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PTE Writing Essay topics and sample essay...

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Preface

This document is a compilation of all the essay topics and ideas to date contributed by a vast number of past examiners.

The Topics were organised according to its genre and topics to facilitate readers to be able to link the similar ideas together.

In order to do well in writing component, it is important to use at least 1 complex sentences to demonstrate your writing ability as shown in the Tips section.

Also, memorizing the whole essay will not help during the exam. The aim of this document is to provide you with a general ideas regarding to the topic, and it is advisable to write the essay in your own style in order to be able to finish writing within the allocated time frame.

Finally, what goes around comes around. It is very important for us to share what we have learnt with others. This document is free for all and shall not be used for any profit purposes. Best of Luck

Shean [email protected] (5th March 2016)

Table of Contents Essay Tips ........................................................................... 4 A. Child Assessment ..................................................... 5 Examination ........................................................................................................ 5 1. Significance of formal written assessments in today's world to evaluate children's performance. ......................................... 5 2. In education system, assessment through formal written examination still valid? ................................................................................ 5 3. Education system that assess the student's learning by written exam is correct? Discuss your view? ...................................... 5 B. Life long Learning ........................................................ 6 Learning ................................................................................................................ 6 4. Learning a new language at an early age is helpful for children. Is it more positive for their future aspect or have some adverse effects. Agree or disagree? ......................................................... 6 5. It is as important for school children to study music, art and sport as it is for them to become literate and numerate.' How far do you agree with this statement? Support your point of view with reasons and / or examples from your own experience. ......................................................................................................... 6 6. Is it necessary to make english language globalization. Do you agree or disagree ................................................................................... 6 Education ............................................................................................................. 6 7. Education is critical element of the prosperity of any nation. The more educated the people of the country are, more successful their nation becomes. .............................................................. 6 8. Do you think that educational visits and excursions are beneficial for the academic progress of students or would it be better to spend that time on doing more academic stuff like reading books or studying new subjects? ............................................. 6

C. Learning Barrier .......................................................... 7 Einstein ................................................................................................................. 7 9. “My education is a hindrance to the process of my learning"- Explain this quote by Einstein ............................................. 7 10. “The only thing that interfere with my leaning is my education”- Einstein. What does he mean by that? And do you think he is correct? ......................................................................................... 7 Illiterate ................................................................................................................ 7 11. The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. Agree or Disagree? .............................................................. 7

D. Parental Responsibility ............................................... 9 Parental Responsibility .................................................................................. 9 12. Parents should be held legally responsible for their children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples.... ......................................................................................................... 9 13. It is argue that getting married before finishing school or getting a job is not a good choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree? ....................................................................................................... 9

E. Role Model/Background Influences ........................... 10 Growing up, influence ................................................................................... 10 14. "Do you think the place where a person grew up helps him/her in accomplishing goals in life? Do you agree or disagree. ............................................................................................................ 10 15. "Many people think that regions affect successful person. What is your opinion about native region and accomplished person’s influence on the region he belongs to? Explain with Example". ......................................................................................................... 10 16. Some people think law changes our behaviour. Discuss. 10 Role Model ......................................................................................................... 10 17. Imitating celebrities in sports and movies good or bad? 10

18. Successful Sports stars and glamorous film stars are a role model for youngsters. Do you think that it is a good thing or not? ................................................................................................................ 10 19. Violence portrayed on TV and in the movies leads to an increase in crime in our society. People who watch violent movies are more likely to become criminals. Do you agree or disagree?. .......................................................................................................... 10

F. Experiences from Abroad (Overseas) ......................... 12 Overseas Study ................................................................................................ 12 20. Travel to study is over rated, we have brilliant scholars who studied locally. Is travel really required for higher studies? 12 21. "Value added by travel in Education Is travel a necessary component of education or not? Will scholar sitting at home have more knowledge than one who travels? " ............................... 12 22. More and more students are studying at universities abroad, either because it is cheaper, or because they feel they can receive a better education, or because it will provide them with greater professional opportunities.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad. .............................................. 12

G. Decision Making and Work Balance .......................... 13 Decision Making Authority ........................................................................ 13 23. Organisations involve employees in decision making process of their products and services. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both. ....................................................................... 13 24. Company’s top level authorities should get their employees in decision making process. Discuss ............................... 13 Time Management ......................................................................................... 13 25. Different people get success in different fields. Some people work long hours to get success, but others feel that spend free time for joy than Wealth. Which style closely related to you and explain your views? ............................................................... 13 Work Balance ................................................................................................... 13 26. Nowadays, people spend too much time at work to the extent that they hardly have time for their personal life. Discuss. 13

H. Sports, Recreation activities ...................................... 14 27. Extreme sports like skiing, water rafting etc etc are dangerous and should these be banned? ............................................ 14 28. Pros and Cons of extreme/adventure sports. ....................... 14 I. Modern Invention ...................................................... 15 29. In the past 100 years, there have been many inventions such as antibiotics, air planes and computers. What do you think is the most important of them? Why? Greatest invention in the last 100 years, medicine, science or technology? ............... 15 30. What are the greatest inventions of the 20th century among medicine, aeroplane and computers, why? ........................ 15 31. ANY NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE RECENT YEARS IS A BOON OR CURSE FOR THE SOCIETY IN GENERAL. Do you agree or disagree that Mass Media, Like TV, Radio and Newspaper have a huge impact on people, especially young generation? ........................................................................................ 15 32. Talk about the pros/cons of this era as is full of daily invention. Any recent invention that you think proved beneficial or detrimental to society. .......................................................................... 15 33. Most people in what are known as the developed nations have homes full of gadgets and labor-saving devices, from vacuum cleaners and dishwashers to the latest in computer technology. Some people claim that despite all these laborsaving devices, we seem to have less free time. In your opinion, has technology improved the quality of life or made it more complicated? ................................................................................................... 15 34. When computers first appeared on the scene, it was thought they would make us more productive in providing goods and services, smarter and possibly happier. Skeptics claim that the opposite is true as computers have proved

disappointing in terms of productivity, and have made us less happy and more stupid because information is not knowledge.Which of these points of view do you agree with most? 15

J. TV & Mass Media ....................................................... 17 Television ........................................................................................................... 17 35. Nowadays TV has become an essential part of life. Medium to spread news & awareness and for some it acts like a companion. What is your opinion about this? ................................. 17 36. Television has two roles: to inform and to entertain. Explain which of these roles you see as more important. To what extent do you think that TV today performs each of these roles in an effective way? Support your point of view with details from your own experiences, observations or reading. .. 17 37. Television has many useful functions to play in everyone’s life, for some its relaxation, for some it is companion. ................. 17 38. The mass media including TV, Radio and newspaper influence our society and shape our opinions and characters. What is your opinion? ................................................................................. 17 39. Information revolution has changed the way of mass communications and had some negative and positive effects on individual lives as well as on society. To what extent do you agree or disagree? ........................................................................................ 17 40. Communication has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Discuss pros and cons impacts. .................................................. 17 41. Some people use television as a form of entertainment only while others take it as a source of information. Choose which position you agree the most with. ............................................ 17

K. Evolution, Replacement, Improvement, industrial revolution ......................................................................... 19 42. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples. . 19 43. In the 18th century due to industrialization a lot of people migrated to develop countries. This affected lifestyle and increased major problems in develop countries. ............................ 19 44. Do you believe that industrial revolution was the main factor for problems in developed nation? .......................................... 19

L. Packaging and Advertising ......................................... 20 45. Do you think consumer should avoid over packed products or it is responsibility of producer to avoid extra packaging of products? Give your views or any relevant example with your own experience. ..................................................... 20 46. Some people think placing advertisements in schools is a great resource for public schools that need additionally funding, but others think it exploits children by treating them as a captive audience for corporate sponsors ........................................... 20

M. Merchandise, Marketing .......................................... 21 47. Should marketing for consumer goods companies like clothing and food focus on reputation or on short term strategies like discount and special offers? Why? .......................... 21 48. "Marketing strategy for big companies should be placed on offer and discounts, and in what ways this can impact on their reputatio ................................................................................................ 21

N. Climate Change, Global Warming, Environmental ..... 22 49. You need to study climate change. Which aspect of climate change will you choose and why? Use examples. ........... 22 50. Write about Climate change? Who is responsible whether Government or industries? Why ............................................................. 22 51. Roles of governments, companies and individuals to combat climate change .............................................................................. 22 52. The environment we live in is in danger due to various problems. What are the underlying causes? Who is responsible to combat this? What measures? ........................................................... 22

