality Management systems, Guidelines for Quality Management in Projects BS EN ISO 19011:2011

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BS ISO 10005:2005 ...Quality Management systems. Guidelines for Quality Plans Guidelines for auditing management systems

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QCS Qatar Construction Specification Definitions

1

Defect or Non-conformance: any part of the Works not executed, provided or completed in accordance with the Contract. For the avoidance of doubt and without limiting the generality of the expression the term shall be taken to include any item of Plant, material, goods or work incorporated or used in the Works which does not or may not conform to the relevant quality standards or pass the tests prescribed in or to be inferred from the Contract

2

Owner: The Ministry, Municipality, Department, Affairs, Agency, Authority, or individual for whom the Project is being undertaken and to whom the handover of the final product will be made.

3

QA & QC: Quality Assurance & Quality Control and this may be written as QA/QC.

4

QA: Quality Assurance. Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled. QA involves a continuous evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the overall Quality Management System in order to evaluate the deviation from established quality objectives.

5

QC: Quality Control. Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements. The QC involves specific control points during design, fabrication or construction stages to check the fulfilling of design criteria, acceptance criteria (tolerance, etc.), performance criteria or functional criteria.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General Page 3 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

QMS: Quality Management System. A set of interrelated or interacting processes, activities or tasks to direct Project resources to achieve established quality policy and objectives.

7

Quality Management: Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regards to quality.

23.2

DESIGN CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

23.2.1

Quality Responsibility and Duties

1

The Design Consultant shall be responsible for setting up implementing and monitoring his own Contract Specific Quality Management System meeting the requirements of this part.

2

The Design Consultant shall be responsible for quality auditing, monitoring and oversight of any sub-consultants under their control.

3

The Design Consultant shall perform and or witness any examinations and tests necessary to demonstrate conformance of the works to the requirements of the Contract and shall accept only works by the Contractor that so conform:

4

The Design Consultant shall establish and maintain a system of records which shall provide objectives evidence that the supervision Consultant is meeting the requirements of this specification and that the Contractors control and inspections are effective in meeting the minimum standards required under their contract. Records shall be made available to the Engineer in accordance with the requirements stated herein or elsewhere in the contract.

5

The Design Consultant will be subject to monitoring through audit and surveillance by the Engineer. In both cases the Design Consultant shall promptly rectify any negative findings with their Quality System rectify non-conformities and corrective actions found during audit and surveillance activities directed at them.

6

No part of the Quality system shall be used to preclude or otherwise negate the requirement of any part of the contract, or the obligation of the Design Consultant pursuant to the Contract.

7

The Design Consultant shall appoint a suitably qualified, Quality Manager to verify that the requirements of this specification are met. The proposed Quality Manager shall be subject to approval by the Engineer.

23.2.2

Quality System Documentation

1

The Design Consultant Quality system shall Include as a minimum the following

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(a)

Quality Plan as detailed in 23.2.3 below

(b)

Procedures and work instruction: The Design Consultant Quality system must include all relevant technical procedures and other pertinent documentation to ensure that the design works are completed in accordance with the contract, with specific reference to the minimum requirements of standards reference in 23.1.2 above and including the mandatory procedures required by ISO 9001:2008.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General Page 4 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

(c)

Quality Records: In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract or other applicable codes, standards or procedures, the Design Consultant shall identify project quality records in compliance with the minimum requirements standards referenced in 23.1.2 above.

(d)

Reference and other related documents.

Quality system documents shall be submitted to the owner for review, comment and approval within 30 days after contract award. In the event that comments are made on the contract Quality system documentation submitted for review and comment, the design consultant shall make adjustments, correction, amendment or alteration required. Such comment will be made on the premise that the adjustment, correction, amendment or alteration is within the scope of the contract and will not affect the contract conditions, specifications, guarantees, price or the like in anyway.

3

Adjustments, corrections, amendments or alterations made by the Design Consultant to the contract quality system shall, after revision be resubmitted by the Design Consultant to the owner for review and approval.

23.2.3

Quality Plan

1

Design Consultants are required to submit Quality Plan (addressing their design activities) which are specific (not generic) to the Contract, meeting as a minimum the requirements of the standards referenced in 23.1.2 above. This plan shall reference, or include other documentation which is relevant to the Contract. However as a stand-alone document, the Quality Plan shall clearly indicate how the Quality process shall be applied to meet the requirements of the contract. Particular emphasis is to be placed on the following. Relevant extracts from the Corporate Quality Manual reference to specifications, standards etc;

(b)

List of all procedures applicable to the project;

(c)

QA/QC Organisation;

(d)

Document Control;

(e) (f)

(g)

List of all procedures applicable to the Consultants Project Quality System;

(h)

Audits (including internal and external Audits Plans);

(i)

Management Review;

(j)

Quality objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

(k)

Allocation of resources;

(l)

Responsibilities and authority for all phases of work;

(m)

Control of Non-conformance, corrective and preventive actions.

(n)

Contract Changes;

(o)

Lessons learned and continual improvement;

(p)

Purchasing Process e.g. Sub Consultants.

(q)

Quality Records

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Inspection and Test;

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2

The Design Consultants Quality plan will make reference to and take into account applicable codes, standards, specifications, quality characteristics and regulatory requirements as necessary. It will identify the criteria by which the design and developments inputs and outputs should be accepted, and how, at what stage(s) and by whom, the outputs should be reviewed, verified and validated.

3

The Design Consultants Quality Plan will also state the following. How request for changes and development will be controlled to meet Contractual requirements;

(b)

Who is authorised to initiate a change request;

(c)

How changes will be reviewed in terms of their impact;

(d)

Who is authorised to approve or rejects changes;

(e)

How the implementation of changes will be verified;

(f)

When design and development reviews take place;

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(a)

Construction Inspection and Test Requirements Specification

1

The Design Consultant shall provide a specification addressing the complete inspection and testing regime related to their design output, taking into account the requirements of the QCS. This shall be guiding document by which Supervision Consultants and Contractors will be held accountable for all on and off site tests and inspections to be performed. The Inspection and Test Requirements Specifications must be sufficiently detailed to leave no questions regarding the number of samples required or types of tests to be made over and above the requirements of the QCS and which standards must be complied with.

23.2.5

Design Consultant Verification of Sub Consultants

1

The Design Consultant is required to perform audits and verification activities at any sub consultants premises to gain assurance that the subcontracted product conforms to specified requirements.

23.2.6

Quality Records

1

In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract or other applicable codes, standards or procedures, the Design Consultant shall determine project Quality records in compliance with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 and other relevant standards stated in contract documents and 23.1.2 above.

2

The list of quality records generated during the life of the contract, and made available upon request for review by the Owner, shall be indexed by the Design Consultant in his Quality Plan.

3

The Design Consultant shall maintain Registers for all incoming and outgoing documents.

23.3

SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

23.3.1

Quality Responsibilities and Duties

1

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for setting up implementing and monitoring his own Contract Specific Quality Management System meeting the requirements of this part

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23.2.4

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The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for quality auditing, monitoring and oversight of themselves any consultants, contractors, sub-contractors (Including laboratories) under their control.

3

The Supervision Consultant shall perform and/or witness any examinations and tests necessary to demonstrate conformance of the works to the requirements of the Contract and shall accept only works by the Contractor that comply with the specified requirements.

4

The Supervision Consultant shall witness sampling and related testing performed on as well as testing performed in external Third Party Laboratories.

5

The Supervision Consultant shall establish and maintain a system of records which shall provide objectives evidence that the supervision Consultant is meeting the requirements of this specification and that the Contractors control and inspections are effective in meeting the minimum standards required under their contract. Records shall be made available to the Engineer in accordance with the requirements stated herein or elsewhere in the contract.

6

The Supervision Consultant will be subject to monitoring through audit and surveillance by the Engineer. In both cases the Supervision Consultant shall promptly rectify any negative findings with their quality system rectify non-conformities and corrective actions found during audit and surveillance activities directed at them.

7

The Supervision Consultants shall follow up on all findings (NCR’s, CAR’s Observations) issued on the project to, or by the contractor or other entities under the contract.

8

No part of the quality system shall be used to preclude or otherwise negate the requirement of any part of the contract, or the obligation of the Supervision Consultant pursuant to the Contract.

9

The Supervision Consultant is responsible for ensuring the contactor’s Work meets all technical and quality requirements of the contract and shall keep continuous records of action taken and shall advise the Engineer in writing of significant alteration to construction or manufacturing techniques to ensure that specified requirements are met.

10

The Supervision Consultant shall conduct audit and surveillance activities to provide evidence of the use and effectiveness of the Contractors quality system throughout the execution of the contract.

11

The Supervision Consultant will ensure that the Contractor has included the quality assurance requirements of the contract into subcontracts entered into by the Contractor.

12

The Supervision Consultant shall provide an effective audit and surveillance process for works performed by a Contractor’s Subcontractors..

13

The Supervision Consultant shall verify that the Contractor’s Project Quality Plan, Inspection and Test Plans and other such quality documentation includes or references the Quality Plans, and Inspection and Test Plans of subcontractors and vice versa. All of these documents must be reviewed and approved by the Supervision Consultant.

14

The Supervision Consultant shall hold contract specific QA/QC meetings chaired by the Consultant on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the Work. Topics to be addressed at the site quality meeting shall include, but shall not be limited too:

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Section 01: General Page 7 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements Reviewing of the previous months Quality

(b)

Current Performance of the activities

(c)

Providing 4 week look ahead of planned activities

(d)

Non Conformance of activities

(e)

Key performance indicators

(f)

Audit schedule

(g)

Status of inspection of test plans and method statements

(h)

Quality Training

(i)

Contractors Project quality plan and quality control plans review and on-going effectiveness

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(a)

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for providing a Monthly Quality Report template, meeting the Owner requirements, to the Contractor and reviewing the completed reports submitted by the Contractor.

16

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for completing any QA/QC Questionnaires or Reports required by the Owner.

17

The Supervision Consultant shall appoint a suitably qualified, full time, Quality Manager to verify that the requirements of this specification are met. The proposed Quality Manager shall be subject to approval by the Owner.

23.3.2

Quality System Documentation

1

The Supervision Consultant Quality System shall include as a minimum the following elements.

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Quality Plan as detailed in 23.2.3 below

(b)

Procedures and work instruction: The Supervision Consultant Quality system must include all relevant technical procedures and other pertinent documentation to ensure that the design works are completed in accordance with the contract, with specific reference to the minimum requirements of standards reference in 23.1.2 above including the mandatory procedure required by ISO 9001:2008

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(c)

Quality Records: In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract or other applicable codes, standards or procedures, the Supervision Consultant shall identify project quality records in compliance with the minimum requirements standards referenced in 23.1.2 above

(d)

Reference and other related documents

These Quality system documents shall be submitted to the Owner for review, comment and approval within 30 days after contract award. In the event that comments are made on the contract quality system documentation submitted for review and comment, the Supervision Consultant shall make adjustments, correction, amendment or alteration required. Such comment will be made on the premise that the adjustment, correction, amendment or alteration is within the scope of the contract and will not affect the contract conditions, specifications, guarantees, price or the like in anyway.

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Adjustments, corrections, amendments or alterations made by the Supervision Consultant to the contract quality system shall, after revision be resubmitted by the Supervision Consultant to the Owner for review and approval.

23.3.3

Quality Plan

1

Supervision Consultants are required to submit Quality Plans (addressing their supervision activities) which are specific (not generic) to the Contract, meeting as a minimum the requirements of the standards referenced in 23.1.2 above. This plan shall reference, or include other documentation which is relevant to the Contract. However as a stand-alone document, the Quality Plan shall clearly indicate how the Quality process shall be applied to meet the requirements of the contract. Particular emphasis is to be placed on the following requirements of ISO 9001:2008. Relevant extracts from the Corporate Quality Manual reference to specifications, standards etc;

(b)

List of all procedures applicable to the project;

(c)

QA/QC Organisation;

(d)

Document Control;

(e)

Inspection and Test;

(f)

Specific work practices;

(g)

List of all procedures applicable to the Consultants Project Quality System;

(h)

Audits (including internal and external Audits Plans);

(i)

Management Review;

(j)

Quality objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

(k)

Allocation of resources;

(l)

Responsibilities and authority for all phases of work;

(m)

Control of Non-conformance, corrective and preventive actions.

(n) (o) (p)

Purchasing Process e.g. Sub Consultants.

(q)

Quality Records;

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Contract Changes;

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2

The Supervision Consultants Quality Plan will make reference to applicable codes, standards, specifications, quality characteristics and regulatory requirements as appropriate. It will identify the criteria by which inputs and outputs should be accepted, and how, at what stage(s), and by whom, the outputs should reviewed, verified and validated.

3

The Supervision Consultants Quality Plan will also address the following: (a)

How request for changes and development will be controlled to meet Contractual requirements;

(b)

Who is authorised to initiate a change request;

(c)

How changes will be reviewed in terms of their impact;

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Section 01: General Page 9 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

(d)

Who is authorised to approve or reject changes;

(e)

How the implementation of changes will be verified;

(f)

When reviews take place;

(g)

Redline and As-Built process;

Where design is required by the Contractors contract, the Supervision Consultant responsibilities for the Contractors design work shall be as defined under the contract, however not withstanding this the Supervision Consultant shall responsible for auditing this function of the Contractors quality system.

23.3.4

Inspection and Test Plan’s (ITP’S)

1

As per the requirements of QCS, the Supervision Consultants shall require the Contractor to submit Inspection and Test Plans to the Supervision Consultant a minimum 30 days prior to the programmed work start date covered by each Inspection and Test Plan.

2

The Minimum requirements for the Contractors Inspection and Test Plan are defined in QCS, and the supervision Consultant is responsible for ensuring the Contractors Inspection and Test Plan as a minimum meet these requirements or the recommendations of the Design Consultants.

3

The Supervision Consultants shall ensure that the Contactors Inspect and Test Plan adequately cover any Inspections and test points (Hold/Witness/Surveillance/Record Review) required for the Supervision Consultant to ensure that the works are completed in accordance with the contract.

4

Where the Design Consultant for the Contract has detailed specific specifications or inspection and test requirements, the supervision Consultants shall ensure these have been addressed within the Contractors Inspect and Test Plan. Where a discrepancy exits between Inspections and Test requirements of the Design Consultant and the requirements of QCS, the more stringent requirements shall be adopted.

5

The Supervision Consultant is responsible for reviewing and approving all Inspection and Test Plans and other such documentation submitted by the Contractor and returning to the Contractor within two weeks of their receipt unless otherwise agreed.

6

The Supervision Consultant shall ensure that inspection of processes, materials, good, services and subcontracted works are described in the Inspection and Test plan submitted by the Contractor.

23.3.5

Technical Procedures, Work Instructions and Method Statements

1

The Supervision Consultants shall verify through audit and surveillance that the Contractor’s quality system includes all relevant Technical Procedures, Work Instructions Method Statements and Inspection and Test Plans to ensure that the Works are completed in accordance with the contract. These shall be submitted by the contractor in accordance with the submission schedule agreed with the Supervision Consultant including those which form part of the Contractors Quality System.

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2

The Supervision Consultants own Quality system likewise shall include relevant Technical Procedures, Work Instructions Method Statements and Inspection and Test Plans to ensure that the works are completed in accordance with the contract with specific reference to the development and implementation of Quality Procedures specified in ISO 9001:2008. These shall be submitted to the Owner by the Supervision Consultant in accordance with the submission schedule agreed with the Owner including those which form part of the Supervision Consultants corporate quality system.

23.3.6

Monitoring by Supervision Consultants

1

Surveillance by the Supervision Consultants will include a variety of typical activities: review of contractor documentations

(b)

audits of Contractor

(c)

attendance at Hold/Witness/Surveillance Points

(d)

Record Review

(e)

Visits to Contractors off site works etc

(f)

Factory Acceptance Tests

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(a)

With the exception of visits, these activities will be announced to the Contractors in advance. The Supervision Consultants shall give reasonable notice to the Contractor who is required to make or arrange to be made available all facilities, documentations records and personnel, including those of any subcontractors, which are required for any surveillance activity to be taken.

3

The Supervision Consultants shall advise the Contractor in writing of any deficiency or deviation in the contract quality system which comes to the Supervision Consultant’s attention as a result of surveillance activities. The Contractor shall be required to rectify the system within as short a period as may be reasonably expected considering the deficiency or deviation. The Supervision Consultant may direct the Contractor in writing to stop the operation and immediately carry out any corrective action, and the Contractor must comply with such direction at his cost. All deficiencies uncovered shall be documented with a NonConformance Report or Corrective Action Request as appropriate (Refer to QCS, Section 2 for a NCR template).

23.3.7

Review of Contractor Quality Documentation

1

All audits of the Contractor shall be conducted in accordance with a schedule establish by the Supervision Consultant. These audits are to be performed in accordance with formal procedures by trained and qualified auditors.

2

The types of audit to be conducted are as follow:

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(a)

Systems Audit: One System audit will undertaken at or before the start of work on the contract deliverables (the specified Works). The audit will be conducted against the requirements of ISO9001:2008

(b)

Compliance Audits: A number of compliance audits will be conducted at defined milestones in the contract deliverable period. The scope of a compliance audit shall be set by the supervision Consultant to suit the timing of activities, and the findings of the system audit. For example, the scope of a compliance audit could cover any of the following:

QCS 2014

(c)

Section 01: General Page 11 Part 23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements (i)

the complete requirements of the standards and the contract,

(ii)

specific elements of the standard

(iii)

specific clauses of the contract

(iv)

the whole or a part of a single end-to-end process.

Product audit: This is a Quality audit of particular deliverable products to check their compliance with specified requirements. Such audits should include performance testing where appropriate.

The Audit Notification shall also be copies to the Owner for information and they may attend these audits as an observes. The Audit Reports shall be submitted to the Owner within 7 days.

23.3.8

Inspection Responsibilities

1

For all work the Supervision Consultant shall:

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Review and check that the contractors Method statement and Inspection & Test Plans are in accordance with the contract Surveillance Points.

(b)

Inspect all works to verify Contractors compliance with the Method Statements, Inspections and Test Plans, Construction Drawings and Specifications.

(c)

Verify that notices of nonconformity have been properly actioned.

(d)

Oversee the sampling and testing of materials to ensure conformity to the specifications and the contract.

(e)

Review all test results and verify that they are in conformity with the Specifications and the Contract.

(f)

Maintain comprehensive records to verify the above.

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(a)

Inspections and Test Surveillance Points

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The Supervision Consultant shall nominate his own surveillance points to observe the Contractors and Subcontractors activities and maintain evidence of such surveillance.

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23.3.9

(a)

Hold Points – Specific critical task in procurement, manufacturing, inspection and testing for which the Supervision Consultant is pre-notified, in advance of the task and for which no further work is carried out until the supervision Consultant has verified and confirmed conformity by signing off the relevant Records Forms

(b)

Witness Points- Specific critical task in procurement, manufacturing, inspection and testing for which the Supervision Consultant is pre-notified in advance of the task and for which the Supervision Consultant may elect to attend or waive. When attended, the Supervision Consultant shall confirm conformity by signing off the relevant Record Forms. When then Supervision Consultant waives his right to inspect, it should be recorded as such on the appropriate Record Forms.

(c)

Surveillance points- Any procurement, manufacturing, inspection and testing task, so identified on the Inspection and Test Plan, performed on a random basis, without notification by the supervision Consultant.

(d)

Record Review- When specified this point requires the Supervision Consultant to Collect and review for approval the contractor Inspection & Rest Records.

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23.3.10 Visits 1

The Supervision Consultants is empowered to visit any of the Contractor’s or Subcontractor’s work sites for any purpose at reasonable times. The Contractors will assist with such visits and make available those records and personnel necessary to satisfy the supervision Consultants requirements. Such visits may include surveillance points identified by the Contractor and Subcontractors. These visits may include works situated outside of Qatar.

23.3.11 Supervision Consultant Verification 1

The Supervision Consultant has the right to perform verification activities at the Contractor’s and the Subcontractor’s premises (including the construction site) to gain assurance that the subcontracted product conforms to specified requirements.

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The Supervision Consultants shall be responsible to ensure that the Contractor prepares punch lists at appropriate inspection and acceptance stages to record the outstanding work. Defects identified during the punch list walk downs will also require NCR’s to be raised, other than for minor defects. The Owner or its nominee may at any time add pending items or defects or Nonconformances to Punch Lists.

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23.3.13 Punch Lists

The Supervision Consultant has the responsibility to ensure that the Contractor is taking necessary precautions for the protection of works before the Initial/Final Acceptance/Handover to owner or its nominee.

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23.3.14 Protection of the Works

23.3.15 Quality Records

In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract or other applicable codes, standards or procedures, the Supervision Consultant shall determine project Quality records in compliance with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 and other relevant standards stated in contract documents and 23.1.2 above.

2

The list of quality records generated during the life of the contract, and made available upon request for review by the Owner, shall be indexed by the Supervision Consultant in his Quality Plan.

3

The Supervision Consultant shall maintain Registers for all incoming and outgoing documents.

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CONSTRUCTION DEWATERING GENERAL Scope REQUIREMENTS Current Procedure Requirements Relevant Qatari Laws and Regulations EIA Requirements Air Quality Standards Noise Standards Discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network Standards Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Geotechnical and Geo-Environmental Study Requirements Existing Groundwater Monitoring Documents Risk Assessment of Construction Dewatering Dewatering Monitoring Plan Training Requirements DEWATERING TECHNIQUES Construction Dewatering Methods Guide Lines Sump Pits Well System Deep Wells Ditches/ French Drains Cut-Off Excavation Barriers Dewatering Effluent Treatment Settlement Tank Settlement Tank Types Tank Size OTHER TREATMENT Silt and Fine Grained Soils Contamination of Groundwater DISPOSAL OPTIONS DISCHARGE TO SEA Discharge to Sea via Surface and Groundwater Network Direct Discharge to Sea Discharge to Lagoons: Discharge by injection to deep groundwater aquifer (Deep well injection) Groundwater Recycle & Reuse Onsite Integrated Management of Construction Dewatering Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) Monitoring Plan Training Plan Odour Control Health & Safety Considerations Site Investigation Design Considerations Housekeeping Considerations

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24 24.1 24.1.1 24.2 24.2.1 24.2.2 24.2.3 24.2.4 24.2.5 24.2.6 24.2.7 24.2.8 24.2.9 24.2.10 24.2.11 24.2.12 24.3 24.3.1 24.3.2 24.3.3 24.3.4 24.3.5 24.3.6 24.3.7 24.3.8 24.3.9 24.3.10 24.4 24.4.1 24.4.2 24.5 24.6 24.6.1 24.6.2 24.6.3 24.6.4 24.6.5 24.6.6 24.6.7 24.6.8 24.6.9 24.6.10 24.6.11 24.6.12 24.6.13 24.6.14

Section 01: General Part 24: Construction Dewatering

Appendices

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 12 12 13 13 15 16 17 18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22

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Section 01: General Part 24: Construction Dewatering

Page 2

CONSTRUCTION DEWATERING

24.1

GENERAL

24.1.1

Scope

1

This Part specifies the general procedures and requirements for construction dewatering.

2

It should be noted that legislative requirements, standards and requirements detailed in this Part are minimum standards, and methods should be employed with the intent to continually improve on these standards.

3

Related Parts and Sections are as follows: Earthworks Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

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24

REQUIREMENTS

24.2.1

Current Procedure Requirements

1

There are four types of construction dewatering disposal options that require licensing in Qatar, as follows:

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24.2

Discharge to the Sea via surface and groundwater network; the licensing authority should be ASHGHAL and MOE.

(b)

Direct discharge to the Sea; if the discharge is pumped directly to the sea, then the Ministry of Environment (MOE) should be the licensing authority.

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Discharge to Lagoon totally covered with geotextile from all sides. This method of disposal requires a license from MOE.

(ii)

Discharge to Lagoon not covered. This method of disposal requires a license from MOE.

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Discharge through Deep Well Injection. This method of disposal requires a license from MOE.

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24.2.2

Relevant Qatari Laws and Regulations

1

The list of parameters required by MoE for dewatering permit is included in Appendix A together with Annex 4 of Law 30 of 2002 which specifies the limits for the discharged water into the marine environment (refer to Appendix A). The annex controls the parameters of pollutants in the water disposed to the marine environment whether via the Surface and Groundwater Network, or direct discharge to the sea.

2

If the construction dewatering effluent is discharged to foul network, the discharging party is liable to having committed a criminal offence.

3

In the case of illegal discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network, the discharging party will be subjected to legal actions taken by the licensing authorities.

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Section 01: General Part 24: Construction Dewatering

Page 3

EIA Requirements

1

Environmental approvals from the MoE as per Article 7 of the Law No. 30 of 2002.

24.2.4

Air Quality Standards

1

The air quality standards are controlled by the Law No. 30 of 2002 under Annex (3/First).The standards applicable to dewatering activities may include the following:

2

Maximum limits (of air pollutants) allowed for emissions from the movable sources; and Ambient air quality standards.

24.2.5

Noise Standards

1

The noise levels are also controlled by the Qatari Legislation under Law No. 30 of 2002 Annex (2/Fifth).

24.2.6

Discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network Standards

1

Executive Bylaws of Environment Protection Law Issued under Ordinance Law No. (30) Of 2002. Annex No. (4) Criteria and Specifications of the Hazardous Materials when disposed of in the Water Environments (MoE regulations).

24.2.7

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

1

For projects requiring an EIA at the design stage, the EIA should be carefully reviewed by the Design Consultant / Contractor. The EIA should be forwarded to MoE for their approval and for issuing the relevant Environmental Permit.

2

Where available, the EIA will contain details of geotechnical surveys including groundwater, adopted from the previously mentioned report.

3

Although the EIA may not directly contribute to the construction dewatering design, it will document possible contamination in the area and environmental constraints, and should therefore be considered when preparing construction dewatering application papers. Existing contamination, or potential for contamination, should be carefully considered and must be taken into account when dewatered groundwater is tested for compliance.

4

To ensure that dewatering systems are designed to maximise environmental protection and to assist in expediting license approval processes, the above investigations shall be taken into consideration as early in the project as possible and included when applying for the discharge permit.

24.2.8

Geotechnical and Geo-Environmental Study Requirements

1

After the awarding of the Contract to the Contractor and prior to obtaining the discharge permit, if required by the Contract or requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall carry out a geotechnical and geo-environmental investigations in order to confirm the geotechnical and environmental conditions on site and groundwater levels.

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24.2.3

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2

The geotechnical and geo-environmental study must as a minimum identify soil types, permeability, groundwater hydrology, and the required drawdown for the construction activities. This study is required if the area is suspected for contamination or if the EIA at the design stage has indicated the existence of contamination.

3

The output of the geotechnical and geo-environmental study should include as a minimum the following items: (a)

Time required for construction dewatering.

(b)

Flow rate of the dewatering discharge.

(c)

Required drawdown.

(d)

Method of construction dewatering based on all of the above findings.

To assist in the approval process all of the above information must be provided in the application for discharge.

5

It is important to note that the requirements of the Geotechnical and Geo-environmental study are completely subject to project settings, type of contamination, and MoE’s specific requirements of each project.

24.2.9

Existing Groundwater Monitoring Documents

1

It is the Contractor’s responsibility to ensure he has been providing the latest existing groundwater level information from Ashghal and the MoE. This information should be used by the Contractor to assist in determining the current site conditions.

2

All groundwater information gathered during studies by the Contractor, are to be submitted to Ashghal for reference and inclusion in the country database. The collection of this information is paramount to the continuous improvement of government information databases.

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24.2.10 Risk Assessment of Construction Dewatering It is important to note that risks are site specific and depend on the intent of the Contractor. The Contractor is responsible for developing, implementing and managing a Risk Management System and conducting a Risk Assessment in terms of dewatering activities and otherwise onsite.

2

This Risk Management System and Risk Assessment shall be the submitted to the Engineer for the approval within the 30 days of the contract award.

3

Risk assessment in this instance can be defined as the identification and characterisation of the nature of existing and potential adverse effects to humans and the environment resulting from dewatering activities employed on site.

4

Risk is a function of the probability of an event occurring and the degree of damage that would result should it happen.

5

Details and information gathered during the concept design and associated site studies (geotechnical, groundwater & environmental) are needed to assess the risks associated with the proposed activities. The assessment allows significant risks to be identified so that they can be targeted for action.

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6

The initial risk assessment needs to also be regularly reviewed and will become an integral part of the Construction Environmental Management Plan. This includes a review of existing risks and the identification of new risks detected through the surveillance or the monitoring program.

7

To conduct the Risk Assessment the Contractor should undertake the following key steps: (a)

Information gathering: A risk assessment requires information about site conditions.

(b)

Risk identification:

Risk analysis:

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Hazard identification involves the identification of risks/hazards that could lead to an adverse effect on the receiving environment and/or health & safety.

Risk analysis considers the likelihood of the risk being realised. Consequence analysis:

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Consequence analysis determines the effect on the environment and health & safety should a risk be realised. The overall risk is a function of the likelihood of the activity or event causing environmental harm or impacting on health & safety and the consequence should that risk be realised.

9

The risks are then ranked according to their magnitude and mitigation strategies developed.

10

The objective of this process is to identify and rank all potential risks that may arise from the dewatering of the construction site and then reduce risks to acceptable levels by implementing a suitable method of dewatering and/or action plan.

11

Risks generally associated with dewatering activities onsite include but not limited to the following: (a)

Soil and slope stability and soil erosion due to dewatering activities. Soil contamination. Whether contamination exists in the project area prior to commencement of construction or is caused by dewatering activities.

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(c)

Change of groundwater properties due to dewatering practices.

(d)

Excessive abstraction (dewatering) of groundwater which affects nearby groundwater related activities.

(e)

Health and safety related issues.

(f)

Risks associated with impacts of dewatering activities on surrounding environment and sensitive receptors.

(g)

Risks associated with failure of dewatering system and/or disposal methods.

24.2.11 Dewatering Monitoring Plan 1

When dewatering activities are included within the project site, the Contractor shall prepare a Dewatering Monitoring Plan as detailed below.

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2

The Dewatering Monitoring Plan shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval within 30 days of contract award.

3

The monitoring plan will assist the licensing authority, as well as the Contractor, in keeping track of dewatering activities onsite, and identify corrective actions to be carried out.

4

The monitoring plan can also assist in identifying liability issues concerned with reported dewatering problems and accidents.

5

Outline and components of monitoring plan are as follow: Identification of opportunities to reuse the dewatering effluent onsite in order to reduce the amount of disposed effluent.

(b)

Dewatering techniques being employed on site

(c)

Disposal methods employed on-site and relevant monitoring plan to ensure compliance with discharge limits.

(d)

Copy of discharge limits.

(e)

Roles and responsibilities of the Environmental Advisor on site.

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(a)

Roles and responsibilities have to be clearly defined when designing a dewatering system. These roles and responsibilities are to be submitted as an essential element to satisfy the Construction Environmental Management Plan requirements when applying for the dewatering effluent discharge permit.

7

Refer to Appendix B for an example of inspection sheet for the dewatering process.

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24.2.12 Training Requirements

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The Contractor shall prepare a Construction Dewatering Training Plan submitted along with the necessary documentation for a discharge permit.

2

The construction dewatering training plan shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval within 30 days of contract award.

3

The training plan will assist the licensing authority in evaluating the level of knowledge passed on to the Contractor’s staff, and is therefore an indirect indication on how well the dewatering process is being executed. The components of the submitted training plan are detailed below.

4

The integration of construction dewatering training into the Training Plan of the Contractor is essential to introduce all staff to construction dewatering related information.

5

It is recommended that information on dewatering equipment and related emergencies are included in the training provided to staff entering or working on the site.

6

The training for all staff does not have to be comprehensive; however, it should include basic items such as:

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(a)

Brief explanation of the construction dewatering purpose

(b)

Introduction to the dewatering equipment. Inclusion of photos in the training presentation.

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Health and safety related concerns, education on related emergencies, and contact information of person in charge of dewatering to be provided in the presentation.

24.3

DEWATERING TECHNIQUES

24.3.1

Construction Dewatering Methods Guide Lines

1

The design of effective construction dewatering methods should be based on a number of information sources: Geotechnical and groundwater site investigations undertaken at the commencement of any project;

(b)

Information provided by any geotechnical study undertaken during the concept design stage[if applicable];

(c)

Groundwater information sourced from relevant authorities; and,

(d)

A site risk assessments.

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(a)

The Contractors choice of dewatering method will depend primarily on the soil type and permeability and the amount of groundwater to be removed. Whilst the Contractor will be trying to find the most cost effective method of dewatering (based on the geotechnical report) he shall implement the most effective dewatering method which minimises environmental damage, protects the health & safety of on-site personnel and meets all legislative discharge limits.

3

It is important to note that if contamination exists in the area all precautions need to be implemented. Contamination will be dealt with in coordination with MoE by safe disposal in designated areas as per the Environmental Law number 30 for 2002.

4

The figure below demonstrates the range of common dewatering techniques, whilst accounting for soil permeability and drawdown.

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Range of Application of Pumped Well Groundwater Control Techniques ** Source: Preene, M. Roberts, T. Powrie, W. Dyer, M R (2000)- Groundwater Control Design & Practice (CIRIA C515), London, CIRIA.

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As seen in the above figure, the choice of dewatering method depends on the required drawdown and permeability. The drawdown is determined during the design stage of structures and the groundwater investigation stage at the start of the project and the permeability is tested during the geotechnical investigation stage.

6

After the drawdown is determined, the Contractor shall choose the method of dewatering based on the permeability of soil. The method can vary during the stages of the project depending on the required drawdown. The shaded areas near the methods’ boundaries indicate that the choices can overlap, and then the Contractor can decide between the two (or more) options.

7

Filtering and filling materials of aggregate is required by most dewatering methods. Therefore when required, aggregates to be used shall be free draining, washed and free of debris (organic or non-organic). Preference is for a single sized aggregate (less than 10% fines).

8

Whilst the range of dewatering practices varies across sites depending on their size, construction depth and site conditions, the most commonly used methods of dewatering in Qatar are indicated below. Each method’s use depends on the requirements and stage of project.

24.3.2

Sump Pits

1

The Sump Pit method is the simplest form of dewatering system on a construction site. Sump pits are generally utilised as a quick, least cost, solution and can be seen to be used at the start of projects as the excavation stage commences. Provided with an aggregate lining, as per O&M requirements, sump pits can be an effective means of filtering groundwater, unless the groundwater has come into contact with silt and/or limestone, which usually results in reported high turbidity.

2

If soil has silty characteristics; it is recommended that proper installation of geotextile and aggregates in sump pits be implemented in order to improve the quality of dewatering effluent and significantly decrease turbidity.

24.3.3

Well System

1

The most common practice of dewatering used in Qatar is the implementation of a Well System. Wells are systematically drilled around the construction area and submersible pumps placed into these wells. This practice appears to work effectively for many projects, especially those building projects that require excavations for deep basements.

24.3.4

Deep Wells

1

Deep wells are rarely used in Qatar. Deep wells are usually equipped with filter packs & submersible pumps, and are operated using a control cabin.

2

Although not found to be present in Qatar at present, deep wells have unlimited drawdown, they require a minimum spacing of 10 meters, and have far greater efficiency.

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Ditches/ French Drains

1

Ditches and French drains (commonly known as trenches in construction projects in Qatar) are also used on Qatar’s construction sites. The ditches are formed in a pre-planned manner, allowing groundwater flow to surface in the deeper level trenches. Perforated pipes are then placed in the trenches, and groundwater extracted through these pipelines to be filtered. These trenches were particularly common in infrastructure network projects.

2

Graded aggregates and geotextile layer to be used when laying out the pipelines.

24.3.6

Cut-Off Excavation Barriers

1

Cut Off barriers are designed to limit and/or control groundwater entering the construction site from a neighbouring property. An assessment of groundwater infiltration is required to determine to what extent barriers are required and how they are constructed.

2

Commonly used excavation barriers in Qatar include structural concrete walls and secant piles. Both techniques are applicable to most types of soil and provide slope stability for deep excavated areas.

24.3.7

Dewatering Effluent Treatment

24.3.8

Settlement Tank

1

The settlement tank is the most common and most effective methods of treatment in Qatar. The settlement tank is primarily used to maximise the distance that the effluent has to travel prior to reaching the discharge point, and therefore increasing the settlement efficiency.

2

All projects in Qatar which apply for a discharge permit are obligated to provide a settlement tank.

3

When choosing the settlement tank, the choice should be based on the following factors: The type of soil to be dewatered.

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24.3.5

(d)

Retention time required for solids to settle. This will also be based on the soil type.

Flow rate quantity and frequency. Possible peak factors flows.

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24.3.9

Settlement Tank Types

1

The common types of weir tanks used are Regular tank and V-notch tanks (30°, 60°, and 90°). The V-notch tanks serve to accelerate the passing of the effluent through the tank.

2

For safety purposes, it is recommended that tanks be suitably covered with a top cover or specific lid, to ensure unauthorised access is not permitted.

3

It is important to note that sometimes these tanks are used onsite as a discharge tanks. Therefore, it is important that tanks are used as settlement tanks and be marked clearly as such.

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24.3.10 Tank Size 1

In order to make a decision on the tank size, the volume of tank are to be estimated as per the below equations.

2

The volumes calculated depend primarily on the retention time of water in the tank, and the flow rate of discharge.

Equation 3

V=Qt

The tank's depth

d = V/A

d: depth (m) 3 V: volume(m ) 2 A: surface area(m )

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Tank volume

V: Volume (m ) 3 Q: Expected flow rate (m /hour) t: retention period (hour)

It is important to note that these equations are to be used as a guide only, but do provide a basis for calculating the minimum tank size required based on the flow rate provided by the Contractor.

4

For fine grained type of soils, it is preferred to have secondary methods of treatment as detailed below.

24.4

OTHER TREATMENT

24.4.1

Silt and Fine Grained Soils

1

For the removal of silt and fine grained suspended particles, the following inexpensive methods can be effectively applied:

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Dewatering Tank:

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a dewatering tank can remove sediment (sand, silt, and visible oil). The dewatering tank is equipped with a fabric filter. The flow passes through the filter before being discharged at the bottom end of the tank. The tank can be used in addition to the weir tank or any other treatment method. It is portable, inexpensive and many types of filter clothes can be used. Yet, the dewatering tanks should be subjected to periodic cleaning based on the visual inspection or reduced flow, through lifting the sand and silt from the tank.

(b)

Gravity Bag Filter: (Also known as dewatering bag) is made of geotextile fabric that can filter out silt and fine grained soil particles. This filter is easy to install, inexpensive, and becomes more effective as sediment builds up inside the bag. The type of bag should be selected based on the flow rates of discharge and permeability of soil. This method is to be used as a secondary treatment for groundwater. It requires continuous monitoring to avoid hose failure, particularly if sediment builds up in a manner that interferes with the acquisition of a reasonable flow rate discharge.

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The Gravity Bag Filter does not require cleaning, as it is a disposable filter. The filter is to be disposed of in accordance with the waste management guidelines of the project. The filter is to be replaced when it starts passing solids, or blocks the passing of water at a rate that is adequate. (c)

Slurry Water “The drilling [slurry] muds containing substantial quantities of organic liquids and water-soluble salts are treated to render them environmentally acceptable for disposal” (C M Wilwerding 1989)

.

Slurry water occurrence is common during dewatering processes in Qatar. While there is filtration equipment and water treatment technology available to treat slurry water, these are best used in countries with a different climate to that of Qatar’s. The best option for treating slurry by filtration is using a Centrifugal Filter. However, as previously mentioned, this is not a preferable to be used in Qatar as slurry can be dried easily in a more environmentally friendly manner.

3

It is also important to note that even when treatment equipment is used, the resulting silt will have to be disposed at a licensed landfill, along with having to dispose of the equipment at its end of service life.

4

If the silt contains hazardous material, then a license should be issued from MoE as per the procedures detailed in Annex (7.2) of the Qatari Law of Environment (Copy of the procedures together with the form of application is provided in Appendix (C)). And if the silt has no hazardous materials then the license shall be issued from the concerned Municipality.

5

To eliminate the issues with incompatible equipment and hot climates, it is recommended that treatment methods be designed to manage the slurry either onsite by drying the first instance before transfer to landfill, or by transfer to the landfill directly.

6

The conventional drying process comprises laying out of slurry mud on an air permeable drying bed lined with suitable material.

7

The drying process must commit to the following environmental considerations:

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(a)

Amount of slurry generated must not exceed the capacity of the spreading system.

(b)

Drying process must not impose nuisance or emit odor.

(c)

Drying process must not impose health and safety risks.

8

The choice of drying process, whether by using a centrifuge machine or a drying lagoon is subject to project settings and expected amount of slurry to be generated.

9

The slurry handling process is to be submitted with the dewatering permit application if generation of slurry is expected to occur.

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24.4.2

Contamination of Groundwater

1

In the event of discovering the contamination of the receiving environment such as groundwater by dewatering effluent, the contractor is obligated to report the discovery to the licensing authority (ASHGHAL, MoE) and the effluent is to be dealt with as per the construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP). Samples of groundwater should be taken and tested. Reasonable suspicion can be established by one of the following methods: Possible history of contamination in the area; such as prior land use (eg. petrol station), or the area is known to have septic tank issues.

(b)

EIA: if there is an EIA prepared for the project, it should be reviewed and approved by MoE in order to eliminate the possibility of contamination. If the EIA indicates the presence of contamination, the Contractor is obligated to report the findings to MoE for their feedback, and test for the type of contamination detected in the EIA.

(c)

The Contractor shall use the following Water Quality Assessment to establish the possibility of contamination in the area.

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Water Quality Assessment

The following questions provide n initial assessment of the quality of the water to be discharged from the dewatering operation.

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Common Sense Test

1. Review the project records. Is there any reason to suspect that the water may be polluted by something other than sediment? No Yes 2. Is the water located in an area of known contamination? No Yes Does the water have an abnormal visual feature, such as: (circle) Oily Sheen, Floating Foam, Murky Appearance, Unusual Colour Other

Smell Test

Does the water have an odor? No Yes Possible odors include gasoline, petroleum, ammonia, sewage, etc.

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If you answered YES to any of the above questions, explain: If you answered YES to any of the questions in the assessment or suspect that the water contains pollutants other than sediments, contact the Engineer for assistance with additional testing and management options.

Water Quality Assessments ** Adapted from Source: The office of Environmental Engineering, California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Field Guide to Construction Site Dewatering, USA, 2001. In the event of discovering groundwater contamination, the Contractor is obligated to report the discovery to the Engineer and Licensing Authority (MOE / ASHGHAL) and the effluent is to be dealt with as per the Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP), or as directed by the Engineer.

24.5

DISPOSAL OPTIONS

1

Qatar construction sites use four (4) common means of disposal, namely: (a)

Discharge to sea via the Surface and Groundwater Network;

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(b)

Direct Discharge to the sea;

(c)

(A) Discharge to lagoon totally covered by geotextile from all sides; (B) Discharge to lagoon not covered, and;

(d)

Discharge by injection to deep groundwater aquifer (Deep well injection).

The following section discusses the options available in Qatar in terms of dewatering effluent disposal, and describes the best option depending on the circumstances of the project.

24.6

DISCHARGE TO SEA

24.6.1

Discharge to Sea via Surface and Groundwater Network

1

Disposal of dewatering effluent to the Surface and Groundwater Network is the most common practice in Qatar. The Surface and Groundwater Network eventually leads to outfalls that discharge to Sea.

2

The disposal to the network directly via pipelines, or via tankers, depends on the availability of Surface and Groundwater Network in the project area.

3

The Surface and Groundwater Network is an acceptable option for disposal given that Contractor is also reusing the effluent on site whenever possible.

4

If a Contractor chooses to discharge to the Surface and Groundwater Network, obtaining a license from ASHGHAL is required to allow the discharge of groundwater to the Surface and Groundwater Network. A license from the Ministry of Environment is also required through the submission of an Environmental Permit Application.

5

Measurements of flow rates must be undertaken in order to monitor the discharge flow and ensure that it is within the limits provided to the licensing authority (refer Appendix A for discharge limits).

6

The Contractor must provide the licensing authority with the maximum expected flow rate (i.e the peak flow) and the expected average flow rate, in order to avoid back flooding when flows exceed the capacity of the manhole assigned to the Contractor. Therefore, the contractor should install a flow meter at the construction site in order to measure the quantities of groundwater flow.

7

The Contractor should also notify the licensing authority if peak flows are expected to be reached frequently during the winter season, particularly when heavy rain is forecast, so as to avoid penalties if the manhole back floods.

8

If a Contractor is operating from an area which is not served by a Surface and Groundwater Network, and determines that the most cost effective solution is to use tankers to transport dewatering effluent to the nearest assigned manhole, the Contractor is then obligated to provide a brief statement demonstrating the traffic impacts caused by their tankers.

9

If the resultant traffic impact proves to be significant, the Contractor is either to consider other options of disposal, or retain dewatering effluent onsite and then transport the effluent when traffic is less congested, therefore minimising traffic impacts.

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In the event that tankers are used to transport dewatering effluent, in order to monitor discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network the Contractor must record all particulars associated with its removal, such as: (a)

Installing a flow meter at the construction site in order to measure the quantities of groundwater flow.

(b)

Record of tankers coming to and leaving the site (eg. registration plate no., capacity, records of water quality)

(c)

Volumes of effluent transported.

The recording of tanker movements is in addition to the installation of a meter on the weir/sediment tank.

12

When applying for the discharge permit the following documents are required:

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Official letter from the company addressed to: The Manager of Drainage Networks O&M Dept- Asset Affairs- ASHGHAL. (Includes start and end date of dewatering works & method of statement for dewatering).

(b)

Application form for pumping groundwater to be filled and stamped.

(c)

Copy of building permit.

(d)

Copy of the site map.

(e)

Copy of ID card of the applicant’s engineer.

(f)

Copy of the registration company.

(g)

Copy of Road Opening (RO) Permit.

(h)

Copy of Traffic Department Approval, as part of the RO Permit

(i)

Testing of samples, and conformation of compliant results prior to obtaining the twomonth permit. The Contractor must note that the sample testing is to be carried out after obtaining the five-day temporary permit, and is to be submitted after the previous requirements are submitted and a temporary permit is granted.

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(a)

Once the application is submitted, the project is given a reference number which includes a serial number, type of discharge (e.g groundwater) and the date of application. Drawing and comments are then returned to the applicant for information and/or action and the applicant will be advised the applicable disposal option and a manhole to be assigned for the discharge.

14

The applicant is issued a temporary permit for five days. The purpose of the temporary permit is to allow the applicant to obtain approvals from the concerned authorities, and install the equipment in order to take water samples.

