Proposal Action Research

July 18, 2017 | Author: Sanuri Oke | Category: Language Education, Teachers, Teaching Method, Learning, English Language
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1.1 General Background of The Study English still becomes difficult subject for students. The difficulties in gaining English can be caused by many factors, one of them is teaching method that teachers use to conduct teaching language in the classroom. Choosing certain method in teaching English should be suited with the goal of teaching learning process. The suitable method will result better achievement. The method in delivering information to the students is important factor of success in teaching learning process. The teacher’s way in conveying information influences student’s achievement, therefore the important thing is how the teachers are able to convey information by teaching method that is easy for them to gain materials. The right method will facilitate them to achieve the materials. Learning English in schools still emphasizes on written aspect. This condition causes student’s ability to speak in English is not well enough. This case still as a problem in teaching English. Language is communication, therefore teaching learning process of English should gives wider chance for them to communicate using English. Speaking is the most difficult skill for students, and it is classical problem that the teachers face in the classroom, so they need to apply right


method to improve student’s speaking skill. There are various methods in teaching speaking such as Communicative Language Teaching, Naturalistic Study, Contextual Teaching and Learning, and Collaborative Learning Model. Communicative Language Teaching can be applied using Role Play. Role Play is a drama technique that involves adopting a specific role. It gives opportunities for students to practice and use their English in real conversation. Role play helps them become clear and confident speakers. It requires the participation of every student in the classroom. Besides, Role Play gives the students opportunities to explore and learn about roles and responsibilities of others. So, it encourages thinking and creativity, lets students develop and practice new language and behavioral skills, and can create the motivation and involvement necessary for learning to occur. Based on the background above, the writer is interested in conducting an Action Research in order to improve students’ speaking skill using Role Play to the ninth grade students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami in Academic Year 2011/2012.

1.2 Reasons for Choosing The Topic

The reasons in choosing this topic such as : a. It is difficult for the students to speak using English

b. Language is communication, so ability in speaking English is needed to support capability in communication.


c. One indicator of achievement in learning English is the students are able to communicate in English well. d. This method gives wider chance for the students to communicate in


1.3 Problem of The Study a. How to apply Role Play to improve students’ speaking skill of The Ninth

Grade Students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami in Academic Year 2011/2012? b. Is use of Role Play able to improve students’ speaking skill of The Ninth

Grade Students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami in Academic Year 2011/2012?

1.4 Objectives of The Study Based on the background above, in general the objective of this study is to improve students’ achievement in English using role play, whereas the specific objectives of this study are: a.

To design role play in improving speaking skill of the ninth grade

students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami. b.

To apply role play in improving speaking skill of the ninth grade

students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami.



To improve and enhance the strategy and learning quality in

teaching speaking using role play of in the ninth grade students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami.

1.5 Significances of The Study The study is expected to give following significances: 1. For the teachers This study is able to improve quality of learning especially in English learning of the ninth grade students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami on class A and D. 2. For the students This study can improve students’ speaking skill in order to improve their achievement in English. 3. For MTs. Walisongo Ulujami The result of this study can be a suggestion and consideration in motivating the teachers to carry out English learning process using Role play.

1.6 Limitation of The Study


Based on the objectives of the study, I am going to limit the study on application of Role Play in teaching speaking of the ninth grade students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami especially in the ninth grade A, B.

1.7 Definition of Terms a. Role Play According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English that Role Play is a learning activity in which you behave in the way somebody else would behave in a particular situation. Role Play allows students to practise language in a safe situation1. b. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) According








Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) can be understood as a set of principles about the goals of language teaching, how learners learn a language, the kinds of classroom activities that best facilitate learning, and the roles of teachers and learners in the classroom2. c. Action Research There are many definitions about Action Research. According to Mills (2011) states that is defined as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers, administrators, counselors, or others with a vested interest in the teaching and learning process or environment for the purpose of 1

Hornby AS, 2005, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, New York. 2

Richars Jack C, 2006, Communicative Language Teaching Today, Cambridge University Press, New York


gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how to teach, and how their students learn. More important, action research is characterized as research that that is done by teachers for themselves. It is truly a systematic inquiry into one’s own practice (Johnson, 2008). Meanwhile Corey (1953) explained that action research is undertaken “by practitioners in order that they may improve their practices”3.