O. Government, Country, Politics, Democracy , decision, Law , Rights ...................................................................... 23

53. Do you think that it is better for governments to spend a huge amount of money in activities like space exploration when there any so many crucial problems in our society where that money could be spent? ................................................................................ 23 54. The claim that animals have “rights” has been the subject of much debate since the 1970s. Are zoos helping or hurting our aniamls? Should zoos be banned? Do you agree or disagree? .. 23 55. "In some countries around the world, voting is compulsory. Do you agree with the notion of compulsory voting? ............................................................................................................... 23 56. If Voting is compulsory in democratic society, what conclusions can we draw about ‘Nature of democracy? ............. 23 57. In some countries around the world, voting is compulsory. Do you agree with the notion of compulsory voting? If voting is compulsory in a democratic society, what are some conclusions we can draw about the nature of democracy? ................................ 23 58. Tobacco, mainly in the form of cigarettes, is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. over a billion adults legally smoke tobacco every day. The long term health costs are high- for smokers themselves, and for the wider community in terms of health care costs and lost productivity .Do governments have a legitimate role to legislate to protect citizens from the harmful effects of their own decisions to smoke, or are such decisions up to the individual? To what extent you agree ? ......................................................................................... 23

P. Tourism ..................................................................... 25 59. In under developed countries, tourism has disadvantages and can be said the opposite as well. ................................................... 25 60. Some people prefer to spend their holidays in resorts where everything is organized for them and they take little interest in the country they are visiting. Others prefer to travel around the country and to see how the people live, to get to know their customs and traditions and cuisine. Write an essay on which type of foreign travel you think is best for both the tourist and the local community. ........................................................... 25

Q. Abstract Ideology, & Discussion ................................ 26 61. A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or the movies. One argument is that this is to everyone's benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have experienced, while others say that turning books into movies not only cheapens the original, but is rarely done successfully.In your opinion, do works of literature translate effectively to the screen? ............................................................................................................... 26 62. It has recently been suggested that the classical, or "dead", languages Latin and Greek should be re-introduced into the school curriculum. Those that oppose the idea claim that the ancient languages are of no practical use and no help in getting a job. Those in favor of the idea say that education is more about training the mind than preparing for a career.Which of these points of view do you most agree with? 26 63. “In a war of ideas, it is people who get killed”. Does a common man suffer from a group’s ideology? Express your opinion, and support the same with reasons and examples. ..... 26

Essay Tips



Frequent



Unquestionable

It is unquestionable true that



Inevitable

It is undeniably true that



Undeniable

No one can deny that …



Plays an important role in

It cannot be deniend that …



The term ____ refers to

____



____ will be discussed in this essay

___ has always been an integral aspect of _____



Mitigate

Thanks to, we can _______



Firstly, Secondly

We can find overwhelming evidence in support of the fact that _______.



In summary, ____ can result in

There is a positive correlation between__ Research has shown that _____



Adversely affected due to ____



Strongly believe that ___ should be avoided

___ can be attributed largely to _____



Advocated

Had __ not been ___ed, we would have been ___



Abolished

Had I not decided to go overseas, I would not have developed a brigher future. Based on the above argument, I concede that

As a matter of course (当然的) Drink, Play, Use responsibly, Self Disipline On the surface, it seems that,. However upon further inspection, Highly debatable. The long term benefits will definitely outweight the cost and effort. Research, statistics indicates that Do not abuse, misuse the facilitlies, Conveniences for others.

The long-term benefits will definitely outweighs the cost

Integral Conspicuous 显然的 Correlation Attribute Perceived Imperative 重要的 Ubiquity Morale 士气,斗志

Secular 现世的, 俗界的 Tremendously

____

___ not only save our time, but also ___

Had I not gone ____, I would not have been able to _____.

Predetermined Vocab



Bolster, Impeccable, Indispensable, Parochial attitude, Fathom, Laudable effort, Crux, Unbridled/bridled, Formidable, Inundate =泛滥;淹没;浸

水 Inevitably, Jeopardize, Emancipation, Itinerary, Overwhelming, Tremendously Marginally

1,2,3. Do you think that formal written Examination refers to a method of evaluation examinations are a good way to assess to judge the student’s skills and knowledge A. Child Assessment mainly via written exams. It usually reflects knowledge at school? student’s learning capability on paper, but Examination some people think otherwise. Whether or not Without any doubts formal written examination is used widely as assessment formal written examinations is an appropriate way to gauge student’s knowledge will be criteria. 1. Significance of formal written discussed. assessments in today's world to evaluate children's performance. Although this method has been around First of all, written exams are more inclined for ages this is not the better way of towards testing the student’s ability to assessing knowledge 2. In education system, assessment memorize and cramp learning materials the through formal written day before exams. Student’s with better examination still valid? photographic memory skills will be able to memorize the sample answers without having Examanitation is not a good way to understand how the question even works. 3. Education system that assess the student's learning by written Formal written exams are more inclined Moreover, due to time constraint, students are exam is correct? Discuss your towards testing the student’s memory. often nervous while attempting the questions, hence are not in their optimal condition to view? think. Time also plays a major role during formal examinations. However, written examination is the only way • Children Performance to stop student’s from cheating via other It’s not always true that different persons forms of examination. For instance, student’s Evaluation can perform equally when they are under take home assignment could be easily pressure. completed by others, hence will not reflects • Written Exam? their actual knowledge. Even the most intelligent among the students may not be able to perform well On the surface, it seems that examination has Written assessment on formal examination. asserted unnecessary pressure onto students. Writing is an essential skill that allows However upon further inspection, formal people to participate fully in today's written examination allows the students to society and to contribute to the demonstrate their individual knowledge and economy. Examination is a good way prevents cheating from any other forms of non-written examination. Had examination The assessment of writing is central to Cheating can be prevented in formal not been imposed in school, students would the process of effective teaching and exams. not have been motivated to pay attention in learning of writing. class. Hence, it is strongly believed that Individual assignments can be bought. written examination should be the appropriate formal assessment for children. This, in turn, can enable greater understanding of the requirements Less cheating if properly supervised as needed to support their learning. compared to project works and group assignments where 2 students actually It allows students to effectively convey work and rest just put their names in. thoughts and ideas through text is classroom-based writing assessment. Such formative assessments allow teachers to

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gauge the effectiveness of their teaching methods.

B. Life long Learning Learning 4.

5.

6.

4. Learning a new language at an early age is helpful for children. Is it more positive for their future prospects or does it have some adverse effects as well?

Learning a new language at an early age is helpful for children. Is • it more positive for their future aspect or have some adverse effects. Agree or disagree? It is as important for school children to study music, art and sport as it is for them to become literate and numerate.' How far do you agree with this statement? Support your point of view with • reasons and / or examples from your own experience. • Is it necessary to make english language globalization. Do you • agree or disagree



Education 7.

8.

6. Do you think English will remain to be a global language despite globalisation or will it be replaced by some other language in the future? •

Against: People used to think that learning two languages created confusion in the mind. Some studies did seem to back up the idea that • learning two languages could be problematic; early researchers noted that bilingual people tended to have smaller vocabularies and slower access to words. Agree: Bilingualism delays Alzheimer’s • disease by as much as five . There are several benefits of learning a new language Being bilingual can lead to improved listening skills, since the brain has to work harder to distinguish different • types of sounds in two or more languages

• Education is critical element of the prosperity of any nation. The more educated the people of the country are, more successful their nation • becomes.

Babies brought up in a bilingual environment have stronger working memories

• Do you think that educational visits and excursions are beneficial for the academic progress of • students or would it be better to spend that time on doing more academic stuff like reading books or studying new subjects?

easier to adapt to unexpected circumstances.



Better multi-Tasking:

Noà Software will easily translate languages so we don’t need to learn more than one language just for communication in the future. Language from emerging economies like India and China such as Hindi and Mandarin which are used as a first language by billions of people have a greater potential to surpass English in terms of the number of users. Yesà English is already the most popular language- a vast majority of documents, books, publications, contracts etc. are in English, making it irreplaceable. The impact of Hollywood film industry cannot be neglected. Despite other languages being popular with time, English will gain more ground due to the cultural influence. With globalisation, people travel even more and need to converse with people from other linguistic backgrounds so English has to potential to grow into a more commonly accepted international lingua franca, although it already is.