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During the temporary dewatering permit; only discharge is allowed for collecting samples and to proceed with other department requirements. All samples are taken by laboratory representative from the list of laboratories approved by ASHGHAL and MOE; it’s prohibited for samples to be taken by the Contractor. The collected samples should be tested for Total Suspended Solids (TSS, turbidity and the short list of parameters included in Appendix A. Test results should be uploaded online to QSD by the laboratory. Yet, it should be highlighted here that any testing activities are not only limited to the parameters provided on the short list developed by QSD; it should also cover the list of parameters required by MOE for dewatering permit. Approval is then granted if the test results meet the requirements of discharge. The Quality Limits are attached in Appendix A.

16

If the installation requires a road crossing, a RO permit is required. If not, a RO is not required. The applicant must obtain a license from the concerned authorities for installation of all tanks and hoses.

17

Following the issuance of the permit, regular inspections by the O&M staff are carried out. The Contractor is then required to undertake weekly laboratory tests for TSS and turbidity of effluent samples, and bi-monthly tests prior to renewing the permit. Permit renewal request should be submitted in 7 days advance before expiry day of the previous permit. The bimonthly tests are for TSS, turbidity and the short list of parameters included in Appendix A together with the parameters listed under Annex (4) of the law of Environment number 30/2002.

18

A copy of the Permitting Application and pro-forms are attached in Appendix C.

19

Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge to sea via Surface and Groundwater network.

24.6.2

Direct Discharge to Sea

1

MOE is the licensing authority for discharging dewatering effluent direct to the Sea.

2

If a Contractor found that the applicable option for dewatering is the direct discharge to sea, a secondary method of treatment must be installed to allow the dewatering effluent to settle before reaching the discharge outfall point. The discharge to the outfall point is achieved through the use of pipelines or transportation via tankers. Based on the number of tankers, the transportation may be subjected to a traffic impact assessment study based on the requirements of MOE.

3

The Contractor may therefore be subject to a number of pertinent laws and regulations:

4

When issuing direct sea discharge permits, MOE have the following concerns that need to be addressed as per Annex 4 of the Qatari Law of Environment and the list of parameters required by MOE for dewatering permit (included in Appendix A), which includes the test of the following parameters:

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(a)

Bacterial counts

(b)

Turbidity and TSS levels

(c)

Presence of Petroleum compounds.

(d)

Presence of heavy metals.

(e)

Others, as per MoE requirements.

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5

Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the direct discharge to sea. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in Appendix E.

6

For more information, contact MoE on: Telephone +974 4420 7777

24.6.3

Fax

+ 974 4420 7000

Email

[email protected]

Discharge to Lagoons:

A. Discharge to Lagoon totally covered with geotextile from all sides Lagoons are licensed by MOE.

2

It is recommended that a lagoon totally covered with geotextile from all sides, formed in a depressive area, is used in locations where it is logistically impossible or cost and socially prohibitive to deliver effluent to the Surface and Groundwater Network using other means.

3

If Contractor chooses to discharge the dewatering effluent to a lagoon, license is given by MOE. The dewatering to lagoons is mainly based on the requirements by MOE which is given for case by case. The use of this option is depending on the water quality. Yet, the general requirements of MOE can be summarised in the following information:

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Dewatering effluent quantity.

(b)

Detailed Engineering drawings for the lagoon showing the geotextile lining of the lagoon.

(c)

Duration of dewatering discharge

(d)

Dewatering effluent quality. Dewatering effluent quality is tested initially against the list of parameters required by MoE for dewatering permit (included in Appendix A). And then tested weekly. Monthly testing is also required for selected parameters.

(e)

Coordinates of lagoon, inclusive of dewatering discharge points.

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Location map Others, as per MOE requirements.

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Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge through the use of lagoons. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in Appendix E.

5

For more information, contact MOE on: Telephone +974 4420 7777 Fax

+ 974 4420 7000

Email

[email protected]

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B. Discharge to Lagoon not covered 6

The discharge to a logon which is not covered is depending on the discharged water quality. Similar to the above option, the licensing authority for this option is the Ministry of Environment. The list of parameters required by MOE for dewatering permit is included in Appendix A. The general requirements of MOE are similar to the above option.

7

Refer to Appendix C for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge through the use of lagoons. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in Appendix E.

8

For more information, contact MOE on: Telephone +974 4420 7777 + 974 4420 7000

Email

[email protected]

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Discharge by injection to deep groundwater aquifer (Deep well injection)

1

Disposal by injection to groundwater aquifer is a common method in Qatar to dispose of treated effluent of sewage treatment plants. Yet, the use of deep well injection for the discharge of dewatering effluent to groundwater aquifer is also done in few big projects.

2

However and prior to the discharge to the deep well, a careful assessment of geological conditions must be conducted in order to determine the suitable depth and location of porous aquifer reservoirs and identifying the safe rate of injection to the deep aquifer. Generally, the depth of the deep well should not be less than 400 – 600 m deep, which is the expected depth of Umm Er Radhumma (UER) aquifer.

3

In all cases, MOE require the contractor to conduct an Environmental Assessment for the impact from the project as soon as drilling of the deep well and the analysis of the samples is achieved. This shall be done by a qualified consultant with previous experience in similar projects.

4

The general requirements of MOE for the use of the deep well injection can be summarised in the following information:

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24.6.4

(a)

Duration of dewatering discharge.

(b)

Dewatering effluent quality. Dewatering effluent quality is tested initially against the parameters specified in the standards for the water use for irrigation purpose of the Qatari Law of Environment. And then periodically testing each week based on MoE requirements.

(c)

The parameters required for the physical, chemical, biological, microbiological analysis includes but not limited to: EC, Temperature, DO, pH, Turbidity, FRC, TPH, O&G, Sulphide, Metals, BOD, COD, TOC, surfactants, VOC, BETX, TDS, TSS, PAHs, TAlk, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonia, TKN, Phosphorus, Chloride, Sodium, Sulphite, Total Phenol, Carbonate, E-Coli, Faecal Coliform, Bacteria and SAR.

(d)

A0 design map for the whole project including the location of the injection well and network of shallow trenches connecting the wells.

(e)

Comparison study between the use of the shallow networking and the perforated pipelines.

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(f)

Drilling of monitoring wells to suitable depth to monitor the impact on the shallow aquifer.

(g)

Providing the injection wells with emergency valves to stop injection in case of contamination.

5

Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge through the use of deep well injection. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in Appendix E.

6

As mentioned above, the injection of dewatering effluent to groundwater aquifer is licensed by MOE and is completely subject to their approval, therefore for further information, please contact MOE on:

Fax

+ 974 4420 7000

Email

[email protected]

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Groundwater Recycle & Reuse Onsite

1

It is recommended, where environmentally safe and cost effective, that dewatering effluent is reused or recycled onsite.

2

The reuse options onsite will depend on a number of factors, including the type of project. The contractor should propose the treatment in case the water is polluted by organic and inorganic chemicals or subjected to biological contamination. The treatment should focus but not limited to low DO, presence of Bacteria, elevated levels of TSS or turbidity and presence of oil.

3

The CEMP should be used to identify all opportunities of reuse onsite. Yet, the options for the reuse of the groundwater should be discussed with MOE and shall be subjected to the approval by MOE.

4

Options could include but not be limited to: Control of dust onsite. (Subject to the level of safety and quality of dewatering effluent).

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(b)

Reuse of dewatering effluent.

(c)

Concrete curing.

(d)

Excavation activities requiring water.

(e)

Washing of machinery and site equipment.

(f)

Watering of onsite landscaping, when the turbidity is very low to avoid compromising the integrity of the soil.

(g)

If the dewatering effluent quality is within limits of soil compaction parameters requirements (refer to QCS), it can be used for soil compaction purposes.

Contractor to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate whether it’s feasible to erect an RO system for dewatering effluent treatment, in order to use the dewatering effluent instead of fresh potable water.

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The feasibility study is to compare both options in terms of financial viability.

24.6.6

Integrated Management of Construction Dewatering

1

Construction dewatering practices are better managed if they are integrated with existing construction management systems, such as a CEMP, monitoring plan and training programmes. The dewatering practice will then form part of the regular construction inspection/monitoring program.

24.6.7

Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP)

1

The CEMP is prepared to minimise the impacts of the project and its activities on the receiving environment. The CEMP is prepared prior to mobilising to site.

2

The Contractor should uses the geotechnical investigations and previous EIA (if applicable) as guidelines when preparing the CEMP.

3

When dewatering activities are included within the project site, the preparation of the CEMP should include the following:

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Identification of opportunities to reuse the dewatering effluent onsite in order to reduce the amount of disposed effluent.

(b)

Dewatering techniques being employed on site

(c)

Disposal methods employed on-site and relevant monitoring plan to ensure compliance with discharge limits.

(d)

Copy of discharge limits.

(e)

Roles and responsibilities of the Environmental Advisor on site.

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Roles and responsibilities have to be clearly defined when designing a dewatering system. These roles and responsibilities are to be submitted as an essential element to satisfy the CEMP requirements when applying for the dewatering effluent discharge permit.

5

Refer to Appendix B for an example of inspection sheet for the dewatering process.

24.6.8

Monitoring Plan

1

The environmental monitoring plan is used to monitor the anticipated impacts of the project o the surrounding and receiving environments. It is imperative that, should dewatering activities exist on site, there is integration all testing and monitoring requirements.

2

Integration of monitoring plans may be between systems within individual sites or between several sites, depending on management systems or owners

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(a)

Environmental monitoring plan: The environmental monitoring plan is to outline the steps required for monitoring of construction dewatering practices. The integration of dewatering practices into the monitoring plan will pave the way to introduce a dewatering monitoring plan.

(b)

The findings of the dewatering monitoring reports are to be summarised and included in the environmental monitoring reports.

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The dewatering practices monitoring plan: Introduction of a dewatering practices monitoring plan, sampling points, variables, frequencies and reporting. This plan should be cyclic which stands to be audited as part of the master environmental monitoring plan. Corrective actions from audits are to be implemented to ensure improved performance.

Training Plan

1

The integration of construction dewatering training into the training plan of the Contractor is essential to introduce all staff to construction dewatering related information.

2

It is recommended that information on dewatering equipment and related emergencies are included in the training provided to staff entering or working on the site.

3

The training for all staff does not have to be comprehensive; however, it should include basic items such as:

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Brief explanation of the construction dewatering purpose

(b)

Introduction to the dewatering equipment. Inclusion of photos in the training presentation.

(c)

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24.6.10 Odour Control

The odour levels have been given a threshold value as indicated in the Qatar Construction Specifications (QCS). Therefore, it is highly recommended to measure the level of odour parameters, a devise should be installed within the construction site to measure odour parameters (eg: H2S).

2

The QCS has identified two types of odour control equipment; control equipment carbon type and control equipment scrubber type. Refer to Section 9 Part 9 and Part 10 for details.

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24.6.11 Health & Safety Considerations 1

Health and safety issues are the most important part of any construction project. It is recommended that health and safety measures in relation to dewatering practices are enforced strictly, in order to prevent and/or minimise on-site accidents.

2

In addition to the conventional health and safety measures implemented in construction sites, the following considerations are to be incorporated to contribute to the health and safety practices relating to construction dewatering:

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24.6.12 Site Investigation 1

During the initial site investigations, the Contractor has to identify potential health and safety risks in the project area. Examples of risks are: potential contamination posing health and safety concern to labour workers and site staff, slope stability issues due to dewatering practices... etc.

2

Identified risks have to be considered and mitigated against during design and execution of dewatering.

3

This exercise can be undertaken during the Risk Assessment process as described earlier in this Guideline.

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24.6.13 Design Considerations The design of dewatering stage is the most convenient stage to plan properly in order to prevent foreseeable health and safety issues arising during operational dewatering.

2

All designs must take into account the health & safety considerations associated with dewatering, which include but are not limited to:

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Preparation of layout plan for dewatering equipment.

(b)

Ensure access to dewatering equipment, without compromising the safety of staff.

(c)

Ensure that all dewatering equipment –especially equipment placed offsite- is marked clearly with name of project and Contractor, and contact person details.

(d)

Provide protective covers for assigned manholes which do not hinder the discharged flow.

(e)

The mandatory use of PPE. All staff entering a project’s safe zone have to be wearing appropriate safety gear. This also applies to staff managing dewatering equipment offsite.

(f)

The Contractor is to exercise duty of care when designing, installing and operating the dewatering equipment and process.

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24.6.14 Housekeeping Considerations It is recommended that during the regular inspection of projects, the licensing authority is to observe the status of housekeeping of dewatering equipment. Inadequate housekeeping can expose staff and visitors to injury.

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APPENDICES Short List of Parameters as provided by ASHGHALMoE list of Parameters for Dewatering Permit Environmental Laws and Regulations- Annex 4, Law 30 of 2002

23

Appendix B:

Dewatering Process Inspection Sheet

32

Appendix C:

Discharge Permit Forms

36

Appendix D:

Application for Permit- Procedure Flowchart for each Dewatering Option

40

Appendix E:

Environmental Permit Application- MoE

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Appendix B DEWATERING PROCESS INSPECTION SHEET

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Appendix A SHORT LIST OF PARAMETERS AS PROVIDED BY ASHGHAL MOE LIST OF PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR DEWATERING PERMITS ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS‐ ANNEX 4, LAW 30 OF 2002

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Appendix E ENVIRONMENTAL PERMIT APPLICATION‐ MOE

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Appendix D

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Application for Permit‐ Procedure Flowchart for each Dewatering Option

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CONTRACTORS INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN TEMPLATE

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QUALITY NON-CONFORMANCE TEMPLATE

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END OF PART

Page 17

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 02: Submittals

Page 1

SUBMITTALS .......................................................................................................... 2

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Project Quality Plan 2 Quality Organisation Plan 3 Inspection and Test Plans 4 Quality Checklists 5 Key Performance Indicators 5 Method Statements 6 Commissioning Plan 6

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 02: Submittals

Page 2

SUBMITTALS

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Project Quality Plan

1

The Contractor shall prepare the necessary Contract specific Project Quality Plan as specified in this Section, the Contract Documents and as a minimum meeting the requirements ISO 9001 and ISO 10005 and submit them to the Engineer for review and approval within 30 days of the award of Contract. The Contractor is not permitted to Work on the worksite until such time as the plan has been approved by the Engineer.

2

The Contractor shall regularly review the suitability of the Project Quality Plan. The Contractor shall undertake a full formal review of the quality plans annually with reference to the date of award of the Contract and submit the findings of the review to the Engineer within 14 days of that date along with an amended plan should any amendments be required.

3

The Project Quality Plan shall describe the Contractor’s Quality Management System that will be used throughout the Contract and the contents shall include but not be limited to the following: Front Cover

(b)

Table of Contents

(c)

Project Scope, Requirements and Quality Objectives

(d)

Quality Policy and ISO 9001 Certificate (if applicable)

(e)

Control of Project Quality Plan

(f)

Reference Documentation

(g)

Project Management, Planning and Resources

(h)

Management, Organisation and Responsibilities

(i)

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Contract Review Project Deliverables

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Communication with the Engineer

(l)

Management of Documents, Data and Records

(m)

Design (Including Temporary Works)

(n)

Procurement of Services, Equipment and Materials

(o)

Method Statements

(p)

Inspection and Test

(q)

Product Identification and Traceability

(r)

Owner Supplied Product

(s)

Handling, Storage, Packaging and Delivery

(t)

Non-conformance, Corrective and Preventative Action

(u)

Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 02: Submittals Audits

(w)

Training

(x)

Key Performance Indicators and Continual Improvement

(y)

Management Review

(z)

Quality Meetings

(aa)

Monthly Quality Report

(bb)

Commissioning

(cc)

Interface Management

(dd)

Project Completion and Handover

(ee)

Appendices

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And include as a minimum:

a detailed description of procedures, instructions, and reports to be used to ensure compliance with the Project Documentation

(b)

a detailed description of procedures for reviewing shop drawings, samples, certificates and other submittals necessary for compliance with the Project Documentation

(c)

a detailed description of procedures used to identify, report and resolve problems

(d)

a description of the services provided by outside organisations such as testing laboratories, architects, and consulting engineers

(e)

a detailed description of inspections and tests required

(f)

copies of forms and reports to be used to document quality assurance operations

(g)

the names of personnel responsible for each part of the Works

(h)

a submittal status log listing required submittals and action required by the Contractor and Engineer

(i)

a detailed description of document and submittal control procedures

(j)

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an inspection and test schedule keyed to the construction programme procedures to identify and control the use of items and materials

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No construction shall begin and no requests for payment from the Contractor shall be processed until the Contractor’s Project Quality Plan is approved.

6

A Contractors Project Quality Plan Template with guidance notes is included in Part 15 Appendix B of this Section. The format of the Contractors Project Quality Plan must follow this template including all clauses contained within.

2.1.2

Quality Organisation Plan

1

The Contractor shall submit a Quality Organisation Plan to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

2

The Quality Organisation Plan shall provide the names, qualifications, experience and skills of all the QA/QC Team including Corporate QA/QC Manager, Quality Management Representative and key support staff.

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Page 4

The Quality Organisation Plan shall show the organisation of Contractor’s quality team and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (a)

an organisation chart identifying all personnel responsible for quality

(b)

Identify the quality team showing that the team is independent of the job supervisory staff with clear lines of authority to top tier management.

(c)

Indicate and describe the area of responsibility and authority of each individual in the quality assurance team.

The Quality Organisation Plan should also define quality responsibilities of any of the Contractors team with responsibilities under the Contractors Project Quality Plan.

5

The Contractor’s Quality staff shall have relevant educational and professional qualifications, and training as defined in 3.1.7 (1). The Contractor is not permitted to execute any form of the works at the worksite until such time as approved quality personnel have been deployed on a fulltime basis to the worksite. The Contractor shall not remove or replace the appointed quality personnel without prior approval from the Engineer.

6

The Quality Organisation Plan may form part of the Project Quality Plan or be prepared as a standalone document and cross-referenced within the Project Quality Plan.

2.1.3

Inspection and Test Plans

1

As part of the Project Quality Plan the Contractor shall submit an Inspection and Test Plan Schedule to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

2

The Inspection and Test Plan schedule shall define the Inspection and Test Plans to be prepared for the Works and the target dates for their submission to the Engineer for his approval.

3

The Inspection and Test Plans shall consider the requirements of each Section of the Specification and shall identify, as a minimum, the following:

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(c)

the required inspection and testing frequency

(d)

the acceptance/rejection criteria

(e)

whom from the Contractors team is responsible and qualified to perform the inspection or test

(f)

Quality Records to be generated

(g)

Hold, Witness, surveillance and Record Review points of the Contractors team, the Engineer and any other agencies having jurisdictional authority over the work relating to each inspection and test to be performed.

Details each activity, inspection and test to be performed Reference to specifications, standards etc.

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Each inspection and test shall have a unique reference number.

5

Inspection and Test Plans are required to address the Contractors on and off site Work and preparation, submission and approval of related documentation.

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Inspection and Test Plans are required for all operations including major temporary works and commissioning.

7

No work covered by the Inspection and Test Plan shall begin until the plan has been approved by the Engineer.

8

A Contractors Inspection and Test Plan Template with guidance notes is included in Appendix B of this Section and must be used by the Contractor

2.1.4

Quality Checklists

1

The Contractor shall develop specific quality checklists for all activities to be checked as per the Inspection and Test Plans and submit to the Engineer for the approval with the Inspection Test Plans submission prior to the start of the activity.

2

The Contractor shall inspect the work and sign off the relevant checklist and Inspection Request prior to the final inspection with the Engineer.

3

The checklist shall be attached with the Inspection Request and other relevant attachments and submitted to the Engineer.

2.1.5

Key Performance Indicators

1

The Contractor shall develop and report Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s). KPI’s are a set of quantifiable measures that are used to gauge performance of the Contractors Performance.

2

The KPI’s shall be defined in the Contractors Project Quality Plan and be subject to Engineers approval.

3

The Contractor is responsible for developing his own KPI’s for all elements of his contract (Contractual, Commercial, Safety etc.) but as a minimum shall address the following KPI’s.

Time between opening and closure of Nonconformance Reports (NCR) and Corrective Action Requests (CAR).

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Time between identification of a Nonconformance or Corrective Action and actual raising on the system.

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NCR and CAR statistics per areas, sections, discipline, subcontractor etc.

(d)

Percentage of reoccurring NCR’s and CAR’s – Trends on NCR’s and CAR’s.

(e)

Approval status of critical documentation for the progress of the works (Method Statements, ITPs etc.).

(f)

Statistical data from inspections as per the Inspection & Test Plans (Pass vs failed, pass first time, etc.).

(g)

Completion packages (As-Built folders) progress.

Reporting of the KPI’s shall include a graphical bar chart representation on a month by month basis from the start of the Contract.

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Method Statements

1

Contractor shall ensure that Method Statements address quality issues. Refer to Section 11 Part 1 (Regulatory Document) in particular section 1.1.7 and Section 11 Part 2 (SAMAS) in particular section 2.4

2.1.7

Commissioning Plan

1

The Contractor shall submit a Commissioning Plan to the Engineer for approval no later than sixty (60) days unless agreed otherwise with the engineer before the start of the commissioning of the Works or any part thereof.

2

The Commissioning Plan shall consider the requirements of each Section of the Specification in turn and shall identify the following:

.

2.1.6

all required commissioning work required by that Section of the Specification

(b)

any prerequisites to commissioning

(c)

a list of the commissioning procedure

(d)

a detailed description of the duties and responsibilities on the personnel involved in the commissioning process

(e)

a detailed list of the tests/checks/activities that will be performed, linked to the relevant construction activities and referenced to any links/documents to the ITPs performed during the construction

(f)

specific reference to the witness/hold and review points of the engineer

(g)

a detailed list of the standards /specifications/regulatory requirements that need to be performed

(h)

a detailed description of the interactions/communication organization/public service or other legal/regulatory institutions

(i)

a detailed description of the test/activities of the maintenance needed during the life time of the project, with reference to any special requirements/qualifications of the personnel involved in the maintenance activities

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a detailed description of any spare parts/equipment/fixtures and other type of the of consumables that might be needed, with an estimation of quantities, for the life time of the project

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a detailed description of the as built project file that will be created after the commission phase

(l)

a procedure for up-date and revision of the commissioning plan

No work covered by the Commissioning Plan shall begin until the plan has been approved. END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 03: Contractor’s Quality Personnel

Page 1

CONTRACTOR’S QUALITY PERSONNEL ............................................................. 2

3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2 General 2 Quality Assurance Manager 2 Quality Control Manager 2 Quality Engineer 2 Quality Inspector 3 Personnel Qualifications 3 Quality Staff Requirement 3 Quality Training for Contractor’s Employees and Labour 5

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 03: Contractor’s Quality Personnel

Page 2

CONTRACTOR’S QUALITY PERSONNEL

3.1

INTRODUCTION

3.1.1

General

1

Contractor shall, throughout the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying defects therein have on his staff at the Site office(s) a dedicated Quality Team dealing only with matters regarding the quality and protection against damage before, during and after execution of Works as specified in this section. This team shall be qualified and experienced in their work and shall have the authority to issue instructions and shall take protective measures to prevent execution of Works that do not comply with the Specifications.

2

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing prior to re-assigning or replacement of any of the quality team designated in the Quality Organisation Plan.

3

The Contractor shall have adequate quality personnel on the site during all production operations, including adequate coverage during night shift operations and off site work.

4

The Contractor's quality team shall have the authority to stop any portion of the work which does not comply with the requirements of the Project Documentation.

5

Minimum qualifications and experience of the Contractors Quality Personnel shall be as defined in the Contract.

3.1.2

Quality Assurance Manager

1

Where required by this section, the Contractor shall designate and assign a full time Quality Assurance Manager who shall be responsible for overseeing the implementation and operation of the Project Quality Plan at all levels. The Quality Assurance Manager shall report directly to Top Tier Management and be independent of the Contractors organisation responsible for construction.

3.1.3

Quality Control Manager

1

Where required by this section, the Contractor shall designate and assign a full time Quality Control Manager who reports directly to the Quality Assurance Manager and shall be responsible for supervision of the construction quality control management activities and ensuring compliance with the Contractors Inspection and Test Plans and associated specification and contract documentation.

3.1.4

Quality Engineer

1

Where required by this section, the Contractor shall designate and assign a Quality Engineer who reports directly to the Quality Assurance Manager or Quality Control Manager and shall be responsible for assisting them with their day to day responsibilities and may be assigned to cover several locations or areas of work relating to the Contract. Where a Quality Assurance Manager or Quality Control Manager are not required by this section the Quality Engineer shall be assigned all the responsibilities defined in clause 3.1.2, 3.13, and 3.1.7.

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 03: Contractor’s Quality Personnel

Page 3

Quality Inspector

1

The Contractor shall designate and assign a Quality Inspector for each shift for each location where work is being performed. Each Quality Inspector shall be qualified by training and experience in all the construction or fabrication activities being conducted at the location of work and is directly responsible for ensuring compliance with the Contractors Inspection and Test Plans and associated specification and contract documentation.

3.1.6

Personnel Qualifications

1

The Contractor shall identify activities requiring qualified production, inspection, and test personnel and establish their minimum competence level.

2

The Contractor shall maintain records of personnel qualifications as quality records.

3.1.7

Quality Staff Requirement

1

Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer the Contractor shall employ fulltime qualified quality personnel for the Work as per below tables.

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3.1.5

No of workers on Worksite

Requirement

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Quality Staff Requirement

1 Quality Inspector (Part time, 15 hours of duty per week)

Less than 10

2.

More than 11 but less than 50

3.

More than 51 but less than 500

4.

More than 501 but less than 1500

1 Quality Assurance Manager and 1 Quality Engineer per 500 workers and 1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

More than 1501

1 Quality Assurance Manager and 1 Quality Control Manager and 1 Quality Engineer per 500 workers and 1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

1 Quality Inspector

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1 Quality Engineer and 1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 03: Contractor’s Quality Personnel

Page 4

Quality Management and Control staff Qualifications & Experience Matrix Minimum Qualifications Required

Position

Minimum Years of Experience

Minimum Key Competencies

Degree in relevant 12 years, 5 of which at Engineering discipline and Management Level and 3 related training in Quality years Regional experience Management Techniques. Internationally recognised Lead Auditor Certificate

Qualified Professional who can manage a Quality Management System and coordinate specialised activities. Excellent written & verbal communication skills in English

Quality Control Manager

Degree in relevant 12 years, 5 of which at Excellent written & verbal Engineering discipline and Management Level and 3 communication skills in related training in Quality years Regional experience English Management Techniques. Internationally recognised Lead Auditor Certificate

Quality Engineer

Degree in relevant Engineering discipline. Internationally recognised Lead Auditor Certificate

Quality Inspector

Certificate or Diploma in the appropriate engineering discipline

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Quality Assurance Manager

Good written & verbal communication skills in English

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10 years’ experience in related Quality Control Activities and 3 years Regional experience

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5 years’ experience in Good written & verbal related Quality Control and communication skills in Materials Testing activities English along with 2 years Regional Experience

The Contractor shall appoint deputy quality personnel who are capable of performing all the duties of the quality personnel in the event of their absence.

3

The Contractor shall appoint support staff in sufficient numbers to ensure the effective function of the quality related work within the Contractor’s organisation.

4

The Contractor shall ensure that every Sub-contractor employed on the Worksite appoints suitably qualified quality staff to ensure the effective function of the quality related issues within the Sub-contractor’s organisation. The Sub-contractor shall appoint and deploy fulltime on the Worksite one Quality Inspector for every 100 workers that they employ at the Worksite. Any Sub-contractor that employs more than 100 workers will appoint a Quality Engineer. This shall be in addition to the Contractor’s Quality Team.

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 03: Contractor’s Quality Personnel

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Quality Training for Contractor’s Employees and Labour

1

The Contractor shall conduct quality training including Contract specific induction, pre-work briefings, skills training, tool box talks and formal training conducted by training professionals or agencies for all the Contractor’s employees. The Contract specific induction will be at least 1 hour duration, approved by the Engineer and provided for all persons involved in the Works. Such induction training will be reviewed, revised and repeated at intervals not exceeding 12 months throughout the duration of the Work. All training shall be provided in the languages preferred by the recipients of the training. Training shall focus on improving competency and skill for those performing activities that impact quality.

2

The Contractor must conduct regular tool box talks to his Labour workforce Such training should include as a minimum Health and Safety issues and Construction Method best practice.

3

The Owner may organise quality related training, meetings, seminars, workshops or similar events at any time throughout the Contract Period. The Contractor is required to participate in such events when requested at his own expense.

4

The Contractor shall maintain records of all training conducted including details of the training given and a list of attendees, including attendee’s signature and ID numbers.

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3.1.8

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 04: Document & Data Control

Page 1

DOCUMENT & DATA CONTROL ............................................................................ 2

4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2 General 2 Document and Data Approval and Issue 2 Document and Data Changes 2

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 04: Document & Data Control

Page 2

DOCUMENT & DATA CONTROL

4.1

INTRODUCTION

4.1.1

General

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures to control all documents and data that relate to the requirements of the Specification. Documents and data can be in the form of any type of media, such as hard copy or electronic media.

2

The Contractor shall maintain up to date copies of all industry codes and standards that apply to the Contract.

4.1.2

Document and Data Approval and Issue

1

The documents and data shall be reviewed and approved for adequacy by authorised personnel prior to issue. A master list or equivalent document control procedure identifying the current revision status of documents shall be established and be readily available to preclude the use of invalid and/or obsolete documents. This control shall ensure that:

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4

The pertinent issues of appropriate documents are available at all locations where operations essential to the effective functioning of the quality system are performed

(b)

Invalid and/or obsolete documents are promptly removed from all points of issue or use, or otherwise assured against unintended use

(c)

Any obsolete documents retained for legal and/or knowledge preservation purposes are suitably identified

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(a)

Document and Data Changes

1

Where practicable, the nature of the change shall be identified in the document or appropriate attachments.

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4.1.3

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 05: Quality Records

Page 1

QUALITY RECORDS..................................................................................... 2

5.1 5.1.1

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 2 General 2

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 05: Quality Records

Page 2

QUALITY RECORDS

5.1

INTRODUCTION

5.1.1

General

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures for identification, collection, indexing, access, filing, storage, maintenance and disposition of quality records.

2

The Contractor shall supplement these quality records as necessary to monitor quality throughout the Contract period.

3

Quality records shall be maintained to demonstrate conformance of materials and equipment to specified technical requirements and the effective operation of the quality system.

4

All quality records shall be legible and shall be stored and retained in such a way that they are readily retrievable in facilities that provide a suitable environment to prevent damage or deterioration and to prevent loss.

5

As a minimum, the quality record for any particular item shall include: name of item

(b)

item number

(c)

item description

(d)

suppliers name

(e)

serial number or other identification (where applicable)

(f)

Specification reference (where applicable)

(g)

verification of receipt of all required supporting documentation

(h)

quantity of items

(i)

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location and installation of item inspection/test procedure reference

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(k)

non-conformance number (if applicable)

(l)

Observations / comments.

(m)

Signatures of responsible person

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 06: Quality Audits

Page 1

QUALITY AUDITS ................................................................................................... 2

6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Contractor’s Quality Audit 2 Engineer’s Quality Audit 2

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 06: Quality Audits

Page 2

QUALITY AUDITS

6.1

GENERAL

6.1.1

Contractor’s Quality Audit

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures in line with ISO 190011 for planning and implementing internal quality audits to verify whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and to determine the effectiveness of the quality system.

2

Internal quality audits shall be scheduled on the basis of the status and importance of the activity to be audited and shall be carried out by personnel independent of those having direct responsibility for the activity being audited. Unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer in writing, the Contractor shall carry out a full system quality audit every three months.

3

The results of the audits shall be recorded and brought to the attention of the personnel having responsibility in the area audited. The management personnel responsible for the area shall take timely corrective action on deficiencies found during the audit.

4

Follow-up audit activities shall verify and record the implementation and effectiveness the corrective action taken.

5

The results of the Contractor’s quality audits shall be made available for review by the Engineer. The Contractor shall implement any recommendations made by the Engineer based on the results of the internal audit.

6

The Contractor shall allow the Engineer to observe the Contractor’s internal audit upon request.

7

Quality audits must be undertaken by suitably qualified personnel with an internationally recognized audit qualification to recognized standards.

6.1.2

Engineer’s Quality Audit

1

The Engineer may undertake a quality audit of any of the Contractor’s activities at any time during the course of the Contract. The Contractor shall make all personnel and facilities available to the Engineer as necessary to undertake quality audits.

2

The Engineer shall make the results of his quality audit available to the Contractor for review. The Contractor shall implement any recommendations made by the Engineer based on the results of the Engineer’s quality audit.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 07: Inspection and Test

Page 1

INSPECTION AND TEST ........................................................................................ 2

7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 7.1.4 7.1.5 7.1.6 7.1.7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2 General 2 Inspections and Tests 2 Inspection and Test Status 3 Inspections by the Engineer during construction 3 Inspections by the Engineer during Defects Liability Period 4 Workmanship 4 Measuring and Test Equipment 4

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7

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 07: Inspection and Test

Page 2

INSPECTION AND TEST INTRODUCTION

7.1.1

General

1

The Contractor shall provide equipment, instruments, qualified personnel, and facilities necessary to inspect the work and perform the tests required by the Project Documentation.

2

The Contractor shall repeat tests and inspections after correcting non-conforming work until all work complies with the requirements. All re-testing and re-inspections shall be performed at no additional cost to the Client.

3

The Engineer may elect to perform additional inspections and tests at the place of the manufacture or the shipping point to verify compliance with applicable Specifications. Inspections and tests performed by the Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility to meet the Specifications. Inspections and tests by the Engineer shall not be considered a guarantee that materials delivered at a later time will be acceptable. All costs associated with the foregoing shall be borne by the Contractor.

4

Inspections and tests conducted by persons or agencies other than the Contractor, shall not in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility and obligation to meet all Specifications and referenced standards.

7.1.2

Inspections and Tests

1

All inspections and tests shall be conducted in accordance with written test procedures as detailed in the Project Quality Plan and Inspection and Test Plans that have been reviewed and approved by the Engineer.

2

Mandatory Products and Materials Sampling and Testing Frequencies are included in Part 14, Appendix A of this section. The Contractor shall follow the Sampling and Testing Frequencies stipulated in Appendix A unless otherwise stated in the Contract. The table in Appendix A shall be read and understood in tandem with the footnotes in Appendix A.

3

Inspection and test procedures submitted for approval shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

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7.1

(a)

inspection/test procedure reference

(b)

references to Clauses of this Specification and other standards along with applicable inspection/test levels specified therein

(c)

prerequisites for the given inspection/test

(d)

required tools, equipment

(e)

necessary environmental conditions

(f)

acceptance criteria

(g)

data to be recorded

(h)

reporting forms

(i)

Identification of items inspected and tested.

(j)

Contractors and Engineers Hold, Witness, Surveillance and Record Review Points

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 07: Inspection and Test

Page 3

Approved procedures and instructions shall be readily available and used by inspection and test personnel at the time of inspection or test. All revisions to these procedures and instructions shall be approved prior to being used to inspect or test the work. No deviations from the approved procedures and instructions shall be allowed without written authorisation from the Engineer.

5

Inspection and testing work shall be performed by personnel designated by the Contractor. Such personnel shall not be the same as those performing the work.

6

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a signed inspection report for each item of work inspected and tested. The report shall indicate whether the item of work, material and/or equipment complies with all the inspection/test criteria. The Contractor shall submit inspection/test results to the Engineer prior to incorporating the item(s) into the work. Inspection/test failures shall be reported to the Engineer immediately.

7

Inspection and test reports shall, as a minimum, identify the following: inspection/test procedure reference

(b)

name of inspector/tester

(c)

observations/comments

(d)

specified requirements

(e)

acceptability

(f)

deviations/non-conformance

(g)

corrective action

(h)

evaluation of results

(i)

authorised signature

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4

The Contractor shall clearly document and identify the inspections and test status of all materials and equipment throughout construction. Identification may be by means of stamps, tags, or other control devices attached to, or accompanying, the material or equipment.

7.1.3

Inspection and Test Status

1

The inspection and test status of materials, equipment and construction work shall be identified by suitable means, which indicates the conformance or non-conformance of materials, equipment and construction work with regard to inspection and tests performed. The identification of inspection and test status shall be maintained, as defined in the Quality Assurance Plan and/or documented procedures, throughout the course of construction to ensure that only materials, equipment and construction work that have passed the required inspections and tests are used or installed.

7.1.4

Inspections by the Engineer during construction

1

The Contractors Inspection and Test Plans will define Hold, Witness, Surveillance and Record Review points for the Engineer during construction. The contractor shall prepare, document and implement a Request for Inspection system that defines how the Engineer will be given sufficient notice to inspect the works in accordance with the Inspection and Test Plans.

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 07: Inspection and Test

Page 4

Inspections by the Engineer during Defects Liability Period

1

The Engineer will give the Contractor due notice of his intention to carry out any inspections during the defects liability period.

2

The Contractor shall arrange for a responsible representative to be present at the times and dates named by the Engineer.

3

The Contractor’s representative shall render all necessary assistance and take note of all matters to which his attention is directed by the Engineer

7.1.6

Workmanship

1

The Contractor shall comply with industry standards except when more restrictive tolerances or specified requirements indicate more rigid standards or more precise workmanship.

2

Only persons qualified to produce workmanship of the required quality shall perform works

3

The Contractor shall comply with manufactures’ published installation instructions / guides in full, including each step in sequence. Should instructions conflict with project documentation, the Contractor shall request clarification from the Engineer before proceeding.

7.1.7

Measuring and Test Equipment

1

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures which conform to accepted and approved national or international standards to control, calibrate and maintain inspection, measuring and test equipment used by the Contractor to demonstrate the conformance of materials, equipment and/or construction work with the requirements of the Project Documentation.

2

Inspection, measuring and test equipment shall be used in a manner which ensures that the measurement uncertainty is known and is consistent with the required measurement capability

3

The Contractor shall establish a unique identification number for each item of measuring and test equipment. This unique identification number shall be permanently affixed to each item of measuring and test equipment

4

The Contractor shall ensure that each item of inspection, measuring and test equipment is calibrated at intervals recommended by the manufacturer. Valid calibration certificates for measuring and testing equipment shall be present and available for inspection during inspections and tests.

5

The Contractor shall establish a log of all measuring and test equipment and record:

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7.1.5

(a)

equipment description

(b)

identification number

(c)

date of the last calibration

(d)

date that the next calibration is due.

QCS 2014

Page 5

The Contractor shall assess and record the validity of the previous measuring results when the equipment is subsequently found not to confirm to requirements. The Contractor shall take appropriate action on the equipment and any product affected.

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END OF PART

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 08: Materials

Page 1

MATERIALS .................................................................................................. 2

8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2 Plant, Materials, Goods and Workmanship 2 Handling and Storage of Materials 2 Identification and Control of Items and Materials 2

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 08: Materials

Page 2

MATERIALS

8.1

GENERAL

8.1.1

Plant, Materials, Goods and Workmanship

1

All Plant, materials, goods and workmanship shall be of the respective kinds described in the Contract with necessary approvals from the concerned authorities and in accordance with the Engineer's instructions and shall be subjected from time to time to such tests as the Engineer may direct at the place of manufacture or fabrication or on the Site or at all or any such places. The Contractor shall provide such assistance, instruments, machines, labour and material as are normally required for examining, measuring and testing any work and the quality, weight or quantity of any materials used and shall supply samples of materials before incorporation in the Works for testing as may be selected and required by the Engineer.

8.1.2

Handling and Storage of Materials

1

The Contractor shall establish procedures for handling and storage of materials and equipment.

2

The Contractor’s storage and handling procedures shall be designed to prevent damage, deterioration, distortion of shape or dimension, loss, degradation, loss of identification, or substitution.

3

The handling procedures shall address the use, inspection and maintenance of special devices such as crates, boxes, containers, dividers, slings, material handling and transportation equipment and other facilities.

4

The Contractor shall identify equipment and/or material requiring special handling or storage.

8.1.3

Identification and Control of Items and Materials

1

The Contractor shall establish control procedures to ensure that equipment and materials are properly used and installed.

2

The Contractor shall identify all items and materials so that they are traceable throughout all inspections, test activities, and records. For stored items, the identification method shall be consistent with the expected duration and type of storage.

3

The Contractor shall record equipment and material identifications and ensure that they are traceable to the location where they are incorporated into the Works.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 1

NONCONFORMANCE MONITORING .................................................................... 2

9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2 General 2 Review and Disposition of Nonconforming Items 2 Corrective Action 3 Identification of Nonconforming Items 3 Acceptance and Approval of Nonconforming items 4 Nonconformance Records 4

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 2

9

NONCONFORMANCE MONITORING

9.1

INTRODUCTION

9.1.1

General

1

The Contractor shall ensure that product which does not conform to Specification requirements is identified and controlled to prevent its unintended use or delivery. A documented procedure shall be established to define the controls and relate responsibilities and authorities for dealing with nonconforming product: by taking action to estimate the detected nonconformity

(b)

by authorizing its use, release or acceptance under concession by the Engineer

(c)

by taking action to preclude its original intended use or application

(d)

by taking action appropriate to the effects, or potential effects, of the nonconformity when nonconformity product is detected after delivery or use has started .

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(a)

When Conforming product is corrected it shall be subject to re-verification to demonstrate conformity to requirements.

3

Records of the nature of nonconformities and any subsequent actions taken, including concessions obtained by the engineer, shall be maintained.

4

The monitoring system shall apply to material and equipment as well as installation and construction which fail to conform to the Contract.

5

A Contractors Quality Nonconformance Template is included in Part 15 Appendix B of this Section and must be used for recording Nonconformance.

9.1.2

Review and Disposition of Nonconforming Items

1

The responsibility for review and authority for the disposition of nonconforming items shall be defined in the Quality Plan.

2

Nonconforming items shall be reviewed in accordance with documented procedures. A nonconforming item may be:

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(a)

reworked to meet the specified requirements

(b)

accepted with or without repair if agreed in writing by the Engineer

(c)

re-graded for alternative applications

(d)

rejected or scrapped.

3

The proposed use or repair of an item which does not conform to the requirements of the Project Documentation shall be reported to the Engineer. The description of the nonconformity and of repairs shall be recorded to denote the actual condition.

4

Repaired and/or reworked products shall be inspected in accordance with the Quality Assurance Plan and/or documented procedures

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 3

9.1.3

Corrective Action

1

The Contractor shall take action to eliminate the causes of nonconformities in order to prevent recurrence. Corrective actions shall be appropriate to the effects of the nonconformity encountered. A documented procedure shall be established to define requirements for: Reviewing nonconformities (including Engineer complaints)

(b)

Determining the causes of nonconformities

(c)

Evaluating the need for action to ensure that conformities do not occur

(d)

Determining and implementing actions needed

(e)

Records of the results of action taken and

(f)

Reviewing the effectiveness of the corrective action taken

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Any corrective or preventive action taken to eliminate the causes of actual or potential nonconformities shall be to a degree appropriate to the magnitude of problems and commensurate with the risks encountered.

3

The Contractor shall implement and record any changes to the documented procedures for implementing corrective and preventive action.

4

The Contractor shall take prompt action to identify the causes of each nonconformance and the corrective action necessary prevent recurrence. The results of failure and discrepancy report summaries, Contractor evaluations, and any other pertinent applicable data shall be used for determining corrective action. Information developed during construction, tests, and inspections that support the implementation of required improvements and corrections shall be used to support the adequacy of corrective action taken.

5

The procedures for preventive action shall include:

determination of the steps needed to deal with any problems requiring preventive action

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(b)

the use of appropriate sources of information such as processes and work operations which affect product quality, concessions, audit results, quality records and service reports to detect, analyse and eliminate potential causes of nonconformities

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(c)

initiation of preventive action and application of controls to ensure that it is effective

(d)

ensuring that relevant information on actions taken is submitted for management review

9.1.4

Identification of Nonconforming Items

1

The Contractor shall clearly identify each nonconforming item with a status tag or other distinguishing mark. The Contractor shall establish procedures for installing, monitoring, and removing these status tags and identify personnel authorised to remove status tags.

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Part 09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 4

9.1.5

Acceptance and Approval of Nonconforming items

1

Acceptance of the Contractors proposed disposition of Nonconforming items should be his obtained in writing from the Engineer prior to the undertaking of any remedial works by the his Contractor.

2

Close out of Nonconforming items must be agreed in writing by the Engineer.

9.1.6

Nonconformance Records

1

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with the following information for each nonconformance:

(b)

description of nonconformance

(c)

evaluation of nonconformance to establish the cause

(d)

recommended corrective action

(e)

date nonconformance was identified

(f)

date corrective action was completed

(g)

description of final corrective action.

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identification of nonconformance

unique sequential reference number

(b)

date issued

(c)

originator

(d)

description of item deemed to be in nonconformance

(e)

description of nonconformance

(f) (g)

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The Contractor shall establish and maintain a nonconformance log. The log shall contain the following information as a minimum:

Contractors recommended and final disposition Engineers acceptance of Contractors recommended and final disposition

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(a)

(h)

date closed

(i)

remarks, as applicable

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2

1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Definitions 2

1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7

SUBMITTALS .......................................................................................................... 3 Programme of Works 3 Preliminary Logs 3 Exploratory Hole Logs 4 Preliminary Laboratory Test Results 5 Digital Data 5 Form of Report 5 Approval of Report 6

1.3

QUALITY ASSURANCE .......................................................................................... 6

1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 1.4.10 1.4.11 1.4.12 1.4.13 1.4.14 1.4.15 1.4.16

GENERAL PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS .............................................................. 7 General 7 Working Areas 7 Turf and Topsoil 7 Paved Areas 7 Paving Slabs and Blocks 7 Claims for Damage 8 Geotechnical and Environmental Personnel 8 Location of Exploratory Holes 8 Ground Elevation of Exploratory Holes 8 Exploratory Work 8 Methods of Investigation 8 Safety and Management 9 Anomalous Conditions 9 Surface Water Control 9 Photographs 9 Facilities for the Engineer 10

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 2

1

GENERAL

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

Scope

1

General requirements and information for the execution of ground investigations.

2

Related Sections are as follows:

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Section 1 ......... General Section 2 ......... Quality Assurance and Quality Control Section 4 ......... Foundations and Retaining Structures Section 6 ......... Roadworks Section 8 ......... Drainage Works Section 12 ....... Earthworks Related to Buildings References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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1.1.2

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BS 5930......................Code of practice for site investigations BS EN 1997................Ground Investigation and testing

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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Deere D. U. et al., Design of surface and near-surface construction in rock. Proc. 8th US symposium on rock mechanics. AIME, New York, 1967

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Code of Practice and Specifications for Road Openings in the Highway issued by the Government. Definitions

1

Topsoil: the surface layer of earth that contains organic material and can also support vegetation.

2

Soil: earthen material not classified herein as topsoil or hard stratum.