Jeffrey Glanz.1998. Action Research: An Educational Leader’s Guide to School Improvement. Christopher-Gordon Publiser, Inc: Noorwood




Teaching Method 2.1.1 Method Method is the practical realisation of an approach. The originators of a method have arrived at decisions about types of activities, roles of teachers and learners, the kinds of material which will be helpful, and some model of syllabus organisation. Methods include various procedures and techniques as part of their standard fare4. According to Anthony (1963) that method is an overall plan for the orderly presentationof language material, no part of which contradicts, and all which is based upon, the selected approach. An approach is axiomatic, a method is procedural. Within one approach, there can be many methods. In Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English the method is defined as a particular way of doing something.

2.1.2 Approach, Procedure, and Technique

Sometimes people assume approach, method, procedure, and technique with similiar meaning, but actually these terms have different meaning. These terms, thought somewhat vague, are definable: 4

Harmer Jeremy, 2003, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh


•Approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language

learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching. An approach describes how language is used and how its constituent parts interlock-in other words it offers a model of language competence. An approach describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and makes statements about the conditions which will promote successful language learning5. According to Anthony (1963) that approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning. •Procedure is an ordered sequence of techniques. For example, a popular

dicatation procedure starts when students are put in small groups. Each group then sends one representative to the front of the class to read (and remember) the first line of a poemwhich has been placed on a desk there. Each student then goesback totheir respective group and dictates that line. Each group then sends a second student up to read the second line. The procedure continues until one group has written the whole poem. •Technique is implementational-that which actually takes place in a

classroom. It is

a particular, stratagem, or contrivance used to

accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well.


Harmer Jeremy, 2003, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh


From the explanations above, I can conclude that an approach can be many methods, in a method can be many procedures, in a procedure may be many techniques.


Communicative Language Teaching Method Communicative






Communicative Approach is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach, but also a shift in emphasis in how to teach6. The ‘what to teach’ aspect of the CLT stressed the significance of language functions rather than focusing solely on grammar and vocabulary. A guiding principle was to train students to use these language forms appropriately in a variety of context and for a variety of purpose. The ‘how to teach aspect’ of the CLT is closely related to the idea that ‘language learning will take care of it self’, and that plentiful exposure to language in use and plenty of opportunities to use it are vitally important for a student’s development of knowledge and skill. Activities in CLT typically involve students in real or realistic communication, where the accuracy of the language they use is less important than successful achievement of the communicative task they are performing.

2.1.4 Classroom Activities in Communicative Language Teaching 6

Harmer Jeremy, 2003, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh.


One of the goal of CLT is to develop fluency in language use. Fluency is natural language use occuring when a speaker engages in meaningful interaction and maintains comprehensible and ongoing communication despite limitations in his or her communicative competency. Fluency is developed by creating classroom activities in which students must negotiate meaning, use communication strategies, correct understanding, and work to avoid communication breakdowns. Fluency practice can be contrasted with accuracy practice, which focuses on creating correct examples of language use. Differences between activities that focus on fluency and those that focus on accuracy can be summarized as follows: a. Activities focusing on fluency -

reflect natural use of language


focus on achieving communication


require meaningful use of language


require the use of communication strategies


produce language that may not be predictable


seek to link language use to context

b. Activities focusing on accuracy -

reflect classroom use of language


focus on the formation of correct examples of language


practice language out of context


practice small samples of language



do not require meaningful communication


control choice of language Many other activity types have been used in CLT, including the

following: a. Task-completion activities: puzzles, games, map-reading, and other kinds

of classroom tasks in which the focus is on using one’s language resources to complete a task. b. Information-gathering activities: student-conducted surveys, interviews,

and searches in which students are required to use their linguistic resources to collect information. c. Opinion-sharing activities: activities in which students compare values,

opinions, or beliefs, such as a ranking task in which students list six qualities in order of importance that they might consider in choosing a date or spouse. d. Information-transfer activities: these require learners to take information

that is presented in one form, and represent it in a different form. For example, they may read instructions on how to get from A to B, and then draw a map showing the sequence, or they may read information about a subject and then represent it as a graph. e. Reasoning-gap activities; these involve deriving some new information

from given information through the process of inference, practical reasoning, etc. For example, working out a teacher’s timetable on the basis of given class timetables.


f. Role play: activities in which students are assigned roles and improvise a

scence or exchange based on given information or clues.