• Rather there is a risk of extinction for other languages used by small groups Better chances of getting a job- e.g.: of people all around the world. multinational companies need employees who can travel abroad and negotiate with clients in their own language. Banks hire multilingual 8. Do you think that educational visits tellers. and excursions are beneficial for the academic progress of students or would 5 Music+Art+sport vs Literate + it be better to spend that time on doing Numerate more academic stuff like reading books or studying new subjects? Balance learning environment

Brain development

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StudyingàMore knowledge in less time. Students can go on visits in their own time-school time is for studies.



Cheaper for poor schools which don’t have enough funds.



Educational visits àMake students fresh and active. Holds their interests.



Students remember things for a longer time

Many people believe that formal education is the only way to learn and acquire knowledge, however, Albert Einstein had a different view on the process of learning and the concept of education. This essay is going to analyse his quote and compare and contrast the differences between education and learning.

Einstein 9.

10. Education is the biggest barrier in my learning - Einstein. What do you mean by this? And do you think Einstein was correct in saying that?

9. "My education is a hindrance to the process of my learning"- Explain this quote by Einstein

C. Learning Barrier

“My education is a hindrance to the process of my learning"Explain this quote by Einstein

10. “The only thing that interfere with my leaning is my education”Einstein. What does he mean by that? And do you think he is correct?

Education has always been an integral aspect of the human civilisation and the education system is the best way to pass our pool of knowledge to the future generation. •

Education is the formal way of giving knowledge by someone who has them to someone who does not yet acquired them, • however, it seems like Einstein had a different view to process of learning and there is some fundamental truth behind his words. Firstly, education is biased and usualy limited to knowledge of an educator. Secondly, education does not guarantee to give correct knowledge, it • can be totally and utterly wrong, we can refer to an examples when teacher taught students that our plant is flat. Finally, education gives narrowed down knowledge which were probably not enough for Albert Einstein.

Illiterate 11. The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. Agree or Disagree?



Learning for an Einstein was holistic process, it involved not only understanding the basic things taught by teachers and professors, but rather much more deep research into the things he wanted to know. Therefore, his learning were hindered by education, not only that they gave him, probably wrong understandings of things, but most likely altered his path to knowledge. His findings were so innovative that contemporaries did not fully understand them even more so they didn’t think that he was genius, rather mad man.

In conclusion, conventional education tends to limit the knowledge and alter • the process of learning, Einstein has realized it, and believed that education is stopping him from learning new things and maybe make new discoveries.

Specialisations are necessary but basic level of knowledge in all fields of education is essential to get along our lives. A good musician, for example, still needs to be able to make simple arithmetic calculations or a good footballer still needs to know the important events in his own country’s history. Although most of the school systems may not be for the extraordinary students, they work best for the majority as they are designed to accommodate the needs of average students. In a traditional education system, students learn through a formally designed education pattern restricting their thought process. This discourages the students to think out of the box and search for solution themselves. Einstein may have wanted to focus on Math and Physics only but not study all other subjects that did not interest him. He may have wanted to experiment his limitless ideas which was not allowed by the existing education system. This may be the reason why Einstein believed that formal education hinders the process of learning. In conclusion, Einstein felt that the education system hindered his process of learning due to several limiting factors in the system designed to cater to everybody’s needs. This one-sizefits-all approach not only limits the creativity of talented students, but also creates frustration among students for not getting to spend their time on what they are good at. Hence, he was absolutely correct in his comment about the education he received, which in fact needs a radical reform to be able to cater to the needs of different types of students.

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11. 'In future illiterate will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn'. Discuss what do you understand by this statement and state your reason. •

the successful person in the future will be the person with wide-ranging abilities - the person, solve problems, collaborate and be flexible and creative.'



Creative teachers have understood this for decades, but education systems, are slow to adapt frustrating most attempts at meaningful evolution.



Education suited to our children's needs must help them cope as individuals in a complex world.



The challenge for each of us is to find the method of learning best suited to the demands of that future, and this will be the subject of my articles over the coming weeks.



If someone is not able to follow the trend of the changes in ways how information is exchanged, he may be deemed illiterate in no time.



Due to the rapid technological advancements almost everything has been digitised and information exchanged in hard copy and print media are a thing of the past.



We can find many senior citizens who were highly regarded scholars of their age but are not introduced to computers.



So at this digital age they are finding it difficult to keep themselves informed, the only barrier is they don’t understand computers.



They know how to read and write but they are still deprived of the information as if they are illiterates.



We have many examples of occupations of the past like milkman, cobbler, etc. are no more in existence

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D. Parental Responsibility Parental Responsibility 12. Parents should be held legally responsible for their children’s acts. What is your opinion? Support it with personal examples....

12. Parents should be held legally responsible for their children’s acts. What is your opinion? •



13. It is argue that getting married before finishing school or getting a • job is not a good choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree? •



YesàSomeone should be financially accountable for the damage caused. To force parents to teach good values to their children, due to the fear of misdoings by their children, even if the parents are not so morally responsible themselves. Noà Parents cannot run after their kids for 24 hours.

13. It is argued that getting married before finishing school or getting a job is not a good choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree? •

Balancing time at home, adjusting to a new life and spending time on academics is a daunting task,



Married college students are often left with not enough time to do housework, study or have couple time.



The college marriage often results in restriction of college experiences, participation in college functions and of relationships of college friends.



marriage affects academics.



Getting married before finishing studies and getting employed can be arduous at times. Although some may object that it's good to have a helping hand, I would still advocate that getting married later is much better as one can focus on his career.

There should be a certain age limit, may be 12. All they can do is take moral responsibility BUT not legal responsibility.



Children should understand that there are consequences if they make mistakes.



No punishment means less careful next time. So, parents should not cover their children’s mistakes all the time. •



Although the punishment can be less severe which suits their age like social work rather than juvenile detention.







There are numerous disadvantages to getting married while still a student. Getting married early in life can create a greater problem when you are dependent on parents to support you. There is the probability of more tension on the part of both sets of parents. Expecting your parents to continue paying your tuition as though you were still a child once you have chosen to take on the very adult responsibility of marriage can also create tension. Another reason to wait is the time constraint on enrolled newlyweds. Balancing time at home, adjusting to a new life and spending time on academics is a daunting task, regardless of how organized you are. Married college students are often left with not enough time to do housework, study or have couple time. Little time is left for each other so there’s less time to work on personal growth and the marriage.





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E. Role Model/Background Influences

Growing up, influence 14. "Do you think the place where a person grew up helps him/her in accomplishing goals in life? Do you agree or disagree. 15. "Many people think that regions affect successful person. What is your opinion about native region and accomplished person’s influence on the region he belongs to? Explain with Example". 16. Some people think law changes our behaviour. Discuss.

Role Model 17. Imitating celebrities in sports and movies good or bad? 18. Successful Sports stars and glamorous film stars are a role model for youngsters. Do you think that it is a good thing or not? 19. Violence portrayed on TV and in the movies leads to an increase in crime in our society. People who watch violent movies are more likely to become criminals. Do you agree or disagree?. • •

“birds of feather flocks together” .





abide by, comply with, the rules, law, and regulation Offender shuld be liable for for their actions and wrong doing.

14, 15. Many people think that the region where we grow up affects our accomplishments. Do you think that place where the person grew has an influence on his accomplishments?

16. Some people believe laws change human behaviour. Do you agree with it?



In conclusion, we can say that rules and regulations can help in controlling the behaviour that is dangerous. Laws not only help in checking the reckless nature of people but are necessary for the development of society.