3

Hard stratum and obstruction: The words 'hard stratum' and 'obstruction' shall mean natural or artificial material, including rock, which cannot be penetrated except by the use of chiselling techniques, rotary drilling, blasting or powered breaking tools. The term 'hard stratum' shall apply during boring, where it is shown that condition (1) or condition (2) below are fulfilled, provided that the boring rig involved is in good working order and is fully manned:

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1.1.3

(a)

Condition (1) 100 mm diameter undisturbed sample tubes cannot be driven more than 300 mm

(b)

Condition (2) a standard penetration resistance test shows a resistance in excess of 35 blows/75 mm.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 3

Fill: deposits or embankments which have been formed by persons, as distinct from geological agencies.

5

Exploratory Hole/Trench/Excavation: any boring, pit trench, ditch or shaft formed for the purpose of ground investigation.

6

Boring: hole in earth, excavated by either percussion or auger equipment.

7

Drilling: any hole in rock, excavated by rotary equipment.

8

Borehole: exploratory hole excavated by boring or drilling techniques.

1.2

SUBMITTALS

1.2.1

Programme of Works

1

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall prepare a programme of works for the investigation which will give a detailed schedule showing proposed time schedule for all aspect of the work, details of all plant and equipment to be used in addition to a list of personnel who will work on the project.

1.2.2

Preliminary Logs

1

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall prepare a preliminary log of each exploratory hole. For trial pits and trenches, a trial pit or trench map showing each face of the pit or trench shall be provided, as appropriate. Preliminary logs shall be submitted to the Engineer in duplicate within seven working days of completion of the explorations to which they refer to, and shall contain the information required for the exploratory hole logs.

2

Geotechnical Investigation Contractor activities shall fully comply with Ministry of Environment (MOE) requirements and/or those of other Government Departments, Ministries and Statutory Organizations.

3

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall obtain all necessary work permits and security permits prior to commencement of Geotechnical investigation of the site.

4

The investigation shall provide detailed information on the nature of the sub-strata, superficial deposits and ground water table at the site together with general recommendations for designing foundations and earthworks, new road pavements, culverts, retaining walls, etc.

5

The geotechnical investigation Exploratory Boreholes shall be spaced as mentioned in Section 2.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 4

The geotechnical investigation Exploratory Boreholes depths shall be as mentioned in Table 1.1. Table 1.1: Minimum Depth of Boreholes No of floors

Depth of Boreholes (m)

3 or Less

6

4

8

5

9

6

10

7

12

8

13 0.7

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2m below the inverted level; 1.5width of excavation. 2D (D=Diameter or equivalent diameter of the tunnel/underground structure.

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  

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For trenches, pipeline and Tunnels, the depth of Boreholes shall be the larger value of:

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Notes:  The depth of boreholes is measured from foundation level.  S is the number of floors.  For structures small in plan area, exploration should be made at a minimum of three points, unless other reliable information is available in the immediate vicinity. Where a structure consists of a number of adjacent units, one exploration point per unit may suffice.  For piles the depth of Boreholes is at least below the depth of pile tip by 5m or 5D (D is the diameter of the pile at the toe) whichever is greater.  For roads, the depth of Boreholes shall be greater than 2m below the proposed formation Level.

Exploratory Hole Logs

1

The exploratory hole logs shall be prepared and presented to a suitable vertical scale. The logs shall include all the information that follows, such information having been updated as necessary in the light of laboratory testing and further examination of samples and cores.

2

Information for exploratory hole logs:

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Drilling

Pit and Trench

Static and Dynamic Probing









National grid co-ordinates









Ground level related to the datum









Elevation of each stratum referred to the datum







()

Rotary Borehole

All the designated information

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 5

Drilling

Pit and Trench

Static and Dynamic Probing







()

Details of groundwater observations







()

Symbolic legend of strata in accordance with BS 5930







()

Rotary Borehole Description of each stratum in accordance with BS 5930 and initials of person who carried out the logging (and responsible Supervisor if under training)

Core recovery as percentage of each core run



Rock Quality Designation, RQD (Deere et al. 1967)



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_____ Note:  means information required; () means information required if applicable. Preliminary Laboratory Test Results

1

Laboratory test results shall be submitted to the Engineer in batches at the completion of each week's testing. Legible photocopies of work sheets are acceptable.

1.2.5

Digital Data

1

Data from the investigation shall be provided in digital form to the approval of the Engineer.

1.2.6

Form of Report

1

The report shall comprise of a factual or interpretative or both types of reports as required by the Employer or Engineer. Reports shall begin with a cover page showing the name of the Contract and the names of the Employer, Engineer and Geotechnical Investigation Contractor. Report pages shall be numbered consecutively.

2

The factual report shall contain, as a minimum, the following information: A statement from the Engineer on the purpose and rationale of the investigation.

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1.2.4

(b)

A description of the work carried out, including reference to specification and standards adopted and any deviations from them.

(c)

Exploratory hole logs.

(d)

In-situ test records.

(e)

Laboratory test results.

(f)

Plan with locations of exploratory holes.

(g)

Site location plan.

(h)

Geological cross-sections (if appropriate).

The plans shall be to a stated scale and shall include a north arrow. Additional information shall be provided as designated.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

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The interpretative report shall contain the following information: (a)

A written appraisal of the ground and water conditions.

(b)

Analysis and recommendations as designated.

When so designated, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall supply the calculations and analyses on which recommendations are based. Approval of Report

1

A draft copy of the factual report and the interpretative report shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before submission of the final report.

1.3

QUALITY ASSURANCE

1

Only Geotechnical Investigation Contractors holding a current approval certificate from the Central Materials Laboratory shall be permitted to carry out ground investigations.

2

The work shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant British Standards or equivalent.

3

Where specifically designated, all work shall be carried out in accordance with a quality management system established in accordance with Section 2 Quality Assurance and Quality Control of the QCS. Records to indicate compliance with quality management shall be made available to the Engineer on request.

4

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall provide full time professional attendance on site. The professional attendant shall be approved by the Engineer, and shall be responsible for the technical direction of all fieldwork.

5

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor’s geotechnical and environmental personnel employed on the Contract shall be competent to undertake the work required. Categories of personnel who may be required by the Contract are as follows:

(b)

Graduate Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Scientist. Graduate Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Scientist with at least three years of

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(c)

Technician.

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1.2.7

relevant experience since graduation.

(d)

Professional Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Scientist with at least five years of relevant experience.

(e)

6

Professional Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Specialist with at least ten years of relevant experience.

All drillers employed on the Contract shall be experienced and competent in percussion or auger boring or rotary drilling, to the complete satisfaction of the Engineer. One competent drilling supervisor per site shall be permanently on the Site during borehole operations.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 7

GENERAL PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS

1.4.1

General

1

Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall only use access routes to and between exploration sites that are approved by the Engineer.

2

Where the presence of underground services is likely, exploratory holes shall be started by means of a hand excavated inspection pit.

3

In addition to any designated notice, at least one working day's notice of the intended time of entry shall be given to the land owner and occupier of the exploration site.

4

All work shall be carried out with the least possible damage to the Site and its environs.

5

All barriers breached or otherwise disturbed during the execution of site operations shall be immediately repaired or replaced to the same standard.

6

Working hours shall be restricted to those designated.

7

Daily allocation sheets detailing the work carried out shall be submitted in duplicate at the end of each day’s work.

1.4.2

Working Areas

1

Operations shall be confined to the minimum area of ground required for the Works. Unless otherwise designated, on completion of each exploration all equipment, surplus material and rubbish of every kind shall be cleared away and removed from the Site. Damage to land or property in the vicinity of the exploratory hole and on access routes shall be made good. The whole of the Site and any ancillary works shall be left in a clean and tidy condition.

1.4.3

Turf and Topsoil

1

Turf and topsoil shall be stripped from the site of each exploration and stockpiled for future replacement. Vegetation and topsoil adjacent to the exploration which may be damaged by the operations shall either be removed and stockpiled as above, or otherwise protected from damage. After completion of the exploration all topsoil shall be replaced and the Site restored to its original condition.

1.4.4

Paved Areas

1

Pavement from paved areas (other than paving slabs and blocks) shall be broken out to the minimum extent necessary for each exploration. After completion of the exploration and backfill of the excavation, the disturbed subgrade shall be compacted and the paving replaced.

2

Restoration of highway pavement shall be in accordance with the current Code of Practice and Specification for Road Openings in the Highway issued by the Government.

1.4.5

Paving Slabs and Blocks

1

Paving slabs and blocks shall be removed from the Site, as required for each exploration, and stored for reuse.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 8

Contiguous paving slabs and blocks which are liable to be damaged by the operations shall either be removed and stored as above or otherwise protected from damage.

3

After completion of the exploration and backfill of the excavation, the disturbed subgrade shall be compacted and the paving slabs and blocks relayed.

1.4.6

Claims for Damage

1

Any damage, or claim for compensation for damage by owners or occupiers of the Site, shall be reported to the Engineer.

1.4.7

Geotechnical and Environmental Personnel

1

In addition to the provision of the designated personnel by the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor, the Engineer may specifically require the services of geotechnical and environmental personnel for advice, assistance or preparation of interpretative reports. The form of interpretative reports shall be agreed with the Engineer. Details of the qualifications and experience of the personnel shall be supplied to the Engineer.

1.4.8

Location of Exploratory Holes

1

The location of each exploratory hole shall be measured from an approved grid co-ordinate system, and shall be accurate to within 1 m, and the position recorded on a plan as

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designated.

Ground Elevation of Exploratory Holes

1

The elevation of the ground at each exploratory hole shall be established, on the basis of the Qatar National Datum unless otherwise designated or approved by the Engineer, to the nearest 0.05 m.

1.4.10

Exploratory Work

1

The location and depth of each exploratory hole shall be as designated. The Engineer may, after consultation with the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor, vary the location and depth of any exploratory hole and the sequence or quantity of in-situ testing depending on the actual ground conditions encountered. When the position of an exploratory hole has been varied, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall take all necessary measurements and shall inform the Engineer of the revised co-ordinates and ground elevation or other measurements required to locate the exploratory hole.

1.4.11

Methods of Investigation

1

The Engineer will have the option to require any of the following methods of investigation. These options will comprise, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:

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1.4.9

(a)

Desk study.

(b)

Geological mapping.

(c)

Topographic survey.

(d)

Aerial photographs.

or any other methods described in this Section.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 9

Safety and Management

1

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall submit detailed Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) to all site activities including but not limited to potential hazard, who/what might be harmed, control/ recovery measure, responsible person…etc.

2

The presence and nature of known areas of hazardous or contaminated ground are designated, based on available records. If evidence of further hazardous or contaminated ground is encountered, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall immediately so inform the Engineer. If required by the Engineer, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor’s work plan shall be revised appropriately to take into account the nature and level of contamination encountered. Where contaminated land is present or suspected the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall take the appropriate health and safety precautions as directed by the Engineer and where appropriate by the Civil Defence Department of the Government. Care shall be taken to avoid contaminating the egress from the Site.

3

A method statement indicating the safety procedures to be followed during the investigation of hazardous or contaminated ground shall be provided by the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor before beginning the investigation in the hazardous or contaminated ground.

4

Traffic safety and management measures shall be provided, in accordance with the provisions of traffic control of Section 1, General. Where the circumstances of any particular case are not designated, proposals for dealing with such situations shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

1.4.13

Anomalous Conditions

1

Where anomalous or unexpected features are revealed, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall immediately inform the Engineer.

1.4.14

Surface Water Control

1

Surface water or other water shall be prevented from entering the exploratory hole, except as permitted by the Engineer.

1.4.15

Photographs

1

Colour photographs shall be taken and supplied by the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor as designated. Each photograph shall clearly show all necessary details, and shall have its scale identified.

2

A single gloss colour print (size 150 mm by 100 mm) copy of each photograph shall be submitted to the Engineer for his approval, within seven working days of the photography. In the event that the photographs are of a quality unacceptable to the Engineer, they shall be retaken.

3

On acceptance of the quality of the photograph, two complete sets of prints of all the photographs shall be presented, annotated and submitted in bound volumes, together with the original photograph digital format with the factual report.

4

Particular requirements for photographs of cores and pits and trenches are given in Parts 3 and 4

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1.4.12

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 01: General

Page 10

1.4.16

Facilities for the Engineer

1

When required by the particular contract documentation, facilities to the designated standard shall be provided for the use of the Engineer, as described in Section 1.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 02: Boreholes

Page 1

BOREHOLES .......................................................................................................... 2

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2

2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3

BOREHOLES GENERALLY .................................................................................... 2 Method and Diameter 2 Addition of Water to the Borehole 3 Backfilling 3

2.3 2.3.1

PERCUSSION BORING .......................................................................................... 3 Hard Stratum or Obstruction in Percussion Boring 3

2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3

AUGER BORING ..................................................................................................... 3 Hand Auger 3 Continuous Flight Auger Boring 3 Hollow Stem Flight Auger 3

2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6

ROTARY DRILLING ................................................................................................ 3 General 3 Drilling Fluid 4 Rotary Drilling with Core Recovery 4 Rotary Drilling without Core Recovery 6 Backfilling 6 Photographs 6

2.6

BOREHOLES OVERWATER .................................................................................. 6

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 02: Boreholes

Page 2

2

BOREHOLES

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

1

Advancement of boreholes by percussion boring, auger boring, and rotary drilling.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

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Section 4, ........ Foundations and Retaining Structures Section 6, ........ Roadworks Section 8, ........ Drainage Works Section 12, ...... Earthworks Related to Buildings

.

Part 1 ............... General

References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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BS 5930 ......................Code of practice for site investigations.

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BS EN 1997 ................Ground Investigation and testing

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction Purposes ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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Engineering Group of the Geological Society Working Party Report The logging of rock cores for engineering purposes (1970).

BOREHOLES GENERALLY

2.2.1

Method and Diameter

1

The method of advancement and the diameter of a borehole shall be such that the boring can be completed and logged to the designated depth, and samples of the designated diameter can be obtained, in-situ testing carried out and instrumentation installed.

2

The following methods may be employed for advancement of a borehole unless otherwise designated:

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(a)

Percussion boring.

(b)

Auger boring (If hollow stem augering is proposed, the Contractor shall satisfy the Employer that the SPT values obtained are not effected by disturbance of the soil by the auger head, or the presence of material within the hollow stem.).

(c)

Rotary drilling.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 02: Boreholes

Page 3

Addition of Water to the Borehole

1

Jetting with water shall not be used to assist the advance of the borehole, except where approved by the Engineer. Where the borehole penetrates below the water table and disturbance of the soils is likely, a positive hydraulic head shall be maintained in the borehole.

2.2.3

Backfilling

1

The Contractor shall backfill boreholes in such a manner as to minimise subsequent depression at the ground surface due to settlement of the backfill. In some circumstances, grout or special infilling may be required by the Engineer. Where artesian or other water conditions make normal backfilling impracticable, the Contractor shall consult and agree with the Engineer a procedure for sealing the borehole.

2.3

PERCUSSION BORING

2.3.1

Hard Stratum or Obstruction in Percussion Boring

1

In a borehole where percussion boring is employed and a hard stratum or obstruction is encountered, the Contractor shall employ chiselling techniques for a period of up to 1 h.

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Should this not penetrate through the hard stratum or obstruction the Contractor shall inform the Engineer, who may instruct the use of one or more of the following: continuation of chiselling techniques

(b)

rotary or other approved drilling until the stratum is penetrated

(c)

abandonment of the borehole.

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AUGER BORING

2.4.1

Hand Auger

1

Hand auger boring may be appropriate in suitable self-supporting strata.

2.4.2

Continuous Flight Auger Boring

1

Where continuous flight auger boring is used, it shall be carried out under the full-time supervision of a person meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c) who shall produce, as boring proceeds, a record of the material and groundwater encountered.

2.4.3

Hollow Stem Flight Auger

1

Where hollow stem flight auger boring is used, the equipment used shall be such as to bore and recover samples as designated. Sampling shall be carried out through the hollow stem.

2.5

ROTARY DRILLING

2.5.1

General

1

Rotary drilling may be required for the recovery of cores, or for the advancement of a hole in rock, with or without core recovery.

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2.4

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 02: Boreholes

Page 4

Drilling Fluid

1

The drilling fluid shall normally be clean water, air or air mist. However, with the approval of the Engineer, drilling muds, additives or foam may be used.

2.5.3

Rotary Drilling with Core Recovery

1

Unless otherwise designated rotary core drilling shall be carried out by a double or triple tube coring system incorporating a removable inner liner or split tube. The triple tube system may be affected by use of a double tube barrel with an approved semi-rigid liner.

2

Rotary core drilling shall produce cores of not less than the designated diameter throughout the core length. Care shall be exercised in the drilling so as to optimise core recovery.

3

The first drill run in each hole shall not exceed 1 m in length. Subsequent drill runs shall not

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2.5.2

normally exceed 3 m in length and the core barrel shall be removed from the drill hole as

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Removal of cores and labelling of liners shall be carried out as follows: All operations entailed in recovering the cores from the ground after completion of drilling shall be carried out in a manner such as to minimise disturbance to the cores.

(b)

Core barrels or inner tube in case of wireline shall be held horizontally while the innermost liner containing the core is removed without vibration and in a manner to prevent disturbance to the core. The core should be rigidly supported at all times while it is being extruded and during subsequent handling, and the liner containing the core must not be allowed to flex

(c)

Immediately after removing the liner the top and bottom shall be marked in indelible ink. The ends of liners shall be capped and sealed using adhesive tape. Liners shall

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(a)

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often as is required to obtain the best possible core recovery or alternatively the core samples shall be retrieved by means of wireline. The Engineer may designate in-situ testing between drill runs.

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be cut to the length of the enclosed core. Alternatively, should a metallic split tube be used, the samples shall be placed in half cut PVC pipes sealed with the second half after core samples description with marking of the core run on the PVC tube and the core box.

5

(d)

Where the length of core recovered from any single core run is such that it cannot be accommodated in one channel of the core box, the liner shall be cut to coincide, if possible, with existing fractures. The liner either side of the cut shall be marked 'cut' and the ends capped as above.

(e)

Each section of liner shall be marked with the contract title, exploratory hole reference number, date and the depths of the top and bottom of the drill run.

(f)

Core obtained without a liner and that from within the core catcher but not inside the liner shall be wrapped in two layers of plastic cling film and labelled to indicate the depth and exploratory hole reference number.

Core boxes, packing, labelling, storing shall be carried out as follows: (a)

Core boxes shall be soundly constructed and fitted with stout carrying handles, fastenings and hinged lids. The total weight of the cores and box shall together not exceed 60 kg.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 02: Boreholes

Page 5

Cores shall be rigidly and securely packed at the site of drilling and during all subsequent handling and storage the cores shall remain packed unless required for examination or testing. Cores shall be placed in the box, in their liners where used, with the shallowest core to the top left hand corner, the top being considered adjacent to the hinged section. Cores from the core catcher shall also be placed in the core boxes at the correct relative depth.

(c)

Depth shall be indicated on the core box by durable markers at the beginning and end of each drill run. Rigid core spacers shall be used to indicate missing lengths. The contract title, exploratory hole reference number and the depth of coring contained in each bore shall be clearly indicated in indelible ink inside, on top and on the right-hand end of the box and on the inside of the box lid.

(d)

Core boxes containing core shall be kept horizontal and moved and handled with care at all times. Cores shall be protected from direct sunlight. At the end of each day's work, core boxes shall be stored secure from interference and protected from the weather.

Cores shall be prepared for examination as follows: (a)

Cores shall be prepared for examination by the removal of sealing materials and splitting of liners in such a way as not to damage the cores. Plastic liners shall be cut lengthways such that at least half the core circumference is exposed. If half PVC is used, care should be taken while removing and replacing the split half.

(b)

Before examination of the core, the Contractor shall photograph the cores. The time between beginning preparation and the examination of the prepared and photographed cores shall be minimised to prevent loss of moisture from the core samples.

(c)

Cores shall be examined and described on site by a person meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c) in accordance with BS 5930 or ASTM D 2488 and the recommendations of the Engineering Group of the Geological Society Working Party Report The logging of rock cores for engineering purpose (1970).

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(b)

When the examination of the cores has been completed, the Contractor may be required to retain separately designated core sub-samples for possible laboratory testing. The Contractor shall cut the liner and cap and seal the core sub-samples in such a way as to prevent loss of moisture and sample disturbance. They shall be clearly labelled so that the location, depth and origin of the sub-samples can be readily identified. Cores in their liners remaining after the designated sub-samples have been removed shall be end-capped and resealed and replaced in the original core box location. Rigid spacers shall be placed in the spaces in the cores boxes previously occupied by the core sub-samples to prevent movement of adjacent cores and these shall be labelled identically to the core sub-samples that they replace. The core sub-samples shall be retained in separate core boxes clearly marked to indicate the origin of the cores contained within.

8

The Contractor shall protect all cores and transport them including loading and unloading to

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(a)

The Contractor's premises.

(b)

For a number of selected cores, to the designated address.

After submittal of the approved final report, the Contractor shall retain cores, other than those delivered to the designated address, for a period of time required by the Engineer. The Engineer's written permission shall be obtained before disposal of the cores, but the required retention period will normally not exceed three months.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 02: Boreholes

Page 6

2.5.4

Rotary Drilling without Core Recovery

1

Rotary blind bit or rotary percussive drilling may be used to advance a hole. The hole diameter shall be as designated.

2

When used for the purpose of locating mineral seams, mineworkings, adits, shafts, other cavities or anomalous conditions, drilling shall be under the full-time supervision of a person meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c). As drilling proceeds a systematic record shall be made of the drilling methods, rate of penetration, loss of flushing medium, the material penetrated and any cavities or broken ground encountered. Backfilling

1

Except where otherwise designated, the Contractor shall backfill rotary drill holes with clean, well graded aggregate. The aggregate size and gradation shall be approved by the Engineer. Under special circumstances grout may be required to backfill the holes. The grout shall consist of equal portions by weight of ordinary Portland cement and bentonite mixed by machine or hand to a uniform colour and consistency before placing, with a moisture content not greater than 250 %. The grout shall be introduced at the bottom of the hole by means of

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a tremie pipe, which shall be raised but kept below the grout surface as the filling proceeds. Where artesian water conditions or voids make normal grouting impracticable, the Contractor shall consult and agree with the Engineer a procedure for sealing the drill hole.

2.5.6

Photographs

1

In addition to the requirements of Part 1, the Contractor shall photograph cores where required in a fresh condition before logging and ensure that the following criteria are fulfilled:

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A graduated scale in centimetres is provided.

(b)

Labels and markers are clearly legible in the photograph.

(c)

A clearly legible reference board identifying the project title, exploratory hole number, date, and depth of drill runs shall be included in each photograph.

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Core boxes are evenly and consistently lit.

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(a)

(e)

The length of the core box in each photograph fills the frame.

(f)

The focal plane of the camera and the plane of the core box are parallel.

(g)

The camera is placed in the same position with respect to the core box in every photograph.

(h)

The resolution of the camera is not less than 8Mpixels.

(i)

The photograph taken should be in focus along all the core samples length.

2.6

BOREHOLES OVERWATER

1

When boreholes are required overwater the method of drilling and sampling shall comply in general with the other requirements given in this Section, with the exception of backfilling.

2

Overwater boreholes shall be undertaken by the use of overwater staging, work over platform (WOP) jack-up vessels, anchored floating vessels or any other methods agreed with the Engineer.

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Control of the elevation related to the borehole/seabed surface or varying stratums shall be related to the top of the casing installed. Anchored floating vessels will keep a constant record of tidal movement between the vessel and the fixed casing elevation and make any allowances necessary.

4

Boring or drilling operations will cease when the wave height exceeds the designated maximum value relating to standing time due to inclement weather, if this item is applicable to the Contract under the contract specific documentation.

5

An accurate method of measuring wave height from trough to crest will be installed on the drilling vessel or platform and calibrated and approved by the Engineer before beginning drilling operations.

6

All overwater operations will comply with all local government regulations related to such work and will also comply fully with any Safety of Lives at Sea (SOLAS) regulations in force at the time.

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 03: Pits and Trenches

Page 1

PITS AND TRENCHES ........................................................................................... 2

3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Quality Assurance 2

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6

PITS AND TRENCHES GENERALLY ..................................................................... 2 Pit and Trench Dimensions 2 Contaminated Ground 2 Groundwater 3 Protection to Pits and Trenches Left Open 3 Backfilling and Restoration 3 Photographs 3

3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3

INSPECTION PITS .................................................................................................. 3 Excavation Method 3 Services 3 Sidewall Stability 4

3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4

TRIAL PITS AND TRENCHES ................................................................................ 4 Excavation Method 4 Services 4 Sidewall Stability 4 Trial Pits Examination 4

3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3

OBSERVATION PITS AND TRENCHES ................................................................. 4 Excavation Method 4 Services 5 Sidewall Stability 5

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Page 2

3

PITS AND TRENCHES

3.1

GENERAL

3.1.1

Scope

1

Inspection pits, trial pits and trenches, observation pits and trenches.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

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Section 1, ....... General Section 4, ....... Foundations and Retaining Structures Section 6, ....... Roadworks Section 8, ....... Drainage Works Section 12, ..... Earthworks Related to Buildings.

.

Part 1, .............. General

References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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BS 5930 ...................... Code of practice for site investigations

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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Code of Practice and Specifications for Road Openings in the Highway issued by the Government. Quality Assurance

1

Trial pits and trenches and observation pits and trenches shall be examined and described by a geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c) and photographed, if required.

3.2

PITS AND TRENCHES GENERALLY

3.2.1

Pit and Trench Dimensions

1

Unless otherwise designated

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2.

(a)

Trial pits and observation pits shall have a minimum base area of 1.5 m

(b)

Trial trenches and observation trenches shall not be less than 1 m wide.

3.2.2

Contaminated Ground

1

Ground that is suspected of being contaminated shall be described by an environmental or geotechnical person, as appropriate, meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c).

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Groundwater

1

The Contractor shall divert surface water runoff from entering pits and trenches.

2

Groundwater shall be controlled by the use of wellpoints or sump pumps to permit continuous work if required.

3.2.4

Protection to Pits and Trenches Left Open

1

Where pits and trenches are required to be left open and unattended, the Contractor shall provide fencing together with all necessary lighting and signing.

2

Precautions shall be taken to protect the pits and trenches from the adverse effects of weather during this period.

3.2.5

Backfilling and Restoration

1

Pits and trenches shall be backfilled as soon as practicable and reinstated to their original condition.

2

The backfill shall be placed in lifts of 150 mm thickness and compacted in such a manner as to minimise any subsequent settlement of the ground surface.

3

The use of sand backfill compacted by flooding may be permitted, but this method requires the approval of the Engineer.

4

In paved areas, the pavement shall be restored.

3.2.6

Photographs

1

In addition to the requirements of Part 1, photographs shall clearly show details of the ground conditions in the pit and trench with any support in place and shall contain a graduated scale.

2

Material derived from the excavation shall be photographed, when directed by the Engineer. Artificial lighting shall be used where necessary.

3

Unless directed otherwise by the Engineer, three photographs will normally be required at every pit and trench.

3.3

INSPECTION PITS

3.3.1

Excavation Method

1

Inspection pits for the location of underground services shall be excavated by hand to a depth of 1.2 m unless otherwise designated.

2

Hand-operated power tools may be used to assist excavation where necessary.

3.3.2

Services

1

The locations, depths and dimensions of all services encountered shall be measured and recorded in the daily report with other designated information.

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3.2.3

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Sidewall Stability

1

Due care shall be exercised to ensure the stability of the sides of the excavation at all times.

3.4

TRIAL PITS AND TRENCHES

3.4.1

Excavation Method

1

Trial pits and trenches shall be excavated by hand to a maximum depth of 1.2 m or by machine to the required depth to enable visual examination and sampling from outside the pit or trench as required.

2

Where dewatering is required, the pumping equipment used shall be adequate to lower the water table to the required level.

3.4.2

Services

1

The locations, depths and dimensions of all services encountered shall be measured and recorded in the daily report with other designated information.

3.4.3

Sidewall Stability

1

Excavations deeper than 1.2 m shall be braced if necessary.

3.4.4

Trial Pits Examination

1

All recovered materials from the Trial Pits shall be examined in accordance with BS 5930 or ASTM D 2488 and the recommendations of the Engineering Group of the Geological Society Working Party.

2

Disturbed samples shall be obtained from the trial pits for laboratory testing and geological description purposes. The samples shall be taken to be representative of the actual site conditions (i.e. from each layer) and placed in airtight bags, labeled and taken to laboratories for examination and testing.

3

Color photographs shall be taken for each excavated trial pit with a metric scale laid into the pit after cleaning it, indicating the pits details such as trial pit number, date and depth.

3.5

OBSERVATION PITS AND TRENCHES

3.5.1

Excavation Method

1

Observation pits and trenches shall be excavated by hand or machine and shall be adequately supported to enable personnel to enter safely and to permit in-situ examination, soil sampling and testing as required. In areas where dewatering is required, the equipment and methods proposed must be approved by the Engineer before beginning the work.

2

All recovered materials from the pit/trench shall be examined in accordance with BS 5930 or ASTM D 2488.

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3.3.3

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Page 5

Disturbed samples shall be obtained for laboratory testing and geological description purposes (if required). The samples shall be taken to be representative of the actual site conditions (i.e. from each layer) and placed in airtight bags, labeled and taken to laboratories for examination and testing.

4

Color photographs shall be taken for each excavated pit with a metric scale laid into the pit after cleaning it, indicating the pits details such as trial pit number, date and depth.

3.5.2

Services

1

The locations, depths and dimensions of all services encountered shall be measured and recorded in the daily report with other designated information.

3.5.3

Sidewall Stability

1

Due care shall be exercised to ensure the stability of the sides of the excavation at all times.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 04: Soil Sampling

Page 1

SOIL SAMPLING ..................................................................................................... 2

4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2

4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5

SAMPLING GENERALLY ........................................................................................ 2 Sampling and Testing Frequency 2 Recording depths of samples 3 Description of samples 3 Labelling, Protection and Transportation of Samples 3 Retention and Disposal of Samples 3

4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4

SOIL SAMPLES....................................................................................................... 3 Small Disturbed Samples 3 Bulk Disturbed Samples 3 Open Tube and Piston Samples 4 Standard Penetration Test Samples 4

4.4

GROUNDWATER SAMPLES .................................................................................. 4

4.5

SAMPLES OF SUSPECTED CONTAMINATED GROUND, GROUNDWATER AND LEACHATE FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ................................................................ 4

4.6

GAS SAMPLING...................................................................................................... 5

4.7

SPECIAL SAMPLING .............................................................................................. 5

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 04: Soil Sampling

Page 2

4

SOIL SAMPLING

4.1

GENERAL

4.1.1

Scope

1

Taking of samples of soil, groundwater, gas and contaminants. Sample handling, transportation, storage, retention and disposal.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

References

1

The following documents are referred to in this Part:

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Part 1, .............. General Part 2, .............. Boreholes Part 3, .............. Pits and Trenches.

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure) BS 5930 ......................Code of practice for site investigations

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BSI –DD 175 ..............Code of practice for the identification of potentially contaminated land and its investigation (draft for development).

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BS EN 1997--- ............ Ground Investigation and testing

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ICE et al, Soil Investigation Steering Group (SISG) Publication, Soil investigation in construction, Part 4, Guidelines for the safe investigation by drilling of landfills and contaminated land, Thomas Telford, (1993).

SAMPLING GENERALLY

4.2.1

Sampling and Testing Frequency

1

The frequency of sampling and in-situ testing is dependent on the ground conditions. In the absence of designated requirements the intervals observed shall be as follows:

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4.2

(a)

(b)

in boreholes (i)

first open tube sample (generally in clay soils) or standard penetration test (SPT) (generally in granular soils) at 0.5 m depth, the next at 1.0 m depth, thereafter at 1 m intervals to 5 m depth then at 1.5 m intervals.

(ii)

small disturbed samples shall be taken from the topsoil, at each change in soil

(iii)

type or consistency and midway between successive open tube samples or SPT’s.

(iv)

Bulk disturbed samples shall be taken of each soil type.

in pits and trenches

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 04: Soil Sampling

Page 3

(i)

Small disturbed samples shall be taken of the topsoil, at each change in soil type or consistency and between successive bulk disturbed samples.

(ii)

Bulk disturbed samples shall be taken at 1 m depth intervals, with at least one large bulk disturbed sample of each soil type.

Recording depths of samples

1

The depths below ground level at which samples are taken shall be recorded. For open tube and piston samples the depth to the top and bottom of the sample, and the length of sample obtained shall be given. For bulk samples the limits of the sampled zone shall be recorded.

4.2.3

Description of samples

1

All samples shall be examined and described by a geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1, Clause 1.3.1, Paragraph 5 Item (c) in accordance with BS 5930. Samples of suspected contaminated ground and leachate shall be described by an environmental or geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1, Clause 1.5, Paragraph 5 Item (c) in accordance with DD 175. Descriptions shall include colour and smell with reference to specific inclusions.

4.2.4

Labelling, Protection and Transportation of Samples

1

Samples shall be clearly labelled in accordance with BS 5930. Samples of fill, groundwater, leachate or contaminated ground suspected to be toxic or hazardous shall be tagged with a red label.

2

Samples shall be protected from direct heat and sunlight.

3

Samples shall be transported to the Contractor's premises. Where required by the Engineer, selected samples shall be delivered to the designated address.

4.2.5

Retention and Disposal of Samples

1

Samples shall be kept for the designated period after submission of the approved final report. This period shall not exceed three months, unless specifically designated otherwise. The Contractor shall ultimately dispose of all samples other than those delivered to the designated address.

4.3

SOIL SAMPLES

4.3.1

Small Disturbed Samples

1

Small disturbed samples shall weigh not less than 0.5 kg. They shall be placed immediately in airtight containers, which they should sensibly fill.

4.3.2

Bulk Disturbed Samples

1

Bulk disturbed samples shall be representative of the zone from which they have been taken.

2

Normal bulk disturbed samples shall weigh not less than 10 kg.

3

Large bulk disturbed samples shall weigh not less than 30 kg.

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4.2.2

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Page 4

Open Tube and Piston Samples

1

Open tube and piston samples shall be taken using the sampling equipment and procedures as described in BS 5930. The diameter shall be 100 mm unless otherwise designated.

2

Before an open tube or piston sample is taken, the bottom of the hole shall be carefully cleared of disturb materials and where a casing is being used the sample shall be taken below the bottom of the casing. Following a break in the work exceeding one hour, the borehole shall be advanced by 250 mm before open tube or piston sampling is resumed.

3

Where an attempt to take an open tube or piston sample is unsuccessful the hole shall be cleaned out for the full depth to which the sampling tube has penetrated and the recovered soil saved as a bulk disturbed sample. A fresh attempt shall then be made from the level of the base of the unsuccessful attempt. Should this second attempt also prove unsuccessful the Contractor shall agree with the Engineer as to alternative means of sampling.

4

The samples shall be sealed immediately to preserve their natural moisture content and in such a manner as to prevent the sealant from entering any voids in the sample.

5

Soil from the cutting shoe of an open tube shall be retained as an additional small disturbed sample.

4.3.4

Standard Penetration Test Samples

1

When a standard penetration test (SPT) is made, the sample from the split barrel sampler shall be retained as a small disturbed sample.

4.4

GROUNDWATER SAMPLES

1

Groundwater samples shall be taken from each exploratory hole where groundwater is encountered. Where more than one groundwater level is found, each one shall be sampled separately. Where water has been previously added, the hole shall be bailed out before

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sampling so that only groundwater is present. The sample volume shall be not less than 0.25 l.

SAMPLES OF SUSPECTED CONTAMINATED GROUND, GROUNDWATER AND LEACHATE FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

1

Samples of suspected contaminated ground, groundwater and leachate shall be taken in accordance with DD 175 and the SISG publication under the supervision of an environmental or geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1, Clause 1.5, Paragraph 5 Item (c).

2

The size and type of sample and container, method of sampling and time limitations for carrying out specific analyses shall be commensurate with the range of analyses to be carried out or as designated.

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Page 5

GAS SAMPLING

1

Samples of gas for chromatographic analysis shall be obtained from exploratory holes or standpipes in accordance with DD 175 and the SISG publication. The sampling method shall relate to the volume of gas available and the type of laboratory analysis. The sampler receptacle shall be airtight and may include lockable syringes, Teflon-lined bags or gas bombs.

4.7

SPECIAL SAMPLING

1

The Engineer may require special sampling. This work will normally require supervision on site by a geotechnical person and shall be carried out in accordance with BS 5930 or as designated.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

Page 1

IN-SITU TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING............................... 2

5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2

5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2

TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING GENERALLY ...................... 2 Testing 2 Instrumentation and Monitoring 3

5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6

TESTS ..................................................................................................................... 3 Tests in accordance with BS 1377 or BS EN 1997 3 Tests in accordance with BS 5930 4 Geophysical Methods of Investigation 4 Special In-Situ Testing 4 Hand Penetrometer and Hand Vane for Shear Strength 5 Self-boring Pressuremeter 5

5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING .............................................................. 6 Groundwater 6 Installation of Standpipes and Piezometers 6 Installation of Gas Monitoring Standpipes 6

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5

IN-SITU TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING

5.1

GENERAL

5.1.1

Scope

1

Testing of soils in place, and provision of instrumentation and monitoring of groundwater and subsurface gases.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

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Part 1 ............... General Part 2 ............... Boreholes Part 3 ............... Pits and Trenches. References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction Purposes ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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BS 1377......................Methods of tests for soils for civil engineering purposes BS 5930......................Code of practice for site investigations

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BS 7022......................Geophysical logging of boreholes for hydrogeological purposes

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BS EN 1997................Ground Investigation and testing

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The Geological Society Engineering Group Working Party Report on Engineering Geophysics, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 21, pp. 207-271, 1988.

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Clarke B.G. and Smith A., A model specification for radial displacement measuring pressuremeters, Ground Engineering, Volume 25, No. 2, March, 1992.

TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING GENERALLY

5.2.1

Testing

1

The following information shall be submitted for each test record to be included in the daily report, preliminary log and factual report:

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5.2

(a)

Date of test.

(b)

Project name, exploratory hole number and location.

(c)

Depth and location of test or depths covered by test.

(d)

Information on water levels in exploratory hole during testing.

(e)

Original ground level at test site.

(f)

Soil type and description as identified from the sample.

All results shall be reported in SI units.

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Where load, displacement or other measuring equipment is used which necessitates regular calibration, then this shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant standard (the preferred method) or the manufacturer's instructions, by a calibration service approved by the Central Materials Laboratory. Evidence of calibrations and copies of calibration charts shall be supplied to the Engineer prior to commencing work and when otherwise requested.

5.2.2

Instrumentation and Monitoring

1

The top of each standpipe, gas monitoring standpipe and piezometer tube shall be protected by a cover. The type of protective cover shall be approved by the Engineer.

2

When instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall install a protective fence around the top of a standpipe or piezometer. The fence shall be constructed of corrosion treated angle iron, galvanised wire, and corrosion resistant wire mesh fencing suitable for use in the climate of Qatar or a fence as a agreed upon with the Engineer.

3

Daily readings of depths to water in groundwater monitoring standpipes and piezometers shall be made by the Contractor, with an instrument approved by the Engineer.

4

Where the presence of gas is suspected or when directed by the Engineer, gas measurements, using an approved in-situ meter, shall be made by the Contractor during construction of exploratory holes and in gas monitoring standpipes. The depth to water and barometric pressure shall be measured immediately after each gas measurement.

5

Unless otherwise designated, piezometers, and standpipes protection shall not be removed from the site.

6

Other instrumentation and monitoring shall be carried out as designated.

5.3

TESTS

5.3.1

Tests in accordance with BS 1377 or BS EN 1997

1

The following in-situ tests shall be carried out and reported in accordance with BS 1377 or BS EN 1997: in-situ density by

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(i)

Small pouring cylinder method.

(ii)

Large pouring cylinder method.

(iii)

Water replacement method.

(iv)

Core cutter method.

(v)

Nuclear method.

(b)

Static cone penetration test (CPT), capacity to suit scheduled depths unless otherwise designated

(c)

Dynamic probing (DPH or DPSH).

(d)

Standard penetration test (SPT).

(e)

Plate loading test.

(f)

Shallow pad maintained load test.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

(g)

California bearing ratio (CBR).

(h)

Vane shear strength.

(i)

Apparent resistivity of soil.

(j)

Redox potential.

(k)

Pressurementer or Self-boring Pressuremeter (PMT)

(l)

Pocket Penetrometer.

Page 4

5.3.2

Tests in accordance with BS 5930

1

The following in-situ tests shall be carried out where applicable and reported in accordance with BS 5930:

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Constant head permeability test. Variable head permeability test. Packer permeability test.

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(a) (b) (c)

Geophysical Methods of Investigation

1

Geophysical testing shall be carried out as designated. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a full description of equipment and procedure for each geophysical method required.

2

The equipment and procedure, and information to be submitted for the following geophysical methods of investigation, shall be as described in BS 5930, BS 7022 and the Geological Society Engineering Group Working Party Report on Engineering Geophysics:

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electrical resistivity method

(b)

seismic refraction and reflection method

(c)

magnetic method

(d)

gravity method

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electromagnetic method

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Ground conductivity.

(ii)

Transient electromagnetic.

(iii)

Ground probing radar (optional).

(f)

Borehole geophysical logging.

(g)

Cross-hole seismic method.

(h)

Multi Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW)

(i)

Refraction Microtremor (ReMi)

5.3.4

Special In-Situ Testing

1

Special in-situ testing shall be carried out as designated.

2

The Contractor shall allow for the excavation of boreholes, trenches or trial pits necessary for the execution of inspection tests.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

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Inspection tests shall be decided as directed by the Engineer. These tests shall include but not limited to those in Table 3.2. Table 3.2: Quality Assurance Tests for Completed Work Recommended Test per Layer Deep Fill (boreholes)

In-situ CBR

Field density

Plate load Test

Layer Thickness

Field density

DCP Test

Layer Thickness

SPT

DCP Test

Pressure meter

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1

Hand penetrometer and hand vane tests shall be carried out where required to give a preliminary estimate of undrained shear strength of the soil tested.

2

Hand (or pocket) penetrometer equipment shall be of an approved proprietary make with 2 stainless steel tip of end area 31 mm with an engraved penetration line 6 mm from the tip.

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5.3.5

Hand vane equipment shall be of an approved proprietary make with stainless steel vanes having a length of 19 mm or 33 mm and a length-to-diameter ratio of 2:1. The scale shall be

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The scale shall be suitably graduated. The procedure for the test shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Both unconfined compressive strength and estimated shear strength shall be reported for the soil tested.

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suitably graduated. The procedure for test shall be in accordance with BS 5930 and the manufacturer's instructions. Peak shear strength and residual shear strength shall be

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The reported shear strengths for the hand penetrometer and handvane shall be the average of 3 tests in close proximity. Tests giving inconsistent results shall be reported and comments on the relevance of the tests noted.

5.3.6

Self-boring Pressuremeter

1

The equipment shall be of the Cambridge type (soft ground) self-boring pressuremeter (SBP) unless otherwise designated. The instruments, calibration, operator, installation, testing procedure, on-site data processing and analysis, information to be submitted, report data processing and analysis and information to be submitted in the report shall be as described by Clarke and Smith (1992) and as designated..

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5.4

INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING

5.4.1

Groundwater

1

When groundwater is encountered in exploratory holes, the depth from ground level of the point of entry shall be recorded together with depth of any casing. Exploratory hole operations shall be stopped and the depth from ground level to water level recorded with an approved instrument at 5 minutes intervals for a period of 20 minutes. If at the end of the

.

period of 20 minutes the water level is still rising, this shall be recorded together with the depth to water below ground level, unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer, and the exploratory hole shall then be continued. If casing is used and this forms a seal against the entry of groundwater, the Contractor shall record the depth of casing at which no further entry or only insignificant infiltration of water occurred. Water levels shall be recorded as required by the Contract and at the beginning and end of each shift. On each occasion when groundwater levels are recorded, the depth of the exploratory hole, the depth of any casing and the time shall also be recorded.

3

Where artesian conditions are encountered, the Contractor shall immediately inform the Engineer and agree a method for dealing with the conditions.

5.4.2

Installation of Standpipes and Piezometers

1

Standpipes for monitoring groundwater levels and changes in groundwater levels shall be installed in exploratory holes, as instructed by the Engineer. They shall be to the designated form and detail, and appropriate dimensions and depths shall be recorded at the time of installation.

2

Standpipe piezometers for monitoring groundwater levels in exploratory holes shall be installed as instructed by the Engineer. They shall be to the designated form and detail, and appropriate dimensions. The installation details of the standpipe piezometers shall be recorded.

3

The Contractor shall install piezometers of the hydraulic, electrical or pneumatic type described in BS 5930 or as designated by the Engineer.

5.4.3

Installation of Gas Monitoring Standpipes

1

Standpipes for monitoring gas concentration in exploratory holes shall be installed as instructed by the Engineer. Warning signs or other safety measures required by the Civil Defence Department of the Government shall be complied with. Standpipes shall be of the designated form and detail. All dimensions and depths shall he recorded at the time of installation.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 06: Laboratory Testing

Page 1

LABORATORY TESTING ........................................................................................ 2

6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2

6.2

SCHEDULE OF TESTS ........................................................................................... 2

6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.3.4

TESTING PROCEDURES ....................................................................................... 3 General 3 Geotechnical Testing on Contaminated Samples 3 Soil Testing 3 Rock Testing 3

6.4 6.4.2 6.4.3

CHEMICAL TESTING FOR CONTAMINATED GROUND ....................................... 4 Laboratory Testing On Site 6 Special Laboratory Testing 6

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 06: Laboratory Testing

Page 2

6

LABORATORY TESTING

6.1

GENERAL

6.1.1

Scope

1

Geotechnical tests and testing procedures carried out in the laboratory or, when designated, on site.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

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Part 1, .............. General Part 3, .............. Soil Sampling

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Section 6, ........ Roadworks Section 8, ........ Drainage Works Section 12, ...... Earthworks Related to Buildings References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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6.1.2

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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ASTM SP 402.............Special Technical Publications No. 402

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BS 1377 ......................Methods of tests for soils for civil engineering purposes BS 1881 ......................Analysis of hardened concrete

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BS 812 ........................Testing aggregates

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BS EN 1997--------- .....Ground Investigation and testing

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Brown E.T. (Editor). Rock characterisation testing and monitoring. International Society for Rock Mechanics Suggested Methods. 1981. Pergamon Press. C2 through C25 and C27 through C31, Methods for examination of waters and associated materials, HMSO IRSM Commission on Testing Methods. Suggested method for determining Point Load Strength (revised version). Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abst., 22, 51-60 (1985).