2.1.5 Principles of Communicative Language Teaching The principles of Communicative Language Teaching such as : a. Whenever possible, ‘authentic language’ is used in a real context should be introduced. b. Being able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s intentions is part of being communicatively competent. c. The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study. d. One function can have many different linguistic forms. Since the focus of the course is on real language use, a variety of lingusitic forms are together. The emphasis is on the process of communication rather than just mastery of language forms. e. Students

should work with language at the discourse or

suprasentential (above the sentence) level. They must learn about cohesion and coherence, those properties of language which bind the sentences together. f. Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events- there is a purpose to the exchange. Also, the speaker receives immediate feedback from the listener on whether or not he or she has successfully communicated. In this way


they can negotiate meaning. Finally, having students work in small groups maximizes the amount of communicative practice they receive. g. Students should be given an opportunity to express their ideas and opinions. h. Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills. Since this activity was working on fluency, the teacher did not correct the student, but simply noted the error, which he will return to at a later point. i. One of the teacher’s major responsibilities is to establish siatuations likely to promote communication. j. Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among students. It gives students an opportunity to work on negotiating meaning. k. The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances. l. Learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of communicative competence. m. The teacher acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative activities and as an advisor during the activities. n. In communicating, a speaker has a choice not only about what to say, but also how to say it.


o. The grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors. p. Students should be given opportunities to listen to language as it is used in authentic comminication. They may be coached on strategies for how to improve their comprehension.

2.2 Teaching Speaking 2.2.1

Principles of Teaching Speaking According to Bailey (2005) states that the three main reasons for getting students to speak in the classroom are:



to provide students with practice in using English in real life situations


to inform the teacher and the students about the student’s progress.


to get information about the student’s speaking problems7.

Tips for Teaching Speaking The goal of teaching speaking is to get students to communicate effectively and efficiently and efficiently. In order to achieve this goal, the teacher should: -

make sure that students use the language to the best of their ability.


teach students correct pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary.


explain to students the appropriate context of the communication.


Diptoadi Veronica Listyani, Becoming a Creative Teacher A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students, Regional English Language Office, Jakarta.


Effective and efficient communication is the result of providing enough language input (Harmer, 1998). The teacher can accomplish this by using English when giving instructions, giving simple commands (such as “get out your math books”), reading passage out loud, etc. Other English activities such as playing games, singing songs, performing a role play, etc, give the students opportunities to communicate in English. As teachers consider including varied speaking activities in the classroom, they may find the following tips useful: -

help students to become familiar with the topics. Personalize the content to motivate students, elicit what they already know about the topic, and let them share their knowledge with the class.


put students into pairs or groups. Working cooperatively in groups is more motivating and less intimidating for the students. Group work also promotes choice, independence, and creativity.


rearrange the classroom. If it is not possible to move desks and chairs, get the students to walk around as they perform tasks.


give students the English word and its Indonesian translation when they are learning new vocabulary. This strategy gives the students a language reference and helps themn understand. Once students understand the meaning of the word, the teacherand students can resume using the English word.



Speaking Activities Many types of speaking activities can be included in lessons, including the following8: a. Recitation Students choose a short poem or rhyme and recite it in class. This activity can be donre individually, in pairs, or in groups. b. Pronunciation Drills Students repeat correct pronunciation in chorus and individually. This activity helps students practice and remember the vocabulary as well as the pronunciation. c. Choral Reading Students read a short sentence or passage together. As the students read, the teacher can listen for student’s pronunciation and give corrections when the activity ends. d. Role Play Students are given particular roles in an imaginary situation to act out. The teacher can give the students the dialogues or helpn them prepare their own dialogues for the roles. e. Storytelling The teacher can tell a story, adjusting the language to the student’s level, or read a story aloud without adjusting the language. Students can be


Diptoadi Veronica Listyani, Becoming a Creative Teacher A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students, Regional English Language Office, Jakarta.


asked to share their experiences with the class, to retell their favorite story, or to create an ending to a story that the teacher tells. f. Songs Students listen to a song and learn the lyrics. Adding physical movements to the song creates a fun environment and helps the students learn pronunciation, vocabulary, and meaning of words.

g. Questionnaires Students ask their classmates a set of questions in order to complete a questionnaire. The result of their surveys can be checked by the teacher or discussed together.

2.3 Role Play 2.3.1

Defenition of Role play Role Play is drama technique that involves adopting a specific role such as car mechanic or shop assistant. The individual enganged in role play does the things that a person carrying out that role would do. They may dress as that person and use real or replica objects familiar to that person9. According to Jack C. Richards (2006) states that Role Play is activities in which students are assigned roles and improvise a scence or exchange based on given information or clues10.


Diptoadi Veronica Listyani, Becoming a Creative Teacher A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students, Regional English Language Office, Jakarta.