It is an undeniable fact that laws and rules should be in place for the smooth achieving success in life depends on many functioning of the society. Law is the factors such as determination, discipline, only way to have control over the clear visions of your goals and ambitions, public. People usefully behave in a way motivation and most importantly hard that is in accordance with the law so it is work. not true that law changes our behaviour. It can only assist in creating a disciplined environment for the society and The first main aspect of our controlling the crime to some extent but environment that influences our not eliminating it. success is the people we surround ourselves with on a daily basis. For example, surrounding yourself with Firstly, imposing laws has created a friends who are more self-disciplined can sense of fear among people of getting also help you become more selfpunished. For instance, damaging the disciplined. As the wise saying goes, birds historical monuments, books, paintings, of a feather flock together. sculptures or other form of art is considered a crime and is punishable under vandalism law. This example shows People grow up in a poorer country that a person with moral responsibility will be motivated to strive harder to will take care of other’s assets but a achieve their goals. Comparing to person who is not worried about the children brought up in a well to do consequences will deface them. Thus, we country, they were usually well fed and can say that human’s action can be lack of motivational impetus to strive regulated by laws but cannot be changed hard. completely. It is dependent upon an individual’s In addition, in our day to day life, we will-power and intelligence. e.g.: follow rules without even realizing them. someone. (story of how he grew up in a poor place and later became successful). Traffic law is an example of this. Today, most of us follow the traffic signals out of habit. We stop at a red light, start an indicator before a turn and wear seat belt when we are on road. Thus, we can say that laws embed some changes in human behaviour to some extent. However, we are still facing road-accidents which clearly show that rules and regulations have controlled the behaviour of mankind without altering them completely.



By punishing those who committed inappropriate acts, it allows them to realised their misconuct, hence giving them a chance to turn over a new live











Attitude towards study will determine the outcome















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17, 18. Successful sports stars and glamorous film stars are a role model for youngsters. Do you think that it is a good thing or not? It is human nature to imitate the popular trends. These sports and movie stars being portrayed as personalities with admirable jazzy lifestyle, most youngsters want to copy them. I am advocating against this trend. It seems like every day there are more and more stories and pictures on the Internet of the illicit activities of celebrities. Teens see these people partying, drinking alcohol or doing drugs, and they think they should too. This sends the message to teens that in order to have fun or be cool, you have to use these substances. Teens may begin to think that it is no big deal, and this can cause serious problems leading to and including drug and alcohol addictions, risk-taking behaviours, and even death. Children are inspired to become successful- if a child makes a footballer his role model and works hard to become a footballer one day-that would be a great achievement. Positive inspiration helps children to become hard working and healthy. Although they may leave the dream of becoming like their favourite singer or sportsperson they will continue their habit of working hard throughout their lives, making them successful at whatever they choose to do.

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F. Experiences from Abroad (Overseas)

Overseas Study

20. Travel to study is over rated, we have brilliant scholars who studied locally. Is travel really required for • higher studies? 21. "Value added by travel in Education Is travel a necessary component of education or not? Will scholar sitting at home have more knowledge than one who travels? "



22. More and more students are studying at universities abroad, • either because it is cheaper, or because they feel they can receive a better education, or because it will provide them with greater • professional opportunities.Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad. •





Thus, we can say that international studies add value to a student’s education.



In summary, it can be said that travelling to foreign countries for higher studies is a key to succeed in this globalised planet.

The development of society is going towards a globalised world where education is an essential foundation for personal, social and economic success. International studies are becoming a new trend for young people as a way to expand their education beyond their traditional education style.



It is agreed that adding a foreign qualification has become an integral part of higher studies.



This argument is proven by looking at how it widens people’s perspective and helps them with better career opportunities.



Studying abroad helps people increase their awareness about different cultures of the world.



This will contribute in creating individuals with a broader understanding of issues concerning today’s society rather than limiting them in a scope of home education system.





For example, universities have a large community of students both from the local area and all around the globe.



The diverse academic community enhances the quality of learning by providing wider spectrum of opinions and expertise.



This example clearly shows that international education enhances outlook and sharpens self-awareness.



Moreover, acquiring a globally recognized qualification or degree opens the doors for international job market.



The students gain more knowledge and expertise when abroad and apply them to situations requiring international interactions.



Also, employers look for the graduates with international



experience either by studying or working abroad.

20,21,22) Is it better to study at your home country or is it better to study abroad? OR “Value added by travel in Education.” Is travel a necessary component of education or not? Will scholar sitting at home have more knowledge than one who travels? OR Travel to study is over rated, we have brilliant scholars who studied locally. Is travel really required for higher studies?





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G. Decision Making and Work Balance Decision Authority

Making

23. Organisations involve employees in decision making process of their products and services. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both. 24. Company’s top level authorities should get their employees in decision making process. Discuss

Time Management 25. Different people get success in different fields. Some people work long hours to get success, but others feel that spend free time for joy than Wealth. Which style closely related to you and explain your views?

Work Balance 26. Nowadays, people spend too much time at work to the extent that they hardly have time for their personal life. Discuss.

24) Should top level authorities take suggestions or ideas from employees to make any decisions? Discuss. Decision making is a crucial step in a success of a company. The moot question is that whether involvement of employees is required for the decision making process. The solid foundation of any successful company is its people. Employees represent a source of knowledge and ideas, but often times that resource remains untapped. Involving employees in the decision-making process not only empowers them to contribute to the success of an organization, but also saves the company time and money. It also increases productivity and reduces outsourcing. Improving Morale-Actively engaging workers in the decision-making process increases overall company morale. Employees understand their ideas are an important contribution to the company, and gives them the power to influence the outcome of their work, leading to increased job satisfaction and a positive attitude.





























Modern lifestyle has brought some drastic changes in a way we function as compared to our traditional lifestyle. People are spending most of their day at work and can hardly spare some time for personal life. People work more hours than required to improve their performance and maintain their position at work Work-life balance is about creating and maintaining supportive and healthy work environments, which will enable employees to have balance between work and personal responsibilities and thus strengthen employee loyalty and productivity. Today’s workers have many competing responsibilities such as work and children. Work-life conflict is a serious problem that impacts workers, their employers and communities.

Long work hours and highly stressful jobs leads to numerous physical and mental health implications. For instance, Internal Resources-Using employees in associated with health risks, such as the decision-making process, rather than increased smoking and alcohol outsourcing, saves money, time, and consumption, weight gain and depression. offers the company long-term reliable assistance from those who know the Negative implications on family life. corporation well. Their work responsibilities interfere with their ability to fulfill their responsibilities at home. Teamwork-Participation in the decisionmaking process gives each employee the A growing number of employers have opportunity to voice their opinions, and implemented wellness programs or to share their knowledge with others. pay for their employees’ gym While this improves the relationship membership as part of a benefits package. between manager and employee, it also encourages a strong sense of teamwork among workers.





25, 26) Nowadays, people spend too much time at work to the extent that they hardly have time for their personal life. Discuss.

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27,28) Do you think that it is a good idea to participate in dangerous activities like extreme skiing, bungee jumping, sky diving, motorcycle sports etc.? Should we support such activities or not?

H. Sports, Recreation activities 27. Extreme sports like skiing, water rafting etc etc are dangerous and should these be banned?

Advancing technology and science has invented new sports, never imagined before with the risks that never existed before. This argument can be proven by looking at how these kinds of sports teach self-reliance, teamwork and let everyone leave their comfort zone.

28. Pros and Cons of extreme/adventure sports.

While every sport has a danger, extreme sports athletes are at a high risk of serious injuries. when things go wrong, they pay a heavy price. For instance, Michael Schumacher was left fighting for his life after a dreadful ski accident in the French Alps 2 years ago. Thus, we can say that adventurous people are prepared to gamble their safety in search of adrenaline rush



On the other hand, many people are reluctant to try new things like mountain biking, scuba diving, white river rafting, para-gliding etc., thinking that they do not possess the skills or have an ability to enjoy it. Encouraging people to try new activities results in building up team spirit, promoting positive attitude and making them come out of their comfort zone. Thus, we can say that by trying out dangerous sports, one can get rid-off the negative feeling and develop a feeling of working as a team.





Looking at the above arguments, we can say that adventure sports have many impressive benefits including problem solving, improved communication skills, self-confidence and team work. Hence, these activities should be supported but it is recommended that these sports should be tried under proper guidance and supervision of a guard. (Can also talk about economic benefits through tourism)





















I.

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J. Modern Invention 29. In the past 100 years, there have been many inventions such as antibiotics, air planes and computers. What do you think is the most important of them? Why? Greatest invention in the last 100 years, medicine, science or technology?

29) In the past 100 years, there were many inventions such as antibiotics, airplanes and computers. What do you think was the most important invention of the past 100 years? Why?



The ability to innovate has always been an integral aspect of the human civilisation. This is one of the key factors which has helped humans propel forward and remain distinct from all other living creatures in this world. Although numerous other inventions in the last century were important in their own places, computers were above all for a multitude of reasons.