6.2

SCHEDULE OF TESTS

1

The Contractor shall prepare a schedule of tests for approval by the Engineer. It may be necessary to designate additional testing after the results of the original tests are available. Unless otherwise agreed, testing schedules are to be provided within six working days of the receipt by the Engineer of the relevant preliminary logs. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer within six working days from the receipt of the approved testing schedule if a sample referred to in the schedule is not available for testing.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 06: Laboratory Testing

Page 3

TESTING PROCEDURES

6.3.1

General

1

Where applicable, all preparation, testing and reporting shall be in accordance with the relevant Qatar National Standard or British Standards or ASTM Standards. Where tests are not covered by these Standards, they shall be performed in accordance with the procedures in the references or as designated.

2

Calibration of load-displacement or other measuring equipment shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant standard (the preferred method) or the manufacturer’s instructions by a calibration service approved by the Central Materials Laboratory. Evidence of current calibrations shall be supplied to the Engineer.

6.3.2

Geotechnical Testing on Contaminated Samples

1

Where geotechnical testing is required on samples of suspected contaminated material, indicative chemical testing shall be carried out and a safe method of working approved by the Engineer before any such work is started. It should be noted that this may include but is not limited to the safe storage, transportation and handling of all suspect material.

6.3.3

Soil Testing

1

Soil testing shall be carried out and reported in accordance with BS 1377 or ASTM Standards unless otherwise designated.

6.3.4

Rock Testing

1

Rock testing shall be carried out and reported in accordance with the following references and as designated: Classification.

Natural water content - Brown (1981).

(ii)

Porosity/density - Brown (1981).

(iii)

Void index - Brown (1981).

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6.3

(b)

(c)

(d)

(iv)

Carbonate content - BS 1881.

(v)

Petrographic description -Brown (1981).

Durability. (i)

Slake durability index - Brown (1981).

(ii)

Soundness by solution of magnesium sulphate - BS 812.

Hardness. (i)

Shore sclerometer -Brown (1981).

(ii)

Schmidt rebound hardness - Brown (1981).

Aggregates. (i)

Aggregate crushing value - BS 812.

(ii)

Ten percent fines - BS 812.

(iii)

Aggregate impact value - BS 812.

(iv)

Aggregate abrasion value - BS 812.

(v)

Polished stone value - BS 812.

(vi)

Aggregate frost heave - BS 812.

Strength. (i)

Uniaxial compressive strength - Brown (1981).

(ii)

Deformability in uniaxial compression -Brown (1981).

(iii)

Tensile strength-Brown (1981).  

Direct tensile strength. Indirect tensile strength by the Brazilian method.

Undrained triaxial compression without measurement of porewater pressureBrown (1981).

(v)

Direct shear strength - Brown (1981).

(vi)

Swelling pressure - Brown (1981).

(vii)

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Swelling pressure index under conditions of zero volume change. Swelling strain index for a radially confined specimen with axial surcharge. Swelling strain developed in an unconfined rock specimen.

Point load test - IRSM Commission on Testing Methods (1985).

Geophysical. Seismic velocity-Brown (1981).

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(iv)

   (f)

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 06: Laboratory Testing

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CHEMICAL TESTING FOR CONTAMINATED GROUND

1

Chemical testing for contaminated ground shall be carried out and reported in accordance with the following references and as designated:

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Primary contaminants in soil. Arsenic total - C4.

(ii)

Cadmium total - C2.

(iii)

Chromium total - C2.

(iv)

hexavalent chromium (undertaken if total chromium content >25 mg/kg dry

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Mass) -C2.

(v)

Lead total - C2.

(vi)

Mercury total - C3.

(vii)

Selenium total - C4.

(viii)

Boron, water-soluble - C5.

(ix)

Copper total - C2.

(x)

Nickel total - C2.

(xi)

Zinc total - C2.

(xii)

Cyanide total (alkali extraction methods) - C6.

(xiii)

Cyanide complex - C6.

(xiv) Cyanide free - C6. (xv)

Thiocyanate - C6.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 06: Laboratory Testing

Page 5

(xvi) (Tests xiii, xiv and xv undertaken if total cyanide >25 mg/kg dry mass. Methods shall follow alkali extraction.) (xvii) Phenols total - C7. (xviii) Sulphide - C8. (xix) Sulphate - total, acid, soluble - C9. (xx)

Sulphate - water soluble, 2 : 1 extract - C9.

(xxi) Sulphur free - C10. (xxii) PH value - C9. (xxiii) Toluene extractable matter - Cl1.

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(xxiv) Coal tar/polyaromatic hydrocarbons (undertaken if toluene extractable matter> 2000 g/kg dry mass of soil) - C12.

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Antimony total - C13.

(ii)

Barium total - C13.

(iii)

Beryllium total - C15.

(iv)

Vanadium total - C13.

(v)

Cyclohexane extractable matter - C14.

(vi)

Freon extractable matter - C15.

(vii)

Mineral oils - C31.

(viii)

Chloride - C9.

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(i)

Contaminants in water.

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(c)

Secondary contaminants in soil.

(i)

Arsenic - C4.

(ii)

Cadmium - C2 and C23. Chromium - C2 and C24.

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(iii)

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(b)

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(xxv) Asbestos. Asbestos content determination shall be carried out by visual examination and polarised light microscopy.

Hexavalent chromium - C2.

(v)

Lead - C2 and C25.

(vi)

Mercury - C3.

(vii)

Selenium - C4.

(viii)

Boron - C5 and C6.

(ix)

Copper - C2 and C27.

(x)

Nickel - C2 and C28.

(xi)

Zinc - C2 and C29.

(xii)

Cyanide total - C6.

(xiii)

Cyanide complex - C6.

(xiv)

Cyanide free - C6.

(xv)

Thiocyanate - C6.

(xvi)

Phenols total - C7.

(xvii)

Sulphide - C8.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation Part 06: Laboratory Testing

Page 6

Sulphate - C9.

(xix)

Sulphur free - C10.

(xx)

PH value - C9.

(xxi)

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons - C 12.

(xxii)

Antimony-C13.

(xxiii)

Barium-C13.

(xxiv)

Beryllium-C15.

(xxv)

Vanadium - C 13.

(xxvi)

Chloride - C9.

(xxvii)

Ammoniacal nitrogen - C16.

(xxviii)

Nitrate nitrogen - Cl7.

(xxix)

Chemical oxygen demand - C18.

(xxx)

Biochemical oxygen demand - C19.

(xxxi)

Total organic carbon - C20.

(xxxii)

Volatile fatty acids - C21.

(xxxiii)

Iron - C22.

(xxxiv)

Manganese - C22.

(xxxv)

Calcium - C31.

(xxxvi)

Sodium - C31.

(xxxvii)

Magnesium - C31.

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(xviii)

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Constituents of gas samples. Carbon dioxide - C30.

(ii)

Hydrogen - C30.

(iii)

Hydrogen sulphide - C30.

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(xxxviii) Potassium - C21.

Methane - C30.

(v)

Nitrogen - C30.

(vi)

Oxygen - C30.

(vii)

Ethane- C30.

(viii)

Propane- C30.

(ix)

Carbon monoxide - C30.

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6.4.2

Laboratory Testing On Site

1

When designated, tests listed under laboratory testing shall be carried out on site.

6.4.3

Special Laboratory Testing

1

When designated, special laboratory testing shall be carried out. END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PILING WORK ................................................. 2

1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 General Contract Requirements 2 Submittals 3 Records 3

1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

GROUND CONDITIONS ......................................................................................... 3 Ground Investigation Reports 3 Unexpected Ground Conditions 4

1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP........................................................................ 4 General 4 Sources of Supply 4 Rejected materials 5

1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6

INSTALLATION TOLERANCES .............................................................................. 5 Setting Out 5 Position 6 Verticality 6 Rake 6 Tolerance Variations 6 Forcible Corrections to Pile 6

1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4

NUISANCE AND DAMAGE ..................................................................................... 6 Noise and Disturbance 6 Damage to Adjacent Structures 7 Damage to Piles 7 Temporary Support 7

1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3

SAFETY .................................................................................................................. 7 General 7 Life-Saving Appliances 7 Driving 7

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QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 2

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PILING WORK

1.1

GENERAL

1.1.1

Scope

1

This Part is concerned with all works associated with installation of piles by any of the recognised techniques.

1.1.2

References

1

The following standards and codes of practice are referred to in this Part:

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BS 8008......................Safety precautions and procedures for the construction and descent of machine-bored shafts for piling and other purposes

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BS EN 1997................Eurocode 7, Geotechnical Design.

General Contract Requirements

1

The following matters, where appropriate, are described in the contract specific documentation for the Works: general items related to Works Nature of the Works.

(ii)

Classes of loads on piles.

(iii)

Contract drawings.

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(b)

(iv)

Other works proceeding at the same time.

(v)

Working area.

(vi)

Order of the Works.

(vii)

Datum.

(viii)

Offices for the Engineer's Representative.

(ix)

Particular facilities and attendance items where not included in this section.

(x)

Details of soil investigation reports.

specific items related to particular type of pile (i)

Soil sampling, laboratory testing and in-situ soil testing.

(ii)

Designed concrete or grout mixes, grades of concrete or grout, type of cement and aggregate, grout or concrete admixtures, concreting of piles.

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 3

Grades and types of reinforcement and prestressing tendons.

(iv)

Pile dimensions, length and marking of piles.

(v)

Type and quality of pile shoe/splice.

(vi)

Type and quality of permanent casing.

(vii)

Specified working loads.

(viii)

Sections of proprietary types of pile, grades of steel, minimum length to be supplied, thickness of circumferential weld reinforcement.

(ix)

Surface preparation, types and thickness of coatings.

(x)

Test piles, driving resistance or dynamic evaluation and penetration.

(xi)

Detailed requirements for driving records.

(xii)

Acceptance criteria for piles under test.

(xiii)

Disposal of cut-off lengths.

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QCS 2014

(xiv) Preboring. Submittals

1

The Contractor shall supply for approval all relevant details of the method of piling and the plant he proposes to use. Any alternative method to that specified shall be subject to approval.

2

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer on the first day of each week, or at such longer periods as the Engineer may from time to time direct, a progress report showing the current rate of progress and progress during the previous period on all important items of each section of the Works.

3

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer each day of the intended programme of piling for the following day and shall give adequate notice of his intention to work outside normal hours and at weekends.

1.1.5

Records

1

The Contractor shall keep records, as indicated by an asterisk in Table 1.1, of the installation of each pile and shall submit two signed copies of these records to the Engineer not later than noon of the next working day after the pile is installed. The signed records will form a record of the work. Any unexpected driving or boring conditions shall be noted briefly in the records.

1.2

GROUND CONDITIONS

1.2.1

Ground Investigation Reports

1

Factual information and reports on site investigations for the Works and on the previous known uses of the Site will be provided by the Engineer where they exist as part of the specific contract documentation. However, even if a full report is given, including interpretations, opinions or conclusions, no responsibility is accepted by the Engineer for any opinions or conclusions which may be given in the reports.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 4

Before the start of work the Contractor shall be given a copy of any subsequent information which may have been obtained relating to the ground conditions and previous uses of the Site.

1.2.2

Unexpected Ground Conditions

1

The Contractor shall report immediately to the Engineer any circumstance which indicates that in the Contractor's opinion the ground conditions differ from those reported in or which could have been inferred from the site investigation reports or test pile results.

1.3

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

1.3.1

General

1

All materials and workmanship shall be in accordance with the appropriate British Standards, codes of practice and other approved standards current at the date of tender except where the requirements of these standards or codes of practice are in conflict with this Section in which case the requirements of this Section shall take precedence.

1.3.2

Sources of Supply

1

The sources of supply of materials shall not be changed without prior approval.

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Table 1.1

Driven segmental concrete piles

Driven cast-in-place concrete piles

Bored cast-in-place concrete piles

Continuous flight auger concrete or grout piles

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

Nominal cross-sectional dimensions or diameter

*

*

*

*

*

Nominal diameter of underream/base

-

-

-

*

-

Length of preformed pile

*

*

-

-

-

Standing groundwater level from direct observation or given site investigation data.

-

-

*

*

*

Date and time of driving, redriving or boring

*

*

*

*

*

Date of concreting

-

-

*

*

*

Ground level/sea bed level at pile position at commencement of installation of pile (commencing surface)

*

*

*

*

*

Working elevation of pile driver

*

*

*

*

*

Depth from ground level at pile position to pile tip

*

*

*

*

*

Tip elevation

*

*

*

*

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Driven steel, precast concrete and steel sheet piles

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Records to be Kept (Indicated by an Asterisk)

Contract

Pile type

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Pile reference number (location)

Bored cast-in-place concrete piles

Continuous flight auger concrete or grout piles

Pile head elevation, as constructed

*

*

*

*

*

Pile cut-off elevation

*

*

*

*

*

Length of temporary casing

-

-

*

*

-

Length of permanent casing

-

-

*

*

-

Type, weight, drop and mechanical condition of hammer and equivalent information for other equipment

*

*

*

-

-

Number and type of packings used and type and condition of dolly used during driving of the pile

*

*

-

-

*

*

-

-

*

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Set of pile or pile tube in millimetres per 10 blows or number of blows per 25 mm of penetration

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Data

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Driven cast-in-place concrete piles

Page 5

Driven segmental concrete piles

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work Driven steel, precast concrete and steel sheet piles

QCS 2014

*

*

*

-

-

If required, temporary compression of ground and pile from time of a marked increase in driving resistance until pile reached its final level

*

*

*

-

-

*

*

*

-

-

Soil samples taken and in-situ tests carried out during pile installation

*

*

*

*

*

Length and details of reinforcements

-

-

*

*

*

Concrete mix

-

-

*

*

*

-

-

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

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If required, the sets taken at intervals during the last 3 m of driving

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If required, driving resistance taken at regular intervals over the last 3 m of driving

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Volume of concrete supplied to pile obstructions

delays

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All information regarding interruptions to the work

and

other

1.3.3

Rejected materials

1

Rejected materials are to be removed promptly from the Site.

1.4

INSTALLATION TOLERANCES

1.4.1

Setting Out

1

Setting out of the main grid lines shall be by the Contractor. The installation of marker pins at pile positions, as required by the Contract, shall be located by the Contractor from the main grid lines of the proposed structure. Before installation of the pile, the pile position relative to the main grid lines shall be verified.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 6

Position

1

For a pile cut off at or above ground level the maximum permitted deviation of the pile centre from the centre-point shown on the drawings shall be 75 mm in any direction. An additional tolerance for a pile head cut off below ground level will be permitted in accordance with Clauses 1.4.3 and 1.4.4.

1.4.3

Verticality

1

At the commencement of installation, the pile, or pile-forming equipment in the case of a driven pile, or the relevant equipment governing alignment in the case of the bored pile, shall be made vertical to a tolerance of within 1 in 100. The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the vertical is 1 in 75.

1.4.4

Rake

1

As in clause 1.4.3, the pile, or driving or other equipment governing the direction and angle of rake shall be set to give the correct alignment of the pile to within a tolerance of 1 in 50. The piling rig shall be set and maintained to attain the required rake. The maximum permitted deviation of the finished pile from the specified rake is 1 in 25 for piles raking up to 1:6 and 1 in 15 for piles raking more than 1:6.

1.4.5

Tolerance Variations

1

In exceptional circumstances where these tolerances are difficult to achieve, the tolerances of Clauses 1.4.2, 1.4.3 and 1.4.4 may be relaxed by the Engineer, subject to consideration of the implications of such action.

1.4.6

Forcible Corrections to Pile

1

Forcible corrections to concrete piles to overcome errors of position or alignment shall not be made. Forcible corrections may be made to other piles only if approved and where the pile shaft is not fully embedded in the soil.

1.5

NUISANCE AND DAMAGE

1.5.1

Noise and Disturbance

1

The Contractor shall carry out the work in such a manner and at such times as to minimise noise, vibration and other disturbance in order to comply with current environmental legislation.

2

The Contractor shall endeavour to ascertain the nature and levels of noise produced by the mechanical equipment and plant that will be used. He shall than take steps to reduce either the level or the annoying characteristics, or both, of the noise. Reference should be made to BS 5228 Part 1 for prediction of noise level due to different types of mechanical equipment and plant, and to BS 5228 Part 4 for noise and vibration control techniques applicable to piling operations.

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1.4.2

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 7

Damage to Adjacent Structures

1

If in the opinion of the Contractor, damage will be, or is likely to be, caused to mains, services or adjacent structures, he shall submit to the Engineer his proposals for making preconstruction surveys, monitoring movements or vibrations, and minimising or avoiding such damage.

1.5.3

Damage to Piles

1

The Contractor shall ensure that during the course of the work, displacement or damage which would impair either performance or durability does not occur to completed piles.

2

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his proposed sequence and timing for driving or boring piles, having the intent of avoiding damage to adjacent piles.

1.5.4

Temporary Support

1

The Contractor shall ensure that where required, any permanently free-standing piles are temporarily braced or stayed immediately after driving to prevent loosening of the piles in the ground and to ensure that the pile will not be damaged by oscillation, vibration or ground movement.

1.6

SAFETY

1.6.1

General

1

A competent person, properly qualified and experienced, should be appointed to supervise the piling operations. This person should be capable of recognising and assessing any potential dangers as they arise; e.g., unexpected ground conditions that may require a change in construction technique, or unusual smells which may indicate the presence of noxious or dangerous gases.

2

Safety precautions throughout the piling operations shall comply with BS 8008 and BS EN 1997. Refer Section 1 for general safety standards to be adopted at a construction site.

1.6.2

Life-Saving Appliances

1

The Contractor shall provide and maintain on the Site sufficient, proper and efficient lifesaving appliances to the approval of the Engineer. The appliances must be conspicuous and available for use at all times.

2

Site operatives shall be instructed in the use of safety equipment and periodic drills shall be held to ensure that all necessary procedures can be correctly observed.

1.6.3

Driving

1

Before any pile driving is started, the Contractor shall supply the Engineer with two copies of the code of signals to be employed, and shall have a copy of the code prominently displayed adjacent to the driving control station on the craft, structure or site from which the piles will be driven.

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1.5.2

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 02: Concrete Works for Piling

Page 1

CONCRETE WORKS FOR PILING ......................................................................... 2

2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2

2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5

MATERIALS ............................................................................................................ 2 Cementitious 2 Aggregate 2 Water 2 Admixtures 2 Steel Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel 2

2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5

CONCRETE MIXES FOR PILING WORK ............................................................... 3 General 3 Grade Designation 3 Designed Mix 3 Durability 3 Exposure Classes 3

2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7

PLACING CONCRETE ............................................................................................ 3 General 3 Inspection 4 Cleanliness of Pile Bases 4 Workability of Concrete 4 Compaction 4 Placing Concrete in Dry Borings 5 Placing Concrete under Water or Drilling Fluid 5

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QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 02: Concrete Works for Piling

CONCRETE WORKS FOR PILING

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

1

This part applies to cast in-situ as well as precast concrete work.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

Section 5

Concrete.

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This Section Part 1, Part 3 Part 4 Part 5

.

2

Page 2

References

1

The following Standards are referred to in this Part:

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All Standards mentioned in Section 5

MATERIALS

2.2.1

Cementitious

1

All cementitious materials shall comply with the requirements of Section 5, Part 3.

2

All cementitious materials shall be stored in separate containers according to type in waterproof stores or silos.

2.2.2

Aggregate

1

Aggregates shall comply with the requirements of Section 5, Part 2.

2.2.3

Water

1

If water for the Works is not available from a public supply, approval shall be obtained regarding the source of water. For quality of water refer to Section 5, Part 4.

2.2.4

Admixtures

1

Admixtures shall comply with the requirements of Section 5, Part 5

2.2.5

Steel Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel

1

Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean and dry conditions. It shall be clean, and free from loose rust and loose mill scale when installed in the Works. For requirements of steel reinforcement refer to Section 5, Part 11.

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The number of joints in longitudinal steel bars shall be kept to a minimum. Joints in reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of each bar is effective across the joint and shall be made so that there is no detrimental displacement of the reinforcement during the construction of the pile.

3

For requirements of prestressing steel refer to Section 5, Part 18.

2.3

CONCRETE MIXES FOR PILING WORK

2.3.1

General

1

For general requirements of concrete mixes, trial mixes, batching, mixing and transportation of fresh concrete and testing of hardened concrete refer to Section 5.

2.3.2

Grade Designation

1

Grades of concrete shall be as given in Section 5, Part 6.

2.3.3

Designed Mix

1

The Contractor shall be responsible for selecting the mix proportions to achieve the required strength and workability..

2

Complete information on the mix and sources of aggregate for each grade of concrete and the water/cementitious ratio and the proposed degree of workability shall be approved before work commences.

3

Where low-alkali, sulphate-resisting cement to BS EN 197 is specified, the alkali content (equivalent sodium oxide) of the cement shall not exceed 0.6 % by weight.

4

The Contractor shall submit the slump value for approval before work commences.

2.3.4

Durability

1

For piles exposed to aggressive ground or groundwater, approved measures shall be taken to ensure durability. Reference shall be made to Section 5, Part 6.

2.3.5

Exposure Classes

1

The minimum cementitious content and type and the concrete grades shall be specified based on the exposure classes as given in Table 6.8, Section 5, Part 6.

2.4

PLACING CONCRETE

2.4.1

General

1

The workability and method of placing and vibrating the concrete shall be such that a continuous monolithic concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed.

2

The concrete shall be placed without such interruption as would produce a cold joint in the pile. The method of placing shall be approved.

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3

The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and placing of the concrete to avoid arching of the concrete in a temporary casing. No soil, liquid or other foreign matter which would adversely affect the performance of the pile shall be permitted to contaminate the concrete.

2.4.2

Inspection

1

Each pile bore which does not contain standing water or drilling fluid shall be inspected directly or indirectly before to concrete is placed in it. This inspection shall be carried out from the ground surface in the case of piles of less than 750 mm diameter. Torches or other approved means of lighting, measuring tapes, and a means of measuring verticality shall be provided. For piles of 750 mm diameter or larger, equipment shall be provided by the

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Contractor to enable his representatives and the Engineer to descend into the bore for the purpose of inspection. Any method of descent and the equipment used shall comply with the requirements of BS 8008. Cleanliness of Pile Bases

1

On completion of boring and where inspection of a dry pile bore indicates the necessity, loose, disturbed or softened soil shall be removed from the bore. Where pile bores contain water or drilling fluid, a cleaning process shall be employed before concrete is placed, or the concrete shall be placed by tremie method. Large debris or accumulated sediment, or both of them, shall be removed using appropriate approved methods, which shall be designed to clean while at the same time minimising ground disturbance below the pile bases. Water or drilling fluid shall be maintained at such levels throughout and following the cleaning operation that stability of the bore is preserved.

2.4.4

Workability of Concrete

1

Slump measured at the time of discharge into the pile bore shall be in accordance with the standards shown in Table 2.1.

2.4.5

Compaction

1

Internal vibrators may be used to compact concrete, with the approval of the Engineer obtained in advance for each specific use.

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Piling mix workability

Table 2.1 Standards for Concrete Slump Slump Minimum

Range

mm

mm

Typical conditions of use

A

75

75-150

Placed into water-free unlined or permanently lined bore of 600 mm diameter or over, or where concrete is placed below temporary casing, and where reinforcement is widely spaced leaving ample room for free movement of concrete between bars.

B

100

100-200

Where reinforcement is not spaced widely, where concrete is placed within temporary casings, where pile bore is water-free, and the diameter less than 600 mm

C

150

150 or more

Where concrete is to be placed by tremie under water or drilling mud, or by pumping

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Placing Concrete in Dry Borings

1

Approved measures shall be taken to ensure that the structural strength of the concrete placed in all piles is not impaired through grout loss, segregation or bleeding.

2

Concrete shall be placed by “elephant trunk”, and the free fall shall not exceed 1.2 m.

2.4.7

Placing Concrete under Water or Drilling Fluid

1

Before placing concrete, measures shall be taken in accordance with Clause 2.4.3 to ensure that there is no accumulation of silt or other material at the base of the boring, and the Contractor shall ensure that heavily contaminated bentonite suspension, which could impair the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe, has not accumulated in the bottom of the hole.

2

Concrete to be placed under water or drilling fluid shall be placed by tremie and shall not be discharged freely into the water or drilling fluid. Pumping of concrete may be approved where appropriate.

3

A sample of the bentonite suspension shall be taken from the base of the boring using an approved sampling device. If the specific gravity of the suspension exceeds 1.20 the placing of concrete shall not proceed. In this event the Contractor shall modify or replace the bentonite as approved to meet the specification.

4

The concrete shall be a rich, coherent mix and highly workable, and cement content shall be in accordance with Clause 2.3.5.

5

The concrete shall be placed in such a manner that segregation does not occur.

6

The hopper and pipe of the tremie shall be clean and watertight throughout. The pipe shall extend to the base of the bore and a sliding plug or barrier shall be placed in the pipe to prevent direct contact between the first charge of concrete in the tremie and the water or drilling fluid. The pipe shall at all times penetrate the concrete which has previously been placed and shall be withdrawn at a rate such that there shall be a minimum concrete cover of 2 m over the end of the tremie pipe, until completion of concreting. A sufficient quantity of

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concrete shall be maintained within the pipe to ensure that the pressure from it exceeds that from the water or drilling fluid. The internal diameter of the tremie pipe shall be not less than 150 mm, and the maximum sized aggregate shall be 20 mm. It shall be so designed that external projections are minimised, allowing the tremie to pass within reinforcing cages without causing damage. The internal face of the pipe of the tremie shall be free from projections. END OF PART

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Page 1

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS .................................................................................... 2

3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 Definition 2 References 2 Limit States Considerations 2

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................. 3 General 3 Allowable Bearing Pressure 3 Selection of Types of Shallow Foundation 3 Pad foundations 4 Strip foundations 4 Raft foundations 5

3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3

BASIS OF GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN .................................................................... 5 Design Requirements 5 Design Situations 7 Durability 8

3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.7 3.4.8 3.4.9 3.4.10 3.4.11

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN BY CALCULATION ...................................................... 9 General 9 Actions 10 Ground Properties 12 Geometrical Data 13 Characteristic and Representative Values of Actions 13 Characteristic Values of Geotechnical Parameters 13 Characteristic Values of Geometrical Data 14 Geotechnical Design Report 14 Actions and Design Situations 15 Design and Construction Considerations 15 Foundations on Rock; Additional Design Considerations 16

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SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

3.1

GENERAL

3.1.1

Scope

1

The provisions of this Section apply to shallow foundations including isolated, pads, strips and rafts.

3.1.2

Definition

1

Shallow foundations are taken to be those where the depth below finished ground level is less than 3 m and include isolated, pad, strip and raft foundations. The choice of 3 m is arbitrary; shallow foundations where the depth/breadth ratio is high may need to be designed as deep foundations.

3.1.3

References

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BS 8004,.....................Code of practice for foundations.

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BS EN 1990................Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design BS EN 1991................Eurocode 1: Actions on structures BS EN 1992................Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures -

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BS EN 1993................Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

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BS EN 1994................Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures BS EN 1995................Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures

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BS EN 1996................Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures

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BS EN 1997-1 ............Eurocode 7, Geotechnical design Part 1: General Rules BS EN 1997-2 ............Eurocode 7, Geotechnical design Part 2: Ground investigation and testing

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BS EN 1998................Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

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BS 5930......................Code of Practice for Site Investigation Limit States Considerations

1

The following limit states shall be considered and an appropriate list shall be compiled:

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3.1.4

(a)

Loss of overall stability;

(b)

Bearing resistance failure, punching failure, squeezing;

(c)

Failure by sliding;

(d)

Combined failure in the ground and in the structure;

(e)

Structural failure due to foundation movement;

(f)

Excessive settlements;

(g)

Excessive heave due to swelling, frost and other causes;

(h)

Unacceptable vibrations.

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3.2

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.2.1

General

1

The depth to which foundations should be carried depends on two principal factors: (a)

Reaching an adequate bearing stratum;

(b)

Penetration below the zone in which trouble may be expected from seasonal weather changes.

Other factors such as ground movements, changes in groundwater conditions, long-term stability and heat transmitted from structures to the supporting ground may be important.

3

Shallow foundations are particularly vulnerable to certain soil conditions, e.g. loose waterbearing sands and soils that change structure when loaded. Specialist advice should be sought where such conditions are indicated by ground investigation.

3.2.2

Allowable Bearing Pressure

1

The center of area of a foundation or group of foundations should be arranged vertically under the centre of gravity of the imposed loading. If this is not possible, the effects on the structure of rotation and settlement of the foundation need to be considered.

2

Where foundation support is provided by a number of separate bases these should, as far as practicable, be proportioned so that differential settlement is minimal.

3.2.3

Selection of Types of Shallow Foundation

1

The selection of the appropriate type of shallow foundation will normally depend on the magnitude and disposition of the structural loads, the bearing capacity and settlement characteristics of the ground and the need to found in stable soil.

2

A pad foundation is used for the purpose of distributing concentrated loads. Unless special conditions control the design, relatively heavy column loads make it advantageous to use pad foundations.

3

Strip foundations may be more appropriate where column loads are comparatively small and closely spaced or where walls are heavy or heavily loaded.

4

Adjacent pad foundations can be combined or joined together with ground beams to support eccentric loads, to resist overturning or to oppose horizontal forces. Walls between columns may be carried on ground beams spanning between the pad foundations.

5

Where the allowable bearing pressure would result in large isolated foundations occupying the majority of the available area, it may be logical to join them to form a raft and spread the loads over the entire area. The combination of isolated foundations to form a raft sometimes results in a complex design and a large increase in the reinforcement requirement.

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In connection with the provision of foundations to an extension of an existing building, allowance should be made for differential movement of the foundations between the new and existing structure; such movement affects the structure above foundations. Where a degree of cracking and subsequent remedial work is not acceptable, provision for a joint between the extension and existing building should be considered. Where the foundations of an extension about the foundations of the existing building, the stability of the existing foundations should be ensured.

3.2.4

Pad foundations

1

For buildings such as low rise dwellings and lightly framed structures, pad foundations may be of unreinforced concrete provided that the angle of spread of load from the pier or base plate to the outer edge of the ground bearing does not exceed one (vertical) in one (horizontal) and that the stresses in the concrete due to bending and shear do not exceed tolerable limits. For buildings other than low rise and lightly framed structures, it is customary to use reinforced concrete foundations.

2

The thickness of the foundation should under no circumstances be less than 150 mm and will generally be greater than this to maintain cover to reinforcement where provided.

3

Where concrete foundations are used they should be designed in accordance with the design method appropriate to the loading assumptions.

3.2.5

Strip foundations

1

Similar considerations to those for pad foundations apply to strip foundations. On sloping sites strip foundations should be on a horizontal bearing, stepped where necessary to maintain adequate depth.

2

In continuous wall foundations it is recommended that reinforcement be provided wherever an abrupt change in magnitude of load or variation in ground support occurs. Continuous wall foundations will normally be constructed in mass concrete provided that the angle of spread of load from the edge of the wall base to the outer edge of the ground bearing does not exceed one (vertical) in one (horizontal). Foundations on sloping ground, and where regarding is likely to take place, may require to be designed as retaining walls to accommodate steps between adjacent ground floor slabs or finished ground levels. At all changes of level unreinforced foundations should be lapped at the steps for a distance at least equal to the thickness of the foundation or a minimum of 300mm. Where the height of the step exceeds the thickness of the foundation, special precautions should be taken. The thickness of reinforced strip foundations should be not less than 150mm, and care should be taken with the excavation levels to ensure that this minimum thickness is maintained. For the longitudinal spread of loads, sufficient reinforcement should be provided to withstand the tensions induced. It will sometimes be desirable to make strip foundations of inverted tee beam sections, in order to provide adequate stiffness in the longitudinal direction. At corners and junctions the longitudinal reinforcement of each wall foundation should be lapped.

3

Where the use of ordinary strip foundations would overstress the bearing strata, wide strip foundations designed to transmit the foundation loads across the full width of the strip may be used. The depth below the finished ground level should be the same as for ordinary strip foundations.

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Where the nature of the ground is such that narrow trenches can be neatly cut down to the bearing stratum, an economical foundation may be achieved by filling the trenches with concrete. When deciding the trench width, account should be taken of normal building tolerances in relation to setting out dimensions. Where the thickness of such a foundation is 500mm or more, any step should be not greater than the concrete thickness and the lap at such a step should be at least 1 m or twice the step height, whichever is the greater?

5

Where fill or other loose materials occur above the bearing stratum adequate support is required to any excavation. Consideration may be given to the use of lean mix mass concrete replacement under ordinary strip footings placed at shallow depth. This mass concrete can be poured against either permanent or recoverable shuttering. This form of foundation provides a method of dealing with local areas where deeper foundations are required.

3.2.6

Raft foundations

1

General. Suitably designed raft foundations may be used in the following circumstances.

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For lightly loaded structures on soft natural ground where it is necessary to spread the load, or where there is variable support due to natural variations, made ground or weaker zones. In this case the function of the raft is to act as a bridge across the weaker zones. Rafts may form part of compensated foundations.

(b)

Where differential settlements are likely to be significant. The raft will require special design, involving an assessment of the disposition and distribution of loads, contact pressures and stiffness of the soil and raft.

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(a)

BASIS OF GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN

3.3.1

Design Requirements

1

For each geotechnical design situation it shall be verified that no relevant limit state is exceeded.

2

When defining the design situations and the limit states, the following factors should be considered: Site conditions with respect to overall stability and ground movements;

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3

(b)

Nature and size of the structure and its elements, including any special requirements such as the design life;

(c)

Conditions with regard to its surroundings (e.g.: neighboring structures, traffic, utilities, vegetation, hazardous chemicals);

(d)

Ground conditions;

(e)

Ground-water conditions;

(f)

Regional seismicity;

(g)

Influence of the environment (hydrology, surface water, subsidence, seasonal changes of temperature and moisture).

Limit states can occur either in the ground or in the structure or by combined failure in the structure and the ground.

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Page 6

Limit states should be verified by any appropriate method such as calculation method as described in 3.4;

5

In practice, experience will often show which type of limit state will govern the design and the avoidance of other limit states may be verified by a control check.

6

Buildings should normally be protected against the penetration of ground-water or the transmission of vapor or gases to their interiors.

7

If practicable, the design results should be checked against comparable experience.

8

In order to establish minimum requirements for the extent and content of geotechnical investigations, calculations and construction control checks, the complexity of each geotechnical design shall be identified together with the associated risks. In particular, a distinction shall be made between:

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L ight and simple structures and small earthworks for which it is possible to ensure that the minimum requirements will be satisfied by experience and qualitative geotechnical investigations, with negligible risk;

(b)

Other geotechnical structures.

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(a)

For structures and earthworks of low geotechnical complexity and risk, such as defined above, simplified design procedures may be applied.

10

To establish geotechnical design requirements, three Geotechnical Categories, 1, 2 and 3, may be introduced.

11

A preliminary classification of a structure according to Geotechnical Category should normally be performed prior to the geotechnical investigations. The category should be checked and changed, if necessary, at each stage of the design and construction process.

12

The procedures of higher categories may be used to justify more economic designs, or if the designer considers them to be appropriate.

13

The various design aspects of a project can require treatment in different Geotechnical Categories. It is not required to treat the whole of the project according to the highest of these categories.

14

Geotechnical Category 1 should only include small and relatively simple structures:

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(a)

For which it is possible to ensure that the fundamental requirements will be satisfied on the basis of experience and qualitative geotechnical investigations;

(b)

With negligible risk.

15

Geotechnical Category 1 procedures should be used only where there is negligible risk in terms of overall stability or ground movements and in ground conditions, which are known from comparable local experience to be sufficiently straightforward. In these cases the procedures may consist of routine methods for foundation design and construction.

16

Geotechnical Category 1 procedures should be used only if there is no excavation below the water table or if comparable local experience indicates that a proposed excavation below the water table will be straightforward.

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17

Geotechnical Category 2 should include conventional types of structure and foundation with no exceptional risk or difficult soil or loading conditions

18

Designs for structures in Geotechnical Category 2 should normally include quantitative geotechnical data and analysis to ensure that the fundamental requirements are satisfied.

19

Routine procedures for field and laboratory testing and for design and execution may be used for Geotechnical Category 2 designs. the following are examples of conventional structures or parts of structures complying with Geotechnical Category 2: Shallow foundations;

(ii)

Pile foundations;

(iii)

Walls and other structures retaining or supporting soil or water;

(iv)

Excavations;

(v)

Bridge piers and abutments;

(vi)

Embankments and earthworks;

(vii)

Ground anchors and other tie-back systems;

(viii)

Tunnels in hard, non-fractured rock and not subjected to special water tightness or other requirements.

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Geotechnical Category 3 should include structures or parts of structures, which fall outside the limits of Geotechnical Categories 1 and 2.

21

Geotechnical Category 3 should normally include alternative provisions and rules to those in this standard. Geotechnical Category 3 includes the following examples: Very large or unusual structures;

(ii)

Structures involving abnormal risks, or unusual or exceptionally difficult ground or loading conditions;

(iii)

Structures in highly seismic areas;

(iv)

Structures in areas of probable site instability or persistent ground movements that require separate investigation or special measures.

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3.3.2

Design Situations

1

Both short-term and long-term design situations shall be considered.

2

In geotechnical design, the detailed specifications of design situations should include, as appropriate: (a)

The actions, their combinations and load cases;

(b)

The general suitability of the ground on which the structure is located with respect to overall stability and ground movements;

(c)

The disposition and classification of the various zones of soil, rock and elements of construction, which are involved in any calculation model;

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 03: Shallow Foundations

(d)

Dipping bedding planes;

(e)

Mine workings, caves or other underground structures;

(f)

In the case of structures resting on or near rock: (i)

inter bedded hard and soft strata;

(ii)

faults, joints and fissures;

(iii)

possible instability of rock blocks;

(iv)

solution cavities, such as swallow holes or fissures filled with soft material, and continuing solution processes;

The environment within which the design is set, including the following: (i)

effects of scour, erosion and excavation, leading to changes in the geometry of the ground surface;

(ii)

effects of chemical corrosion;

(iii)

effects of weathering;

(iv)

effects of long duration droughts;

(v)

variations in ground-water levels, including, e.g. the effects of dewatering, possible flooding, failure of drainage systems, water exploitation;

(vi)

the presence of gases emerging from the ground;

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Earthquakes;

(i)

Ground movements caused by subsidence due to mining or other activities;

(j)

The sensitivity of the structure to deformations;

(k)

The effect of the new structure on existing structures, services and the local environment.

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Durability

1

At the geotechnical design stage, the significance of environmental conditions shall be assessed in relation to durability and to enable provisions to be made for the protection or adequate resistance of the materials.

2

In designing for durability of materials used in the ground, the following should be considered:

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3.3.3

(a)

For concrete: (i)

(b)

Aggressive agents in the ground-water or in the ground or fill material, such as acids or sulfate salts;

For steel: (i)

Chemical attack where foundation elements are buried in ground that is sufficiently permeable to allow the percolation of ground-water and oxygen;

(ii)

Corrosion on the faces of sheet pile walls exposed to free water, particularly in the mean water level zone;

(iii)

The pitting type of corrosive attack on steel embedded in fissured or porous concrete, particularly for rolled steel where the mill scale, acting as a cathode, promotes electrolytic action with the scale-free surface acting as an anode;

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 03: Shallow Foundations For timber: (i)

(d)

Page 9

Fungi and aerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen;

For synthetic fabrics: (i)

The ageing effects of UV exposure or ozone degradation or the combined effects of temperature and stress, and secondary effects due to chemical degradation.

Reference should be made to durability provisions in construction materials standards.

3.4

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN BY CALCULATION

3.4.1

General

1

Design by calculation shall be in accordance with the fundamental requirements of EN 1990 and with the particular rules of this specification. Design by calculation involves:

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Actions, which may be either imposed loads or imposed displacements, e.g. from ground movements;

(b)

Properties of soils, rocks and other materials;

(c)

Geometrical data;

(d)

Limiting values of deformations, crack widths, vibrations etc;

(e)

Calculation models.

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(a)

It should be considered that knowledge of the ground conditions depends on the extent and quality of the geotechnical investigations. Such knowledge and the control of workmanship are usually more significant to fulfilling the fundamental requirements than is precision in the calculation models and partial factors.

3

The calculation model shall describe the assumed behavior of the ground for the limit state under consideration.

4

If no reliable calculation model is available for a specific limit state, analysis of another limit state shall be carried out using factors to ensure that exceeding the specific limit state considered is sufficiently improbable. Alternatively, design by prescriptive measures, experimental models and load tests, or the observational method, shall be performed.

5

The calculation model may consist of any of the following:

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(a)

An analytical model;

(b)

A semi-empirical model;

(c)

A numerical model.

6

Any calculation model shall be either accurate or err on the side of safety.

7

A calculation model may include simplifications.

8

If needed, a modification of the results from the model may be used to ensure that the design calculation is either accurate or errs on the side of safety.

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If the modification of the results makes use of a model factor, it should take account of the following: (a)

The range of uncertainty in the results of the method of analysis;

(b)

Any systematic errors known to be associated with the method of analysis.

10

If an empirical relationship is used in the analysis, it shall be clearly established that it is relevant for the prevailing ground conditions.

11

Limit states involving the formation of a mechanism in the ground should be readily checked using a calculation model. For limit states defined by deformation considerations, the deformations should be evaluated by calculation or otherwise assessed.

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NOTE: many calculation models are based on the assumption of a sufficiently ductile performance of the ground/structure system. A lack of ductility, however, will lead to an ultimate limit state characterized by sudden collapse. Numerical methods can be appropriate if compatibility of strains or the interaction between the structure and the soil at a limit state are considered.

13

Compatibility of strains at a limit state should be considered. Detailed analysis, allowing for the relative stiffness of structure and ground, may be needed in cases where a combined failure of structural members and the ground could occur. Examples include raft foundations, laterally loaded piles and flexible retaining walls. Particular attention should be paid to strain compatibility for materials that are brittle or that have strain-softening properties.

14

In some problems, such as excavations supported by anchored or strutted flexible walls, the magnitude and distribution of earth pressures, internal structural forces and bending moments depend to a great extent on the stiffness of the structure, the stiffness and strength of the ground and the state of stress in the ground.

15

In these problems of ground-structure interaction, analyses should use stress-strain relationships for ground and structural materials and stress states in the ground that are sufficiently representative, for the limit state considered, to give a safe result.

3.4.2

Actions

1

The definition of actions shall be taken as:

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(a)

Set of forces (loads) applied to the structure (direct action);

(b)

Set of imposed deformations or accelerations caused for example, by temperature changes, moisture variation, uneven settlement or earthquakes (indirect action).

The values of actions shall be taken from EN 1991 or equivalent international standard, where relevant. 2

The values of geotechnical actions to be used shall be selected, since they are known before a calculation is performed; they may change during that calculation. NOTE: Values of geotechnical actions may change during the course of calculation. In such cases they will be introduced as a first estimate to start the calculation with a preliminary, known value.

3

Any interaction between the structure and the ground shall be taken into account when determining the actions to be adopted in the design.

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In geotechnical design, the following should be considered for inclusion as actions: the weight of soil, rock and water;

(b)

stresses in the ground;

(c)

earth pressures and ground-water pressure;

(d)

free water pressures, including wave pressures;

(e)

ground-water pressures;

(f)

seepage forces;

(g)

dead and imposed loads from structures;

(h)

surcharges;

(i)

mooring forces;

(j)

removal of load or excavation of ground;

(k)

traffic loads;

(l)

movements caused by mining or other caving or tunneling activities;

(m)

swelling and shrinkage caused by vegetation, climate or moisture changes;

(n)

movements due to creeping or sliding or settling ground masses;

(o)

movements due to degradation, dispersion, decomposition, self-compaction and solution;

(p)

movements and accelerations caused by earthquakes, explosions, vibrations and dynamic loads;

(q)

temperature effects, including frost action;

(r)

imposed pre-stress in ground anchors or struts;

(s)

down drag.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 03: Shallow Foundations

Consideration shall be given to the possibility of variable actions occurring both jointly and separately.

6

The duration of actions shall be considered with reference to time effects in the material properties of the soil, especially the drainage properties and compressibility of fine-grained soils.

7

Actions, which are applied repeatedly, and actions with variable intensity shall be identified for special consideration with regard to, e.g. continuing movements, liquefaction of soils, change of ground stiffness and strength.

8

Actions that produce a dynamic response in the structure and the ground shall be identified for special consideration.

9

Actions in which ground- and free-water forces predominate shall be identified for special consideration with regard to deformations, fissuring, variable permeability and erosion.

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NOTE Unfavorable (or destabilizing) and favorable (or stabilizing) permanent actions may in some situations be considered as coming from a single source. If they are considered so, a single partial factor may be applied to the sum of these actions or to the sum of their effects.

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Page 12

Ground Properties

1

Properties of soil and rock masses, as quantified for design calculations by geotechnical parameters, shall be obtained from test results, either directly or through correlation, theory or empiricism, and from other relevant data.

2

Values obtained from test results and other data shall be interpreted appropriately for the limit state considered.

3

Account shall be taken of the possible differences between the ground properties and geotechnical parameters obtained from test results and those governing the behavior of the geotechnical structure.

4

The above differences can be due to the following factors: many geotechnical parameters are not true constants but depend on stress level and mode of deformation;

(b)

soil and rock structure (e.g. fissures, laminations, or large particles) that may play a different role in the test and in the geotechnical structure;

(c)

time effects;

(d)

the softening effect of percolating water on soil or rock strength;

(e)

the softening effect of dynamic actions;

(f)

the brittleness or ductility of the soil and rock tested;

(g)

the method of installation of the geotechnical structure;

(h)

the influence of workmanship on artificially placed or improved ground;

(i)

the effect of construction activities on the properties of the ground.

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(a)

When establishing values of geotechnical parameters, the following should be considered:

the value of each geotechnical parameter compared with relevant published data and local and general experience;

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(b)

published and well recognized information relevant to the use of each type of test in the appropriate ground conditions;

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3.4.3

6

(c)

the variation of the geotechnical parameters that are relevant to the design;

(d)

the results of any large scale field trials and measurements from neighboring constructions;

(e)

any correlations between the results from more than one type of test;

(f)

any significant deterioration in ground material properties that may occur during the lifetime of the structure.

Calibration factors shall be applied where necessary to convert laboratory or field test results according to EN 1997-2 into values that represent the behavior of the soil and rock in the ground, for the actual limit state, or to take account of correlations used to obtain derived values from the test results.

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Geometrical Data

1

The level and slope of the ground surface, water levels, levels of interfaces between strata, excavation levels and the dimensions of the geotechnical structure shall be treated as geometrical data.

3.4.5

Characteristic and Representative Values of Actions

1

Characteristic and representative values of actions shall be derived in accordance with EN 1990:2002 and the various parts of EN 1991.