Benefits of using Role play Role play and drama are extremaly valuable techniques for second or foreign language teaching. Some benefits young learners may gain from role playing are as follows11: a. Drama and role play provide young language learners opportunities to

practice and use their English in real conversations. Through such activities, English is taught in the context inwhich it will be used. This will develop student’s awareness of the language as a means of communication. b. The conversational use of language is an ESL play script promotes

fluency. While learning a play, children listen to other student’s lines and respond by speaking their own lines. By repeating the words, phrases, and sentences, they become familiar with them and are able to say them with increasing fluency. c. Drama and role play help the children become clear and confident

speakers. They allow children to pronounce words properly and to project their voices when they speak. d. When the children are acting out or watching other student’s performances, they have to listen to the lines, see the actions, observe


Richars Jack C, 2006, Communicative Language Teaching Today, Cambridge University Press, New York 11

Diptoadi Veronica Listyani, Becoming a Creative Teacher A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students, Regional English Language Office, Jakarta.


the stage properties, create movement and use expressions. These activities address young lerner’s different learning styles. e. Role play and drama require the participation of every student in the

classroom. Students contribute their intellegence, imagination, creativity, and emotions. By encouraging self-expression, drama motivates children to use language confidently and creatively. f. Role play gives young learners opportunities to explore and learn about

the roles and responsibilities of others, such as policemen, farmers, teachers, etc. g. Role play allows children to express their emotions, both positive and negative, in appropriate ways. h. Role play allows each student to explore his/her own self-image and identity and helps to build self-esteem. i. Drama and role play are ideal for children in classrooms with various language levels. Children whose language skills are still very limited can be given fewer lines. They can communicate using nonverbal cues such as body movements and facial expressions. On the other hand, those who are more advanced can have more lines and use more verbal language.


Steps to creat and perform a Role Play


In order to create a successful role play, a teacher should carefully follow some steps. Kotchigova (2002) suggested steps for creating a role play. The following is a modified series of these steps 12: a. Selecting an Appropriate Situation The first step for creating a Role Play is to choose an appropriate situation. When selecting a situation, the teacher must consider student’s needs and interests and determine the language points of functions to be praticed. The teacher should provide an appropriate context for the students to practice what they have learned. Depending on the language abilities of the students, the teacher can list common situations in stuydent’s daily lives, such as “going to the library” or “watching a movie with friends” and help students brainstorm scenes that can provide different Role Play situation. b. Designing Role Play Based on Student’s Language Skills At this stage, the teachers need to come up with ideas on how the situation may develop. For low intermediate and more advanced levels, Role Plays with problems or conflictswork very well because they motivate the characters to talk. For beginners, Role Play that display daily activities are appropriate. c. Predict the Language Needed

After the appropriate Role Play is selected, the teacher should adjust the language to the students will use in the Role Play and preteach 12

Diptoadi Veronica Listyani, Becoming a Creative Teacher A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students, Regional English Language Office, Jakarta


some new vocabulary and grammar. For example, a teacher may ask students a question, such as “when someone needs directions, what will he ask?”. The response may then be listed on the board. d. Factual Preparation This step deals with giving instructions, information, and clear role descriptions to the students. Its puspose is for increasing student’s confidence in playing the roles. For example, in a situation at a restaurant, the person who plays the role of a waiter or waitress should have relevant information: a menu and price list. A teacher may also provide cue cards containing any other information needed for the Role Play. e. Assigning the Roles The teacher can let students choose their roles or can assign the roles to students in advance. f. Practice the Role Plays Students can practice in pairs or in small groups. After they have played their own roles a few times, students can exchange roles. Students can play different roles and practice all of the lines in the Role Play. When students are confident enough to demonstrate or perform in front of the class, the teacher can ask them to do so for their classmates. g. Modify the Situations and Dialogues


Once students have finished and become familiar with an original Role Play situation, they can modify the situation and/or dialogue to create their own variations of the original Role Play. h. Follow-up Once the students have finished and become familiar with an original Role Play, a teacher should spend some time on evaluation. The teacher and the students discuss what has happened in the Role Play and what they have learned. Huang (2008) suggested that student evaluations should include oral and listening tests related to the Role Plays. Oral tests can include the following: •

Students are asked to answer some simple questions relating to the Role Plays.

Students are asked to recreate the Role Plays.

Students are asked o translate the Role Plays into their native language.


3.1 Location of The Study 22

The study is conducted in MTs. Walisongo Ulujami Pemalang, because I am a teacher at this school and I want to improve my students’ speaking skill.

3.2 Subject of The Study The subject of the study are the students of the ninth grade A and grade B of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami in first semester in Academic Year 20112012.