30. What are the greatest inventions of the 20th century among medicine, aeroplane and computers, why?



31. ANY NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE RECENT YEARS IS A BOON OR CURSE FOR THE SOCIETY IN GENERAL. Do you agree or disagree that Mass Media, Like TV, Radio and Newspaper have a huge impact on people, especially young generation?



32. Talk about the pros/cons of this era as is full of daily invention. Any recent invention that you think proved beneficial or detrimental to society.



33. Most people in what are known as the developed nations have homes full of gadgets and laborsaving devices, from vacuum cleaners and dishwashers to the latest in computer technology. Some people claim that despite all these labor-saving devices, we seem to have less free time. In your opinion, has technology improved the quality of life or made it more complicated?





One strong argument in favour of computers is that they have propelled research and science forward faster than ever before. We cannot even imagine any research project without these devices today; they are the primary tool for data collection, storage and analysis in an array of fields such as nuclear technology, biotechnology and statistics. Thanks to modern robotics, micro-operations inside our body by nano-robots operated remotely by surgeons located far away in their control rooms have become a reality today.





In addition, no one can deny that computers save our time in our day-today lives. Had they not been invented, we would have been stuck with pen and paper and cupboards full of documents. With the ubiquity of the internet, we can store millions of such documents and photographs in the cloud and access them anytime and from anywhere in the world and we do not need to run to our storage vaults and spend hours to find the document we are after. Furthermore, activities like shopping are not hectic and time consuming anymore as we do not have to visit brick-and-mortar stores to buy things; we can rather shop online and spend that time on something more productive.



34. When computers first appeared on the scene, it was thought they would make us more productive in providing goods and services, smarter and possibly happier. Skeptics claim that the opposite is true as computers have proved disappointing in terms of productivity, and have made us less happy and more stupid because information is not knowledge.Which of these points of view do you agree with most?



Based on the above arguments, I concede that computers were our most important creation of the 20th century as they have not only speeded up our research work, but also increased our efficiency in our daily lives.













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32) Talk about pros/cons of this era as it is full of daily inventions In today's world, where just about everything is more convenient and accessible due to advances in technology across almost all sectors. However, despite how far technology has taken humans and no matter how convenient it may make things, there are some disadvantages accompanying this level of access. Technology advances show people a more efficient way to do things, and these processes get results. For example, education has been greatly advanced by the technological advances of computers. Students are able to learn on a global scale without ever leaving their classrooms..This results in cost savings for business owners. The more advanced society becomes technologically, the more people begin to depend on computers and other forms of technology for everyday existence. This means that when a machine breaks or a computer crashes, humans become almost disabled until the problem is resolved. This kind of dependency on technology puts people at a distinct disadvantage, because they become less self-reliant. Human workers retain less value, which is a disadvantage of technological advances. Because machines automate processes and do the work of 10 people with one computer, companies find they don't need to employ as many people to get the job done. As machines and computers become even more advanced and efficient, this will continue to be a growing disadvantage of technology and an issue that has a global impact.

32) Write about any recent technological development in the recent years that you think has proved beneficial or detrimental to society. Internet: helped in research-google, online libraries Brought people closer-skype, Facebook BAD- less human interaction- people are more self-centred. Loss of privacy and data insecurity- hacking, constant monitoring of our online accounts. These developments have also been both positive and negative.In this essay I will discuss both the pros and cons of these innovative inventions.

These days we hear about new inventions in numerous fields every day. Discuss about the pros and cons of such fast paced technological advancements. How do they impact our lives? It is an undeniable fact that inventions have shrunk the boundaries of the world we live in. In this modern era everyday there is some new invention in some part of the world. Although these inventions are meant to solve problems, many have proven to be dangerous. This essay will talk about its positive and negative impacts.

To start with advantages ,one cannot disagree that techonolgy has made our life simpler.We are now super efficient and easily accessible.Such is the extent of our improved efficieny that just with a click of a button we can do work which earlier used to take several weeks or months . Communication barriers have also been broken via high speed internet and thanks to satellite we can now predict about everything around us in a much better way. Now looking at the disadvantages , with the comfort provided by technology people have also become obese, lazy and introvert .A lot of people tend to get glued to their mobile devices and talk less frequently , while a lot other with others prefer ordering food online rather than walking down the street. These habits are negatively impacting their health and their life. To conclude, technological developments have indeed tremendously impacted our life and in my opinion it is upto to us how we make best use of them.We should not let technology take over our daily habits and anything which we see can negatively impact our life should be shunned immediately.



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35-37 Television

K. TV & Mass Media

TV became an essential part of life

Television

TV informs and entertain Tv provides relaxation and companion

35. Nowadays TV has become an essential part of life. Medium to spread news & awareness and for some it acts like a companion. What is your opinion about this?



36. Television has two roles: to inform and to entertain. Explain which of these roles you see as more • important. To what extent do you think that TV today performs each of these roles in an effective way? Support your point of view with details from your own experiences, • observations or reading. 37. Television has many useful functions to play in everyone’s life, • for some its relaxation, for some it is companion. • 38. The mass media including TV, Radio and newspaper influence our society and shape our opinions and characters. What is your opinion?



Television is now playing a very important role in our lives. Television keeps you informed about current events. It allows you to follow the latest developments in science and politics. Many television programs introduce people to things they never thought of before and have never heard of before.

television is more lifelike, vivid, and real.

Television keeps people informed of the news and weather. disasters like floods, winds, etc.

Disadvantages •

Television is a great time waster.



We no longer have enough time for hobbies, entertaining activities.

40. Communication has changed significantly in the last 10 years. Discuss pros and cons impacts.



41. Some people use television as a form of entertainment only while others take it as a source of information. Choose which position you agree the most with.

People have grown addicted to television, often neglecting the necessary and more important things like meals, sleep, and even work.



Television prevents people from communicating with each other.







Newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet—including e-mail and blogs— are significantly influential on our society. The news media focus the public’s attention on certain personalities and issues, leading many people to form opinions about them. It is a system used by advertisement agencies and media outlets, such as television channels and radio stations to "convince" their audiences to do or act in a certain way. It appeals to the vulnerability of the desired target .

Television has been good company to For instance, a famous person or persons Who are recognized and those who do not work, like admired by whole communities. These housewives, lonely old people, etc. individuals have the "Power" to convince It brings most distant countries and their followers or fans into taking any kind of action or decision. Therefore, the strangest customs right into these famous people usually are linked or your living room. work for some media outlet and are used, to influence the community accordingly. Compared with radio, everything on



39. Information revolution has changed the way of mass communications and had some negative and positive effects on individual lives as well as on society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

38) The mass media including TV, Radio and newspaper influence our society and shape our opinions and characters. What is your opinion?

The media has changed significantly in the past years. Because of the availability of television and radio all populations and classes have been exposed to various types of media. The Internet has provided an even newer media resource. The majority of people have very little time for reading and exploring the truth of information. The producers of media publication are aware of this and use the media to influence public choice and opinion. The problem lies in that many people are gullible and society as a whole is easily influenced by the media representations. The media also responds to public demand and provides the information that the public craves.

It has done much harm to the relationship between family members.



Families sit and watch television at dinner instead of talking with each other







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40) Communication has changed 41. Some people use television as a significantly in the last 10 yers. Disucss form of entertainment only while pros and cons impacts others take it as a source of information. Choose which position you agree the most with. IT has not only brought the world closer together. Therefore, we can not only share information quickly and Entertainment: Nowadays the television efficiently, but we can also bring down set at home is only for pure barriers of linguistic and geographic entertainment. To watch movies when boundaries. The world has developed into friends are around, to watch games or to a global village due to the help of play music and videos. information technology allowing to shares ideas and information with each Television as a source of information: other. Television keeps you informed about current events. Communication has also become cheaper, quicker, and more efficient. Television keeps people informed of We can now communicate with anyone the news and weather. Disasters like around the globe by simply text floods, winds, etc. It allows people to messaging them or sending them an email follow the latest developments in science for an almost instantaneous response. and politics. Without actively searching The internet has also opened up face to for anything it presents us all the current face direct communication from different affairs going on around the world. parts of the world thanks to the helps of video conferencing. Information can be gained from other easier sources like the internet. We get Bridging the cultural gap - Information news in our mobile newsfeeds of our technology has helped to bridge the laptops where we can select just what we cultural gap by helping people from want to know. For e.g.: TV- all types of different cultures to communicate with news-need to wait for a certain time for one another, and allow for the exchange certain type of programs- advertisements of views and ideas, thus increasing Whereas internet-we can choose what we awareness and reducing prejudice. want. Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker, easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. Due to website and email hacking, people are now worried about their once private information becoming public knowledge.