3.4.6

Characteristic Values of Geotechnical Parameters

1

The selection of characteristic values for geotechnical parameters shall be based on results and derived values from laboratory and field tests, complemented by well-established experience.

2

The characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter shall be selected as a cautious estimate of the value affecting the occurrence of the limit state.

3

The selection of characteristic values for geotechnical parameters shall take account of the following:

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3.4.4

geological and other background information, such as data from previous projects;

(b)

the variability of the measured property values and other relevant information, e.g. from existing knowledge;

(c)

the extent of the field and laboratory investigation;

(d)

the type and number of samples;

(e)

the extent of the zone of ground governing the behavior of the geotechnical structure at the limit state being considered;

(f)

the ability of the geotechnical structure to transfer loads from weak to strong zones in the ground.

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Characteristic values can be lower values, which are less than the most probable values, or upper values, which are greater.

5

For each calculation, the most unfavorable combination of lower and upper values of independent parameters shall be used.

6

The zone of ground governing the behavior of a geotechnical structure at a limit state is usually much larger than a test sample or the zone of ground affected in an in situ test. Consequently the value of the governing parameter is often the mean of a range of values covering a large surface or volume of the ground. The characteristic value should be a cautious estimate of this mean value.

7

If the behavior of the geotechnical structure at the limit state considered is governed by the lowest or highest value of the ground property, the characteristic value should be a cautious estimate of the lowest or highest value occurring in the zone governing the behavior.

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Page 14

When selecting the zone of ground governing the behavior of a geotechnical structure at a limit state, it should be considered that this limit state may depend on the behavior of the supported structure. For instance, when considering a bearing resistance ultimate limit state for a building resting on several footings, the governing parameter should be the mean strength over each individual zone of ground under a footing, if the building is unable to resist a local failure. If, however, the building is stiff and strong enough, the governing parameter should be the mean of these mean values over the entire zone or part of the zone of ground under the building.

9

If statistical methods are employed in the selection of characteristic values for ground properties, such methods should differentiate between local and regional sampling and should allow the use of a prior knowledge of comparable ground properties.

10

If statistical methods are used, the characteristic value should be derived such that the calculated probability of a worse value governing the occurrence of the limit state under consideration is not greater than 5%.

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NOTE : In this respect, a cautious estimate of the mean value is a selection of the mean value of the limited set of geotechnical parameter values, with a confidence level of 95%; where local failure is concerned, a cautious estimate of the low value is a 5% fractal. When using standard tables of characteristic values related to soil investigation parameters, the characteristic value shall be selected as a very cautious value.

3.4.7

Characteristic Values of Geometrical Data

1

Characteristic values of the levels of ground and ground-water or free water shall be measured, nominal or estimated upper or lower levels.

2

Characteristic values of levels of ground and dimensions of geotechnical structures or elements should usually be nominal values.

3.4.8

Geotechnical Design Report

1

The assumptions, data, methods of calculation and results of the verification of safety and serviceability shall be recorded in the Geotechnical Design Report.

2

The level of detail of the Geotechnical Design Reports will vary greatly, depending on the type of design. For simple designs, a single sheet may be sufficient.

3

The Geotechnical Design Report should normally include the following items, with crossreference to the Ground Investigation Report :

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(a)

a description of the site and surroundings;

(b)

a description of the ground conditions;

(c)

a description of the proposed construction, including actions;

(d)

design values of soil and rock properties, including justification, as appropriate;

(e)

statements on the codes and standards applied;

(f)

statements on the suitability of the site with respect to the proposed construction and the level of acceptable risks;

(g)

geotechnical design calculations and drawings;

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(h)

foundation design recommendations;

(i)

a note of items to be checked during construction or requiring maintenance or monitoring.

4

The Geotechnical Design Report shall include a plan of supervision and monitoring, as appropriate. Items, which require checking during construction or, which require maintenance after construction shall be clearly identified. When the required checks have been carried out during construction, they shall be recorded in an addendum to the Report.

5

In relation to supervision and monitoring the Geotechnical Design Report should state: the purpose of each set of observations or measurements;

(b)

the parts of the structure, which are to be monitored and the locations at which observations are to be made;

(c)

the frequency with which readings is to be taken;

(d)

the ways in which the results are to be evaluated;

(e)

the range of values within which the results are to be expected;

(f)

the period of time for which monitoring is to continue after construction is complete;

(g)

the parties responsible for making measurements and observations, for interpreting the results obtained and for maintaining the instruments.

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An extract from the Geotechnical Design Report, containing the supervision, monitoring and maintenance requirements for the completed structure, shall be provided to the owner/client.

3.4.9

Actions and Design Situations

1

Design situations shall be selected in accordance with 3.3.2.

2

The actions listed in 3.4.2(4) should be considered when selecting the limit states for calculation.

3

If structural stiffness is significant, an analysis of the interaction between the structure and the ground should be performed in order to determine the distribution of actions.

3.4.10

Design and Construction Considerations

1

When choosing the depth of a shallow foundation the following shall be considered:

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(a)

reaching an adequate bearing stratum;

(b)

the depth above which shrinkage and swelling of clay soils, due to seasonal weather changes, or to trees and shrubs, may cause appreciable movements;

(c)

the level of the water table in the ground and the problems, which may occur if excavation for the foundation is required below this level;

(d)

possible ground movements and reductions in the strength of the bearing stratum by seepage or climatic effects or by construction procedures;

(e)

the effects of excavations on nearby foundations and structures;

(f)

anticipated excavations for services close to the foundation;

(g)

high or low temperatures transmitted from the building;

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 03: Shallow Foundations

Page 16

(h)

the possibility of scour;

(i)

the effects of variation of water content due to long periods of drought, and subsequent periods of rain, on the properties of volume-unstable soils in arid climatic areas;

(j)

the presence of soluble materials, e.g. limestone, clay stone, gypsum, salt rocks;

2

In addition to fulfilling the performance requirements, the design foundation width shall take account of practical considerations such as economic excavation, setting out tolerances, working space requirements and the dimensions of the wall or column supported by the foundation.

3

One of the following design methods shall be used for shallow foundations: a direct method, in which separate analyses are carried out for each limit state. When checking against an ultimate limit state, the calculation shall model as closely as possible the failure mechanism, which is envisaged. When checking against a serviceability limit state, a settlement calculation shall be used;

(b)

an indirect method using comparable experience and the results of field or laboratory measurements or observations, and chosen in relation to serviceability limit state loads so as to satisfy the requirements of all relevant limit states;

(c)

a prescriptive method in which a presumed bearing resistance is used.

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Foundations on Rock; Additional Design Considerations

1

The design of shallow foundations on rock shall take account of the following features: the deformability and strength of the rock mass and the permissible settlement of the supported structure;

(b)

the presence of any weak layers, for example solution features or fault zones, beneath the foundation;

(c)

the presence of bedding joints and other discontinuities and their characteristics (for example filling, continuity, width, spacing);

(d)

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disturbance of the natural state of the rock caused by construction activities, such as, for example, underground works or slope excavation, being near to the foundation.

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(e)

the state of weathering, decomposition and fracturing of the rock;

2

Shallow foundations on rock may normally be designed using the method of presumed bearing pressures. For strong intact igneous rocks, gneissic rocks, limestone and sandstones, the presumed bearing pressure are limited by the compressive strength of the concrete foundation.

3

The settlement of a foundation may be assessed on the basis of comparable experience related to rock mass classification. END OF PART

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Page 1

DEEP FOUNDATIONS ............................................................................................ 4

4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.1.9

PRECAST REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES .................... 4 General 4 Limit States Considerations 4 Precast Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles 4 Materials and components 5 Prestressing 7 Driving Piles 8 Risen Piles 10 Repair and lengthening of piles 10 Cutting off pile heads 10

4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10 4.2.11

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE SEGMENTAL PILES............................... 10 Scope 10 References 11 Submittals 11 Quality Assurance 11 Tolerances in Pile Dimensions 11 Handling, Transportation, Storage and Acceptance of Piles 12 Materials and components 12 Driving piles 13 Risen Piles 14 Repair and lengthening of piles 15 Cutting off pile heads 15

4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6

BORED CAST IN PLACE PILES ........................................................................... 15 Scope 15 References 16 Quality Assurance 16 Materials 16 Boring 17 Extraction of casing 19

4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 4.4.5

BORED PILES CONSTRUCTED USING CONTINUOUS FLIGHT AUGERS AND CONCRETE OR GROUT INJECTION TROUGH HOLLOW AUGER STEMS ....... 21 Scope 21 Materials 21 Boring 22 Placing of concrete or grout 23 Cutting off pile heads 23

4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6

DRIVEN CAST IN PLACES PILES ........................................................................ 23 Scope 23 Submittals 24 Quality Assurance 24 Materials 24 Driving piles 25 Risen Piles 26

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Page 2

Extraction of casing

26

4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 4.6.5 4.6.6 4.6.7 4.6.8 4.6.9 4.6.10 4.6.11

STEEL PILES ........................................................................................................ 28 Scope 28 References 28 Submittals 28 Quality Assurance 28 Delivery, Storage and Handling 29 Materials 29 Acceptance Standards For Welds 30 Acceptability and inspection of coatings 31 Driving of piles 31 Risen Piles 33 Preparation of pile heads 33

4.7

MICROPILES (TO BE ADDED LATER) ................................................................. 33

4.8 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4 4.8.5

REDUCTION OF FRICTION ON PILES ................................................................ 33 Scope 33 Submittals 33 Friction Reducing Methods 33 Inspection 34 Driving resistance 35

4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5 4.9.6 4.9.7 4.9.8

PILE LOAD TESTING ........................................................................................... 35 Static Load Testing of Piles 35 Presentation of results 45 Low strain Integrity test 47 Grosshole Sonic Logging Test 48 Calliper Logging Test 48 Axial Tensile Load Test 48 Lateral Load Test 48 Alternative Methods for Testing Piles 48

4.10 4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3

DESIGN METHODS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ...................................... 51 Design method 51 Verification of Resistance for Structural and Ground Limit States in Persistent and Transient Situations 51 Design Considerations 51

4.11 4.11.1 4.11.2 4.11.3 4.11.4 4.11.5 4.11.6 4.11.7 4.11.8 4.11.9 4.11.10

AXIALLY LOADED PILES ..................................................................................... 52 Limit state design 52 Compressive Ground Resistance 53 Ultimate compressive resistance from static load tests 54 Ultimate compressive resistance from ground test results 55 Ultimate compressive resistance from dynamic impact tests 56 Ultimate compressive resistance by applying pile driving formulae 56 Ultimate compressive resistance from wave equation analysis 56 Ground tensile resistance 57 Ultimate tensile resistance from pile load tests 57 Ultimate tensile resistance from ground test results 57

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4.5.7

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Page 3

4.11.11 Vertical displacements of pile foundations 4.11.12 Pile foundations in compression 4.11.13 Pile foundations in tension

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TRANSVERSELY LOADED PILES ....................................................................... 58 Design method 58 Transverse load resistance from pile load tests 59 Transverse load resistance from ground test results and pile strength parameters 59 Transverse displacement 60

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4.12 4.12.1 4.12.2 4.12.3 4.12.4

58 58 58

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Page 4

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

4.1

PRECAST REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES

4.1.1

General

1

The provisions of this Part apply to end-bearing piles, friction piles, tension piles and transversely loaded piles installed by driving, by jacking, and by screwing or boring with or without grouting.

4.1.2

Limit States Considerations

1

The following limit states shall be considered and an appropriate list shall be compiled:

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Loss of overall stability;

(b)

bearing resistance failure of the pile foundation;

(c)

Uplift or insufficient tensile resistance of the pile foundation;

(d)

Failure in the ground due to transverse loading of the pile foundation;

(e)

Structural failure of the pile in compression, tension, bending, buckling or shear;

(f)

combined failure in the ground and in the pile foundation;

(g)

combined failure in the ground and in the structure;

(h)

Excessive settlement;

(i)

Excessive heave;

(j)

Excessive lateral movement;

(k)

Unacceptable vibrations.

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(a)

Precast Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles

1

Scope

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This Part applies to precast concrete driven piles usually supplied for use in a single length without facility for joining lengths together.

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4.1.3

(b) 2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

References (a)

The following Standards are referred to in this Part:

BS 7613,.....................Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel plates BS 3100,.....................Steel castings for general engineering purposes BS 2789,.....................Spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast iron BS 8110,.....................Structural use of concrete. 3

Submittals (a)

The Contractor shall order the piles to suit the construction programme and seek the Engineer's approval before placing the order. When preliminary piles are specified, the approval of the piles for the main work will not necessarily be given until the results of the driving and loading tests on preliminary piles have been received and evaluated.

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Page 5

Quality Assurance (a)

5

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

After a pile has been cast, the date of casting, reference number, length and, where appropriate, the prestressing force shall be clearly inscribed on the top surface of the pile and also clearly and indelibly marked on the head of the pile. Lifting positions shall be marked at the proper locations on each pile.

Tolerances in Pile Dimensions (a)

The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall be not less than those specified and shall not exceed them by more than 6 mm. Each face of a pile shall not deviate by more than 6 mm from any straight line 3 m long joining two points on that face, nor shall the centre of area of the pile at any cross section along its length deviate by more

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than 1/500 of the pile length from a line joining the centres of area at the ends of the pile. Where a pile is less than 3 m long, the permitted deviation from straightness shall

Handling, Transportation and Storage of Piles

The method and sequence of lifting, handling, and storage of piles transporting and storing piles shall be such as to avoid shock loading and to ensure that the piles are not damaged. Only the designated lifting and support points shall be used. During transport and storage, piles shall be appropriately supported under the marked lifting points or fully supported along their length.

(b)

All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packing of uniform thickness shall be provided between piles at the lifting points.

(c)

Concrete shall at no time be subjected to loading, including its own weight, which will induce a compressive stress in it exceeding 0.33 of its strength at the time of loading or of the specified strength, whichever is the lesser. For this purpose the assessment of the strength of the concrete and of the stresses produced by the loads shall be subject to the agreement of the Engineer.

(d)

Pile may be rejected when the width of any transverse crack exceeds 0.3 mm. The

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be reduced below 6 mm on a pro rata basis in accordance with actual length.

measurement shall be made with the pile in its working attitude.

Materials and components

1

Fabricated Steel Components

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4.1.4

(a)

2

Pile Toes (a)

3

In the manufacture of precast concrete piles, fabricated steel components shall comply with BS 7613 grades 43A or 50B, cast steel components with BS 3100 grade A, and ductile iron components with BS 2789.

Pile toes shall be constructed so as to ensure that damage is not caused to the pile during installation. Where positional fixity is required on an inclined rock surface or in other circumstances, an approved shoe may be required.

Pile Head Reinforcement (a)

The head of each pile shall be so reinforced or banded as to prevent bursting of the pile under driving conditions.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 6

Main Reinforcement (a)

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 m in length shall be in one continuous length unless otherwise specified. In piles more than 12 m long, lap splicing will be permitted in main longitudinal bars at 12 m nominal intervals, with no more than 25 % of the bars lapped at one location, and laps staggered by a minimum of 1.2 m. Laps in reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of the bar is effective across the joint. Lap or splice joints shall be provided with sufficient link bars to resist eccentric forces.

(c)

Sufficient reinforcement shall be provided for lifting and handling purposes.

Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, concrete shall be compacted with the assistance of vibrators. Internal vibrators shall be capable of producing not less than 150 Hz and external vibrators not less than 50 Hz. Internal vibrators shall operate not

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closer than 75 mm to shuttering.

Vibrators shall be operated in such a manner that neither segregation of the concrete mix constituents nor displacement of reinforcement occurs.

(c)

Immediately after compaction, concrete shall he adequately protected from the harmful effects of the weather, including wind, rain, rapid temperature changes and frost. It shall be protected from drying out by an approved method of curing.

(d)

Piles shall not be removed from formwork until a sufficient pile concrete strength has been achieved to allow the pile to be handled without damage.

(e)

The period of curing at an ambient temperature of 10 °C shall not be less than that

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(b)

shown in Table 4.1. If the temperature is greater or less than 10 °C, the periods given

When steam or accelerated curing is used the curing procedure shall be approved. Four hours must elapse from the completion of placing concrete before the temperature is raised. The rise in temperature within any period of 30 min shall not exceed 10 °C and the maximum temperature attained shall not exceed 70 °C. The rate

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shall be adjusted accordingly and shall be approved.

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(b)

of subsequent cooling shall not exceed the rate of heating. Table 4.1 Period of Curing at 10 °C Type of cement

Wet curing time after completion of placing concrete, d

Ordinary Portland

4

Sulphate-resisting Portland

4

Portland blast-furnace

4

Super-sulphated

4

Rapid-hardening Portland

3

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 7

Formwork (a)

shaped point or shoe, then the end of the pile shall be symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the pile. Holes for handling or pitching, where provided in the pile, shall be lined with steel tubes; alternatively, approved inserts may be cast in.

(b)

Formwork shall be robust, clean and so constructed as to prevent loss of grout or aggregate from the wet concrete and ensure the production of uniform pile sections, free from defects. The piles are to be removed from the formwork carefully so as to prevent damage.

4.1.5

Prestressing

1

General Tensioning shall be carried out only when the Engineer is present, unless otherwise approved. In cases where piles are manufactured off site, the Contractor shall ensure that the Engineer is given adequate notice and every facility for inspecting the manufacturing process.

(b)

Prestressing operations shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and competent supervisor. All personnel operating the stressing equipment shall have been trained in its use.

(c)

The calculated extensions and total forces, including allowance for losses, shall be agreed with the Engineer before stressing is commenced.

(d)

Stressing of tendons and transfer of prestress shall be carried out at a gradual and steady rate. The force in the tendons shall be obtained from readings on a recently calibrated load cell or pressure gauge incorporated in the equipment. The extension of the tendons under the agreed total forces shall be within 5 % of the agreed calculated extension.

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Concrete Strength

The Contractor shall cast sufficient cubes, cured in the same manner as the piles, to be able to demonstrate by testing two cubes at a time, with approved intervals between pairs of cubes, that the specified transfer strength of the concrete has been reached.

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Post-Tensioned Piles (a)

4

Unless otherwise permitted, concrete shall not be stressed until two test cubes attain the specified transfer strength.

Ducts and vents in post-tensioned piles shall be grouted after the transfer of prestress.

Grouting Procedure (a)

Grout shall be mixed for a minimum of 2 min and until a uniform consistency is obtained.

(b)

Ducts shall not be grouted when the air temperature in the shade is lower than 3 °C.

(c)

Before grouting is started all ducts shall be thoroughly cleaned by means of compressed air.

(d)

Grout shall be injected near the lowest point in the duct in one continuous operation and allowed to flow from the outlet until the consistency is equivalent to that of the grout being injected.

(e)

Vents in ducts shall be provided in accordance with Clause 8.9.2 of BS 8110.

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Page 8

Grout (a)

Unless otherwise directed or agreed by the Engineer (i)

the grout shall consist only of ordinary Portland cement, water and approved admixtures; admixtures containing chlorides or nitrates shall not be used

(ii)

the grout shall have a water/cement ratio as low as possible consistent with the necessary workability, and the water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.45 unless an approved mix containing an expanding agent is used

(iii)

the grout shall not be subject to bleeding in excess of 2 % after 3 h, or in excess of 4% maximum, when measured at 18 C in a covered glass cylinder approximately 100 mm in diameter with a height of grout of approximately 100 mm, and the water shall be reabsorbed after 24 h.

Records

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

The Contractor shall keep detailed records of times of tensioning, measured extensions, pressure gauge readings or load cell readings and the amount of pull-in at each anchorage. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within such reasonable time from completion of each tensioning operation as may be required, and in any case not later than noon on the following working day.

(b)

The Contractor shall keep records of grouting, including the date, the proportions of the grout and any admixtures used, the pressure, details of interruption and topping up required. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within such reasonable time after completion of each grouting operation as may be required, and in any case not later than noon on the following working day.

Driving Piles

1

Strength of Piles (a)

Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified strength.

At all stages during driving and until incorporation into the substructure, the pile shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to prevent buckling. These arrangements shall be such that damage to the pile does not occur.

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Leaders and Trestles

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2

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4.1.6

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as

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ta

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(a)

3

4

Performance of Driving Equipment (a)

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and energy of the driving equipment. Where designated, dynamic evaluation and analysis shall be provided.

(b)

Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of the pile unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For other types of hammer the energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least equivalent to that of a drop hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause instability of the craft or damage to the pile.

Length of Piles (a)

The length of pile to be driven in any location shall be approved prior to the commencement of driving.

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Page 9

Driving Procedure and Redrive Checks (a)

The driving of each pile shall be continuous until the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving, the pile will be accepted provided it can subsequently be driven to the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, without damage. A follower shall not be used unless approved, in which case the Engineer will require the set where applicable to be revised in order to take into account reduction in the effectiveness of the hammer blow.

(b)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in driving characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of the nearest available pile shall be taken if required.

(c)

At the start of the work in a new area or section, a detailed driving record shall be made over the full length of the first pile and during the last 3 m of subsequent piles

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until consistency of behaviour is established. Where required, detailed driving records shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the locations of such piles being

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specified by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set or resistance measurement shall be taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

(e)

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out to an approved procedure.

as

Final Set (a)

When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per 10 blows or as the number of blows required to produce a penetration of 25 mm.

(b)

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be met:

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6

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(d)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition without damage or distortion.

(ii)

The helmet, dolly and any packing shall be in sound condition.

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(i)

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(iii)

7

(iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow, and operating correctly.

(v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded, if required.

Preboring (a)

8

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis, and the head of the pile protected against damage from hammer impact.

If preboring is specified, the diameter and depth of prebore shall be as designated.

Jetting (a)

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been approved.

QCS 2014

Page 10

Risen Piles Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

(b)

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or of any pile resulting from the driving process.

(c)

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call for redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile is unimpaired. If required, the Contractor shall make proposals for correcting detrimentally affected piles and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent work.

4.1.8

Repair and lengthening of piles

1

Repair of Damaged Pile Heads

rw

If it is necessary to repair the head of a pile during driving, the Contractor shall carry out such repair in an approved way which allows the pile-driving to be completed without further damage. If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete of the pile is below the required cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level, using an approved method so that it will safely withstand the imposed design load.

as

Lengthening of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles Any provision for lengthening piles incorporated at the time of manufacture shall be as designed or approved.

(b)

If no provision for lengthening piles was incorporated at the time of manufacture, any method for lengthening shall be such that splices are capable of safely resisting the stresses during driving and under service load and shall be subject to approval.

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(a)

Driving Repaired or Lengthened Piles Repaired or lengthened piles shall not be driven until the added concrete has reached the specified strength of the concrete of the pile.

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4.1.7

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Cutting off pile heads

1

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, when the driving of a pile has been approved the concrete of the head of the pile shall be cut off to the designated level. The length of splice reinforcing bars projecting above this level shall be as designated.

2

Care shall be taken to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to provide a full and sound section at the cut-off level.

4.2

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE SEGMENTAL PILES

4.2.1

Scope

1

This Part applies to piles made of elements cast at a precasting works away from the site, where work cannot normally be closely supervised by the Engineer. The elements are joined together as necessary on site during driving using special proven steel joints incorporated into the pile elements when cast.

m

4.1.9

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2

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 11

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling Section 5,

Concrete.

4.2.2

References

1

The following Standards are referred to in this Part: Eurocode 7, EN1997-1, Section 7 Pile foundation BS 7613,.....................Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel plates BS 3100,.....................Steel castings for general engineering purposes

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BS 2789,.....................Spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast iron

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BS 8110,.....................Structural use of concrete. Submittals

1

The Contractor shall order the piles to suit the construction programme and seek the Engineer's approval before placing the order. When preliminary piles are specified the approval for the piles for the main work will not necessarily be given until the results of the driving and tests on preliminary piles have been received and evaluated.

4.2.4

Quality Assurance

1

A certificate of quality from the pile manufacturer shall be provided to the Engineer when required stating that the designated requirements have been fulfilled during manufacture.

2

Each pile element shall be marked in such a manner that it can be identified with the records of manufacture, which shall state the date of casting, the cement type, concrete grade, element length and any other relevant data. On delivery, the pile elements shall be accompanied by records of manufacture.

4.2.5

Tolerances in Pile Dimensions

1

The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall be not less than those designated.

2

The head of a pile element or the end of the pile upon which the hammer acts shall be square to the pile axis within a tolerance of 1 in 50.

3

Each pile joint shall be square to the axis of the pile within a tolerance of 1 in 150. The centroid of the pile joint shall lie within 5 mm of the true axis of the pile element.

4

Each face of a pile element shall not deviate by more than 6 mm from any straight line 3 m long joining two points on that face, nor shall the centre of area of the pile at any crosssection along its length deviate by more than 1/500 of the pile length from a line joining the centres of area at the ends of the element. Where a pile element is less than 3 m long the permitted deviation from straightness shall be reduced below 6 mm on a pro rata basis in accordance with actual length.

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4.2.3

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Page 12

Handling, Transportation, Storage and Acceptance of Piles

1

The method and sequence of lifting, handling, transporting and storing piles shall be such as to avoid shock loading and to ensure that the piles are not damaged. Only designed lifting and support points shall be used. During transport and storage, piles shall be appropriately supported under the marked lifting points or fully supported along their length.

2

All pile elements within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packing of uniform thickness shall be provided between piles at the lifting points.

3

Concrete shall at no time be subjected to loading, including its own weight, which will induce a compressive stress in it exceeding 0.33 of its strength at the time of loading or of the specified strength, whichever is the less. For this purpose the assessment of the strength of the concrete and of the stresses produced by the loads shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

4

A pile element shall be rejected when the width of any transverse crack exceeds 0.3 mm. The measurement shall be made with the pile in its working attitude.

4.2.7

Materials and components

1

Fabricated Steel Components

ta qa

In the manufacture of jointed precast concrete segmental piles, fabricated steel components shall comply with BS 7613 grades 43A or 50A, cast steel components with BS 3100 grade A, and ductile iron components with BS 2789.

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Pile Splices (a)

The splice joints shall be close-fitting face to face and the locking method shall be such as to hold the faces in intimate contact. The design and manufacture of the splicing system shall be approved by the Engineer prior to the commencement of the Contract.

(b)

A spliced pile shall be capable of withstanding the same driving stresses or service axial loads, moments and shear stresses as a single unspliced pile of the same crosssectional dimensions and materials.

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4.2.6

(c)

3

Pile Toes (a)

4

Pile toes shall be constructed so as to ensure that damage is not caused to the pile during installation. Where fixity is required or socketing into rock, or in other circumstances, an approved shoe may be required.

Pile Head Reinforcement (a)

5

The welding of a joint to main reinforcement in lieu of a lapped connection with projecting bars affixed to the joint will not be permitted.

Where the pile head is not furnished with a joint, it shall be so reinforced or banded as to prevent bursting of the pile under driving conditions.

Main Reinforcement (a)

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars shall be in one continuous length. Splicing of bars will not be permitted except at element ends.

QCS 2014

Page 13

(b)

Concrete cover to steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS 8110.

(c)

In very aggressive ground or exposure conditions, cover greater than 25 mm may be required, but alternative protection methods may be approved.

Formwork (a)

If a pile is constructed with a shaped point or shoe, then the end of the pile shall be symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the pile.

(b)

Holes for handling or pitching, where provided in the pile, shall be lined with steel tubes; alternatively, approved inserts may be cast in.

(c)

Formwork shall be robust, clean and so constructed as to prevent loss of grout or aggregate from the wet concrete and ensure the production of uniform pile sections. The piles are to be removed from the formwork carefully so as to prevent damage.

Driving piles

1

Strength of Piles

Leaders and Trestles

At all stages during driving and until incorporation into the substructure, the pile shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to prevent buckling. These arrangements shall be such that damage to the pile does not occur.

Performance of Driving Equipment

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and energy of the driving equipment. Where required in the particular specification, dynamic evaluation and analysis shall be provided. Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of the pile at the moment of driving unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For other types of hammer, the energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least equivalent to that of a drop hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause instability of the craft or damage to the pile.

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(b)

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(a)

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(a)

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2

Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified characteristic strength.

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(a)

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4.2.8

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

4

Length of Piles (a)

The length of pile supplied to be driven in any location and any additional lengths to be added during driving shall he approved prior to the commencement of pile-driving. During the execution of the Works, any changes to the supplied lengths shall be approved.

QCS 2014

Page 14

Driving Procedure and Redrive Checks (a)

Except when making field splices, the driving of each pile shall he continuous until the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving, the pile will be accepted provided it can subsequently be driven to the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, without damage. A follower shall only be used when approved, in which case the Engineer will require the set where applicable to be revised in order to take into account reduction in the effectiveness of the hammer blow.

(b)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in driving characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of the nearest available pile shall be taken if required.

(c)

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed driving record shall be made over the full length of the first pile and during the last 3 m of subsequent piles until consistency of behaviour is established. Where required, detailed driving records shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the positions of such piles being specified by the Engineer.

(d)

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set or resistance measurement shall be taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

(e)

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out to an approved procedure.

as

Final Set

When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per ten blows or as the number of blows required to produce a penetration of 25 mm.

(b)

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be met:

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(a)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition, without damage or distortion.

(ii)

The helmet, dolly and any packing shall be in sound condition.

(iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis.

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(i)

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

7

(v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded if required.

If preboring is specified, the diameter and depth of prebore shall be as designated.

Jetting (a)

4.2.9

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow, and operating correctly.

Preboring (a)

8

(iv)

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been approved.

Risen Piles (a)

Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 15

(b)

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or of any pile resulting from the driving process.

(c)

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call for redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile is unimpaired. If required, the Contractor shall make proposals for correcting piles detrimentally affected and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent work.

4.2.10

Repair and lengthening of piles

1

Repair of Damaged Pile Heads If it is necessary to repair the head of a pile during driving, the Contractor shall carry out such repair in an approved way which allows the driving of the pile to be completed without further damage. If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete of the pile is below the required cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level, using an approved method so that it will safely withstand the imposed design load.

Where piles are required to be driven to depths exceeding those expected, leaving insufficient projection for bonding into the following works, the piles shall be extended or replaced as required by the Engineer using approved materials and methods.

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(a)

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Lengthening of Piles

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(a)

Cutting off pile heads

1

Unless otherwise specified, when the driving of a pile has been approved the concrete of the head of the pile shall be cut off to the designated level. The length of splice reinforcing bars projecting above this level shall be as designated.

2

Care shall be taken to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to provide a full and sound section at the cut-off level.

4.3

BORED CAST IN PLACE PILES

4.3.1

Scope

1

This Part applies to bored piles in which the pile bore is excavated by rotary or percussive means, or both, using short augers, buckets, grabs or other boring tools to advance the open bore. Where the open bore is unstable, temporary or permanent casing or bentonite suspension may be used to support the wall of the bore prior to concreting.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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4.2.11

This Section Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling Section 3, Ground Investigation Section 5, Concrete

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

4.3.2

References

1

The following codes of practice are referred to in this Part:

Page 16

BS 5573,.....................Code of practice for safety precautions in the construction of large diameter boreholes for piling and other purposes BS 5930,.....................Code of practice for site investigation. 4.3.3

Quality Assurance

1

Inspection Each pile bore which does not contain standing water or drilling fluid shall be inspected directly or indirectly prior to concrete being placed in it. This inspection shall be carried out from the ground surface in the case of piles of less than 750 mm diameter. Torches or other approved means of lighting, measuring tapes, and a means of measuring verticality shall be provided. For piles of 750 mm diameter or larger, equipment shall be provided, by the Contractor to enable his representatives and the Engineer to descend into the bore for the purpose of inspection. Any method of descent and the equipment used shall comply with the requirements of BS 5573.

Cleanliness of pile bases

On completion of boring and where inspection of a dry pile bore indicates the necessity, loose, disturbed or softened soil shall be removed from the bore. Where pile bores contain water or drilling fluid, a cleaning process shall be employed before concrete is placed. Large debris and accumulated sediment shall be removed using appropriate approved methods, which shall be designed to clean while at the same time minimising ground disturbance below the pile bases. Water or drilling fluid shall be maintained at such levels throughout and following the cleaning operation that stability of the bore is preserved.

Samples and Testing

The taking of samples and all subsequent handling, transporting and testing shall be carried out in accordance with Section 3, Ground Investigation.

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(b)

If required in the Contract, soil, rock or groundwater samples shall be taken or soil tests carried out in-situ while the pile is being bored. The samples shall be taken to an approved laboratory for testing as specified.

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(a)

4.3.4

Materials

1

Permanent Casings (a)

2

Permanent casings shall be as specified.

Drilling Fluid Supply (a)

A certificate shall be obtained by the Contractor from the manufacturer of the bentonite powder showing the properties of each consignment delivered to the Site. This certificate shall be made available to the Engineer on request. The properties to be given by the manufacturer are the apparent viscosity range (in Pascal seconds) and the gel strength range (in Pascal) for solids in water.

QCS 2014

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Page 17

Drilling Fluid Mixing (a)

Bentonite shall be mixed thoroughly with clean fresh water to make a suspension which will maintain the stability of the pile bore for the period necessary to place concrete and complete construction. The temperature of the water used in mixing the bentonite suspension, and of the suspension when supplied to the borehole, shall be not lower than 5 C.

(b)

Where saline or chemically contaminated groundwater occurs, special precautions shall be taken to modify the bentonite suspension or prehydrate the bentonite in fresh water so as to render it suitable in all respects for the construction of piles.

Drilling Fluid Tests (a)

The frequency of testing drilling fluid and the method and procedure of sampling shall be proposed by the Contractor for approval prior to the commencement of the work. The frequency may subsequently be varied as required, depending on the consistency of the results obtained, subject to approval.

(b)

Control tests shall be carried out on the bentonite suspension, using suitable apparatus. The density of freshly mixed bentonite suspension shall be measured daily as a check on the quality of the suspension being formed. The measuring device shall be calibrated to read to within 0.005 g/ml. Tests to determine density, viscosity, shear strength and pH value shall be applied to bentonite supplied to the pile bore. For average soil conditions the results shall generally be within the ranges in Table 4.2.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Table 4.2.Tests on Bentonite

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Viscosity

Less than 1.10 g/ml

Mud density balance

30 - 90 s or less than 0.020 Pa • s

Marsh cone method

1.4-10 Pa Or 4-40 Pa

Shear meter

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9.5 - 12

Fann viscometer*

Fann viscometer pH indicator paper strips or electrical pH meter

Where the Fann viscometer is specified, the fluid sample should be screened by a number 52 sieve (300 m) prior to testing.

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*

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Shear strength (10 minute gel strength) pH

Test method

se

Density

Range of results at 20 C

as

Property to be measured

(c)

The tests shall be carried out until a consistent working pattern has been established account being taken of the mixing process, any blending of freshly mixed bentonite suspension and previously used bentonite suspension, and any process which may be used to remove impurities from previously used bentonite suspension. When the results show consistent behaviour, the tests for shear strength and pH value may be discontinued, and tests to determine density and viscosity shall be carried out as agreed with the Engineer. In the event of a change in the established working pattern, tests for shear strength and pH value shall be reintroduced for a period if required.

4.3.5

Boring

1

Boring Near Recently Cast Piles (a)

Piles shall not be bored so close to other recently completed piles as to damage them.

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Page 18

Temporary Casings (a)

Temporary casing of approved quality or an approved alternative method shall be used to maintain the stability of a pile bore which might otherwise collapse.

(b)

Temporary casings shall be free from significant distortion. They shall be of uniform cross-section throughout each continuous length. During concreting they shall be free from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might adversely affect the proper formation of piles.

(c)

The use of a vibrator to insert and withdraw temporary casing may be permitted by the Engineer subject to compliance with Noise and Disturbance and Damage to Adjacent Structures of this section and to the method not causing disturbance of the ground which would adversely affect the construction or the capacity of piles.

(d)

Where piles are bored under water or bentonite suspension in an unlined state, the insertion of a full-length loosely fitting casing to the bottom of the bore prior to placing concrete will not be permitted.

(e)

Where permanent casing is specified to ensure the integrity of a pile, the Contractor shall submit for approval his proposals regarding the method of installation.

ta qa

Stability of Pile

Where boring takes place through unstable water-bearing strata, the process of excavation and the depth of temporary casing employed shall be such that soil from outside the area of the pile is not drawn into the pile section and cavities are not created outside the temporary casing as it is advanced.

(b)

Where the use of drilling fluid is specified or approved for maintaining the stability of a bore, an adequate temporary casing shall be used in conjunction with the method so as to ensure stability of the strata near ground level until concrete has been placed. During construction the level of drilling fluid in the pile excavation shall be maintained within the cased or stable bore so that it is not less than 1.0 m above the level of external standing groundwater at all times.

(c)

In the event of a rapid loss of drilling fluid from a pile excavation, the bore shall be backfilled without delay and the instructions of the Engineer shall be obtained before boring at that location is resumed.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Spillage and Disposal of Drilling Fluid (a)

5

Pumping from Pile Bores (a)

6

All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of bentonite suspension on the Site in areas outside the immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded bentonite shall be removed from the Site without undue delay. Any disposal of bentonite shall comply with the regulations of the local controlling authority.

Pumping from pile bores shall not be permitted unless the bore has been sealed against further water entry by casing or unless the soil is stable and will allow pumping to take place without ground disturbance below or around the pile.

Continuity of Construction (a)

For a pile constructed in a stable cohesive soil without the use of temporary casing or other form of support, the pile shall be bored and the concrete shall be placed without such delay as would lead to significant impairment of the soil strength.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Enlarged Pile Bases (a)

A mechanically formed enlarged base shall be no smaller than the dimensions specified and shall be concentric with the pile shaft to within a tolerance of 10 % of the shaft diameter. The sloping surface of the frustum forming the enlargement shall make an angle to the axis of the pile of not more than 35 .

4.3.6

Extraction of casing

1

Workability of Concrete (a)

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within them remains sufficiently workable to ensure that the concrete is not lifted. During extraction the motion of the casing shall be maintained in an axial direction relative to the pile.

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Concrete Level

When the casing is being extracted, a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within it to ensure that pressure from external water, drilling fluid or soil is exceeded and that the pile is neither reduced in section nor contaminated.

(b)

The concrete level within a temporary casing shall be topped up where necessary during the course of casing extraction in such a way that the base of the casing is always below the concrete surface until the casting of the pile has been completed.

(c)

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where excess heads of water or drilling fluid could occur as the casing is withdrawn because of the displacement of water or fluid by the concrete as it flows into its final position against the walls of the pile bore. Where two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) are used in the construction the proposed method of working shall be approved.

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(a)

For piles cast in dry bores using temporary casing and without the use of a permanent lining, pile heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after trimming, a sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. The casting level shall be within the tolerance above the cut-off level shown in Table 4.3, but shall not be above the original ground level. No pile shall be cast with its head below standing water level unless approved measures are taken to prevent inflow of water causing segregation of the concrete as temporary casing is extracted, and, where approved by the Engineer, the groundwater level for each pile shall be treated as the cut-off level for the purpose of calculating tolerance.

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Pile Head Casting Level Tolerances

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(b)

For piles cast in dry bores within permanent lining tubes or permanent casings, or where their cut-off levels are in stable ground below the base of any casing used, pile heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after trimming, a sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. The casting level shall be within the tolerance above the cut-off level shown in Table 4.4, but shall not be above the original ground level.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 20

(c)

For piles cast under water or drilling fluid, the pile heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after trimming to remove all debris and contaminated concrete, a sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. The casting level shall be within the tolerance above the cut-off level shown in Table 4.4, but shall not be above the commencing surface level. Cut-off levels may be specified below the standing groundwater level, and where this condition applies the borehole fluid level shall not be reduced below the standing groundwater level until the concrete has set.

(d)

Where the cut-off level of piles lies at depths greater than 10 m below the original ground level, then the tolerances given in Tables 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 will be varied after discussion with the Contractor and before the commencement of the piling to take account of the special conditions which apply. Table 4.3

Casting tolerance above cut-off level, m

rw

Cut-off distance below commencing surface, H, m

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Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Cast In Dry Bores Using Temporary Casing and Without the Use of a Permanent Lining

ta

0.3 + H/12 + C/8 where C = length of temporary casing below the commencing surface*

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0.15-10.00 *

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If H is greater than C, then this tolerance is no longer applicable and the tolerances in Table 4.4 will apply.

Table 4.4

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Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Cast in Dry Bores within Permanent Lining Tubes or Permanent Casings, or Where Their Cut-Off Levels is in Stable Ground below the Base of Any Casing Used

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Cut-off distance below commencing surface, H, m

0.3 + H/10

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0.15-10.00

Casting tolerance above cut-off level, m

m

Table 4.5 Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Cast Under Water or Drilling Fluid** Cut-off distance below commencing surface, H, m

0.15-10.00

** 4

Casting tolerance above cut-off level, m

1.0 + H /12 + C/8 where C = length of temporary casing below the commencing surface

In cases where a pile is cast so that the cut-off is within a permanent lining tube, the appropriate tolerance is given by deletion of the casing term C/8 in the table.

Water levels (a)

During extraction of temporary casings, where circumstances are such that newly placed unset concrete is brought into contact with external groundwater, precautions shall be taken to ensure that the internal concrete pressure at all levels within the pile exceeds the external groundwater pressure.

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5

After each pile has been cast, any empty bore remaining shall be protected and shall be carefully backfilled as soon as possible with approved materials.

Disposal of excavated material (a)

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Temporary backfilling above pile casting level (a)

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Disposal of excavated material shall be carried out by the Contractor as necessary to facilitate the Works and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Cutting off pile heads (a)

When cutting off and trimming piles to the specified cut-off level, the Contractor shall take care to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to provide a full and sound section at the cut-off level

BORED PILES CONSTRUCTED USING CONTINUOUS FLIGHT AUGERS AND CONCRETE OR GROUT INJECTION TROUGH HOLLOW AUGER STEMS

4.4.1

Scope

1

This Part applies to bored piles which employ a continuous flight auger for both advancing the bore and maintaining its stability. The spoil-laden auger is not removed from the ground until concrete or grout is pumped into the pile bore from the base of the hollow-stemmed auger to replace the excavated soil.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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This Section

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Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling

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Section 3, Ground Investigation. Section 5, Concrete Materials

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Concrete Mix Design and Workability

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4.4.2

(a)

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Where not otherwise stated in this Part, the concrete shall comply with Section 5. The design and workability of concrete to be used in the formation of a pile shall produce a mix which is suitable for pumping. It shall have a minimum slump of 150 mm unless 3 otherwise approved and a minimum cement content of 340 kg/m . The mix shall be designed so that segregation does not occur during the placing process, and bleeding of the mix shall be minimised.

Grout Mix Design and Workability (a)

Mix design of grout shall be subject to approval. Cement, water and aggregates for grout shall be according to Section 5. Course aggregate to be used shall be of 6 mm nominal size and shall be rounded and evenly graded.

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(b)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

The workability of grout mixes, where used, shall be measured by a suitable and approved means. The procedure for monitoring the suitability of grout throughout the Works shall be stated in writing to the Engineer before beginning of the Works and shall be subject to approval.

(c)

Additives to the grout shall require prior approval of the Engineer.

Reinforcement All reinforcement shall be placed with the minimum delay after the completion of the concreting or grouting operation. It shall be designed and fabricated in cages to permit it to be placed in the correct position and to the depth specified through the concrete or grout of the pile. Suitable approved spacers shall be provided to maintain the specified concrete or grout cover to steel.

(b)

The transverse reinforcement of any reinforcing cage shall be approved and may consist of either spirals, hoops or links.

(c)

Longitudinal main steel reinforcement shall be continuous over the specified length. Where splices are necessary, the number of laps shall be kept to a minimum and bars shall be welded or joined together in an approved manner.

(d)

Reinforcement shall be supported and centred so that it will provide the required projection above the cut-off level, and the proper concrete cover.

Boring

1

General

During uncased boring with continuous flight auger, the feed forward and speed (revolutions per minute) are to be adjusted according to the soil conditions in a way that the excavation of soil will be limited to a quantity that the lateral support of the uncased borehole wall will be ensured.

Boring Near Recently Cast Piles

Removal of Augers from the Ground

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Piles shall not be bored so close to other piles which have recently been cast as to damage them.

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(a)

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Depth of Piles (a)

5

Augers shall not be extracted from the ground during the boring or construction of a pile in such a way that an open unsupported bore or inflow of water into the pile section would result. While withdrawing the continuous flight auger, the auger shall be rotated in the same direction as during drilling into the soil or shall be withdrawn without rotation.

Any failure of a pile to reach the designated depth shall be reported to the Engineer without delay and a full statement of the reasons given.

Suitability of Boring Equipment (a)

The piles shall be bored using approved and suitable equipment capable of penetrating the ground without drawing surrounding soils laterally into the pile bore.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

4.4.4

Placing of concrete or grout

1

Equipment for Supply of Concrete or Grout to Piles (a)

Grout or concrete shall be supplied to the pile through suitable tubing and the hollow auger stem. All pipe fitments and connections shall be so constructed that grout does not leak during the injection process.

Commencement of Concrete or Grout Supply to Each Pile (a)

The base of the auger stem shall be fitted with a suitable means of sealing it against ingress of water and soil until concrete or grout placing begins.

(b)

At the beginning of concrete or grout placement this sealing device shall be removed by the application of concrete or grout pressure. Care shall be taken to ensure that the auger is lifted only sufficiently to initiate the flow of concrete or grout, and that water inflow and soil movement at the base of the auger are minimised. The technique and equipment used to initiate and maintain the concrete or grout flow shall be such that a pile of the full specified cross-section is obtained from the maximum depth of boring to the final pile cut-off level.

The concrete or grout shall be supplied to the pile at a sufficient rate during auger withdrawal to ensure that a continuous monolithic shaft of the full specified crosssection is formed, free from debris or any segregated concrete or grout.

(b)

The rate of withdrawal of the auger, the injection pressures and the rate of supply of concrete or grout shall be measured and recorded throughout the phase of auger withdrawal for each pile.

(c)

The Contractor shall submit proposals for his method of monitoring construction for approval before beginning the Works.

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Completion of Piles

If the concrete or grout placing in any pile cannot be completed in the normal manner, then the pile shall be rebored before concrete has hardened and shall be completely replaced.

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Rate of Supply of Concrete or Grout

Casting Level of Pile Head Concrete or grout shall be cast to the original ground level in all cases, and the reinforcing cage set, as appropriate.

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4.4.5

Cutting off pile heads

1

When cutting off and trimming piles to the specified cut-off level, the Contractor shall take care to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any laitance, or contaminated, cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to provide a full and sound section up to the cut-off level.