3.3 Research Design According to Kurt Lewin that in action research consists of four components: a) planning, b) actuating, c) observing, and d) reflecting. The study will be conducted for two cycles.




Observing Figure 1.1 Classroom Action Research Kurt Lewin Model 3.3.1

Action Process of first cycle Planning In this step, I will conduct several activities below: 1. Studying core materials of English of the ninth grade students.


2. Determining cycles of the study 3. Fixing the schedule of the study. 4. Constructing Lesson Plan for English using Role Play in teaching

learning process 5. Preparing sources and media for teaching learning English using

Role Play 6. Preparing questions and students’ worksheets 7. Preparing observation worksheets to observe teaching learning

process based on Role Play. 8. Preparing evaluation sheets to know the progress of students’

achievement. Actuating 1. Opening activities a. Delivering the objectives of learning. b. Doing apperception by question-answer to relate the last

material to the material that will be learned 2. Core activities a. The teacher explains about the short functional text b. The teacher divided students into groups based on the various

skills. c. The teacher proposes problems that relate to the short

functional text to be solved.


d. The teacher gives chance to each group to deliver temporary answer from the problems. e. The teacher doing question-answer with the students to discuss the truth of students’ answer from each group. f. The teacher guides the students to take conclusion about short

functional text. 3. Closing activities a. The teacher asks the students to practice dialogue b. The teacher checks the students’ performance c. The teacher concludes the material Observing

Observing activities of the students and the teacher in learning English about short functional text, and finding out the result of Role Play in improving students’ speaking skill. Reflecting After learning process in first cycle, I am going to do several activities below: 1. Observing the result of observation 2. Analyzing the result of learning 3. Improving the weakness of learning for the next cycle


If the application of Role Play in first cycle does not show significant result, so the research will be conducted for second cycle until achieve the significant result that I want.

3.4 The Procedure of The Study There are four procedures in conducting action research: a. Selecting a focus Including three steps: - Knowing what I want to investigate - Developing some question about the area I have chosen. - Establishing a plan to answer these questions.

b. Collecting data - Narrowing my focus to specific area of concern - Developing some research questions.

- Planning to answer the questions. c. Analyzing and interpreting data - Analyzing and interpreting data in order to get some decision. d. Take action - Continuing the science program that I am going to decide

3.5 Method of Collecting Data To collect the data in doing this study, I am going to use observation as method to obtain them. In this study, I am as an observer-participant. 3.5.1

Test Technique


In collecting data using observation method, I am going to use sets of tests as technique to obtain data about students’ activities in answering the tests in teaching learning process of English using Role Play.


Non-test Technique

There are three steps that I use in doing observation: 1. Meeting of planning. In this step, I am going to determine the lesson plan

that will be applied in the study. The discussion includes how to deliver material, and how I begin to collect data using observation. 2. Classroom observation. In this step I am going to observe toward learning

process that involve students, condition of classroom, interaction between teacher and students, interaction between them, and other aspects that relate to action research. 3. Feedback discussion. I am going to study the result of observation to be

field notes.

3.6 Instrument of The Study 3.6.1 Test Technique Checklist Observation of Students’ Activities No





Test Number 4 5 6 7






1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Irfan Bachdim Bambang Pamungkas Lionel Messi Ronaldo

Figure 3.1 Checklist Observation of Students Activities

3.6.2 Non-test Technique Checklist Observation of Students’ Activities Giving Time





Direction Minute 1 Minute 2 Minute 3 Minute 4 Minute 5 Minute 6 Minute 7 Minute 8 Minute 9 Minute 10 Minute 11

Figure 3.1 Checklist Observation of Students Activities



Hornby AS, 2005, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, Oxford University Press, New York. Richars Jack C, 2006, Communicative Language Teaching Today, Cambridge University Press, New York. Jeffrey Glanz.1998. Action Research: An Educational Leader’s Guide to School Improvement. Christopher-Gordon Publiser, Inc: Noorwood. Harmer Jeremy, 2003, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Education Ltd, Edinburgh. Diptoadi Veronica Listyani, Becoming a Creative Teacher A

Manual for

Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students, Regional English Language Office, Jakarta. Richars Jack C, 2006, Communicative Language Teaching Today, Cambridge University Press, New York.


THE PROPOSAL OF ACTION RESEARCH IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL USING ROLE PLAY (The Case in The Ninth Grade Students of MTs. Walisongo Ulujami in Academic Year 2011/2012)



Achmad Hibatullah 08.0002.I



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