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L. Evolution, Replacement, Improvement, industrial revolution 42. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples. 43. In the 18th century due to industrialization a lot of people migrated to develop countries. This affected lifestyle and increased major problems in develop countries. 44. Do you believe that industrial revolution was the main factor for problems in developed nation?

42. Large shopping malls are replacing small shops. What is your opinion about this? Discuss with appropriate examples.

43,44. Industrial Revolution

These include excessive crowding, especially on weekends and holidays. Crowded aisles and stores make shopping very difficult; people often end up forgetting items they needed to buy. Parking can also be a problem when the mall is very crowded.

In summary, the industrial revolution has increased the standard of living due to the increases in average income, but also contribute to the social issues caused by the foreign migrants.

It is undeniable that industrial revolution marks a major turning point in human history. Industrial Revolution refers to It is an undeniable fact that mall culture is the transition from old to new spreading its wings in most urban areas manufacturing processes back in the 18th by replacing small shops. The question centuries. This transformation includes whether this boom of mall's trend is the evolution of hand prodution methods positive or negative is a complex issue, to machines which increases the upon which opinion varies greatly. In this production efficiency, thus led to mass essay we will look at some pros and cons human migration to the developed of this trend. countries. The consequences of industrial revolution will be discussed in the Parking is one of the major hassles for sections below. people who go into the city to shop. Shopping at malls eliminates this With growing economy, the average problem, because parking is provided income and population began to increase either free of charge or for a nominal fee. consistently. This means that people are This makes it advantageous for people to able to afford a better living, as well as choose to shop at a mall rather than a better educational opportunity. This has single store. Families who choose to visit strongly contributed to the civilization of a mall on the weekend or holiday for a today’s world. Had the economy not grew family outing find it to be a more so rapidly, the population would not have convenient option mainly because enjoyed a improved and better life style. parking is provided Bringing wealth and power to Great Britain throughout the 19th century. Visiting a mall is advantageous because of the numerous stores With the invention of steam power housed in one complex. Groceries, engine, the mass transportation of goods clothes, shoes, reading material, food overseas became possible. However, this courts, cinemas and entertainment also means that human migration from arcades are available in one place. Malls least developed country became easier. make great meeting places for friends to The increase in foreign migrants has led catch up over coffee at a café or a meal at to social issues, for instance, the increase the food court. in crime rates.

The temptation to browse is always present, and browsing often leads to buying things that are not needed. Keeping to a monthly budget becomes increasingly difficult every time you visit the mall. With all the sales and special offers intended to tempt buyers, saying "no" becomes very hard.

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Only Favours the upper class and rich families. No laws and regulation or whatsoever to restrict children as young as 7 to work full time in coal mines or factories. The tedious and dangerous factory work had negative effects on the health of children. People from the country side floked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployement rate for workers in the initial phases of the industrial revolution. Desperate migrants had no bargaining power to demand for fair remuneration. Densely packed and poorly constructed working-class neighbourhoods contributed to the fast spread of desease, for instance cholera, tubercuosis

45. Do you think consumers should avoid over packed products or it is responsibility of producer to avoid extra packaging of products?" Give your views or any relevant example.

M. Packaging and Advertising 45. Do you think consumer should avoid over packed products or it is responsibility of producer to avoid extra packaging of products? Give your views or any relevant example with your own experience.

is an undeniable fact that some form of packaging is absolutely necessary to deliver finished products safely to the consumers or simply to increase the aesthetic beauty and appeal of the product. As such packaging material have numerous disadvantages, consumers should be conscious to not buy unnecessarily over-packaged products ultimately forcing producers to refrain from such unethical practice.

46. Some people think placing advertisements in schools is a great resource for public schools that need additionally funding, but others think it exploits children by treating them as a captive audience for corporate sponsors

Packaging helps to protect the products from damage or contamination during transportation. But producers do not always package their products for this purpose. They very often combine multiple layers of packaging. For instance, putting products in a tray and wrapping with a plastic which are then boxed. Moreover, colourful stickers are placed on the box to make it look attractive to the consumers which could have been avoided if producers wanted to be more responsible.



# Temperature controlled food, help to maintain its quality. Foil cover prevent excessive heat or sun rays destroying the content.



Foam and plastic crate protects cookies from getting crumbled.



Environmentally not friendly.

• •

Consumers should always determine which product is good and make their choice. They should not be attracted to the colourful impulsive packaging but avoid them. The packaged goods industry is highly competitive, and packaging manufacturers, packaged goods producers and retailers are all under pressure to come up with new and better packaging solutions.

Polystyrene is not degradable, hence polluting the mother nature, leading to environmental pollution.



46. Some people think placing advertisements in schools is a great resource for public schools that need additional funding, but others think it exploits children by treating them as a captive audience for corporate sponsors. Choose which position you most agree with and discuss why you chose that position. Public schools have seen a myriad of challenges in recent years of economic slowdown .To alleviate the financial pinch , schools have no other option other than commercialism to make ends meet. Instead of cutting on developmental programs, schools are trying to gain income by selling advertisements on scoreboards , buses and even lockers to make up for some of their budget shortfalls. However, this practice is quite controversial one, as parents and community ponder whether advertising in and around schools is sending the right message to the student. I am of the opinion that advertising is an excellent resource for public schools facing funds crunches. Firstly, with huge budgets cuts and layoffs at their peak, any income obtained from advertising can be used to encourage and assist faculty to give their best and to improve infrastructure. Lots of people are of the opinion that income generated by advertising is paltry but my belief is that every bit counts , and more so when it is about future of the kids. Secondly, few of the parents with the perspective that their kids are made captive audience by showing them the advertisements are oblivious of the fact that this can serve as learning for them. As they grow up, it would be easier for them to choose between products and make intelligent buying decisions based on the product history.



Based on the above arguments, producers not only have a control over how they want to produce and present their goods, but also have a moral responsibility to care for the environment, hence it can be argued that producers are the ones who should stop this practice of using unnecessary packaging material to only increase the appeal of a product without actually adding value. They can rather direct their resources to educate the masses about the importance of how their practice is ethical than others, which in turn will boost their sales by increasing trust amongst their customer.























To conclude, though one can always argue that lure of tens of thousands of dollars in unrestricted revenue is hard to turn down, especially in crisis like situation, one should also not forget the positive aspects of this revenue which can act as a critical support and as an effective tool in improving the quality standards of currently ailing and cash strapped educational institutes.

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N. Merchandise, Marketing 47. Should marketing for consumer goods companies like clothing and food focus on reputation or on short term strategies like discount and special offers? Why? 48. "Marketing strategy for big companies should be placed on offer and discounts, and in what ways this can impact on their reputatio

Sustainability

48. Should the marketing strategy for big companies should be placed on offer and discounts, or they should focus more on quality? In what ways can this impact on their reputation. It is an undeniable fact that offering quality product and services should be a mandatory requirement for any company. There should no exception or choice on this. Advertising their products and services on offer and discounts is very essential. Offering discounts attracts more customers which will help increase the customer base of the organizations. Groupon is a very good example. They have built a very successful business around the concept of discounting. They only promote the products or services of third party businesses by offering whooping discounts, attract numerous customers and run successfully on the commission offered by the service providers. Discounting can actually hurt your business in the long run. If you are giving discounts it shows that you have lack of confidence on your product, people expect same price every time it is a bad precedent, you are making your product lower perceived value, people think that your product is untrustworthiness and finally you are making cut down in your profit. Instead of spending the valuable time and money on promotions for discounts, companies can focus on value of the product, know their target audience, and show confidence in products. The perfect example for this kind of organization is Apple. They have branded themselves as a company providing high quality gadgets. They focus on quality and improvements of the features and are one of the highest selling brands while maintaining higher prices as compared with similar products by other brands.

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49. If you are assigned to work on a study on climate change, what study will you choose to focus on and why?