4.5

DRIVEN CAST IN PLACES PILES

4.5.1

Scope

1

This Part applies to piles for which a permanent casing of steel or concrete is driven, reinforcement placed within it if required, and the casing filled with concrete. It also applies to piles in which a temporary casing is driven, reinforcement placed within it and the pile formed in the ground by filling the temporary casing with concrete before and during its extraction.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 24

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling Section 5, Concrete Section 3, Ground Investigation. Submittals

1

Where the Contractor wishes to form a pile with an enlarged base, details of the proposed method of forming the base and the materials to be used shall be submitted at the time of tendering.

4.5.3

Quality Assurance

1

Before placing concrete in a pile casing, the Contractor shall check in an approved manner that the casing is undamaged, and free from water or other foreign matter. In the event of water or foreign matter having entered the pile casing, either the casing shall be withdrawn, repaired if necessary and re-driven, or other action shall be taken as may be approved to continue the construction of the pile.

4.5.4

Materials

1

Permanent Casings

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Permanent casings shall be as specified. Where a permanent casing is to be made from a series of short sections it shall be designed and placed so as to produce a continuous water-free shaft. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be adequate to withstand the stresses caused by handling and driving without damage or distortion.

Temporary casings shall be free from significant distortion. They shall be of uniform external cross-section throughout each continuous length. During concreting they shall be free from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the proper formation of piles.

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Pile Shoes (a)

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Pile shoes shall be manufactured from durable material capable of withstanding the stresses caused by driving without damage, and shall be designed to give a watertight joint during construction.

Reinforcement (a)

This type of pile shall normally be reinforced over its full length unless permanently cased. The use of shorter reinforcement in piles which are not permanently cased shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

(b)

The number of splices in longitudinal steel bars shall be kept to a minimum. The full strength of each bar shall be effective across each splice, which shall be made so that there is no detrimental displacement of the reinforcement during the construction of the pile.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

4.5.5

Driving piles

1

Piling Near Recently Cast Piles (a)

2

Casings shall not be driven or piles formed so close to other piles which have recently been cast as to damage them.

Performance of Driving Equipment (a)

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and energy of the driving equipment

(b)

Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause instability of the craft.

Length of Piles

Driving Procedure (a)

Each pile casing shall be driven continuously until the specified or approved depth or resistance (set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving, the pile will be accepted provided on resumption the casing can be driven to the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, without damage.

(b)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in driving characteristics is encountered. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of the nearest available subsequent pile shall be taken if required.

(c)

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed driving record shall be made over the full length of the first pile to be installed and over the last 3 m of the driving of subsequent piles until consistency of behaviour is established. Where required, detailed driving records shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the positions of such piles being specified by the Engineer.

(d)

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all facilities to enable the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set shall be taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

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Final Set

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The length of pile to be driven in any location shall be approved.

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(a)

Where piles are driven to a set, the final set of each pile, pile shell or casing shall be recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per ten blows or as the number of blows required to produce a penetration of 25 mm.

(b)

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be met: (i)

The exposed part of the pile casing shall be in good condition, without damage or distortion.

(ii)

The dolly, helmet and packing, if any, shall be in sound condition.

(iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis.

(iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow, and operating correctly.

(v)

Temporary compression of the pile casing shall be recorded if required.

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6

If preboring is specified the pile casing shall be pitched after preboring to the designated depth and diameter.

Jetting (a)

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Preboring (a)

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been approved by the Engineer

Internal Drop Hammer Where a casing for a pile without an enlarged base is to be driven by an internal drop hammer, a plug consisting of concrete grade 20 with a water/cement ratio not exceeding 0.25 shall be placed in the pile. This plug shall have a compacted height of not less than 2.5 times the diameter of the pile. Fresh concrete shall be added to ensure that this height of driving plug is maintained in the casing throughout the period of driving, and in any event a plug of fresh concrete shall be added after 1.5 h of normal driving or after 45 min of hard driving, or, should the driving of a pile be interrupted for 30 min or longer, fresh concrete shall be added prior to driving being resumed.

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Risen Piles

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Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise any detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

2

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or any pile resulting from the driving process.

3

When a pile has risen with detrimental effects as a result of adjacent piles being driven the Contractor shall, if required, submit to the Engineer his proposals for correcting or compensating for this and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent work.

4.5.7

Extraction of casing

1

Workability of Concrete

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(a)

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3

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within them remains sufficiently workable to ensure that the concrete is not lifted.

Concrete Level (a)

When the casing is being extracted, a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be maintained within it to ensure that pressure from external water or soil is exceeded and that the pile is neither reduced in section nor contaminated.

(b)

Concrete shall be topped up as necessary while the casing is extracted until the required head of concrete to complete the pile in a sound and proper manner has been provided. No concrete is to be placed once the bottom of the casing has been lifted above the top of the concrete.

Vibrating Extractors (a)

The use of vibrating casing extractors will be permitted subject to Part 1 (Noise and Disturbance) and (Damage to Adjacent Structures).

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Page 27

Concrete Casting Tolerances (a)

For piles constructed without the use of a rigid permanent lining, pile concrete shall be cast to the original ground level.

(b)

Where piles are constructed inside rigid permanent lining tubes or permanent casings, pile heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after trimming, a sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. In this case, the tolerance of casting above the cut-off level shall be determined according to Table 4.6. Table 4.6

Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Constructed Inside Rigid Permanent Lining Tubes or Permanent Casings Cut-off distance below original ground, H, (m)

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Casting tolerance above cut-off level (m)

2.2 + H/10

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Repair of damaged pile heads and making-up of piles to the correct level When repairing or extending the head of a pile, the head shall be cut off square in sound concrete, and all loose particles shall be removed by wire brushing, followed by washing with water.

(b)

If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete of the pile is below the cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level with concrete of a grade not inferior to that of the concrete of the pile.

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Lengthening of cast-in- place piles after driving When it is required to extend a cast-in-place driven pile above ground, the materials to be used and procedures to be adopted shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

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Lengthening of permanent pile casings during construction The lengthening of permanent steel pile casings by adding an additional length of the same steel casing during construction shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant clauses of this Section or by other approved methods. The use of casing extension materials and methods other than those specified shall be subject to approval.

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Temporary backfilling above pile casting level (a)

9

After each pile has been cast, any hole remaining shall be protected and shall be carefully backfilled as soon as possible with approved materials.

Cutting off pile heads (a)

When cutting off and trimming piles to the specified cut-off level, the Contractor shall take care to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to provide a full and sound section to the cut-off level.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

Page 28

4.6

STEEL PILES

4.6.1

Scope

1

This Part applies to driven steel piles designed to act as bearing piles.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling

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Section 3, Ground Investigation. Section 5, Concrete References

1

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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BS 4, ..........................Structural steel sections

BS 3100, ....................Steel casting for general engineering purposes.

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BS 5135, ....................Process of arc-welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels BS 6265, ....................Resistance steam welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steel

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BS 7613, ....................Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel plates

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API 5L,........................Interpretation of non-destructive testing. Submittals

1

Where coatings are specified, the Contractor shall submit for approval full details of the coating procedure and surface preparation according to relevant British or Swedish Standards.

4.6.4

Quality Assurance

1

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with Works test certificates, analyses, and mill sheets, together with a tube manufacturer's certificate showing details of the pile number, cast number of the steel and a record of all tests and inspections carried out. The Engineer has the right to inspect any stage of the manufacturing processes and shall be given adequate notice by the Contractor of such processes and production tests, provided that, once he has been notified, any delay in his attendance does not cause delay to, or disrupt, the manufacturing process. The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with samples for independent testing when requested.

2

The Contractor shall submit for approval full details of the welding procedures and electrodes, with drawings and schedules as may be necessary. Tests shall be undertaken as may be required by the relevant British Standard or as may be required by the Engineer. Only welders who are qualified in the approved welding procedure in accordance with the tests laid down in the relevant British Standard, or who have a proven record over the previous six months, or who have attained a similar standard, shall be employed on the Works. Proof of welders' proficiency shall be made available to the Engineer on request.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

4.6.5

Delivery, Storage and Handling

1

The Contractor shall (a)

Order the piles to suit the construction programme.

(b)

Obtain the Engineer's approval before placing the order.

Page 29

When preliminary piles are specified, the approval for the piles for the main work will not necessarily be given until the results of the driving and tests on preliminary piles have been received and evaluated.

3

Each pile shall be clearly numbered and its length shown near the pile head using white paint. In addition, before being driven, each pile shall be graduated at appropriate intervals along its length and at intervals of 250 mm along the top 3 m.

4

All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length and on approved supports. All operations such as handling, transporting and storing of piles shall be carried out in a manner such that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised.

4.6.6

Materials

1

Pile Shoes

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Cast steel shoes shall be of steel to BS 3100, grade Al. Flat plate and welded fabricated steel shoes shall be grade 43A or 50A, conforming to BS 7613 and related standards.

Strengthening of Piles

The strengthening to the toe of a pile in lieu of a shoe or the strengthening of the head of a pile shall be made using material of the same grade as the pile unless otherwise approved.

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Manufacturing Tolerance All piles shall be of the type and cross-sectional dimensions specified. For standard rolled sections the dimensional tolerances and weight shall comply with the relevant standard. The tolerance on length shall be -0 and +75 mm unless otherwise specified. For proprietary sections the dimensional tolerances shall comply with the manufacturer's standards. The rolling or manufacturing tolerances for proprietary sections shall be such that the actual weight of section does not differ from the theoretical weight by more than +4 % or -2½ % unless otherwise agreed. The rolling or manufacturing tolerances for steel tubular piles shall be such that the actual weight of section does not differ from the theoretical weight by more than ±5 %.

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Straightness of Piles (a)

For standard rolled sections the deviation from straightness shall be within the compliance provisions of BS 4, Part 1. When two or more rolled lengths are joined by butt-jointing, the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/600 of the overall length of the pile.

(b)

For proprietary sections made up from rolled sections, and for tubular piles, the deviation from straightness on any longitudinal face shall not exceed 1/600 of the length of the pile nor 5 mm in any 3 m length.

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Fabrication of Piles (a)

For tubular piles where the load will be carried by the wall of the pile, and if the pile will be subject to loads that induce reversal of stress during or after construction, the external diameter at any section as measured by using a steel tape on the circumference shall not differ from the theoretical diameter by more than ±1.

(b)

The ends of all tubular piles as manufactured shall be within a tolerance on ovality of ±1 % as measured by a ring gauge for a distance of 100 mm at each end of the pile length.

(c)

The root edges or root faces of lengths of piles that are to be shop butt-welded shall not differ by more than 25 % of the thickness of pile walls not exceeding 12 mm thick or by more than 3 mm for piles where the wall is thicker than 12 mm. When piles of unequal wall thickness are to be butt-welded, the thickness of the thinner material shall be the criterion.

Matching of Pile Lengths

Longitudinal seam welds and spiral seam welds of two lengths of tubular piles being joined shall, whenever possible, be evenly staggered at the butt. However, if in order to obtain a satisfactory match of the ends of piles or to meet specified straightness, the seams cannot be staggered evenly, then they shall be staggered by at least 100 mm.

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Welding

Welding of H-piles and piles that will be subjected to stress reversal, during or after construction, shall be in accordance with BS 5135.

(b)

For a tubular pile where the load will be compressive and non-reversible and will be carried by the wall of the pile or by composite action with a concrete core, the welding shall be to BS 5135 or BS 6265.

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(a)

Coating Piles for Protection against Corrosion Where coatings are specified they shall be provided in accordance with the Particular Specification. In general, coatings will not be called for where piles are fully in contact with undisturbed natural soils or below the standing water table. Cathodic protection may be called for when there is a possibility of stray electrical current from the supported structure flowing to earth through the piles.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

4.6.7

Acceptance Standards For Welds

1

Acceptance Standards for Shop Welds (a)

Longitudinal or spiral welds made in the manufacture of tubular piles are subject to the acceptance standard for interpretation of non-destructive testing specified in latest edition of API 5L. The maximum projecting height of weld reinforcement shall not exceed 3 mm for wall thicknesses not exceeding 13 mm and 5 mm for wall thicknesses greater than 13 mm.

(b)

Longitudinal welds joining the constituent parts of the box or proprietary section shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's specification.

(c)

The maximum projecting height of weld reinforcement for circumferential welds in tubular piles shall be the same as specified above for longitudinal welds in tubular piles.

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Acceptance Standards for Site Butt Welds (a)

Welds shall comply with the requirements of the Weld Quality Acceptance Standards for Site Butt Welds in Steel Bearing Piles published by British Steel Corporation, General Steels Group.

Acceptability and inspection of coatings

1

The finished coating shall be generally of smooth and uniform texture and free from sharp protuberances or pin holes. Excessive sags, dimpling or curtaining will not be acceptable.

2

Any coat damaged by subsequent processes, or which has deteriorated to an extent such that proper adhesion of the coating is in doubt, shall be removed and the surface shall be cleaned to the original standard and recoated with the specified number and thicknesses of coats.

3

The completed coating shall be checked for thickness by an approved magnetic thickness gauge. Areas where the thickness is less than that specified shall receive approved additional coating.

4

Average measured thickness should be equal to or greater than the specified thickness and no single reading should be less than 85 % of the specified thickness. The completed coating shall also be checked for adhesion by the cross-hatching method with lines spaced at ten times the thickness of the coating. Adhesion tests should not be carried out prior to seven days after coating.

5

The tests shall be made on 10 % of the piles. Areas where the adhesion is not approved shall be sand blasted and recoated. The coating shall be approved before pitching and driving of the piles.

4.6.9

Driving of piles

1

Leaders and Trestles

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At all stages during driving and until incorporation in the superstructure, the free length of the pile shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to prevent buckling. In marine works, lengths which remain unsupported after driving shall be adequately restrained until incorporated into the permanent Works. These constraint arrangements shall be such that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised.

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4.6.8

2

Performance of Driving Equipment (a)

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and energy of the driving equipment. Where required in the Contract, dynamic evaluation and analysis shall be provided.

(b)

Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of the pile unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For other types of hammer the energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least equivalent to that of a drop hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause instability of the craft.

QCS 2014

Length of Piles (a)

The length of pile to be driven and any additional lengths of pile to be added during driving shall be approved by the Engineer.

Driving Procedure and Redrive Checks The driving of each pile shall be continuous until the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving, the pile will be accepted provided it can be driven to the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, without damage.

(b)

A follower shall not be used unless approved, in which case the Engineer will require the set where applicable to be revised in order to take into account reduction in the effectiveness of the hammer blow.

(c)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer as soon as an unexpected change in driving characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length of the nearest subsequent pile shall be taken, if required by the Engineer.

(d)

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed record shall be made over the full driving length of the first pile, and during the last 3 m of the driving of subsequent piles, to establish the driving behaviour. Where required, detailed driving records shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the locations of such piles being specified by the Engineer.

(e)

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set or resistance measurement shall be taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

(f)

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out in accordance with an approved procedure.

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When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per ten blows or as the number of blows required to produce a penetration of 25 mm. When a final set or resistance is being measured, the following requirements shall be met:

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6

(i)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition, without damage or distortion.

(ii)

The dolly and packing, if any, shall be in sound condition.

(iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis.

(iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow and operating correctly.

(v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded, if required by the Engineer.

Preboring (a)

If preboring is specified the pile shall be pitched after preboring to the designated depth and diameter.

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Jetting (a)

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been approved.

Risen Piles

1

Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise any detrimental effects of heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

2

When required by the Engineer, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the ground or any pile resulting from the driving of adjacent piles.

3

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call for redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile under load is unimpaired. If required, the Contractor shall make proposals for correcting detrimentally affected piles and for avoidance or control of heave in subsequent work.

4.6.11

Preparation of pile heads

1

If a steel superstructure is to be welded to piles, the pile cut-off shall be square and to within 5 mm of the elevations shown on the Drawings. If pile heads are to be encased in concrete they shall be cut to that same tolerance and protective coatings shall be removed from the surfaces of the pile heads down to a level 100 mm above the soffit of the concrete.

4.7

MICROPILES (TO BE ADDED LATER)

4.8

REDUCTION OF FRICTION ON PILES

4.8.1

Scope

1

This Part includes preapplied bituminous or other proprietary friction-reducing coating, preapplied low-friction sleeving, formed-in-place low-friction surround, and preinstalled lowfriction sleeving.

2

Related Parts are as follows:

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4.6.10

This Section Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling Section 3, Ground Investigation. 4.8.2

Submittals

1

Where the particular method of reducing friction is not specified, the Contractor shall submit full details of the method which he proposes.

4.8.3

Friction Reducing Methods

1

General (a)

Where a means of reducing friction on any specified length of pile is required by the Contract, the Contractor shall provide a suitable interface between pile and soil by one of the following, or other approved, methods

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(i)

Preapplied bituminous or other proprietary friction-reducing coating.

(ii)

Preapplied low-friction sleeving.

(iii)

Formed-in-place low-friction surrounds.

(iv)

Preinstalled low-friction sleeving.

Preapplied Bituminous or other Friction-Reducing Coating Materials (a)

Where a proprietary product is specified, the process of cleaning pile surfaces, and the conditions and methods of application shall conform to the manufacturer's current instructions. All materials shall conform to the manufacturer's specification, which shall be given to the Engineer before any coating is applied.

(b)

Where a friction-reducing material has been applied to a preformed pile prior to installation, it shall be protected from damage during handling and transportation. In the event of inadvertent damage to the coating, it shall be repaired on site, prior to the pile being driven, to the same specification as the original coating. Where bituminous materials are involved, precautions shall be taken as necessary in hot weather to prevent excessive flow or displacement of the coating. The coated piles shall be adequately protected against direct sunlight and, if stacked, they shall be separated to prevent their coatings sticking together.

(c)

In the case of applied coatings, the piles shall not be driven when the air temperature is such that the coating will crack, flake or otherwise be damaged prior to entry into the ground. Where bituminous materials are involved, driving shall be carried out while the temperature is at or above 5 °C unless otherwise approved or called for in the manufacturer's instructions.

Formed-In-Place Low-Friction Surround Where a hole is bored in the ground and filled with low-friction material through which a pile is subsequently driven or placed, the method and the properties of the low-friction material both above and below standing groundwater level, together with the dimensions of the prebored hole in relation to the pile, shall be approved by the Engineer.

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Piles may be driven with a preapplied low-friction sleeving subject to the approval of the detailed design and method by the Engineer.

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Preinstalled Low-Friction Sleeving (a)

Where a system is employed involving placing a low-friction sleeve in the ground prior to pile installation, the detailed materials and method of installation of the sleeving shall be approved by the Engineer.

4.8.4

Inspection

1

The Engineer may call for piles to be partially exposed or extracted at the commencement of a contract in order to demonstrate that the method of installation does not impair the effectiveness of the system in the circumstances of use on the particular site. Where damage is found to have occurred, or is likely to occur in the opinion of the Engineer, additional measures or variation of the method may be called for. At the discretion of the Engineer, further inspections shall be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the additional measures.

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4.8.5

Driving resistance

1

Allowance shall be made in driving piles to a required resistance or set for any differences between the short-term driving resistance and the long-term static resistance of the coating or surrounding low-friction material which is in use.

4.9

PILE LOAD TESTING

4.9.1

Static Load Testing of Piles

1

Scope This Part deals with the testing of a pile by the controlled application of an axial load. It covers vertical and raking piles tested in compression (i.e. subjected to loads or forces in a direction such as would cause the piles to penetrate further into the ground) and vertical or raking piles tested in tension (i.e., subjected to forces in a direction such as would cause the piles to be extracted from the ground).

References The following standard is referred to in this Part:

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Allowable pile capacity: a load which is not less than the specified working load and which takes into account the pile's ultimate bearing capacity, the materials from which the pile is made, the required factor of safety, settlement, pile spacing, downdrag, the overall bearing capacity of the ground beneath the piles and any other relevant factors. The allowable pile capacity indicates the ability of a pile to meet the specified loading requirements.

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Definitions

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When required, the design and full details of the proposed load application system shall be submitted to the Engineer prior to the commencement of testing. The load application system shall be satisfactory for the required test.

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(b)

Compression pile: a pile which is designed to resist compressive (downward) axial load.

(c)

Constant rate of penetration (CRP) test: a test in which the pile is made to penetrate the soil at a constant controlled speed, while the loads applied at the top of the pile in order to maintain the constant rate of penetration are continuously measured. The purpose of the test is to derive the ultimate bearing capacity of a pile and not its load settlement characteristics.

(d)

Constant rate of uplift (CRU) test: the same in principle as the CRP test, but the pile is subject to tension rather than compression. The purpose of the test is to determine the 'pull-out' capacity of a pile.

(e)

Design verification load (DVL): a test load, in lieu of a specified working load, applied to a single pile at the time of testing to determine that site conditions conform to design assumptions. This load will be peculiar to each preliminary (test) pile and should equal the maximum specified working load for a pile of the same dimensions and material, plus allowances for soil-induced forces and any other particular conditions of the test.

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Kentledge: ballast used in a loading test.

(g)

Maintained load test: a loading test in which each increment of load is held constant either for a defined period of time or until the rate of settlement falls to a specified value.

(h)

Preliminary pile: a test pile installed before the commencement of the main piling works or a specific part of the Works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of the chosen type of pile and for confirming its design, dimensions and bearing capacity.

(i)

Proof load: a load applied to a selected working pile to confirm that it is suitable for the load at the settlement specified. A proof load should not normally exceed the design verification load plus 50 % of the specified working load.

(j)

Raking pile: a batter pile, installed at an inclination to the vertical.

(k)

Reaction system: the arrangement of kentledge, piles, anchors or rafts that provides a resistance against which the pile is tested.

(l)

Specified working load (SWL): the designated load on the head of a pile.

(m)

Tension pile: a pile which is designed to resist a tensile (upward) axial force.

(n)

Test pile: any pile, preliminary or part of the works, to which a test is applied.

(o)

Ultimate bearing capacity: the load at which the resistance of the soil becomes fully mobilised through friction, end bearing or a combination thereof.

(p)

Working pile: one of the piles forming the foundation of a structure.

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Notice of Construction

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The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 48 hours' notice of the commencement of construction of any preliminary pile which is to be testloaded.

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Method of Construction Each preliminary test pile shall be constructed in a manner similar to that to be used for the construction of the working piles, and by the use of similar equipment and materials. Any variation will be permitted only with prior approval.

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(c)

Boring or Driving Record (i)

(d)

For each preliminary pile to be tested, a detailed record of the conditions experienced during boring and of the progress during driving, shall be made and submitted to the Engineer daily, not later than noon on the next working day. Where the Engineer requires soil samples to be taken or in-situ tests to be made, the Contractor shall include that in the daily report, as well as the test results.

Concrete Test Cubes (i)

In the case of concrete piles, four test cubes shall be made from the concrete 3 used in the manufacturer of each preliminary test pile and from each 50 m of the concrete used in the manufacture of working piles. If a concrete pile is extended or capped for the purpose of testing, an additional four cubes shall be made from the corresponding batch of concrete. The cubes shall be made and tested in accordance with BS 1881.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations (ii)

(e)

If a test is required on a working pile the Contractor shall cut off or otherwise prepare the pile for testing as required by the Engineer.

Cut-off Level (i)

The cut-off level for a preliminary test pile shall be approved by the Engineer.

.

Supervision The setting-up of pile testing equipment shall be carried out under competent supervision and the equipment shall be checked to ensure that the set-up is satisfactory before the commencement of load application.

(b)

All tests shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and competent supervisor experienced with the test equipment and test procedure. All personnel operating the test equipment shall have been trained in its use.

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Safety precautions General

Design, erection and dismantling of the pile test reaction system and the application of load shall be carried out according to the requirements of the various applicable statutory regulations concerned with lifting and handling heavy equipment and shall safeguard operators and others who may from time to time be in the vicinity of a test from all avoidable hazards.

Kentledge

Where kentledge is used, the Contractor shall construct the foundations for the kentledge and any cribwork, beams or other supporting structure in such a manner that there will not be differential settlement, bending or deflexion of an amount that constitutes a hazard to safety or impairs the efficiency of the operation. The kentledge shall be adequately bonded, tied or otherwise held together to prevent it becoming unstable because of deflexion of the supports or for any other reason.

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The pile test shall not be started until the strength of the cubes taken from the pile exceeds twice the average direct stress in any pile section under the maximum required test load, and the strength of the cubes taken from the cap exceeds twice the average stress at any point in the cap under the same load. Variation of procedure will be permitted only if approved by the Engineer.

Preparation of a Working Pile to be Tested (i)

(f)

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(ii)

When kentledge constitutes the principal component of a reaction system, its weight for each test shall be at least 25% greater than the maximum test load for that test. The weight may be determined by scale or the density and volume of the constituent materials. In adding kentledge, care shall be taken to properly position the centre of gravity of the stack.

QCS 2014

(c)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations Tension Piles, Reaction Piles and Ground Anchorages (i)

Where tension piles, reaction piles or ground anchorages constitute the principal components of a reaction system, they shall be so designed that they will resist the forces applied to them safely and without excessive deformation which could cause a safety hazard during the work. Such piles (which, unless approved, will not be working piles) or anchorages shall be driven in the specified locations, and all bars, tendons or links shall be aligned to provide a stable reaction in the direction required. Any welding employed to extend or to fix anchorages to a reaction frame shall be carried out so that the full strength of the system is adequate and unimpaired.

Testing Equipment (i)

In all cases the Contractor shall ensure that when the hydraulic jack and loadmeasuring device are mounted on the pile head the whole system will be stable up to the maximum load to be applied.

(ii)

If in the course of carrying out a test any unforeseen occurrence should take place, further loading shall not be applied until a proper engineering assessment of the condition has been made and steps have been taken to rectify any fault. Reading of gauges should, however, be continued where possible and if it is safe to do so.

(iii)

Where an inadequacy in any part of the system might constitute a hazard, means shall be provided to enable the test to he controlled from a position remote from of the kentledge stack or test frame.

(iv)

The hydraulic jack, pump, hoses, pipes, couplings and other apparatus to be operated under hydraulic pressure shall be capable of withstanding a pressure of 1.5 times the maximum pressure used in the test without leaking. The maximum test load expressed as a reading on the gauge in use shall be displayed and all operators shall be made aware of this limit.

Pile Head for Compression Test For a pile that is tested in compression, the pile head or cap shall be formed to give a plane surface which is normal to the axis of the pile, sufficiently large to accommodate the loading and settlement measuring equipment and adequately reinforced or protected to prevent damage from the concentrated load applied by the loading equipment.

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(f)

(ii)

Any test pile cap shall be concentric with the test pile; the joint between the cap and the pile shall have a strength equivalent to that of the pile.

(iii)

Sufficient clear space shall be made under any part of the cap projecting beyond the section of the pile so that, at the maximum expected settlement, load is not transmitted to the ground by the cap.

Pile Connection for Tension Test (i)

For a pile that is tested in tension, means shall be provided for transmitting the test load axially without inducing moment in the pile. The connection between the pile and the loading equipment shall be constructed in such a manner as to provide strength equal to 1.5 times the maximum load which is to be applied to the pile during the test.

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Reaction systems

(i)

The reaction for compression tests shall be provided by kentledge, tension piles or specially constructed anchorages. Kentledge shall not be used for tests on raking piles except where the test set-up has been specifically designed to conform to Item 7(g). and has been approved by the Engineer.

(ii)

Where kentledge is to be used, it shall be supported on cribwork and positioned so that the centre of gravity of the load is as close as possible to the axis of the pile. The bearing pressure under supporting cribs shall be such as to ensure stability of the kentledge stack.

Tension Tests (i)

The reaction for tension tests shall be provided by compression piles, rafts or grillages constructed on the ground. In all cases the resultant force of the reaction system shall be coaxial with the test pile.

(ii)

Where inclined piles or reactions are proposed, full details shall be submitted for approval prior to the commencement of testing.

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Working piles shall not be used as reaction piles without approval from the Engineer.

(ii)

Where working piles are used as reaction piles their movement shall be measured and recorded to with an accuracy of 0.5 mm, and recorded.

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Spacing

Where kentledge is used for loading vertical piles in compression, the distance from the edge of the test pile to the nearest part of the crib supporting the kentledge stack in contact with the ground shall be not less than 1.3 m.

(ii)

The centre-to-centre spacing of vertical reaction piles from a test pile shall conform to Paragraph 1 above, but shall be not less than three times the diameter of the test pile or the reaction piles or 2 m, whichever is the greatest, except in the case of piles of 300 mm diameter (or equivalent) or less, where the distance may be reduced to 1.5 m. Where a pile to be tested has an enlarged pile cap, the same criterion shall apply with regard to the pile shaft, with the additional requirement that no surface of a reaction pile shall be closer to the pile cap of the test pile than one half of the pile cap plan dimension.

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(iii)

(e)

Where ground anchorages are used to provide a test reaction for loading in compression, no section of fixed anchor length transferring load to the ground shall be closer to the test pile than three times the diameter of the test pile. Where the pile to be tested has an enlarged pile cap, the same criterion shall apply with regard to the pile shaft, with the additional requirement that no section of the fixed anchor transferring load to the ground shall be closer to the pile cap than a distance equal to one half the pile cap plan dimension.

Adequate Reaction (i)

The reaction frame support system shall be adequate to transmit the maximum test load in a safe manner without excessive movement or influence on the test pile. Calculations shall be provided to the Engineer when required to justify the design of the reaction system.

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(f)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations Care of Piles (i)

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The method employed in the installation of the reaction system shall be such as to prevent damage to any test pile or working pile.

Equipment for applying load The equipment used for applying load shall consist of a hydraulic ram or jack. The jack shall be arranged in conjunction with the reaction system to deliver an axial load to the test pile. Proposals to use more than one ram or jack will be subject to approval by the Engineer of the detailed arrangement. The complete system shall be capable of safely transferring the maximum load required for the test. The length of stroke of a ram shall be sufficient to account for deflexion of the reaction system under load plus a deflection of the pile head by up to 15 % of the pile shaft diameter unless otherwise specified or agreed prior to commencement of test loading.

Measurement of load

A load measuring device shall be used and in addition a calibrated pressure gauge included in the hydraulic system. Readings of both the load measuring device and the pressure gauge shall be recorded. In interpreting the test data the values given by the load measuring device shall normally be used; the pressure gauge readings are required as a check for gross error.

(b)

The load measuring device may consist of a load measuring column, pressure cell or other appropriate system. A spherical seating of appropriate size shall he used to avoid eccentric loading. Care shall be taken to avoid any risk of buckling of the load application and measuring system. Load measuring and application devices shall be short in axial length in order to secure stability. The Contractor shall ensure that axial loading is maintained.

(c)

The load measuring device shall be calibrated before and after each series of tests, whenever adjustments are made to the device or at intervals appropriate to the type of equipment. The pressure gauge and hydraulic jack shall be calibrated together. Certificates of calibration shall be supplied to the Engineer.

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Control of loading

The loading equipment shall enable the load to be increased or decreased smoothly or to be held constant at any required value.

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Measuring pile head movement (a)

Maintained Load Test (i)

(b)

In a maintained load test, movement of the pile head shall he measured by one of the methods in Items 11 (d), (e), (f), (g) in the case of vertical piles, or by one of the methods in 11 (d), (f), (g) in the case of the raking piles, as required.

CRP and CRU Tests (i)

In a CRP or a CRU test, the method in Item 11 (d) shall be used. Checklevelling of the reference frame or the pile head shall not be required. The dial gauge shall be graduated in divisions of 0.02 mm or less.

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

(c)

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Reference Beams and Dial Gauges (i)

An independent reference beam or beams shall be set up to enable measurement of the movement of the pile to be made to the required accuracy. The supports for a beam shall be founded in such a manner and at such a distance from the test pile and reaction system that movements of the ground do not cause movement of the reference beam or beams which will affect the accuracy of the test. The supports of the beam or beams shall be at least three test pile diameters or 2 m from the centre of the test pile, whichever distance is the greater.

(ii)

Check observations of any movements of the reference beam or beams shall be made and a check shall be made of the movement of the pile head relative to a remote reference datum at suitable intervals during the progress of the test.

(iii)

The measurement of pile movement shall be made by four dial gauges rigidly mounted on the reference beam or beams, bearing on prepared flat surfaces fixed to the pile cap or head and normal to the pile axis. Alternatively, the gauges may be fixed to the pile and bear on prepared surfaces on the reference beam or beams. The dial gauges shall be placed equidistant from the pile axis and from each other. The dial gauges shall enable readings to be made to an accuracy of at least 0.1 mm and have a stem travel of at least 25 mm. Machined spacer blocks may be used to extend the range of reading. Equivalent electrical displacement-measuring devices may be substituted.

Optical Levelling Method

An optical levelling method by reference to a remote datum may be used.

(ii)

Where a level and staff are used, the level and scale of the staff shall be chosen to enable readings to be made to within an accuracy of 0.5 mm. A scale attached to the pile or pile cap may be used instead of a levelling staff. At least two reliable independent datum points shall be established. Each datum point shall be so situated as to permit a single setting-up position of the level for all readings.

(iii)

No datum point shall be located where it can be affected by the test loading or other operations on the Site.

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(i)

Two parallel reference wires, one on either side of the pile, shall be held under constant tension at right angles to the test pile axis between supports formed as in the method in Item 11 (d). The wires shall be positioned against scales fixed to the test pile head in an axial direction and the movements of the scales relative to the wires shall be determined.

(ii)

Check observations of any movements of the supports of the wires shall be made and a check shall be made on the movement of the pile head at approved time intervals. Readings shall be taken to within an accuracy of 0.5 mm.

Other Methods (i)

The Contractor may submit for approval any other method of measuring the movement of the test pile head.

QCS 2014

Protection of testing equipment (a)

Protection from Weather (i)

(b)

Throughout the test period all equipment for measuring load and shall be protected from exposure to adverse effect of weather.

movement

Prevention of Disturbance (i)

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Construction activity and persons who are not involved in the testing process shall be kept at a sufficient distance from the test to avoid disturbance to the measuring apparatus. Full records shall be kept of any intermittent unavoidable activity that might affect the test set-up.

Notice of test The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 24 hours' notice of the commencement of the test. No load shall be applied to the test pile before the commencement of the specified test procedure.

Test procedure

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Proof Load Test Procedure (working compression piles)

The maximum load which shall be applied in a proof test shall normally be the sum of the design verification load (DVL) plus 50 % of the specified working load (SWL). The loading and unloading shall be carried out in stages as shown in Table 4.7. Any particular requirements given in the particular contract documentation shall be complied with.

(ii)

Following each application of an increment of load, the load shall be maintained at the specified value for not less than the period shown in Table 4.7 and until the rate of settlement is less than 0.25 mm/h and decreasing. The rate of settlement shall be calculated from the slope of the line obtained by plotting values of settlement versus time and drawing a smooth curve through the points.

(iii)

Each decrement of unloading shall proceed after the expiry of the period shown in Table 4.7.

(iv)

For any period when the load is constant, time and settlement shall be recorded immediately on reaching the load, at not more than 5 min intervals up to 15 min; at approximately 15 min intervals up to 1 h; at 30 min intervals between 1 h and 4 h; and 1 h intervals between 4 h and 12 h after the application of the increment of load.

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(v)

Where the methods of measuring pile head movement given in Item 11 is used, the periods of time for which loads must be held constant to achieve the specified rates of settlement shall be extended as necessary to take into account the lower levels of accuracy available from these methods and to allow correct assessment of the settlement rate.

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Table 4.7 Minimum time of holding load

25% DVL 50% DVL 75% DVL 100% DVL 75% DVL 50% DVL 25% DVL 0 100% DVL 100% DVL + 25% SWL 100% DVL + 50% SWL 100% DVL + 25% SWL 100% DVL 75% DVL 50% DVL 25% DVL 0 100% DVL 100% DVL + 50% SWL 100% DVL + 75% SWL 100% DVL + 100% SWL 100% DVL + 75% SWL 100% DVL + 50% SW 100% DVL + 25% SW 100% DVL 75% DVL 50% DVL 25% DVL 0

1h 1h 1h 1h 10 min 10 min 10 min 1h 6h 1h 6h 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 1h 6h 6h 1h 6h 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 10 min 1h

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Applicable to tests on Preliminary Pile only

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(i)

The procedure to be adopted for carrying out load tests on preliminary compression piles shall be either the extended proof load test procedure or the constant rate of penetration testing procedure given below. A normal proof load test will constitute the first stage of such a test unless otherwise specified.

(ii)

Extended proof load test procedure. Where test pile is to be loaded up to the sum of design verification load (DVL) plus 100 % of the specified working load, the loading procedure may be carried out as a continuation of the proof load testing procedure given in Item 14 (a).

(iii)

Following the completion of the proof load test, the load shall be restored in two stages (DVL, DVL +50 % SWL), and shall subsequently be increased by stages of 25 % of the specified working load. Following each application of an increment of load, the load shall be maintained at the specified value for the period shown in Table 4.7 and until the rate of settlement is decreasing and is less than 0.25 mm/h.

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(iv)

Where verification of required minimum factor of safety is called for or the pile is to be tested to failure, the loading procedure shall be continued after reaching DVL +100 % SWL stage by increasing the load in increments of 25 % of the specified working load or other specified amount until the maximum specified load of the test is reached. Following each application of increment of load, the load shall be maintained at the specified value for not less than 1 h and until the rate of settlement is decreasing and is less than 0.25 mm/h, or other approved rate appropriate to the stage of loading and its proximity to a failure condition. Permissible settlement at the load corresponding to the required minimum factor of safety called for in the design will not normally be specified.

(v)

The rate of settlement shall be calculated from the slope of the line obtained by plotting values of settlement versus time and drawing a smooth curve through the points. Reduction of load at the end of the test shall be gradual as required by Item 14 (a).and the final rebound of the pile head shall be recorded.

(vi)

Constant rate of penetration (CRP) testing procedure. Where it is required to determine the ultimate load of a preliminary compression pile, and particularly where piles are largely embedded in and bearing on clay soils, the CRP testing procedure will normally be specified.

(vii)

The rate of movement of the pile head shall be maintained constant in so far as is practicable and shall be approximately 0.01 mm/s.

(viii)

Readings of loads, penetration and time shall be made simultaneously at regular intervals; the interval chosen shall be such that a curve of load versus penetration can be plotted without ambiguity.

(ix)

Loading shall be continued until one of the following results is obtained

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The maximum required test load.

2.

A constant or reducing load has been recorded for an interval of penetration of 10 mm.

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The load shall then be reduced in five approximately equal stages to zero load, penetration and load being recorded at each stage.

Testing of Piles Designed to Carry Load in Tension (i)

The testing of piles designed to carry load in tension shall follow the same procedure as specified in 4.9.1

(ii)

In testing by the constant rate of uplift method, overall movements of the pile head will normally be less than those expected in a constant rate of penetration test. The rate of movement of the pile head shall be maintained at approximately 0.005 mm/s in so far as is practicable.

Completion of a test (a)

Removal of Test Equipment

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(i)

On completion of a test and subject to the approval of the Engineer, all measuring equipment and load application devices shall be dismantled and checked. All other test equipment, including kentledge, beams and supporting structures shall be removed from the test pile location. Measuring and other demountable equipment shall be stored in a safe manner so that it is available for further tests, or removed from the Site as approved by the Engineer.

(ii)

Temporary tension piles and ground anchorages shall be cut off below ground level, and off-cut materials removed from the Site. The ground shall be restored to the original contours.

Preliminary Test Pile Cap Unless otherwise specified, the head of each preliminary test pile shall be cut off below ground level, off-cut material shall be removed from the Site and the ground restored to the original contours.

Proof Test Pile Cap

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On completion of a test on a proof pile, the test pile cap shall be prepared as specified and left in a state ready for incorporation into the Permanent Works. Any resulting off-cut materials shall be removed from the Site.

Presentation of results

1

Results to be submitted

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4.9.2

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(i)

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(c)

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(i)

During the progress of a test, all records taken shall be available for inspection by the Engineer.

(b)

Results shall be submitted as

Preliminary report of the test results to the Engineer, unless otherwise directed, within 24 hours of the completion of the test, which shall show. For a test by maintained load: for each stage of loading, the period for which the load was held, the load and the maximum pile movement at the end of the stage.

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1.

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(i)

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(a)

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2.

(ii)

2

For a CRP or CRU test: the maximum load reached and a graph of load against penetration or load against uplift.

The final report of recorded data as prescribed in Item 15 (b).within ten days of the completion of the test.

Schedule of Recorded Data (a)

The Contractor shall provide information about the test pile in accordance with the following schedule where applicable. (i)

General. 1.

site location contract identification

2.

proposed structure

3.

main contractor

4.

piling contractor

5.

engineer client/employer

6.

date and time of test

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations Pile details. 1.

all types of pile

2.

identification (number and location)

3.

specified working load (SWL)

4.

design verification load (DVL)

5.

original ground level at pile location

6.

head level at which test load was applied

7.

type of pile

8.

vertical or raking, compression or tension

9.

shape and size of cross-section of pile, and position of any change in cross-section

10.

shoe or base details

11.

head details

12.

length in ground

13.

tip Elevation

14.

dimensions of any permanent casing

15.

concrete piles

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(ii)

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concrete mix/grade



aggregate type and source



cement type and cement replacement and type where used

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admixtures

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(iii)

16.



slump



cube test results for pile and cap



date of casting of precast pile



reinforcement

steel piles 

steel quality



coating



filling or core materials type and quality, if applicable

Installation details. 1.

2.

all piles 

dates and times of boring, driving and concreting of test pile



difficulties and delays encountered



date and time of casting concrete pile cap

bored piles 

type of equipment used and method of boring



temporary casing - diameter, type and length

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full log of pile borehole



method of placing concrete



Volume of concrete placed



driven preformed and driven cast-in-place piles



Method of support of hammer and pile driven length of pile or temporary casing at final set



Hammer type, and size or weight



Dolly and packing, type and condition



Driving log (depth, hammer drop, blows per 250 mm, interruptions or breaks in driving)



Final set in number of blows to produce penetration of 25 mm



Redrive check, time interval and set in number of blows to produce penetration of 25 mm or other agreed amount at final set and at redrive set, for a drop hammer or for a single acting hammer the length of the drop or stroke, for a diesel hammer the length of the stroke and the blows per minute, for a double acting hammer the operating pressure and the number of blows per minute



condition of pile head or temporary casing after driving



use of a follower



use of preboring



use of jetting



lengthening

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(iv)

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method of placing concrete

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Test procedure.

mass of kentledge

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1.

tension pile, ground anchorage or compression pile details

3.

plan of test arrangement showing position and distances of kentledge supports, rafts, tension or compression piles or ground anchorages, and supports to pile movement reference system

4.

jack capacity

5.

method of load measurement

6.

method(s) of penetration or uplift measurement

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2.

(v)

Test results. 1.

in tabular form

2.

in graphical form: load plotted against pile head movement

3.

ambient temperature records during test.

4.9.3

Low strain Integrity test

1

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D5882 in a frequency as mentioned in Section 2

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Grosshole Sonic Logging Test

1

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D4428, D6760 in a frequency as mentioned in Section 2

4.9.5

Calliper Logging Test

1

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D6167 in a frequency as mentioned in Section 2

4.9.6

Axial Tensile Load Test

1

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D3689 in a frequency as mentioned in Section 2

4.9.7

Lateral Load Test

1

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D3966 in a frequency as mentioned in Section 2

4.9.8

Alternative Methods for Testing Piles

1

Scope

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4.9.4

This Part outlines the alternative methods for testing piles. A significant advance in identifying the existence of defects in construction of piles has been the development and adoption of modern integrity testing systems which may be employed to check the quality of construction when required by the Engineer.

(b)

Dynamic pile-testing is normally used to evaluate the pile capacity, soil resistance distribution, and immediate settlement characteristics, hammer transfer energy (efficiency), and pile stresses during driving. The results obtained relate directly to dynamic loading conditions.

(c)

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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This Section Section 2

2

3

Quality Assurance (a)

The testing shall be carried out by an approved firm.

(b)

The interpretation of tests shall be carried out by persons competent in the test procedure, and the full test results and findings shall normally be given to the Engineer within 10 d of the completion of each phase of testing. Full details of the ground conditions, pile dimensions and construction method shall be made available to the specialist firm when required in order to facilitate interpretation of the tests.

Integrity-testing of piles (a)

General

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(i)

Integrity-testing of piles is designed to give information about the physical dimensions, continuity and consistency of materials used in piles, and not to give direct information about the performance of piles under the conditions of loading. The methods available are normally applied to preformed concrete piles made in a single length, to steel piles and to cast-in-place concrete piles.

(ii)

This type of testing will not be regarded as a replacement for static load testing, but as a source of supplementary information.

(iii)

There is normally a limit to the length: diameter ratio of pile which can be successfully and fully investigated in this way, depending on the ground conditions.

(iv)

In the event that any anomaly is found in the results of such testing, the Engineer may call for further testing to be carried out in order to investigate the cause, nature and extent of the anomaly and whether the pile is satisfactory for its intended use.

Method of Testing

Where integrity-testing is called for but the method is not specified, the method to be adopted shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be one of the following

3.

The sonic logging method.

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The vibration method.

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Other methods may be adopted subject to the approval of the Engineer and subject to satisfactory evidence of performance.

In the case of cast-in-place concrete piles, integrity tests shall not be carried out until 7 d or more have elapsed after pile-casting, unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

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Preparation of Pile Heads

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(i)

4

2.

Age of Piles at Time of Testing (i)

(d)

The sonic method.

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(b)

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Where the method of testing requires the positioning of sensing equipment on the pile head, the head shall be clean, free from water, laitance and loose concrete and readily accessible for the purpose of testing.

Dynamic pile-testing (a)

General (i)

Dynamic pile-testing involves monitoring the response of a pile to a heavy impact applied at the pile head. The impact is often provided by the pile-driving hammer and response is normally measured in terms of force and acceleration or displacement close to the pile head.

(ii)

The results directly obtained refer to dynamic loading conditions. Interpretation in terms of static loading requires soil- and pile-dependent adjustments, and corroboration from experience may be required to correlate dynamic testing with normal static load tests as specified in clause 4.9.1 of this Section.

(iii)

Details of the equipment to be used and of the method of analysis of test results shall be provided to the Engineer before the commencement of testing.

QCS 2014

(b)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations Measuring Instruments (i)

(c)

All instruments affixed to the pile for the purpose of measuring stress and movement, and all equipment for receiving and processing data shall be suitable for the purpose. The equipment required to be attached to the pile shall be appropriately positioned and fixed to the approval of the Engineer.

Hammer (i)

(d)

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The hammer and all other equipment used shall be capable of delivering an impact force sufficient to mobilise the equivalent specified test load without damaging the pile.

Preparation of the Pile Head The preparation of the pile head for the application of the dynamic test load shall involve, where appropriate, trimming the head, cleaning and building up the pile using materials which will at the time of testing safely withstand the impact stresses. The impact surface shall be flat and normal to the axis of the pile.