O. Climate Change, Global Warming, Environmental 49. You need to study climate change. Which aspect of climate change will you choose and why? Use examples. 50. Write about Climate change? Who is responsible whether Government or industries? Why 51. Roles of governments, companies and individuals to combat climate change 52. The environment we live in is in danger due to various problems. What are the underlying causes? Who is responsible to combat this? What measures? •

Environment

Deforestation- Deforestation is a rapidly-growing problem in areas like Africa, Central and South America. Not only does this mean less trees, less cleansing oxygen, and the displacement of the wildlife, deforestation means a dangerous decrease in a natural fighter of global warming – • Pollution-Pollution comes in many forms and no matter where you live. The main reason for why pollution has gotten so out of control is that our desire for more “stuff” has led to our old stuff being thrown away at an alarming and unnecessary rate. This need for manufactured items also leads to the air and water pollution emitted from factories, which in many countries are highly unregulated. • Loss of Biodiversity-Each species has a role in our planet, and when one dies out, it can have catastrophic effects on the rest of us. Currently, many other animals are in danger of becoming extinct, either from being forced out of their habitats by man or by climate change. •



You can discuss on one of the topics below and elaborate them: Loss of Biodiversity-Each species has a role in our planet, and when one dies out, it can have catastrophic effects on the rest of us. Currently, many other animals are in danger of becoming extinct, either from being forced out of their habitats by man or by climate change. Study of change in rainfall patterns: Effect on urban lifestyle- big cities- roads-engineering effects on rural communities: agriculture- crop plantation and harvesting- avoiding damage from rain. Study on the causes of global warming: like effect of fossil fuel consumption, effect of deforestation, OR increase in sea level due to global warming

50. Climate Change/Global Warming But what really is the proper role for individuals and institutions in addressing climate change? An immediate and natural response may be that everyone should do their part Decisions affecting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, for example, are made primarily by companies and consumers. This includes decisions by companies about how to produce electricity, as well as thousands of other goods and services; and decisions by consumers regarding what to buy, how to transport themselves, and how to keep their homes warm, cool, and light.

tropical deforestation and its associated global warming emissions 51,52. The environment we are living in is in danger due to various problems such as climate change. Who do you think should be responsible to solve it? Is it the governments, organisations or individuals? No one can deny that the planet we live in is at serious threat. Increasing number of natural calamities like Tsunami, earthquakes, floods and hurricanes have given us repeated warning signals. This essay will outline few causes and measures that must be implemented by the responsible parties. Organisations: They have the money and human resources qualified to advocate for the change. Big corporations can switch to eco-friendly production methods. Individuals: Individuals should be responsible because, after all, they are the ones who elect governments, consume products, and make organisations. If every person feels the moral obligation to protect the environment, the issue will be instantly solved. They can force the government to be serious about the environment by using the power of ballot, and force organisations to change their methods by boycotting the ones who are careless about the environment. Governments: They should take the initiative to bring about the much necessary change as they are the ones who can change laws and force individuals and organisations to become compliant.

In order to effectively address global warming, we must significantly reduce the amount of heat-trapping emissions we are putting into the atmosphere. As individuals, we can help by taking action to reduce our personal carbon emissions. But to fully address the threat of global warming, we must demand action from our elected leaders to support and implement a comprehensive set of climate solutions:



Expand the use of renewable energy and transform our energy system to a cleaner onePlace limits on the amount of carbon that polluters are allowed to emit.







Build a clean energy economy by investing in efficient energy technologies, industries, and approaches. Reduce

P. Government, Country, Politics, Democracy , decision, Law , Rights

55.

56.

57.

58.





54. The claim that animals have “rights” has been the subject of much debate since the 1970s. Are zoos helping or hurting our animals? Should zoos be banned? Do you agree or disagree?

In the recent times veganism and animal rights are making headlines. With the Taking care of the current problems is advancement of technology many shocking videos have been coming out on animal the first priority. If we are not happy now, there is no point of thinking of the cruelty and many are becoming aware of future and spending everything we have animal rights. In this essay we will advocate on uncertain things. Rather than looking for banning of zoos as there are alternate ways to see the animals. for alternatives of the earth, we should look at ways to protect it by saving the The claim that animals have It been taught in schools that man environment, becoming eco-friendlier. “rights” has been the subject of originated from monkeys, so why cage our much debate since the 1970s. Are ancestors? Zoos are mostly Most of the technologies we take for zoos helping or hurting our granted today were originated thanks commercialized and rob animals from aniamls? Should zoos be banned? their right of living in natural habitat. to space research. Take satellite Do you agree or disagree? Many are having to spend their entire life in technology, for example, which we depend on for broadcasting and weather a cage just because some more powerful "In some countries around the forecasting. Without satellites, we would species like humans can watch them and world, voting is compulsory. Do not be able to follow global events as they experiment on them. Secondly there are you agree with the notion of happen, nor give populations any warning alternate ways to see them in their natural compulsory voting? habitat. For example, African safaris take of approaching storms. Space research have safe vehicles which go into jungles has also led to the development of new lightweight materials that offer us heat and forests and get to see these animals If Voting is compulsory in protection and enable food preservation. and sometimes feed them as well. In this democratic society, what way humans get to travel as well as watch Therefore, the challenge of sending conclusions can we draw about them without hurting them. human beings into space has often driven ‘Nature of democracy? the development of new technologies that In conclusion, we should live in harmony benefit our everyday lives. In some countries around the with nature and other living entities. Just world, voting is compulsory. Do Secondly, we cannot foresee the distant because we have more intelligence and you agree with the notion of have ability to capture and control them future, so we ought to develop the compulsory voting? If voting is does not make us superior. capability to escape from the earth. compulsory in a democratic society, Gradually, we are learning how humans what are some conclusions we can can survive for long periods in space and Zoos played an important role in draw about the nature of even travel to other planets in the future. rehabilitating near extinction animals. Due democracy? to increasing population and deforestation If space exploration is halted, this to make rooms for the human being, Many valuable knowledge will never be Tobacco, mainly in the form of wild animals who lost their natural acquired. It is true that environmental cigarettes, is one of the most widely destruction is also a serious issue, but it is ecosystem were rescued and taken care of used drugs in the world. over a In the zoos. This provides them an also true that we remain dependent on billion adults legally smoke our environment if we never accept the opportunity to live as well as breed. This tobacco every day. The long term successful program has ensured the human challenge of exploring other worlds. health costs are high- for smokers generation will be able to admire the themselves, and for the wider In conclusion, while we undoubtedly face animals in without having to learn them community in terms of health care serious problems on our own planet, it is only from the books and pictures. costs and lost productivity .Do imperative that we continue to explore governments have a legitimate role Panda has played an important role for space. This will promote further to legislate to protect citizens from technological advances as well as provide China to alliance with other countries. It the harmful effects of their own a possible means of escape should earth promotes further research and studies the decisions to smoke, or are such become uninhabitable in future. Ideally, opportunities for pandas to survive outside decisions up to the individual? To of its natural habitat. all nations should cooperate in the what extent you agree ? advancement of space research. However, zoos have been commercialised in recent days. Many animals are forced captive by the human being in order to display them in the zoo to attract visitors. In some case, a conspicuous example is animals being abused in captivity. More often or not they will suffer from depression and will lead to some disastrous consequences. Animal cruelty is prevalent in recent days.

53. Do you think that it is better for governments to spend a huge amount of money in activities like space exploration when there any so many crucial problems in our society where that money could be spent? 54.

53. Do you think that it is better for governments to spend a huge amount of money in activities like space exploration when there any so many crucial problems in our society where that money could be spent?

55, 56,57. In some countries around the world, voting is compulsory. Do you agree with the notion of compulsory voting? If Voting is compulsory in democratic society, what conclusions can we draw about ‘Nature of democracy?’ Compulsory voting in a democratic society is undeniably a controversial topic as it raises a question: how democratic a nation will be with or without compulsory voting. This system has many benefits to the nation, if it is implemented in a right manner. In this essay we will discuss the nature of democracy with few examples of compulsory voting. Democracy is also known as republic, is a governing system where the citizens of the country vote to one of the several parties competing for the President’s position. If only 30% of the people vote then outcome of the election will be unfair, as those who did not vote may not like the party that won the election. For instance, In America, Bill Clinton won when mere 34% of the total population voted. Similarly, in India on an average only 50 to 55% of the people vote and rest have to accept the rules drafted by the unwanted members of the parliament. Turning to the compulsory voting, in Australia voting is compulsory since last 80 years. Almost 90% of public participate and there is a little fine for those who don’t participate. Moreover, in South American nations like Peru and Bolivia there are harsh punitive action against those who don’t vote. For example, Non Voters are barred from accessing their own bank accounts for up to 3 months. This is the reason there are some people who are against compulsory voting.

58. "Tobacco, mainly in the form of cigarettes is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Over a billion adults legally smoke tobacco every day. The long term health costs are high- for the smokers themselves, and for the wider community in terms of health care costs and lost productivity. Do Governments have a legitimate role to protect citizens from the harmful effects of their own decisions to smoke, or are such decisions up to an individual? Tobacco is one of the most widely-used drugs of the world. Over a billion adults legally smoke tobacco every day. Tobacco is slowly taking a billion people in the world towards doom. The long term health costs are high for smokers, who suffer from various heart and lung diseases, reduced concentration and continually diminishing immunity. Governments should always be responsible to protect their people from these ill effects of smoking. Non-smokers, accompanying smokers or those who are in their close vicinity, also become “Passive” smokers and bear the toll of various inevitable diseases as they inhale the smoke which has an ill-effect on their respiratory systems. Thus, the health costs are high—for smokers themselves, and for wider community in terms of health care costs and lost productivity. There has been awareness among people from many years, about the ill-effects of smoking and various campaigns run by the government, NGOs and local bodies to encourage people to quit smoking. The solution is to nip the problem in the bud. School authorities and parents should keep a close eye so that children don’t start to smoke because they think it is “cool”. They should be made aware about the harmful effects of smoking.

Government could play a vital role too. Smoking should not be high-hand in advertisements and movie commercials In a nutshell it can be said that which have a huge impact on people. It compulsory voting is an imperative step could levy high taxes on tobacco products in a democratic society, however its implication in a friendly manner is of vital to keep people away from its reach. Rules for checking children buying such importance. So compulsory voting is products should be made mandatory for a democracy to be a stringent. democracy. To conclude with, the solution requires the legitimate action of Government which encourages individual decisions to eliminate the problem.

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60. Tourism, a medium to bridge communicational gaps among countries, not only provides as a medium to exchange culture but also accounts for Ideas: In recent decades, low cost airfare one of the major sources of income for many countries. I personally feel that if has made international travel easier tourists travel around the country and see and many countries have, therefore, how people live and have experiences of developed their tourism industries into key sectors of their economies. While it is new customs and cuisines, it would be highly beneficial for the tourist as well as clear tourism brings obvious benefits to the local community. the countries that host tourists, it is also true to say it may bring disadvantages as This issue can be looked at from two well. point of views. From the point of view of Undoubtedly, there are significant the tourist, in the large pre-managed benefits that tourism brings to a resort travel they may or may not get country. First, a thriving tourist authentic local experience. There could industry implies an increasing need for a variety of services such as hotels, be cultural shows that would be organized to provide information about transport, restaurants, and the local community but like they say, a entertainment. This results in a copy is never as good as the original. considerable number of jobs being Moreover, it would also be cheaper for created for people who lack a college the tourist to organize the trip education and also the development of themselves. It could take a little more the infrastructure needed to effort but would surely be worth the accommodate visitors. Moreover, while in most of the cases. tourism is a "green" industry that, On the other hand, looking at it from the unlike factories, generates a low level local community’s point of view, it of pollution. In fact, because beautiful would be highly beneficial for them if natural landscapes are often places that the tourist came to their places and tourists come to see, a country will often spent their time in the community be sure to maintain the landscape in itself. Local cuisine would be order to keep it attractive for tourists. advertised along with local culture Despite the benefits, there are aspects of being spread around the world. The tourist would also get to know the history tourism that may prove harmful to a of the place from the authentic local country. For instance, a country may suffer from the loss of their traditional people. Also, the local people would also be aware of different cultures in culture. This is caused by people in a other parts of the world, making them country changing their lifestyle, more aware of the diverse cultures customs, and language in order to more across the globe. effectively serve visitors or because they become influenced by foreign countries. To sum it up, if the tourist goes to the This can cause stress in a traditional local community to enjoy their time society and could even lead to animosity rather than the pre managed resorts towards tourists. In addition, because tourists often carry expensive objects like while travelling, it would be beneficial economically, socially and culturally for cameras and are unaware of their surroundings, they make good targets for both, the tourist and the local theft. Crime also increases as a result of community.` the increases in drugs and prostitution that caters to some vacationers. In summary, global tourism is greatly beneficial to an economy and environment of a country. However, it can be detrimental in several ways. To my way of thinking, a country should seek to develop its tourism industry because it can bring steady jobs to many people without their need for higher education and without the risk of environmental damages. 59. In under developed countries, tourism has both advantages and disadvantages. Discuss.

Q. Tourism 59. In under developed countries, tourism has disadvantages and can be said the opposite as well. 60. Some people prefer to spend their holidays in resorts where everything is organized for them and they take little interest in the country they are visiting. Others prefer to travel around the country and to see how the people live, to get to know their customs and traditions and cuisine. Write an essay on which type of foreign travel you think is best for both the tourist and the local community.

The development in rural areas in underdeveloped countries can be attributed to tourism.



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R. Abstract Ideology, & Discussion 61. A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or the movies. One argument is that this is to everyone's benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have experienced, while others say that turning books into movies not only cheapens the original, but is rarely done successfully.In your opinion, do works of literature translate effectively to the screen? 62. It has recently been suggested that the classical, or "dead", languages Latin and Greek should be reintroduced into the school curriculum. Those that oppose the idea claim that the ancient languages are of no practical use and no help in getting a job. Those in favor of the idea say that education is more about training the mind than preparing for a career.Which of these points of view do you most agree with? 63. “In a war of ideas, it is people who get killed”. Does a common man suffer from a group’s ideology? Express your opinion, and support the same with reasons and examples.

63. “In a war of ideas, it is people who get killed”. Does a common man suffer from a group’s ideology? Express your opinion, and support the same with reasons and examples.

and takes places by real conflicts. As different view of thinking people creates problems in life hence it conspicuous that people get killed each other and suffer from group’s ideology.

Throughout history, the thinking of a group of people is impacting the lives of thousands of civilians. Whether it is considered on a political or social level, a set of decisions of a group explains how a society should work. It is completely agreed that in the conflict of interest between different countries or different groups within same country, it is the innocent people who sacrifice their lives. To begin with, if ones have different ideas and beliefs than others, it may result in clashes or conflicts. The situation becomes more problematic and dangerous when this is between two larger groups rather than individuals; it refers to as a war of ideas. People often identify themselves with different groups based on political, religious, racial, philosophical ideas. During World War II, a group of countries namely US, UK and China united and attacked Japan with explosive atomic bombs destroying the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing more than one lakh civilians. This is a clear example of the decision laid by a few countries against Japan to surrender to its Allies. Though, these countries achieved victory in their mission but Japanese people are still suffering from the radioactive radiation effect which resulted in blindness and mental disorders. Thus, we can say that political ideologies of a group can drastically harm society.

Fighting the war of ideas

The group with which one identifies oneself is considered as “us” and the group or a person with whom one does not identify oneself is considered as “them”. Often group’s ideology can create “Us vs. Them” mentality towards people who may be different in some way, whether its race, gender, age, nationality, class, religion and culture and socio economic status. Another example of September 11 attacks on US by a group of 19 militants, associated with Islamic extremist group, hijacked four airplanes and killed around 3,000 people by colliding airplanes into symbolic US landmark. This example clearly shows how the decision and planning of these terrorist activists took lives of thousands of innocent people. To conclude with, we can say that it is common man who is suffering from the social, economic and political interests of a few people. Moreover, due to war of ideas people divided in the groups which viewing each other like evils. The critical position develops to imaginary threats

Islam and the West are not engaged in a clash of civilizations -- at least not yet. But the West is being drawn into the clash of two competing ideologies within the Islamic world. Proponents of the first believe that Islam is compatible with secular democracy and basic civil liberties. Proponents of the second are committed to replacing the current world order with a new caliphate -- that is, a global Islamic state. They are the ones who seek to trigger a true clash of civilizations, partly in order to force the more moderate Muslims to choose their interpretation of Islam.



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