(e)

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(i)

Time of Testing

Dynamic load tests shall be carried out at appropriate and approved times after pile installation. The time between the completion of installation and testing for a preformed pile shall normally be more than 12 h, and in the case of a cast-inplace concrete piles shall be after the concrete has reached 75 % of its specified 28 day strength so that the pile is not damaged under the impact stresses.

Set Measurements

(g)

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Where required and appropriate, the permanent penetration per blow and temporary compression of the pile and soil system shall be measured independently of the instruments being used to record the dynamic test data.

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(i)

Results

Initial the results shall be provided to the Engineer within 24 hours of the completion of a test. These shall include

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(i)

The maximum force applied to the pile head.

2.

The maximum pile head velocity.

3.

The maximum energy imparted to the pile.

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1.

(ii)

Normally within 10 d of the completion of testing final report shall be given to the Engineer which includes: 1.

Date of pile installation.

2.

Date of test.

3.

Pile identification number and location.

4.

Length of pile below ground surface.

5.

Total pile length, including projection above commencing surface at time of test.

6.

Length of pile from instrumentation position to tip.

7.

Hammer type, drop and other relevant details.

8.

Blow selected for analysis.

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9.

Test load achieved (i.e. total mobilised deduced static load).

10.

Pile head movement at equivalent design verification load.

11.

Pile head movement at equivalent design verification load plus 50 % of specified working load.

12.

Pile head movement at maximum applied test load.

13.

Permanent residual movement of pile head after each blow.

14.

Temporary compression.

DESIGN METHODS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.10.1

Design method

1

The design shall be based on one of the following approaches:

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4.10

The results of static load tests, which have been demonstrated, by means of calculations or otherwise, to be consistent with other relevant experience;

(b)

Empirical or analytical calculation methods whose validity has been demonstrated by static load tests in comparable situations;

(c)

The results of dynamic load tests whose validity has been demonstrated by static load tests in comparable situations;

(d)

The observed performance of a comparable piles foundation, provided that this approach is supported by the results of site investigation and ground testing.

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(a)

Design values for parameters used in the calculations should be in general accordance with design parameters from geotechnical investigations report, but the results of load tests may also be taken into account in selecting parameter values.

3

Static load tests may be carried out on trial piles, installed for test purposes only, before the design is finalized, or on working piles, which form part of the foundation.

4.10.2

Verification of Resistance for Structural and Ground Limit States in Persistent and Transient Situations

1

When considering a limit state of rupture or excessive deformation of a structural element or section of the ground (Structural and Geotechnical), it shall be verified in accordance with (Eurocode1997-1) or equivalent.

4.10.3

Design Considerations

1

The behavior of individual piles and pile groups and the stiffness and strength of the structure connecting the piles shall be considered.

2

In selecting calculation methods and parameter values and in using load test results, the duration and variation in time of the loading shall be considered.

3

Planned future placement or removal of overburden or potential changes in the ground-water regime shall be considered, both in calculations and in the interpretation of load test results.

4

The choice of type of pile, including the quality of the pile material and the method of installation, shall take into account:

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the ground and ground-water conditions on the site, including the presence or possibility of obstructions in the ground;

(b)

the stresses generated in the pile during installation;

(c)

the possibility of preserving and checking the integrity of the pile being installed;

(d)

the effect of the method and sequence of pile installation on piles, which have already been installed and on adjacent structures or services;

(e)

the tolerances within, which the pile can be installed reliably;

(f)

the deleterious effects of chemicals in the ground;

(g)

the possibility of connecting different ground-water regimes;

(h)

the handling and transportation of piles;

(i)

the effects of pile construction on neighboring buildings.

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(a)

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In considering the aspects listed above, the following items should receive attention: the spacing of the piles in pile groups;

(b)

displacement or vibration of adjacent structures due to pile installation;

(c)

the type of hammer or vibrator used;

(d)

the dynamic stresses in the pile during driving;

(e)

for those types of bored pile where a fluid is used inside the borehole, the need to keep the pressure of the fluid at a level to ensure that the borehole will not collapse and that hydraulic failure of the base will not occur;

(f)

cleaning of the base and sometimes the shaft of the borehole, especially under bentonite, to remove remolded materials;

(g)

local instability of a shaft during concreting, which may cause a soil inclusion within the pile;

(h)

ingress of soil or water into the section of a cast-in-situ pile and possible disturbance of wet concrete by the flow of water through it;

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the effect of unsaturated sand layers around a pile extracting water from the concrete;

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(i)

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(a)

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures Part 04: Deep Foundations

(j)

the retarding influence of chemicals in the soil;

(k)

soil compaction due to the driving of displacement piles;

(l)

soil disturbance due to the boring of a pile shaft.

4.11

AXIALLY LOADED PILES

4.11.1

Limit state design

1

The design shall demonstrate that exceeding the following limit states is sufficiently improbable: (a)

ultimate limit states of compressive or tensile resistance failure of a single pile;

(b)

ultimate limit states of compressive or tensile resistance failure of the pile foundation as a whole;

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(c)

ultimate limit states of collapse or severe damage to a supported structure caused by excessive displacement or differential displacements of the pile foundation;

(d)

serviceability limit states in the supported structure caused by displacement of the piles.

Normally the design should consider the margin of safety with respect to compressive or tensile resistance failure, which is the state in which the pile foundation displaces significantly downwards or upwards with negligible increase or decrease of resistance.

3

For piles in compression it is often difficult to define an ultimate limit state from a load settlement plot showing a continuous curvature. In these cases, settlement of the pile top equal to 10% of the pile base diameter should be adopted as the "failure" criterion.

4

For piles that undergo significant settlements, ultimate limit states may occur in supported structures before the resistance of the piles is fully mobilized. In these cases a cautious estimate of the possible range of the settlements shall be adopted in design.

4.11.2

Compressive Ground Resistance

1

To demonstrate that the pile foundation will support the design load with adequate safety against compressive failure, the following inequality shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load combinations:

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2

as

Fc ≤ Rc

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Where

er

Fc: design axial compression load on a pile or a group of piles

In principle Fc should include the weight of the pile itself and Rc should include the overburden pressure of the soil at the foundation base. However these two items may be disregarded if they cancel approximately. They need not cancel if: (a)

downdrag is significant; the soil is very light,

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(b)

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2

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Rc: design value

(c) 3

the pile extends above the surface of the ground.

For piles in groups, two failure mechanisms shall be taken into account: (a)

compressive resistance failure of the piles individually;

(b)

compressive resistance failure of the piles and the soil contained between them acting as a block.

NOTE: The design resistance shall be taken as the lower value caused by these two

mechanisms. 4

The compressive resistance of the pile group acting as a block may be calculated by treating the block as a single pile of large diameter.

5

The stiffness and strength of the structure connecting the piles in the group shall be considered when deriving the design resistance of the foundation.

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If the piles support a stiff structure, advantage may be taken of the ability of the structure to redistribute load between the piles. A limit state will occur only if a significant numbe r of piles fail together; therefore a failure mode involving only one pile need not be considered.

7

If the piles support a flexible structure, it should be assumed that the compressive resistance of the weakest pile governs the occurrence of a limit state.

8

Special attention should be given to possible failure of edge piles caused by inclined or eccentric loads from the supported structure.

9

If the layer in which the piles bear overlies a layer of weak soil, the effect of the weak layer on the compressive resistance of the foundation shall be considered.

10

The strength of a zone of ground above and below the pile base shall be taken into account when calculating the pile base resistance.

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NOTE: This zone may extend several diameters above and below the pile base. Any weak ground in this zone has a relatively large influence on the base resistance.

Punching failure should be considered if weak ground is present at a depth of less than 4 times the base diameter below the base of the pile.

12

Where the pile base diameter exceeds the shaft diameter, the possible adverse effect shall be considered.

13

For open-ended driven tube or box-section piles with openings of more than 500 mm in any direction, and without special devices inside the pile to induce plugging, the base resistance should be limited to the smaller of:

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11

the shearing resistance between the soil plug and the inside face of the pile;

(b)

the base resistance derived using the cross-sectional area of the base.

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(a)

Ultimate compressive resistance from static load tests

1

The manner in which load tests are carried out shall be in accordance with 4.11.2 and shall be specified in the Geotechnical Design Report.

2

Trial piles to be tested in advance shall be installed in the same manner as the piles that will form the foundation and shall be founded in the same stratum.

3

If the diameter of the trial pile differs from that of the working piles, the possible difference in performance of piles of different diameters should be considered in assessing the compressive resistance to be adopted.

4

In the case of a very large diameter pile, it is often impractical to carry out a load test on a full size trial pile. Load tests on smaller diameter trial piles may be considered provided that:

m

4.11.3

(a)

the ratio of the trial pile diameter/working pile diameter is not less than 0,5;

(b)

the smaller diameter trial pile is fabricated and installed in the same way as the piles used for the foundation;

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the trial pile is instrumented in such a manner that the base and shaft resistance can be derived separately from the measurements.

NOTE: This approach should be used with caution for open-ended driven piles because of the influence of the diameter on the mobilisation of the compressive resistance of a soil plug in the pile. In the case of a pile foundation subjected to downdrag, the pile resistance at failure, or at a displacement that equals the criterion for the verification of the ultimate limit state determined from the load test results, shall be corrected. The correction shall be achieved by subtracting the measured, or the most unfavorable, positive shaft resistance in the compressible stratum and in the strata above, where negative skin friction develops, from the loads measured at the pile head.

6

During the load test of a pile subject to downdrag, positive shaft friction will develop along the total length of the pile. The maximum test load applied to the working pile should be in excess of the sum of the design external load plus twice the downdrag force.

7

When deriving the ultimate characteristic compressive resistance from values measured in one or several pile load tests, an allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground and the variability of the effect of pile installation.

8

The systematic and random components of the variations in the ground shall be recognized in the interpretation of pile load tests.

9

The records of the installation of the test pile(s) shall be checked and any deviation from the normal execution conditions shall be accounted for.

10

The characteristic compressive resistance of the ground may be derived from the characteristic values of the base resistance and of the shaft resistance in accordance with Eurocode1997-1.

4.11.4

Ultimate compressive resistance from ground test results

1

Methods for assessing the compressive resistance of a pile foundation from ground test results shall have been established from pile load tests and from comparable experience.

2

A model factor may be introduced as described as following to ensure that the predicted compressive resistance is sufficiently safe :

3

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5

(a)

the range of uncertainty in the results of the method of analysis;

(b)

any systematic errors known to be associated with the method of analysis

In assessing the validity of a model based on ground test results, the following items should be considered: (a)

soil type, including grading, mineralogy, angularity, density, pre-consolidation, compressibility and permeability;

(b)

method of installation of the pile, including method of boring or driving;

(c)

length, diameter, material and shape of the shaft and of the base of the pile (e.g. enlarged base);

(d)

method of ground testing.

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4.11.5

Ultimate compressive resistance from dynamic impact tests

1

Where a dynamic impact (hammer blow) pile test [measurement of strain and acceleration versus time during the impact event is used to assess the resistance of individual compression piles, the validity of the result shall have been demonstrated by previous evidence of acceptable performance in static load tests on the same pile type of similar length and cross-section and in similar ground conditions.

2

When using a dynamic impact load test, the driving resistance of the pile should be measured directly on the site in question.

.

NOTE A load test of this type can also include a process of signal matching to measured stress wave figures. Signal matching enables an approximate evaluation of shaft and base resistance of the pile as well as a simulation of its load-settlement behaviour. The impact energy shall be high enough to allow for an appropriate interpretation of the pile capacity at a correspondingly high enough strain level.

4

The design value of the compressive resistance of the pile could be calculated and verified according to Eurocode1997-1.

4.11.6

Ultimate compressive resistance by applying pile driving formulae

1

Pile driving formulae shall only be used if the stratification of the ground has been determined.

2

If pile driving formulae are used to assess the ultimate compressive resistance of individual piles in a foundation, the validity of the formulae shall have been demonstrated by previous experimental evidence of acceptable performance in static load tests on the same type of pile, of similar length and cross-section, and in similar ground conditions.

3

For end-bearing piles driven into non-cohesive soil, the design value of the compressive resistance shall be assessed by the same procedure as in 4.11.5.

4

When a pile driving formula is applied to verify the compression resistance of a pile, the pile driving test should have been carried out on at least 5 piles distributed at sufficient spacing in the piling area in order to check a suitable blow count for the final series of blows.

5

The penetration of the pile point for the final series of blows should be recorded for each pile.

4.11.7

Ultimate compressive resistance from wave equation analysis

1

Wave equation analysis shall only be used where stratification of the ground has been determined by borings and field tests.

2

Where wave equation analysis is used to assess the resistance of individual compression piles, the validity of the analysis shall have been demonstrated by previous evidence of acceptable performance in static load tests on the same pile type, of similar length and cross- section, and in similar ground conditions.

3

The design value of the compressive resistance derived from the results of wave equation analysis of a number of representative piles, shall be assessed by the same procedure as in 4.11.3.

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NOTE Wave equation analysis is based on a mathematical model of soil, pile and driving equipment without stress wave measurements on site. The method is usually applied to study hammer performance, dynamic soil parameters and stresses in the pile during driving. It is also, on the basis of the models, possible to determine the required driving resistance (blow count) that is usually related to the expected compressive resistance of the pile. Ground tensile resistance

1

The design of piles in tension shall be consistent with the design rules given in 4.11.2, where applicable. Design rules that are specific for foundations involving piles in tension are presented below.

2

To verify that the foundation will support the design load with adequate safety against a failure in tension, the following inequality shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load combinations in accordance with Eurocode1997-1.

3

For isolated tensile piles or a group of tensile piles, the failure mechanism may be governed by the pull-out resistance of a cone of ground, especially for piles with an enlarged base or rock socket.

4

When considering the uplift of the block of ground containing the piles the shear resistance along the sides of the block may be added to the resisting forces.

5

Normally the block effect will govern the design tensile resistance if the distance between the piles is equal to or less than the square root of the product of the pile diameter and the pile penetration into the main resisting stratum.

6

The group effect, which may reduce the effective vertical stresses in the soil and hence the shaft resistances of individual piles in the group, shall be considered when assessing the tensile resistance of a group of piles.

7

The severe adverse effect of cyclic loading and reversals of load on the tensile resistance shall be considered.

8

Comparable experience based on pile load tests should be applied to appraise this effect.

4.11.9

Ultimate tensile resistance from pile load tests

1

Pile load tests to determine the ultimate tensile resistance of an isolated pile shall be carried out in accordance with 4.9.1 and with regard to 4.11.3.

2

The design tensile resistance could be calculated and verified according to Eurocode1997-1.

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4.11.8

4.11.10 Ultimate tensile resistance from ground test results 1

Methods for assessing the tensile resistance of a pile foundation from ground test results shall have been established from pile load tests and from comparable experience.

2

A model factor may be introduced as following to ensure that the predicted tensile resistance is sufficiently safe. (a)

the range of uncertainty in the results of the method of analysis;

(b)

any systematic errors known to be associated with the method of analys is

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The design value of tensile resistance of a pile could be calculated and verified according to Eurocode1997-1.

4.11.11 Vertical displacements of pile foundations 1

Vertical displacements under serviceability limit state conditions shall be assessed and checked.

2

When calculating the vertical displacements of a pile foundation, the uncertainties involved in the calculation model and in determining the relevant ground properties should be taken into account. Hence it should not be overlooked that in most cases calculations will provide only an approximate estimate of the displacements of the pile foundation.

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NOTE For piles bearing in medium-to-dense soils and for tension piles, the safety requirements for the ultimate limit state design are normally sufficient to prevent a serviceability limit state in the supported structure.

The occurrence of a serviceability limit state in the supported structure due to pile settlements shall be checked, taking into account downdrag, where probable.

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4.11.12 Pile foundations in compression

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NOTE When the pile toe is placed in a medium-dense or firm layer overlying rock or very hard soil, the partial safety factors for ultimate limit state conditions are normally sufficient to satisfy serviceability limit state conditions. Assessment of settlements shall include both the settlement of individual piles and the settlement due to group action.

3

The settlement analysis should include an estimate of the differential settlements that may occur.

4

When no load test results are available for an analysis of the interaction of the piled foundation with the superstructure, the load-settlement performance of individual piles should be assessed on empirically established safe assumptions.

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4.11.13 Pile foundations in tension The assessment of upward displacements shall be done and Particular attention should be paid to the elongation of the pile material.

2

When very severe criteria are set for the serviceability limit state, a separate check of the upward displacements shall be carried out.

4.12

TRANSVERSELY LOADED PILES

4.12.1

Design method

1

The design of piles subjected to transverse loading shall be consistent with the design rules given in 4.10, where applicable. Design rules specifically for foundations involving piles subjected to transverse loading are presented below.

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To demonstrate that a pile will support the design transverse load with adequate safety against failure, the following inequality shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load combinations: Ftr ≤ Rtr Where; Ftr: design value of the transverse load on a pile or a pile foundation Rtr : design resistance of transversally loaded pile One of the following failure mechanisms should be considered: for short piles, rotation or translation as a rigid body;

(b)

for long slender piles, bending failure of the pile, accompanied by local yielding and displacement of the soil near the top of the pile.

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The group effect shall be considered when assessing the resistance of transversely loaded piles.

5

It should be considered that a transverse load applied to a group of piles may result in a combination of compression, tension and transverse forces in the individual piles.

4.12.2

Transverse load resistance from pile load tests

1

Transverse pile load tests shall be carried out in accordance with 4.9.6.

2

Contrary to the load test procedure described in 4.9 tests on transversely loaded piles need not normally be continued to a state of failure. The magnitude and line of action of the test load should simulate the design loading of the pile.

3

An allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground, particularly over the top few meters of the pile, when choosing the number of piles for testing and when deriving the design transverse resistance from load test results.

4

Records of the installation of the test pile(s) should be checked, and any deviation from the normal construction conditions should be accounted for in the interpretation of the pile load test results. For pile groups, the effects of interaction and head fixity should be accounted for when deriving the transverse resistance from the results of load tests on individual test piles.

4.12.3

Transverse load resistance from ground test results and pile strength parameters

1

The transverse resistance of a pile or pile group shall be calculated using a compatible set of structural effects of actions, ground reactions and displacements.

2

The analysis of a transversely loaded pile shall include the possibility of structural failure of the pile in the ground.

3

The calculation of the transverse resistance of a long slender pile may be carried out using the theory of a beam loaded at the top and supported by a deformable medium characterized by a horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction.

4

The degree of freedom of rotation of the piles at the connection with the structure shall be taken into account when assessing the foundation’s transverse resistance.

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4.12.4

Transverse displacement

1

The assessment of the transverse displacement of a pile foundation shall take into account: the stiffness of the ground and its variation with strain level;

(b)

the flexural stiffness of the individual piles;

(c)

the moment fixity of the piles at the connection with the structure;

(d)

the group effect;

(e)

the effect of load reversals or of cyclic loading

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END OF PART

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RETAINING STRUCTURES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

5.1

GENERAL---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

5.2

LIMIT STATES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

5.2.2 5.2.3

Ultimate Limit State ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Serviceability Limit State ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

5.3

ACTIONS AND GEOMETRICAL DATA -------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3

Actions -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 Geometrical data ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Design Situations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

5.4

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS ------------------------------------------------- 5

5.5

DETERMINATION OF EARTH PRESSURES ------------------------------------------------------------ 6

5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.5.5

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 At rest values of earth pressure------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 Limiting values of earth pressure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 Intermediate values of earth pressure ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 Compaction effects ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

5.6

WATER PRESSURES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8

5.7

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE DESIGN -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5 5.7.6 5.7.7

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Overall stability ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Foundation failure of gravity walls ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 Rotational failure of embedded walls ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8 Vertical failure of embedded walls --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 Structural design of retaining structures -------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 Failure by pull-out of anchorages ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

5.8

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE DESIGN ----------------------------------------------------------------- 9

5.8.1 5.8.2

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 Displacements ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

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5

RETAINING STRUCTURES

5.1

GENERAL

1

The provisions of this Part 5 apply to retaining structures in general. These are structures used to retain ground comprising soil, rock or backfill and water and this at an angle steeper than the angle they would normally adopt without the presence of those structures. Common retaining structures used within the state of Qatar taking into account the prevailing geologic conditions are: Sheet Piles

(b)

Bored and Cast in Place Concrete Piles

Secant Piles

(c)

Diaphragm Walls

(d)

Composite Shoring Systems

(e)

Concrete Retaining Walls

(ii)

Counter Fort Retaining Wall

(iii)

Gravity Retaining Wall

(iv)

Buttressed Retaining Wall

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Cantilever Retaining Wall

Reinforced Soil Retaining Structures Geogrid and Geotextile Reinforced Earth Systems

(ii)

Galvanized Strips Reinforced Earth System

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Soil and Rock Nailing Systems

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Contiguous Piles

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(a)

This revision of Section 4 – Part 5 is considered preliminary and shall be reviewed and amended as needed in the next revision to elaborate on various subjects not covered herein.

3

This revision of Section 4 – Part 5 is based generally on “EN1997-1:2004+A1:2013” Eurocode 7.

4

Section 4 – Part 5 will cover at this stage the general design aspects knowing that the construction procedures shall be added in future revisions of this Section. Hence, at this stage, the construction related subjects of the retaining structures will follow relevant Parts of the QCS.

5.2

LIMIT STATES

1

During the design of retaining structures the following typical limit states should be considered:

5.2.2

Ultimate Limit State

1

Loss of overall stability: it should be demonstrated that an overall stability failure is unlikely.

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Foundation failure of retaining structures with footings: it should be demonstrated that the foundation pressures (lateral and vertical) do not exceed neither the ground allowable bearing capacity nor the sliding resistance. Uplift pressures under the foundation due to water seepage should also be included in the analysis.

3

Foundation failure of gravity walls, which is the loss of equilibrium of the wall considered as a rigid body.

4

Failure of embedded walls by rotation or horizontal translation or by lack of vertical equilibrium.

5

Failure of a structural element such as a wall, anchorage, wale or strut, including failure of the connection between those elements.

6

Failure of a retaining structure by hydraulic heave, internal erosion or piping, unacceptable leakage of water, or transport of soil particles through or under the wall caused by excessive hydraulic gradients.

5.2.3

Serviceability Limit State

1

Unacceptable movement of the retaining structure, which may affect the appearance or functionality of the structure itself, or other neighbouring structures or utilities influenced by the movement.

2

Unacceptable change in the groundwater regime.

5.3

ACTIONS AND GEOMETRICAL DATA

5.3.1

Actions

1

Generally, the forces exerted on retaining structure with values assumed known at the beginning of the calculation are considered as 'actions', while forces with initially unknown values, to be determined by the interaction of the retaining structure with support elements (ground springs, anchorages, struts, etc.), are considered as 'reactions'. The following actions are to be taken into account: Weight of backfill material

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(b)

Surcharges

(c)

Weight of water

(d)

Wave forces for marine projects

(e)

Seepage forces

(f)

Collision forces

(g)

Temperature effects

(h)

Forces from propping elements (i.e. post-tensioned anchors)

(i)

Siesmic related effects

The above actions should result in the determination of various earth pressures acting on the retaining structure.

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5.3.2

Geometrical data

1

This paragraph covers the uncertainties in the geometrical data namely excavation and water levels. In general, small variations in geometrical data are considered to be covered by the safety factors included in the calculations. However, since the design of retaining structures is sensitive to ground and water levels, special requirements are included in this paragraph, mainly for unforeseen over-dig in front of the wall and groundwater levels change on both sides of the wall.

2

Unforeseen over-dig in front of the wall

Equal to 10% of the wall height above excavation level (up to a maximum of 0.5 m), for cantilever walls;

(b)

Equal to 10% of the distance between the lowest support and the excavation level (up to a maximum of 0.5 m), for supported walls.

Groundwater levels in front of and behind the wall

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The selection of the levels of the phreatic surfaces in front of and behind the wall must consider long-term variations of the groundwater regime and/or the ground permeability, the presence of perched or artesian aquifers and the possibility that drainage behind the wall may cease to function with time. Design Situations

1

The following conditions shall be considered during the design of retaining structures: Anticipated variations in soil properties

(b)

Variations in actions and the ways they are combined

(c)

Excavation, scour or erosion in front of the retaining structure The effect of compaction of the backfill behind the retaining structure

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5.3.3

(e)

The effect of anticipated future structures and surcharge loads/unloads

(f)

Anticipated ground movements

(g)

Inclination of the wall to the vertical

(h)

Variations in groundwater table and the seepage forces in the ground

(i)

Horizontal as well as vertical equilibrium for the entire retaining structure

(j)

The shear strength and weight density of the ground

(k)

The rigidity of the wall and the supporting system

(l)

The wall roughness

(m)

Seismic effect on the various forces

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5.4

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS

1

The design of retaining structures requires consideration of all relevant Ultimate Service States and Service Limit States.

2

For retaining structures without strict serviceability requirements, the geometry is usually determined by Ultimate Limit State design calculations and checked by Service Limit State calculations (if relevant). For the retaining structures with strict serviceability requirements, the Service Limit State requirements often govern the design.

3

The design and construction considerations should cover the following: Demonstrate that vertical equilibrium can be achieved for the assumed pressure distributions and actions on the wall.

(b)

Verification of vertical equilibrium may be achieved by reducing the wall friction parameters.

(c)

Retaining walls should be designed in such a way that there are visible signs of the approach of an ultimate limit state. The design should prevent brittle failure of the structure, e.g. sudden collapse without conspicuous preliminary deformations.

(d)

A critical limit state should be considered to occur if the wall has displaced enough to cause damage to nearby structures or services. Although collapse of the wall may not be imminent, the degree of damage may considerably exceed a serviceability limit state in the supported structure.

(e)

The design methods and partial factor values recommended by “EN19971:2004+A1:2013” are usually sufficient to prevent the occurrence of ultimate limit states in nearby structures, provided that the soils involved are of at least medium density or firm consistency and adequate construction methods and sequences are adopted. Special care should be taken, however, with some highly over-consolidated clay deposits in which large at rest horizontal stresses may induce substantial movements in a wide area around excavations.

(f)

The complexity of the interaction between the ground and the retaining structure sometimes makes it difficult to design a retaining structure in detail before the actual execution starts. In this case, use of the observational method for the design should be considered. The observational method consists of setting criteria enabling monitoring during construction, allowing necessary corrective actions to be taken to rectify the design. Hence, the following requirements shall be set before construction:

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(g)

(i)

Acceptable limits of behaviour

(ii)

The range of potential behaviour shall be analysed showing acceptable probability that the actual behaviour will be within the acceptable limits

(iii)

A plan of monitoring shall be established (including necessary instruments and procedures) enabling the comparison of the actual behaviour to the acceptable limits. The monitoring shall allow early detection of nonconformities, allowing enough time for corrective actions to be taken successfully.

(iv)

A list of contingency actions shall be established which could be used if the actual observed behaviour is outside of the acceptable limits.

The effects of constructing the wall, including: (i)

The provision of temporary support to the sides of excavations;

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(ii)

The changes of in situ stresses and resulting ground movements caused both by the wall excavation and its construction;

(iii)

Disturbance of the ground due to driving or boring operations;

(iv)

Provision of access for construction;

The required degree of water tightness of the finished wall;

(i)

The practicability of constructing the wall to reach a stratum of low permeability, so forming a water cut-off. The resulting equilibrium ground-water flow problem shall be assessed;

(j)

The practicability of forming ground anchorages in adjacent ground;

(k)

The practicability of excavating between any propping of retaining walls;

(l)

The ability of the wall to carry vertical load;

(m)

The ductility of structural components;

(n)

Access for maintenance of the wall and any associated drainage measures;

(o)

The appearance and durability of the wall and any anchorages;

(p)

For sheet piling, the need for a section stiff enough to be driven to the design penetration without loss of interlock;

(q)

The stability of borings or slurry trench panels while they are open;

(r)

For fill, the nature of materials available and the means used to compact them adjacent to the wall.

(s)

Drainage systems

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(ii)

It shall be demonstrated both by comparable experience and by assessment of any water discharge that the drainage system will operate adequately without maintenance.

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(i)

The quantities, pressures and eventual chemical content of any water discharge should be taken into account.

5.5

DETERMINATION OF EARTH PRESSURES

5.5.1

General

1

The Determination of the earth pressures shall take into account the acceptable mode and amount of any movement and strain, which may occur at the limit state under consideration.

2

In the following context the words "earth pressure" should also be used for the total earth pressure from soft and weathered rocks and should include the pressure of ground-water.

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3

Calculations of the magnitudes of earth pressures and directions of forces resulting from them shall take account of the issues highlighted under paragraph “5.3.3”.

4

The amount of mobilized wall friction and adhesion should be considered as a function of: The strength parameters of the ground

(b)

The friction properties of the wall-ground interface

(c)

The direction and amount of movement of the wall relative to the ground

(d)

The ability of the wall to support any vertical forces resulting from wall friction and adhesion

A concrete wall or steel sheet pile wall supporting sand or gravel may be assumed to have a design wall ground interface parameter  d  k. cv ;d . k should not exceed 2/3 for precast

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concrete or steel sheet piling. For concrete cast against soil, a value of k = 1.0 may be assumed. For a steel sheet pile in clay under undrained conditions immediately after driving, no adhesive or frictional resistance should be assumed. Increases in these values may take place over a period of time. In the case of structures retaining rock masses, calculations of the ground pressures shall take into account the effects of discontinuities, with particular attention to their orientation, spacing, aperture, roughness and the mechanical characteristics of any joint filling material.

7

Account shall be taken of any swelling potential of the ground when calculating the pressures on the retaining structure.

5.5.2

At rest values of earth pressure

1

When no movement of the wall relative to the ground takes place, the earth pressure shall be calculated from the at rest state of stress. The determination of the at-rest state shall take into account the stress history of the ground.

5.5.3

Limiting values of earth pressure

1

Limiting values of earth pressures shall be determined taking into account the relative movement of the soil and the wall at failure and the corresponding shape of the failure surface.

5.5.4

Intermediate values of earth pressure

1

Intermediate values of earth pressure occur if the wall movements are insufficient to mobilize the limiting values. The determination of the intermediate values of earth pressure shall take into account the amount of wall movement and its direction relative to the ground.

2

The intermediate values of earth pressures may be calculated using, for example, various empirical rules, spring constant methods or finite element methods.

5.5.5

Compaction effects

1

The determination of earth pressures acting behind the wall shall take into account the additional pressures generated by any placing of backfill and the procedures adopted for its compaction.

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WATER PRESSURES

1

Determination of characteristic and design water pressures shall take account of water levels both above and in the ground.

2

When checking the ultimate and serviceability limit water pressures shall be accounted for in the combinations of actions considering the possible risks of flooding or change in groundwater levels from either sides of the retaining structure.

3

For structures retaining earth of medium or low permeability (silts and clays), water pressures should normally be assumed to act behind the wall. Unless a reliable drainage system is installed, or infiltration is prevented, the values of water pressures should normally correspond to a water table at the surface of the retained material.

4

Where sudden changes in a free water level may occur, both the non-steady condition occurring immediately after the change and the steady condition shall be examined.

5

Where no special drainage or flow prevention measures are taken, the possible effects of water-filled tension or shrinkage cracks shall be considered.

5.7

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE DESIGN

5.7.1

General

1

The design of retaining structures shall be checked at the ultimate limit state for the design situations appropriate to that state, as specified in 5.3.3, using the design actions or action effects and design resistances.

2

All relevant limit modes shall be considered. These will include, as a minimum, limit modes of the types illustrated in Figures 5.1 to 5.6 for the most commonly used retaining structures.

3

Calculations for ultimate limit states shall establish that equilibrium can be achieved using the design actions or effects of actions and the design strengths or resistances. Compatibility of deformations shall be considered in assessing design strengths or resistances.

5.7.2

Overall stability

1

Principles and calculations should be used as appropriate to demonstrate that an overall stability failure will not occur and that the corresponding deformations are sufficiently small taking into account progressive failure and liquefaction into account as relevant.

5.7.3

Foundation failure of gravity walls

1

The principles of foundation design shall be used as appropriate to demonstrate that a foundation failure is sufficiently remote and that deformations will be acceptable. Both bearing resistance and sliding shall be considered. Failure modes shown in Figure 5.2 should be verified as a minimum.

5.7.4

Rotational failure of embedded walls

1

It shall be demonstrated by equilibrium calculations that embedded walls have sufficient penetration into the ground to prevent rotational failure. As a minimum, limit modes of the types illustrated in Figure 5.3 should be considered.

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5.6

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The design magnitude and direction of shear stress between the soil and the wall shall be consistent with the relative vertical displacement, which would occur in the design situation.

5.7.5

Vertical failure of embedded walls

1

It shall be demonstrated that vertical equilibrium can be achieved using the design soil strengths or resistances and design vertical forces on the wall. As a minimum, the limit mode of the type illustrated in Figure 5.4 should be considered.

2

Where downward movement of the wall is considered, upper design values shall be used in the calculation of pre-stressing forces, such as those from ground anchorages, which have a vertical downward component. The design magnitude and direction of shear stress between the soil and the wall shall be consistent with the check for vertical and rotational equilibrium. If the wall acts as the foundation for a structure, vertical equilibrium shall be checked using the principles of Pile Foundations Design.

5.7.6

Structural design of retaining structures

1

Retaining structures, including their supporting structural elements such as anchorages and props, shall be verified against structural failure in accordance with EN1997-1:2004+A1:2013 “2.4 Geotechnical Design by Calculation” and EN1992, EN1993, EN1995 and EN1996. As a minimum, limit modes of the types illustrated in Figure 5.5 should be considered.

5.7.7

Failure by pull-out of anchorages

1

It shall be demonstrated that equilibrium can be achieved without pull-out failure of ground anchorages. Anchors shall be designed in accordance with Anchorage Design procedures with minimum the limit modes of the types illustrated in Figure 5.6 (a, b) should be considered. For dead-man anchors, the failure mode illustrated in Figure 5.6 (c) should also be considered.

5.8

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE DESIGN

5.8.1

General

1

The design of retaining structures shall be checked at the serviceability limit state using the appropriate design situations as specified in 5.3.3. The assessment of design values of earth pressures should take account of the initial stress, stiffness and strength of the ground and the stiffness of the structural elements.

2

The design values of earth pressures should be derived taking account of the allowable deformation of the structure at its serviceability limit state. These pressures need not necessarily be limiting values.

5.8.2

Displacements

1

Limiting values for the allowable displacements of walls and the ground adjacent to them shall be established for a particular deformation is the value at which a serviceability limit state, such as unacceptable cracking or displacement of adjacent structures or utilities, is deemed to occur. This limiting value shall be agreed during the design, taking into account the tolerance to displacements of supported structures and services.

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2

If the initial cautious estimate of displacement exceeds the limiting values, the design shall be justified by a more detailed investigation including displacement calculations.

3

It shall be considered to what extent variable actions, such as vibrations caused by traffic loads behind the retaining wall, contribute to the wall displacement.

4

Displacement calculations should also be considered in the following cases: (a)

where the wall retains more than 6m of cohesive soil of low plasticity,

(b)

where the wall retains more than 3m of soils of high plasticity;

(c)

where the wall is supported by soft clay within its height or beneath its base.

Displacement calculations shall take into account the stiffness of the ground and structural elements and the sequence of construction.

6

The effect of vibrations on displacements shall be considered with regard to the following:

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Foundations for structures subjected to vibrations or to vibrating loads shall be designed to ensure that vibrations will not cause excessive settlements.

(b)

Precautions should be taken to ensure that resonance will not occur between the frequency of the dynamic load and a critical frequency in the foundation-ground system, and to ensure that liquefaction will not occur in the ground.

(c)

Vibrations caused by earthquakes shall be considered using the guidelines of the designated section of the QCS.

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(a)

Figure 5.1 – Examples of Limit Modes for Overall Stability of Retaining Structures (EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

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Figure 5.2 – Examples of Limit Modes for Foundation Failures of Gravity Walls (EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Figure 5.3 – Examples of Limit Modes for Rotational Failures of Embedded Walls (EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

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Figure 5.4 – Example of a Limit Mode for Vertical Failure of Embedded Walls (EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Figure 5.5 – Examples of Limit Modes for Structural Failure of Retaining Structures (EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

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Figure 5.6 – Examples of Limit Modes for Failure by Pull-out of Anchoes (EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 01: General

Page 1

GENERAL------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4

INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Scope ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 References----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Definitions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 Approved Products ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4

1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4

IMPLEMENTATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Approved Installers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4 Field Quality Control ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 Rejected materials ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 Records --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

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Section 05: Concrete Part 01: General

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GENERAL

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

Scope

1

This Section includes the requirements for concrete work for pipelines, roadworks, runways, structures, water retaining structures, foundations and bases for structures and equipment.

2

This Part includes relevant standards, definitions, abbreviations, and requirements for testing facilities, rejected materials, and record keeping.

3

Related Sections are as follows:

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Aggregates Cementitious Materials Water Admixtures Property Requirements Concrete Plants Transportation and Placing of Concrete Formwork Curing Reinforcement Construction Joints Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete Protective Coatings to Concrete Hot Weather Concrete Miscellaneous Precast Concrete Prestressed Concrete Water Retaining Structures

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This Section: Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, Part 12, Part 13, Part 14, Part 15, Part 16, Part 17, Part 18, Part 19,

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Section 1, Section 2, Section 4, Section 6, Section 8, Section 9,

General Quality Assurance and Quality Control Foundations and Retaining Structures Roadworks Drainage Works Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

1.1.2

References

1

The following standards are referred to in this Part: ASTM C31 ..................Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field ASTM C39 ..................Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens ASTM C143 ................Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement C Concrete ASTM C1064 ..............Standard Test Method for Temperature of Freshly Mixed HydraulicCement Concrete

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Section 05: Concrete Part 01: General

Page 3

BS 6100, ....................Glossary of Building and civil engineering terms BS EN 932-1 ..............Tests for general properties of aggregates. Methods for sampling BS EN 932-2 ..............Tests for general properties of aggregates. Methods for reducing laboratory samples BS EN 12350-1 ..........Method of sampling fresh concrete in site BS EN 12350-2 ..........Testing fresh concrete. Slump-test BS EN 12390-1 ..........Shape, dimensions and other requirements for specimens and moulds BS EN 12390-2 .......... Making and curing specimens for strength tests GSO ISO 1920-1 ........Testing of concrete —Part 1: Sampling of fresh concrete GSO ISO 1920-2 ........Testing of concrete – Part 2: Properties of fresh concrete GSO ISO 1920-3 ........Testing of concrete – Part 3: Making and curing test specimens Definitions

1

Definitions used in this Section.

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1.1.3

The following are terms and abbreviations used:

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degree Celsius calorie centimetre day Characteristic compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cylinders Compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cylinders Characteristic compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cubes Compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cubes Mean compressive strength of concrete Mean compressive strength of concrete at the age of (j) days ground granulated blast furnace slag guaranteed ultimate tensile strength hour kilogram kilojoule kilonewton litre metre square metre cubic metre milligram minute millimetre square millimetre months mega Pascal kilo Pascal moderate sulphate resisting Portland cement ordinary Portland cement pulverised fuel ash polyvinylchloride second silica fume sulphate resisting Portland cement

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C cal cm d fck,cyl fc,cyl fck,cube fc,cube fcm fcm,j GGBS GUTS h kg kJ kN l m 2 m 3 m mg min mm 2 mm months MPa kPa MSRPC OPC PFA PVC s SF SRPC

QCS 2014

ton ppm

1000 kg part per million

micron

10

µm

10 meter

Page 4

-6 -6

Reference to a technical society, institution, association or governmental authority is made in accordance with the following abbreviations.

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American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials American Concrete Institute American Society for Testing and Materials American Welding Society British Standard British Standard Code of Practice British Standards Institution Cement and Concrete Association Construction Industry Research and Information Association Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute Concrete Society Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V. Euro Norm Federal Highway Authority GCC Standardization Organization Institution of Civil Engineers International Organization for Standardization Prestressed Concrete Institute Qatar Construction Specifications Qatar Standards United Kingdom Department for Transport

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AASHTO ACI ASTM AWS BS BSCP BSI C & CA CIRIA CRSI CS DIN EN FHWA GSO ICE ISO PCI QCS QS UK DfT Products

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Section 05: Concrete Part 01: General

Approved Products

1

The contract specific documentation may identify approved products and approved or prequalified manufacturers and suppliers of products used in concrete work.

1.2

IMPLEMENTATION

1.2.1

Approved Installers

1

The contract specific documentation may identify approved or prequalified providers of concrete construction services.

1.2.2

Field Quality Control

1

The Contractor shall carry out the test procedures required by this Section and any other tests and test procedures as directed by the Engineer from time to time. The test procedures shall be carried out using the facilities of an approved independent testing laboratory.

2

Supply, storage, sampling and testing of all materials shall be the responsibility of the Contractor, unless the Contract specifies otherwise.

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1.1.4

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 01: General

Page 5

The Engineer may also require the Contractor to take samples of materials and deliver them to the Central Materials Laboratory for additional tests to be carried out by the Employer. Sampling procedures shall be in accordance with BS EN 932 or relevant ASTM Standards, and sample sizes shall conform to the requirements shown in Table 1.1.

4

The minimum equipment required for testing on Site is given in Table 1.2. This equipment shall be maintained on Site at all times during concreting operations together with the necessary scoops, buckets, sample containers, and other items required for sampling. The cube curing tank shall be located in an air-conditioned area as stated in part 06.

1.2.3

Rejected materials

1

Any material rejected by the Engineer, in particular cement which has deteriorated or aggregates which have segregated or become contaminated, shall be immediately removed from the Site.

1.2.4

Records

1

The Contractor shall maintain on the Site full records of all work carried out accurately related to the location of the work on site, which shall include:

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formwork props were fully removed all cubes and other tests

(c)

daily maximum and minimum temperatures.

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(b)

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One copy of all test results shall be sent to the Engineer immediately upon completion of the tests

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Table 1.1 Sampling Procedure and Minimum Sample Sizes for Central Materials Laboratory

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Cement

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Material

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the time and date when all concrete was poured, formwork removed and when

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(a)

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Aggregate

Reinforcement Water

Test

Min. Sample

Full range of tests

Composite sample of 7 kg taken from at least 12 bags

Full range of tests

200 kg

Sieve analysis Chemical analysis Soundness test Water absorption Particle density Flakiness index Fines content LA Abrasion value

50 kg

Tensile test

500 mm

Bend test

300 mm

Full range of tests

5 litres

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 01: General

Page 6

Table 1.2 Minimum Testing Equipment for Each Site* Test

Equipment to be Provided

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ASTM C1064

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Cube curing BS EN 12390-2 or GSO ISO 1920-3 or ASTM C39

Hessian or sacking, impervious sheet Maximum/minimum thermometer Waterproof marking crayon/paint or equivalent Curing tank (in air conditioned room) Supply of packing materials for sending cubes to commercial laboratory Concrete thermometer

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Cube making BS EN 12390-1 and BS EN 12350-1:2000 or GSO ISO 1920-1 and GSO ISO 1920-3 or ASTM C31 and C39

Slump cone with base plate Compacting rod, circular cross-section and round ends Remixing container, 300 mm ruler, moist cloth Scoop and shovel Timer 100 or 150 mm cubical or cylindrical 1 moulds Compacting rod or bar Set of tools for assembling and stripping moulds Remixing container Trowel, Scoop, Shovel and Mallet Mould release agent in closed container with brush

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Slump test BS EN 12350-2 or GSO ISO 1920-2 or ASTM C143

Minimum Number Required 1 1 1 1 1

6 1 1 1 lot 1 1 1 Lot 1

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1 - The use of 100 mm cube and cylinder moulds are permitted when the nominal maximum aggregate size is not greater than 20mm

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 10: Curing

Page 1

CURING .................................................................................................................. 2

10.1 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.1.4 10.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Submittals 2 Quality Assurance 2 Storage 2

10.2 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.4 10.2.5 10.2.6 10.2.7 10.2.8 10.2.9 10.2.10 10.2.11 10.2.12

CURING .................................................................................................................. 2 General 2 Water for Curing 3 General Requirements 3 Curing of Formed Surfaces 4 Curing of Unformed Surfaces 4 Moisture Curing 4 Moisture Retaining Cover Curing 4 Liquid Membrane Curing 5 Steam Curing 5 Pavements and other slab on ground 5 Buildings, bridges, and other structures 5 Mass concrete 6

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 10: Curing

Page 2

10

CURING

10.1

GENERAL

10.1.1

Scope

1

This part covers the requirements for the curing of concrete.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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References AASHTO M 148.74, ...Liquid Membrane Curing

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ACI 308 ..................... Guide to Concrete Curing

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10.1.2

.

This Section Part 1, ............ General Part 4, ............ Water Part 6, ............ Property Requirements Part 15, ........... Hot Weather Concreting Part 16, ........... Miscellaneous.

ASTM C 309, .............. Specification for Liquid Membrane-forming Compounds for Curing Concrete

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BS 7542,..................... Method of test for curing compounds for concrete. Quality management systems -- Requirements

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ISO 9001: 2008 Submittals

1

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the proposed method of curing for approval.

10.1.4

Quality Assurance

1

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval the details of proposed curing media, if any. Details shall include chemical tests for the product in accordance with BS 7542 and details of quality assurance procedures, including ISO 9001 certificates if held.

10.1.5

Storage

1

Chemical curing compounds shall be stored in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

10.2

CURING

10.2.1

General

1

The Contractor shall ensure that curing is provided for 24 hours per day including holidays and that all related necessary plant and labour resources are also available.

2

Special attention shall be given to the curing of vertical and overhanging surfaces to ensure satisfactory curing.

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10.1.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 10: Curing

Page 3

The Contractor shall adopt curing measures that preclude the possibility of thermal shock to the concrete during curing. This may be achieved by ensuring that the temperature of the water used for curing does not differ from that of the concrete by more than 15 C.

4

Curing shall continue for at least 7 days and until it attains an in-place compressive strength of the concrete of at least 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength, whichever period is longer. Curing shall not stop unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

5

When low W/cm is used, the concrete shall be preferably cured by water.

10.2.2

Water for Curing

1

Water used for any curing purposes shall conform to the requirements of Part 4 of this Section.

10.2.3

General Requirements

1

Freshly placed concrete shall be protected from sun, wind, rain, exposure and excessive drying out.

2

All concrete shall be cured for a period of time required to obtain the full specified strength, but not less than seven consecutive days. The method of curing shall be by water for the first seven days and by water or membrane until the concrete has reached the full specified strength.

3

For mixtures with a low to zero bleeding rate, or in the case of aggressively evaporative environments, or both, the curing shall start at early anytime between placement and final finishing of the concrete. The curing shall be by reducing the moisture loss from surface using fogging systems and the use of evaporation reducers such as monomolecular water curing compound.

4

Exposed surfaces shall be protected from air blown contamination until 28 d after the concrete is placed.

5

The method of curing shall ensure that sufficient moisture is present to complete the hydration of the cement, and shall be to the approval of the Engineer. The method of curing shall not:

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(a)

disfigure permanently exposed surfaces

(b)

affect bonding of subsequent coatings

(c)

increase the temperature of the concrete.

6

During the curing period, exposed concrete surface shall be protected from the direct rays of the sun.

7

When liquid membrane is used to cure the concrete, it shall not be applied if bleeding water is present on the surface of the concrete.

8

The applied film of the liquid membrane shall be continuous and protected from rain and any damages for at least 14 days.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 10: Curing

Page 4

Curing of Formed Surfaces

1

Formed surfaces, including the underside of beams, girders, supported slabs and the like, by moist curing with the forms in place for the full curing period, or until the forms are removed.

2

When the forms are stripped, curing shall continue by any approved method.

3

When liquid membrane curing is used, it shall be applied immediately after de-shuttering. In such cases the concrete surface shall be prepared prior to the application of the membrane as recommended by the manufacturer.

4

Water curing is not required when liquid membrane is used.

10.2.5

Curing of Unformed Surfaces

1

Unformed surfaces shall be protected as soon as possible after the concrete has been placed by polythene sheeting. When sufficiently hard, hessian or other absorbent material shall be placed on the concrete surface and shall be kept wet for the required period. The hessian shall be overlaid with a sheet of 1000 gauge polythene to assist in the retention of water. Alternatively a curing method approved by the Engineer may be used.

2

Once the concrete is sufficiently hard, the top exposed surface of walls, columns and beams shall be water cured and covered with wet hessian for the required curing period.

10.2.6

Moisture Curing

1

Moisture curing shall be performed by :

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10.2.4

covering the surface of the concrete with water and keeping it continuously wet

(b)

continuous use of fine fog water sprays

(c)

covering the surface with a saturated absorptive cover and keeping it continuously wet.

(d)

Burlap, cotton mats, and other absorbent materials can be used to hold water on horizontal or vertical surfaces.

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Wet straw or hay can be used for wet-curing small areas, but there is the danger that wind might displace it unless it is held down with screen wire, burlap, or other means

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(e)

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(a)

2

Where method (a) is employed, the bunds used shall not be made from fill from excavations or any other areas where there is the possibility of chloride contamination.

10.2.7

Moisture Retaining Cover Curing

1

The concrete surface shall be covered with a suitable absorptive covering, such as wet hessian.

2

The absorptive covering shall be overlaid with a 1000 gauge polythene sheet.

3

The cover shall be in the widest practical widths and shall have 100 mm side and end laps.

4

Any penetrations or tear in the covering shall be shall be repaired with the same material and waterproof tape.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 10: Curing

Page 5

Liquid Membrane Curing

1

Liquid membrane curing shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS 7542, ASTM C 309 or C1315 when tested at the rate of coverage use on the job.

2

ASTM C 156 shall be used as a test method to evaluate water-retention capability of liquid membrane forming compounds. ASTM C 1151 provides an alternative laboratory test for determining the efficiency of liquid membrane-forming compounds.

3

Membrane forming curing compounds shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations immediately after any water sheen which may develop after finishing has disappeared from the surface and within 2 h of stripping formwork on formed surfaces.

4

Membrane forming curing compounds shall not be used on surfaces against which additional concrete or other material is to be bonded unless:

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10.2.8

it is proven that the curing compound will not prevent bond, or

(b)

positive measures are taken to remove it completely from those areas which are to receive bonded applications

(c)

on fair faced concrete surfaces.

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(a)

Steam Curing

1

An enclosure shall be formed around the concrete using tarpaulin or other suitable means.

2

Application of steam shall not be commenced until at least 2 h after final placement of concrete.

3

Steam shall be applied at a temperature between 65 C and 80 C.

4

Excessive rates of heating and cooling shall be prevented during steam curing and temperatures in the enclosure shall not be allowed to increase or decrease by more than 22 C per hour.

5

The maximum steam temperature shall be maintained in the enclosure until concrete has reached its specified strength.

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10.2.9

10.2.10 Pavements and other slab on ground 1

Curing shall ensure that no plastic shrinkage crack will occur, this can be done by protective measures such as sun shields, wind breaks, evaporation reducers, or fog spraying should be initiated immediately to reduce evaporation.

2

Mats used for curing can either be left in place and kept saturated for completion of the curing, or can be subsequently replaced by a liquid membrane-forming curing compound, plastic sheeting, reinforced paper, straw, or water

10.2.11 Buildings, bridges, and other structures 1

Additional curing shall be provided after the removal of forms

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 10: Curing

Page 6

2

After the concrete has hardened and while the forms are still in place on vertical and other formed surfaces, form ties may be loosened when damage to the concrete will not occur and water applied to run down on the inside of the form to keep the concrete wet.

3

Care shall be taken to prevent thermal shock and cracks when using water that is significantly cooler than the concrete surface. Curing water should not be more than about o 11 C cooler than the concrete.

4

Immediately following form removal, the surfaces shall be kept continuously wet by a water spray or water-saturated fabric or until the membrane-forming curing compound is applied. Curing

10.2.12 Mass concrete Mass concrete is often cured with water for the additional cooling benefit in warm weather; however, this can be counterproductive when the temperature gradient between the warmer interior and the cooler surface generates stress in the concrete.

2

Horizontal or sloping unformed surfaces of mass concrete can be maintained continuously wet by water spraying, wet sand, or water saturated fabrics.

3

For vertical and other formed surfaces, after the concrete has hardened and the forms are still in place, the form ties may be loosened and water supplied to run down the inside of the form to keep the concrete wet

4

Care shall be taken to prevent thermal shock and cracks when using water that is significantly cooler than the concrete surface. Curing water should not be more than about o 11 C cooler than the concrete.

5

Curing shall start as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent surface damage.

6

For unreinforced massive sections not containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag or pozzolan, curing shall be continued for not less than 2 weeks. Where ground granulated blast-furnace slag or pozzolan is included in the concrete, the minimum time for curing shall be not less than 3 weeks.

7

For reinforced mass concrete, curing shall be continuous for a minimum of 7 days or until 70% of the specified compressive strength is obtained, if strength is the key concrete performance criterion. For construction joints, curing shall be continued until resumption of concrete placement or until the required curing period is completed.

8

Curing shall not stop until favourable differential temperature is attained and at the approval of the Engineer.

9

For mass concrete, thermocouples shall be used to monitor the temperature differential of the concrete.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 1

REINFORCEMENT ................................................................................................. 2

11.1 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 11.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Submittals 3 Quality Assurance 3 Delivery Storage and Handling 3

11.2 11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3

REINFORCING MATERIALS .................................................................................. 4 Reinforcing Bars 4 Welded Steel Wire Fabric 4 Tie Wire 5

11.3 11.3.2 11.3.3

INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND TESTING.............................................................. 5 Sampling 5 Testing 6

11.4

CUTTING AND BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT ................................................. 6

11.5 11.5.1 11.5.2 11.5.3 11.5.4 11.5.5 11.5.6 11.5.7 11.5.8 11.5.9 11.5.10 11.5.11

FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT ............................................................................... 6 General 6 Welding 7 Mechanical Splices 8 Bundling and Splicing of Bundled Bars 8 Examination 8 Electrolytic Action 8 Cover 8 Reinforcement 8 Forms and Linings 9 Tanking 9 Adjustment and Cleaning 9

11.6 11.6.2 11.6.3 11.6.4

PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO REINFORCEMENT ................................................ 9 Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Bars 9 Handling of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement 11 Testing of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement 11

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 2

11

REINFORCEMENT

11.1

GENERAL

11.1.1

Scope

1

This Part includes tension, compression, and temperature reinforcing steel, including welded wire fabric, and epoxy coated reinforcing. The work includes furnishing, fabrication, and placement of reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete, including bars, welded wire fabric, ties, and supports.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows: This Section

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References

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ASTM A416/A416M....Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed Concrete

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ASTM 615/615M ........Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

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ASTM A706, ...............Specification for Low-allow Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

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ASTM A881/A881M ...Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, Stress-Relieved or Low-Relaxation for Prestressed Concrete Railroad Ties Filled

Epoxy-Coated

Seven-Wire

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ASTM A882/A882M- ..Standard Specification for Prestressing Steel Strand

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ASTM A955/A955M-14 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

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ASTM A1035/ A1035M Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon, -Chromium, -Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement:

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Part 16 ............. Miscellaneous Part 17 ............. Structural Precast Concrete

BS 4449 : 2005...........Specification for Carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete BS 4482: 2005,...........Specification for Cold reduced steel wire for the reinforcement of concrete BS 4483: 2005............Steel fabric for the reinforcement of concrete BS 5896,.....................Specification for high tensile steel wire and strand for the prestressing of concrete. BS 8666,.....................Specification for scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of steel reinforcement for concrete EN 1011, ....................Welding. Recommendation for welding of metallic materials EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for buildings ISO 14654, .................Epoxy- coated steel for the reinforcement of concrete ISO 14656, .................Epoxy powder and sealing material for the coating of steel for the reinforcement of concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 3

ISO 3766 ...................Construction drawings -- Simplified representation of concrete reinforcement ISO 9000, ..................Quality management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary QS ISO 6935-1:2007, .Steel for the reinforcement of concrete -Part 1: Plain bars QS ISO 6935-2:2007 ..Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Part 2: Ribbed bars QS ISO 6935-3:2007 ..Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Part 3: Welded fabric Submittals

1

Product data including the manufacturer’s specification and installation instructions for proprietary materials and reinforcement accessories shall be provided.

2

The Contractor shall submit the manufacturer’s records of chemical and physical properties of each batch of billet steel bars and a certificate that the respective material furnished meets the requirements for the steel reinforcement specified. The manufacturer’s records shall include certificates of mill as well as analysis, tensile and bend tests of the reinforcement.

3

Three copies of the steel test report shall be furnished with each consignment of steel reinforcement. The steel shall be tagged and cross-referenced with mill certificates.

11.1.4

Quality Assurance

1

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for source approval details of the proposed source of supply of the reinforcement. Details shall include chemical and physical tests for the past six months production and any independent test results for this period. Details of quality assurance procedures, including ISO 9000 certificate if held, shall also be given.

2

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a certificate of compliance for each shipment of epoxy coated bars. The certificate of compliance shall state that representative samples of the epoxy coated bars have been tested and that the test results comply with the requirements herein specified. Test results shall be retained by the Contractor for seven years. A complete set of test results shall also be handed to the client at the completion of reinforcement works, and shall be made available to the Engineer upon request.

11.1.5

Delivery Storage and Handling

1

On delivery, bars in each lot shall be legibly tagged by the manufacturer. The tag shall show the manufacturer’s test number and lot number and other applicable data that will identify the material with the certificate issued for that lot of steel. The fabricator shall furnish three copies of a certification which shows the batch number or numbers from which each size of bar in the shipment was fabricated.

2

Storage of reinforcement shall be on suitable structures a minimum of 450 mm above the ground surface to prevent damage and accumulation of dirt, rust and other deleterious matter. Storage facilities shall be such as to permit easy access for inspection and identification. Reinforcement bundles shall be clearly tagged with bar schedule and bar mark reference.

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11.1.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 4

3

The reinforcement shall not be roughly handled, dropped from a height, or subjected to shock loading or mechanical damage. Steel reinforcing bars shall be kept clean and shall be free from pitting, loose rust, mill scale, oil, grease, earth, paint, or any other material which may impair the bond between the concrete and the reinforcement. The reinforcement shall be covered to ensure protection from wind blown dust, condensation and other deleterious materials.

11.2

REINFORCING MATERIALS

11.2.1

Reinforcing Bars

1

Reinforcement shall be from an acceptable source. All steel reinforcement bars shall comply with the requirements of: QS ISO 6935 with minimum grade of B500 MPa or

(ii)

BS 4449 with minimum grades of B500 MPa ; or..

(iii)

ASTM A615 / A615M with minimum grade of 75 [520MPa]; or

(iv)

Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon-Chromium-Steel Reinforcement: ASTM A1035/ A1035M

(v)

ASTM A1022/A1022M-14a Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless Steel Wire and Welded Wire for Concrete Reinforcement

(vi)

ASTM A955/A955M-14 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

(vii)

Other types of reinforcement, as approved by Qatar Standards

Bars

for

Concrete

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(i)

As per project design, other steel grades of less than B500MPa may be used only for stirrups and secondary reinforcement of diameter of 10mm or less.

3

If the steel has excessive surface rust, dust or other deleterious material then the steel shall be sand blasted. Sand for blasting shall not contain materials deleterious to the durability of the reinforcement or concrete. Dune sand shall not be used for the sandblasting of reinforcement.

4

For extreme exposure class X5; protection measures such as epoxy coated bars; Lowcarbon-chromium-steel bars; or Stainless Steel may be considered.

11.2.2

Welded Steel Wire Fabric

1

Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of QS ISO 6935-3 or BS 4483 and shall be delivered to Site in flat mats.

2

Welded intersections shall not be spaced more than:

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(a)

300 mm for plain round bars

(b)

400 mm apart for deformed high yield bars in direction of calculated stress except when used as stirrups.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 5

Tie Wire

1

Tie wire shall conform to the requirements of BS 4482.

2

1.6 mm black annealed mild steel shall be used for tie wire.

3

No wires smaller than size D-4 shall be used.

11.3

INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND TESTING

1

Inspection of reinforcing steel and the installation thereof will be conducted by the Engineer.

2

The Contractor shall give 24 hour notice to the Engineer before closing forms or placing concrete.

3

The Engineer may instruct the Contractor to break out and remove completely all sections of the work already constructed under any of the following circumstances:

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11.2.3

reinforcing steel sample under test fails to meet the specification requirements at any time

(b)

the Engineer considers that samples which were presented to him for test were not truly representative

(c)

a previously rejected reinforcing steel has been used in the Works.

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(a)

Sampling

1

Representative samples of all reinforcing steel proposed for use in the Works must be submitted by the Contractor, before work is commenced, to the Engineer for his written approval.

2

Manufacturer's certificates stating clearly for each sample: (a)

place of manufacture expected date and size of deliveries to site

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11.3.2

(c)

all relevant details of composition, manufacture, strengths and other quality of the steel.

3

The Engineer reserves the right to sample and inspect reinforcement steel upon its arrival at the work site.

4

Frequency of sampling and the method of quality control shall be in accordance with steel bars manufactured standard QS ISO 6935 or BS 4449 .

5

Where epoxy coated steel is used, a sample of the coating material shall be supplied with each batch in an airtight container and identified by the batch number.

6

Allow 14 days for Engineer’s review of samples.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 6

Testing

1

Tests shall be carried out when directed by the Engineer.

2

Tests shall be carried out in accordance with QS ISO 6935 or BS 4449.

3

The following information shall be provided with each delivery of reinforcement: elastic limit

(b)

ultimate strength

(c)

stress/strain curve

(d)

cross-sectional area

(e)

deformation/bond characteristics of deformed bars.

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11.3.3

The Contractor shall allow for dimensions and weight measurements, tensile, bend and/ or rebend tests at own cost, for each size of bar to be used in the concrete construction.

5

Test results for each bar size shall be submitted to the Engineer three weeks before concrete work commences on Site.

6

Full testing shall be required if the source of supply of reinforcement changes, in which case the cost of such extra testing will be borne by the Contractor.

7

When any test results do not conform to the relevant standard the reinforcement steel shall be removed from the Site and all costs resulting therefrom shall be borne by the Contractor.

11.4

CUTTING AND BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT

1

Cutting and bending of reinforcement shall be in accordance with ISO 3766 or BS 8666 and shall be done without the application of heat. Bends shall have a substantially constant curvature. For epoxy coated steel the provisions of Clause 11.6.1 of this Part shall apply

2

Steel bars manufactured according to the approved ASTM standards shall be bent according to the same standard.

3

Reinforcement shall not be straightened or rebent without the approval of the Engineer. If permission is given to bend projecting reinforcement care shall be taken not to damage the concrete and to ensure that the radius is not less than the minimum specified in ISO 3766 or BS 8666.

11.5

FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT

11.5.1

General

1

All reinforcement shall be securely and accurately fixed in positions shown on the Drawings to ensure that the reinforcement steel framework as a whole shall retain its shape. The framework shall be supported to retain its correct position in the forms during the process of placing and consolidating the concrete.

2

The ends of all tying wires shall be turned into the main body of the concrete and not allowed to project towards the surface.

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Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

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3

No part of the reinforcement shall be used to support access ways, working platform or for the conducting of an electric current.

4

The Contractor’s specific attention is drawn to the following general requirements: (a)

lapped joints shall be as indicated on the Drawings and/or in accordance with the requirements of EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666

(b)

hooks shall be semicircular with a straight length of at least: (i)

four bar diameters for mild steel

(ii)

six bar diameters for high yield steel.

Welding

1

Welding shall not be used unless authorised by the Engineer and recommended by the reinforcement manufacturer.

2

Where welding is approved it shall be executed under controlled conditions in a factory or workshop.

3

Welding shall not take place on site without the approval of the Engineer and unless suitable safeguards and techniques are employed and the types of steel employed have the required welding properties.

4

Welding if approved, may be used for:

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11.5.2

fixing crossing or lapping reinforcement in position

(b)

fixing bars to other steel members

(c)

structural welds involving transfer of loads between reinforcement or between bars and other steel members.

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The length of run deposited in a single pass shall not exceed five times the bar diameter. If a longer welded length is required, the weld shall be divided into sections with the space between runs made not less than five times the bar diameter.

6

Butt welds shall be formed by flash butt welding or metal-arc welding. Other methods may be approved, subject to their satisfactory performance in trial joints.

7

Metal-arc welding or electrical resistance welding may be used for fixing suitable steels or for lapped joints.

8

Flash butt welding shall be executed with the correct combination of flashing, heating, upsetting and annealing, using only machines which automatically control this cycle of operations.

9

Metal-arc welding shall comply with EN 1011 and the recommendations of the reinforcement manufacturer.

10

Welded joints shall not be made at bends in the reinforcement. Joints in parallel bars of principle reinforcement shall be staggered, unless otherwise approved. The distance between staggered joints shall be not less than the end anchorage length joints.

11

Weldable reinforcement where shown on the Drawings shall conform to ASTM A706.

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Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 8

Mechanical Splices

1

Mechanical splices shall comply with EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666, and shall be used as and where indicated on the Drawings.

2

Details of mechanical splices shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

11.5.4

Bundling and Splicing of Bundled Bars

1

Bundling and splicing of bundled bars shall be in accordance with EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666.

2

Splicing, except where indicated on the Drawings or approved shop drawings, will not be permitted without the approval of the Engineer.

11.5.5

Examination

1

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before commencing the fixing of reinforcement in order to facilitate the inspection of formwork.

2

The Contractor shall ensure that areas to receive reinforcement are cleaned before fixing.

11.5.6

Electrolytic Action

1

Reinforcement shall not be fixed or placed in contact with non-ferrous metals.

11.5.7

Cover

1

Correct concrete cover to reinforcement shall be maintained with the aid of approved spacer pieces.

2

The cover shall not be less than given in Section 5 Part 6.

3

Spacers, chairs and other supports shall be provided as necessary to maintain the reinforcement in its correct position.

4

In a member where the nominal cover is dimensioned to the links, spacers between the links and formwork shall be the same dimension as the nominal cover.

5

Spacer bars shall be of the same diameter as longitudinal bars, but not less than 25 mm in diameter, and shall be fixed between two layers at 1.5 m centres except where bundled bars are detailed.

6

Spacers, chairs and other supports shall be made of concrete, plastic or other material to the approval of the Engineer. Where supports are made of concrete they shall have at least the same cube strength as the concrete in the host member.

11.5.8

Reinforcement

1

Placing of all reinforcement steel bars will be checked by the Engineer and in no case is concrete to be placed around any reinforcement steel that has not been approved by the Engineer. Insertion of bars into or the removal of bars from concrete already placed will not be permitted.

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11.5.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 9

2

Reinforcement steel temporarily left projecting from the concrete at the joints shall not be bent without the prior approval of the Engineer.

11.5.9

Forms and Linings

1

Damage to forms and linings shall be avoided.

11.5.10 Tanking 1

Reinforcement shall not be fixed until completion of placing tanking (membrane) protection.

11.5.11 Adjustment and Cleaning

.

Check position of reinforcement before and during placing concrete: pay particular attention to the position of top reinforcement in cantilever sections

(b)

ensure that reinforcement is clean and free from corrosive pitting, loose rust, loose mill scale, oil and other substances which may adversely affect reinforcement, concrete, or the bond between the two.

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1

Protect projecting reinforcement from the weather where rust staining of exposed concrete surfaces may occur.

3

At the time of concreting, all reinforcement steel shall have been thoroughly cleaned and freed from all mud, oil or any other coatings that might destroy or reduce the bond:

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clean all set or partially set concrete which may have been deposited thereon during the placing of a previous lift of concrete

(b)

all uncoated rust bars shall be again sand blasted and pressure washed.

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Immediately before concrete placing the reinforcing steel shall be washed thoroughly with high pressure potable water jets to remove any deposited salts.

11.6

PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO REINFORCEMENT

1

All the forgoing clauses of this part apply equally to epoxy coated reinforcing bars.

11.6.2

Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Bars

1

Reinforcing steel which are to be coated shall be free of slivers, scabs, excessive pitting, rust, grease, oil and other surface defects detrimental to proper coating.

2

The surface shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 14654.

3

Coating shall be applied to the cleaned surface as soon as possible after cleaning and before any visible oxidation to the surface occurs.

4

Reinforcing steel shall not have surface defects that would be detrimental to coating.

5

Coating material shall be epoxy resin powders as specified in ISO 14654 and ISO 14656 for coating of reinforcing bars and as follows:

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(a)

epoxy resin powders which do not meet the above requirements must be tested by an approved independent testing laboratory and accepted by the Engineer before use

QCS 2014

6

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 10

(b)

only fusion bonded epoxy-coated reinforcing steel will be accepted

(c)

no other means of epoxy coating will be approved.

Patching material shall be: (a)

furnished by the epoxy coating manufacturer

(b)

compatible with the coating

(c)

inert in concrete

(d)

suitable for repairs to the coated reinforcing bars to be made by the coating applicator and the Contractor at the project site.

Fabrication shall be performed before coating except as hereinafter specified for bent bars and straight bars less than 7.6 m long.

8

Bent reinforcing steel bars shall be coated after bending, unless the fabricator can show that satisfactory results can be obtained by coating before bending.

9

Any visible cracks in the coating on the outside of the bend or damage to coating resulting in debonding of the coating after bending shall be rejected.

10

Bars less than 7.6 m long may be sheared or sawn to length after coating, provided:

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end damage to coating does not extend more than 12 mm back

(b)

cut end is patched before any visible oxidation appears.

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(a)

Flame cutting will not be permitted.

12

Epoxy coating shall be checked visually after cure for continuity of coating and shall be free from holes, contamination, cracks and damaged areas.

13

There shall not be more than two holidays (pinholes not visually discernible) in any 300 mm of the epoxy coated bar.

14

A holiday detector shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction to check the epoxy coating for holidays. A 67.5 V detector such as the Tinker and Rasor Model M-1 or its approved equivalent shall be used.

15

Patching of holidays is not required if there are less than three holidays per 300 mm length. Bars having three or more holidays per 300 mm shall be cleaned and recoated or replaced as directed by the Engineer.

16

Epoxy coating film shall be cured and/or post cured to a fully cured condition. A representative proportion of each production lot shall be checked by the epoxy coating applicator, using the method most effective for measuring cure to ensure that the entire production lot of epoxy coating is supplied in the fully cured condition.

17

Contractor shall repair all coating damaged by fixtures used to handle or support the bars in the coating process as follows:

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11

(a)

patching shall be done as soon as possible and before visible oxidation occurs

(b)

excessive patching from other causes will not be permitted

QCS 2014

(c)

Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

Page 11

satisfactory correction shall consist of proper adjustment of process, and rerunning the bars through the plant.

The Engineer reserves the right for access to the epoxy coating applicator’s plant to witness epoxy coating processes for project work and to obtain specimens from test bars for any testing desired.

19

All chairs, tie wires and other devices used in connecting, supporting, securing or fastening epoxy coated reinforcement steel shall be made of or coated with a dielectric material.

20

Before the reinforcement is lowered into place and before placement of the concrete, the coated bars shall be inspected by the Engineer for damage to the epoxy coating.

21

Sheared ends of bars and other areas requiring limited repair due to scars and minor defects shall be repaired, using the specified patching or repair materials.

11.6.3

Handling of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement

1

Reinforcement steel bars shall be handled and stored in a manner to prevent damage to bars or, where used, the epoxy coating.

2

Bars, or where used epoxy coating, damaged in handling or other operations shall be satisfactorily repaired at no additional cost to the Employer.

3

Where epoxy coated bars are used all handling systems shall have plastic mandrel and padded contact areas wherever possible.

4

Where epoxy coated bars are used all bundling bands shall be padded.

5

All bundles shall be lifted with a strongback, multiple supports or a platform bridge so as to prevent bar to bar abrasion from sags in the bar bundle.

6

Bars or bundles shall not be dropped or dragged.

7

During vibration care shall be taken to ensure that the epoxy-coated reinforcement is not damaged by the pokers.

11.6.4

Testing of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement

1

Adhesion and flexibility of the epoxy coating shall be evaluated on test bars coated with each production lot.

2

At least 1 % of the length or 6 m, whichever is less, of each size of bar to be coated shall be furnished as test bars.

3

Test bars may be in one length or multiple lengths as required to have one test bar of each size with each production lot.

4

The production epoxy coated test bars shall be evaluated by bending 120  (after rebound) around a mandrel of a diameter corresponding to size of bar indicated in Table 11.1.

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Section 05: Concrete Part 11: Reinforcement

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Table 11.1 Mandrel Diameter for Bar Diameter for Evaluation Test of Epoxy Coated Test Bars Diameter of Mandrel (mm)

10 12 13 14 16 18 20 22 24 25 26 28 30 32 34 36

79 95 103 111 127 143 159 175 191 198 206 222 238 254 270 286

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Bar Diameter (mm)

Bend shall be made at a uniform rate and may take up to one minute to complete.

6

Bend test shall be conducted at a room temperature of between 20 °C and 30 °C after the specimen has been exposed to room temperature for a sufficient time to ensure that it has reached thermal equilibrium.

7

No cracking of the epoxy coating shall be visible to the naked eye on the outside radius of the bent bar.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 1

JOINTS.................................................................................................................... 2

12.1 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 12.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Submittals 2 Quality Assurance 3 Definitions 3

12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS ...................................................................................... 4 General 4 Construction Joints in Water Retaining Structures 4

12.3 12.3.1 12.3.2 12.3.3

MOVEMENT JOINTS .............................................................................................. 5 General 5 Joint Filler 6 Joint Sealants 6

12.4 12.4.1

SLIP BEARINGS ..................................................................................................... 7 General 7

12.5 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.5.3 12.5.4

WATERSTOPS ....................................................................................................... 7 General 7 Waterstops 7 Butyl Rubber Waterstops 8 Water Swelling Gaskets 8

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Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 2

12

JOINTS

12.1

GENERAL

12.1.1

Scope

1

This part deals with movement and construction joints, slip bearings, waterstops and associated sealants and filler materials.

2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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12.1.2

.

This Section Part 1 ............... General Part 10, ............ Curing Part 15, ............ Hot Weather Concreting Part 16, ............ Miscellaneous References

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ASTM D1751 ..............Standard Specification for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete Paving and Structural Construction (Non-extruding and Resilient Bituminous Types) ASTM D2240 ..............Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Durometer Hardness

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ASTM D3575 ..............Standard Test Methods for Flexible Cellular Materials Made From Olefin Polymers

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BS 903........................Physical testing of rubber BS 2571......................General purpose flexible PVC compounds for moulding and extrusion

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BS 2782,.....................Methods of testing plastics BS 6093,.....................Design of joints and joining in building construction

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BS 7164,.....................Chemical tests for raw and vulcanized rubber

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BS EN 1992-3 ............Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. Liquid retaining and containing structures

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BS EN ISO 7214 ........Cellular plastics. Polyethylene. Methods of test CRD-C572 ..................Corps of Engineers Specifications for Polyvinylchloride Waterstop ISO 9001 ....................Quality management systems. Requirements

12.1.3

Submittals

1

The Contractor shall submit for approval by the Engineer as soon as practicable after acceptance of his Tender and not less than three weeks before commencement of concreting, drawings showing his proposals for the position of construction joints having due regard to any that may be shown on the Contract Drawings.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 3

For slide bearings the Contractor shall provide at least three samples of the proposed material, together with the manufacturer's technical specifications and recommendations in respect of application and performance.

3

For slip joints the Contractor shall provide at least three samples of materials proposed, together with manufacturer's technical specifications and recommendations in respect of application and performance.

4

For waterstops the Contractor shall provide at least three samples of proposed types, including prefabricated joints and junctions, if applicable. If joints are to be made up on site, provide worked samples, including samples for each make of waterstop, where samples from different manufacturers are provided.

5

The Contractor must supply a certificate of compliance for the joint sealant, stating that it meets the requirements of the specification. The Contractor shall also supply the Manufacturer’s technical and installation data for the proposed material. The Contractor shall provide details of previous installations of the product, with the client name, structure name, type of joint and value of contract.

6

The Contractor shall prepare shop drawings that show the layout of the waterstops, specials and joints.

12.1.4

Quality Assurance

1

The joint sealant, including primers and debonding materials shall be compatible with each other and shall be supplied from a manufacturer operating the ISO 9001 or 9002 Quality Assurance Scheme.

12.1.5

Definitions

1

Construction Joint: The surface where two successive placements of concrete meet, across which it is desirable to develop and maintain bond between the two concrete placements, and through which any reinforcement which may be present is not interrupted.

2

Contraction Joint: Formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure to create a weakened plane and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the dimensional change of different parts of the structure. (See also Isolation Joint.)

3

Expansion Joint: A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure which is provided to allow small relative movements such as those caused by thermal changes to occur independently.

4

Isolation Joint: A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure provided to isolate and element and thus allow independent movement.

5

Joints Fillers: Materials that are used to fill space within movement joints during construction. They may provide support to a sealant applied subsequently.

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 4

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

12.2.1

General

1

Where construction joints are required in slabs or beams (designed by Direct Design Method DDM) they shall be located within the middle third of their spans, and at one-third to onequarter of span in slabs and beams subject to a maximum spacing of approximately 9 metres. Where slabs are supported by beams then the beams and slabs shall be constructed in one operation.

2

In all cases vertical stop boards of a form to be approved by the Engineer shall be provided by at the end of each section of work which is to be concreted in one operation and the concrete shall be thoroughly compacted against these stop boards.

3

Where slabs, beams and walls incorporate construction joints, panels shall generally be constructed consecutively. Where this is not possible a gap not exceeding one metre shall be formed between adjacent panels. This gap shall not be concreted until a minimum interval of 7 d has expired since the casting of the most recent panel.

4

The size of bays for reinforced floors, walls and roofs shall be as shown on the drawings but in no event shall they exceed 7.5 m in either direction and 6 m when unreinforced or with nominal reinforcement.

5

Horizontal construction joints in walls will only be permitted when the wall is continuous with the floor slab. Walls shall be keyed on cast kickers 150 mm high or on the tops of walls meeting the soffits of suspended members.

6

Construction joints in monolithic structures shall be aligned with each other whenever practicable.

7

Before placing new concrete against concrete which has already set the latter shall be treated to expose the aggregate over the full section and leave a sound irregular surface. This shall be done while the concrete is still fresh by means of water spray and light brushing or other means approved by the Engineer.

8

Immediately before the new concrete is placed all foreign matter shall be cleaned away and the surface moistened.

9

If during the course of the Contract it should become apparent that the Contractor’s methods of forming construction joints are not proving effective the Engineer may order the Contractor to execute at the Contractor’s expense such preventative measures as the Engineer may consider necessary to ensure the watertightness of the construction joints in further work.

12.2.2

Construction Joints in Water Retaining Structures

1

The floor may be designed as fully restrained against shrinkage and thermal contraction and should be cast directly onto the blinding concrete.

2

In large structures, the floor shall be designed as a series of continuous strips with transverse induced contraction joints provided to ensure that cracking occurs in predetermined positions. Longitudinal joints between the strips should form contraction joints.

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12.2

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 5

Waterstops shall be incorporated into construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction joints and expansion joints in water retaining structures. The Contractor shall ensure that all such joints are watertight and any joints which may leak or weep shall be rectified by the Contractor to the Engineer’s satisfaction.

4

The spacing of construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction joints and expansion joints in water retaining structures shall be shown on the design drawings.

5

Where the positions or type of joints are not indicated on the drawings, the spacing of construction joints or crack induced joints in water retaining structures shall not exceed 5 m.

6

Where the positions or type of joints are not indicated on the drawings in the ground floor slab, construction joints, crack induced joints, contraction joints and expansion joints shall be incorporated into the works as appropriate. for slabs on grade, construction joints or crack induced joints should be provided at areas where differences in subgrade and slab support may cause cracks. The slab shall be cast in strips not more than 15 metres wide across the width of the building. Within each strip for both directions, crack induced joints shall be provided at areas where cracks are expected and not more than 5.0 metre spacing, and construction or contraction joints shall be provided at not more than 15.0m spacing.

7

Construction or contraction joints shall be provided between adjacent strips.

8

Waterstops of a type acceptable to the Engineer shall be embedded in the concrete. The waterstop should be made of a high quality material, which must retain its resilience through the service life of the structure for the double function of movement and sealing. The surface of waterstops should be carefully rounded to ensure tightness of the joint even under heavy water pressure. To ensure a good tightness with or without movement of the joints, the waterstop should be provided with anchor parts. The cross-section of the waterstops should be determined in accordance with the presumed maximum water pressure and joint movements. The complete works of fixed and welded connections must be carried out strictly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

9

Engineer’s acceptance shall be obtained by the Contractor, prior to start of work, on the casting sequence and the layout of joints.

12.3

MOVEMENT JOINTS

12.3.1

General

1

Movement joints for expansion and contraction shall be constructed in accordance with the details and to the dimension shown on the Drawings or where otherwise ordered by the Engineer and shall be formed of the elements specified.

2

Movement Joints in Water Retaining Structures shall be in accordance with the details and to the dimension shown on the Drawings and EN 1992-3.

3

The Contractor shall pay particular attention to the effects of climatic extremes on any material which he may desire to use on any movement joint and shall submit for approval by the Engineer his proposals for the proper storage, handling and use of the said materials having due regard for any recommendations made by the manufacturer in this connection.

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Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 6

Joint Filler

1

Joint fillers shall conform to the requirements of BS 6093 or ASTM D1751 or equivalent if they are bituminous type or to the requirements of ASTM D3575 or BS EN ISO 7214 or equivalent if they are polymer foam type.

2

The joint filler shall be fixed to the required dimensions of the joint cross-section and shall provide a firm base for the joint sealer.

3

When required between two concrete surfaces as a resilient movement joint, the filler shall be an approved granulated cork bound with insoluble synthetic resin.

4

When required between blockwork and concrete as a low density movement joint filler or for building details it shall be an approved bitumen impregnated fibreboard or preformed closed cell polyethylene.

12.3.3

Joint Sealants

1

All joints to be sealed shall be formed and the groove grit blasted to remove all traces of deleterious materials such as form oil or curing compounds and also to remove any surface laitance from the sides of the joint. The joint shall be dry prior the application of priming. Where the use of grit blasting is not possible the Contractor may propose alternative methods subject to the approval of the Engineer.

2

The back of the joint shall receive a debonding tape or polyethylene foam backer cord in order to provide the correct depth to width ratio and prevent three sided adhesion.

3

The areas adjacent to the joint shall be protected using masking tape.

4

The sides of the joint shall be primed with the relevant primer as recommended by the sealant manufacturer and the sealant material applied in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

5

The sealant material shall be a non-biodegradable multicomponent pitch polyurethane elastomeric joint sealant, carefully selected as appropriate for the specific climatic and environmental exposure conditions expected. Alternative types of sealant will be considered, including epoxy-polyurethane, rubber bitumen and acrylic, subject to the requirements of the specification and the approval of the Engineer.

6

Where the joint sealant is to be in contact with a protective coating the Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer that the sealant and protective coating are compatible

7

Sealants shall exhibit the following properties:

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12.3.2

(a)

Movement accommodation factor

25 %

(b)

Shore ‘A’ hardness

(c)

Solids content

(d)

Service temperature range

(e)

Chemical resistance to Sewage, Sabkha, Mineral acids and Alkalis

(f)

Width to depth ratio

20 - 25

100 %

2:1

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0 C to 90 C

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 7

Where shown on the Drawings sealants shall also be suitable for use with potable water.

9

All surface preparation, priming, mixing and application shall be carried out in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

10

The sealant shall have a proven track record of no less than ten years under similar local conditions.

12.4

SLIP BEARINGS

12.4.1

General

1

Slip bearings shall be preformed low friction bearing strips to form a thin sliding joint.

2

They shall be extruded from specially formulated polyethylene to form a durable lamina resistant to sewage, mineral acids and alkalis, solvents and weathering.

3

Slip bearings shall be applied in two layers with the bottom layer bonded to the substrate with a high quality solvent borne adhesive based on polychloroprene rubber. The substrate shall be clean and free from deleterious materials such as form oil or curing compounds and surface laitance. The surface shall be level and even along the full length of the joint

4

The applied loads for slip bearings shall not exceed 0.7 MPa.

5

Operating temperatures shall be up to 80 C

6

The coefficient of friction shall not exceed 0.15

12.5

WATERSTOPS

12.5.1

General

1

Waterstops and associated materials shall be by a manufacturer with a minimum of ten years experience in the field of engineering waterproof products.

2

PVC waterstops shall be suitable for storage, handling, installation and service within a range of 15 C to 65 C.

12.5.2

Waterstops

1

The waterstop shall be a high performance system forming a continuous network as shown on the Drawings.

2

Site jointing is to be limited to butt joints and shall be performed strictly in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

3

Centrally placed waterstops shall employ centre bulbs/shutter stop with ribs on the web sections.

4

Externally placed waterstops shall have ribs on either side of the centre of the waterstop. The water bar used at the location of expansion joints shall have a bulb in the centre to accommodate the movements.

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Section 05: Concrete Part 12: Joints

Page 8

5

Waterstops shall have a minimum thickness of 3 mm.

6

The minimum test performance data for PVC waterstops shall be as follows: Tensile strength Elongation at break Hardness

>12 MPa 300 % Shore ‘A’ 80 to 90

The materials shall be tested in accordance with BS 2571 or BS 2782 or CRD–C572 or ASTM D2240.

12.5.3

Butyl Rubber Waterstops

1

Butyl rubber waterstops shall have the properties stated in Table 12.1 when tested in accordance with BS 903.

Property

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BS 903

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Table 12.1 Properties Requirements of Butyl Rubber Waterstops

.

7

Requirements 3

Density

Part A26

Handness

Part A2

Tensile Strength

Part A2

Elongation at break point

Not less than 450 %

Part A/6

Water Absosption (48 hours immersion)

Not exceeding 5 %

1100 kg/m (± 5 %) 60-70 IRHD Not less than 17.5 N/mm

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Part A1

Butyl rubber waterstops shall be suitable for storage, handling, installation and service within a temperature of 0 °C to 40 °C

12.5.4

Water Swelling Gaskets

1

Where active sealing is required for critical areas, waterstops shall be hydrophilic polymer modified chloroprene rubber strips. The rubber strips shall conform to the following properties as applicable: Water pressure resistance

:

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(b)

Expansion in contact with water :

(c)

:

Reversible

:

- 30 to + 70 °C

(d)

2

5 Bar (50 m)

Application Temperatures

2 x original SRE

The selected rubber strips shall be available for three exposures: (a)

Fresh Water

(b)

Seawater

(c)

Chemicals (if the condition demands or upon the Engineer’s request)

The supplier shall furnish references upon request of the Engineer. END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 1

INSPECTION AND TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE .................................. 2

13.1 13.1.1 13.1.2 13.1.3 13.1.4 13.1.5 13.1.6

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2 Scope 2 References 2 Submittals 2 Quality Assurance 3 Non-Compliance of Work 3 General Fieldwork Requirements 4

13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4

CONCRETE CORES ............................................................................................... 4 General 4 Drilling Cores 5 Testing for Strength 6 Assessment of Strength 7

13.3

REINFORCEMENT COVER MEASUREMENTS ..................................................... 7

13.4 13.4.1 13.4.2 13.4.3 13.4.4

ULTRASONIC PULSE MEASUREMENTS .............................................................. 8 General 8 Selection of Test Locations 8 Execution of Tests 8 Estimated In-Situ Cube Strength 9

13.5

RADIOGRAPHY OF CONCRETE ........................................................................... 9

13.6 13.6.1 13.6.2 13.6.3 13.6.4

SURFACE HARDNESS ........................................................................................... 9 General 9 Method of Test 9 Equipment 10 Reporting 10

13.7 13.7.1 13.7.2

CHEMICAL CONTENT .......................................................................................... 10 Sampling 10 Laboratory Testing 11

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 2

13

INSPECTION AND TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE

13.1

GENERAL

13.1.1

Scope

1

This Part of the specification covers the inspection, sampling and testing of hardened concrete.

2

Related Section and Parts are as follows:

.

This Section Part 6 ............... Property Requirements References

1

The following standards are referred to in this part of the specification:

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ACI 214.4R .................Guide for Obtaining Cores and Interpreting Compressive Strength Results

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ACI 318 ERTA ............Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08) and Commentary

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ASTM C42 ..................Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete

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ASTM C823 ................Standard Practice for Examination and Sampling of Hardened Concrete in Constructions

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BS 1881-124 ..............Testing concrete. Methods for analysis of hardened concrete

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BS 1881-204, .............Testing concrete. Recommendations on the use of electromagnetic covermeters BS EN 12350..............Testing fresh concrete

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BS EN 12504-1 ..........Testing concrete in structures cored specimens taking, examining and testing in compression BS EN 12504-2 ..........Non-destructive testing. Determination of rebound number

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BS EN 12504-3:2005 Testing concrete in structures. Determination of pull-out force BS EN 12504-4 ..........Determination of ultrasonic pulse velocity BS EN 13791..............Assessment of in-situ compressive strength in structures and precast concrete components GSO ISO 1920-6 ........ Testing of concrete – part 6: sampling, preparing and testing of concrete core . 13.1.3

Submittals

1

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his quality assurance procedures for the particular parts of the testing work that will be carried out.

2

The Contractor shall submit for the Engineer’s approval the curriculum vitae (CV) of the supervisor proposed for the work.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 3

The Contractor shall through testing agency prepare a factual report that identifies the test methods used and the test results. The report shall also identify any unusual results or pertinent information relating to the testing. The report shall be presented in hard and electronic copies.

4

For each of the test results the Contractor shall identify the precision or repeatability of the particular sampling and testing method. This shall be as given from experience of the particular test by the laboratory or as expected from information in the particular test standard.

5

In-place tests will be valid only if the tests have been conducted using properly calibrated equipment in accordance with recognized standard procedures and acceptable correlation between test results and concrete compressive strength has been established and is submitted.

6

Non-destructive tests shall not be used as the sole basis for accepting or rejecting concrete, but they may be used to “evaluate” concrete when the standard-cured strengths fail to meet the specified strength criteria

13.1.4

Quality Assurance

1

All field and laboratory testing of concrete shall be carried out by an independent laboratory approved by the Engineer.

2

The evaluation of concrete in structure is needed when an existing structure is to be modified or redesigned; to assess structural adequacy when doubt arises about the compressive strength in the structure due to defective workmanship, deterioration of concrete due to fire or other causes;when an assessment of the in-situ concrete strength is needed during construction; to assess structural adequacy in the case of non-conformity of the compressive strength obtained from standard test specimens; assessment of conformity of the in-situ concrete compressive strength when specified in a specification or product standard.

13.1.5

Non-Compliance of Work

1

If the 28 d works test cubes as defined in clause 6.6 of this Section fail to meet the minimum criteria, the Engineer shall direct the Contractor to carry out in-place methods to estimate the concrete strength by non-destructive testing, in-situ drilling of concrete cores or load testing.

2

The parts or elements of the structure made from the defective batch or batches of concrete as represented by the works test cubes shall be identified by the Engineer and based on this information the Engineer shall instruct the Contractor on the required number and position of concrete cores.

3

The Engineer shall review the concrete core test results in conjunction with BS EN 13791 or ACI 318 whichever is applicable to the structural design.

4

Based on this assessment the Engineer shall decide the acceptability of the concrete in the structural element and may either:

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(a)

accept the concrete

(b)

instruct that certain remedial works are carried out

(c)

instruct that the element is replaced.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete Part 13: Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete

Page 4

General Fieldwork Requirements

1

The Contractor shall make all arrangements to provide safe stable access to testing locations.

2

When gaining access to testing locations and whilst testing the Contractor shall take care not to damage the structure or leave it in an untidy or unclean state.

3

The Contractor shall take precautions to ensure that cooling water from concrete coring/other operations is discharged such as not to cause a mess or damage the interior or exterior parts of the structure.

4

The Contractor shall be responsible for arranging the water supply required for testing.

5

The Contractor shall arrange for a suitable power supplies. Where testing is being carried out on an occupied structure a power supply from the building services may not available and the Contractor shall make arrangements for power supply and extension leads of adequate length.

6

The Contractor shall appoint a qualified field supervisor to co-ordinate and manage the field work. The supervisor shall have not less than five years experience of such work.

7

Before starting the work, the Engineer with the Contractor’s supervisor will mark the positions where field testing is to be carried out. A unique referencing system to identify each sample or testing location will be adopted, and this will either be referenced on sketch plans or drawings or by a detailed description used throughout the report to identify test locations.

8

If testing is being carried out on an occupied structure the Contractor shall co-ordinate with the owner or operator of the structure to arrange the detailed programme for the works and gain access to the various parts of the structure.

9

As soon as laboratory test results are available these shall be submitted by hand or faxed to the Engineer in draft form. The testing laboratory, or technical bureau assigned by the testing agency, assigned by the contractor shall provide a technical report providing visual information and analysing the tests conducted.

10

All core holes, dust sample holes and exploratory investigation areas shall be reinstated with a proprietary non shrink cementitious repair mortar. The preparation of the hole or area before reinstatement shall be carried out as per the recommendation of the repair mortar supplier.

11

Before filling any core holes, dust sample holes or exploratory investigation areas, the Contractor shall allow the Engineer time to inspect these areas and obtain written confirmation from the Engineer before filling.

13.2

CONCRETE CORES

13.2.1

General

1

The drilling and testing of cores shall be carried out in accordance with BS EN 13791 & BS EN 12504-1, or GSO ISO 1920-6 or ASTM C42 and ACI 214.4 whichever is applicable to the structural design.