PROJECT REPORT.

August 4, 2017 | Author: Mohit Chouhan | Category: Elevator, Light Emitting Diode, Parking Lot, Diode, Transistor
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Download PROJECT REPORT....

Description

AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

AVINASH CHAUHAN AJIT KUMAR ABHISHEK DEBROY RACHIT SAXENA In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING At JIET GROUP OF INSTITUTION JODHPUR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY NH-65, NEW PALI ROAD, MOGRA, JODHPUR (RAJ)

RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA 2010-11

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “AVINASH CHAUHAN” having “ROLL NO. 07EJIME010” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

PROF. M.R. BAID

PROF. ASHWINI MATHUR

HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

( ASSOSIATE PROF.)

JIET, JODHPUR SIGNATURE PROF. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR)

Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “ AJIT KUMAR” having “ROLL NO. 07EJIME003” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

PROF. M.R. BAID

PROF. ASHWINI MATHUR

HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

( ASSOSIATE PROF.)

JIET, JODHPUR SIGNATURE PROF. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR)

Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “ ABHISHEK DEBROY” having “ROLL NO. 07EJIME002 ” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

PROF. M.R. BAID

PROF. ASHWINI MATHUR

HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

( ASSOSIATE PROF.)

JIET, JODHPUR SIGNATURE PROF. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR)

Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “AUTOMATIC CAR PARKING SYSTEM” is the bonafide work of “ RACHIT SAXENA” having “ROLL NO. 07EJIME045 ” who carried out the project work under my supervision in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering affiliated from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota.

SIGNATURE

SIGNATURE

PROF. M.R. BAID

PROF. ASHWINI MATHUR

HOD – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

( ASSOSIATE PROF.)

JIET, JODHPUR SIGNATURE PROF. RAKESH NARAVAT ( PROFESSOR)

Internal Examiner _____________________ External Examiner _____________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO.

1.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

ABSTRACT

1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

2

LIST OF TABLE

3

LIST OF FIGURES

3

INTRODUCTION 1.1

CAR LIFT

1.3

2.

5-10

1.1.1 Electro Hydraulic Scissor Lift

5

1.1.2 Full Automatic Electro Hydraulic Cable Lift

7

1.1.3 Post Mechanical Vehicle Lift

1.2

4

TYPE OF LIFT SYSTEM

9 10-15

1.2.1 Sub Lift

10

1.2.2 Opti Lift

12

1.2.3 Major Lift

13

1.2.4 Idea Lift

14

1.2.5 High Lift

16

TYPES OF PARKING SYSTEM

17-24

1.3.1 Multi Parking

17

1.3.2 Tower Parking

19

1.3.3 Square Parking

21

1.3.4 Puzzle Parking

23

1.5

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED

25-28

1.5

WORKING

28

LITERATURE REVIEW

30-31

1.

ABSTRACT The Project Automatic Car Parking System using 89C51 Microcontroller is an interesting project which uses 89C51 microcontroller as its brain. The project is designed for car parking. The aim of this project is to atomize the car park for allowing the cars into the park. LCD is provided to display the information about the total number of cars that can be parked and the place free for parking. Two IR TX – RX pairs are used in this project to identify the entry or exit of the cars into/out of park. These two IR TX – RX pairs are arranged either side of the gate. The TX and RX are arranged face to face across the road so that the RX should get IR signal continuously. Whenever the mains are switched on, the LCD displays the message “parking space for 10 vehicles”. The number indicates the maximum capacity of park in this project. Whenever a car comes in front of the gate, the IR signal gets disturbed and the microcontroller will open the gate by rotating the stepper motor. The gate will be closed only after the car leaves the second IR pair since the microcontroller should know whether the car left the gate or not. Now the microcontroller decrements the value of the count and displays it on LCD. In this way, the microcontroller decrements the count whenever the car leaves the park and displays it on LCD. If the count reaches ‘0’, i.e. if the park is completely filled, the microcontroller will display “NO SPACE FOR PARKING” on LCD. And now if any vehicle tries to enter the park, the gate will not be opened since there is no space. If any vehicle leaves the park, the controller will increment the count and allows the other vehicles for parking. This project uses regulated 5V, 500mA power supply. Unregulated 12V DC is used for relay. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

2.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We consider our self exceptionally fortunate that we had indulgent guides, learned philosophers and caring friends to successfully steer us through one of the most interesting period of our academic career. Today when our endeavor has reached its friction, we look back in mute gratitude to one and all without whose help we are sure this reality would have been a dream. This work has been possible through the direct and indirect cooperation of various people of JIET towards whom we wish to express our gratitude. We are extremely thankful to JIET faculties who provided us challenging opportunity to work on this project. Our special thanks to Prof. Ashwini Mathur (Project Guide) who allowed us to work on this project. He provided us with all the possible help and advice. Without their guidance this project would have not reached its completion in such a successful manner. We are also thankful to Prof. Rakesh Naravat (Project Guide) for their valuable suggestions and for sharing their valuable knowledge and suggestions that have contributed immensely to the evolution of ideas on the subject. Above all I pay my sincere gratitude to parents, who blessed me with patience and vigor to complete this work with full efficiency. It’s not only my duty but a matter of joy and pleasure to once again convey my thanks to all.

3.

LIST OF TABLE 1. EQUIPMENTS USED

LIST OF FIGURES 1. ELECTRO HYDRAULIC SCISSORS LIFT 2. FULL AUTOMATIC ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CABLE LIFT 3. POST MECHANICAL VEHICLE LIFT 4. SUB LIFT 5. OPTI LIFT 6. MAJOR LIFT

7. IDEA LIFT 8. HIGH-Lift 9. MULTI PARKING 10. TOWER PARKING 11. SQUARE PARKING 12. PUZZLE PARKING

4.

INTRODUCTION

As the technology advances there is an increasing need for improvement in the existing technology. So as we found out there are some areas where we can provide a single unit control which will be must beneficial for providing an efficient working in the industry. As the industry performing the manual work function so we are trying to provide a single unit control to drive the multiple application under the regulated control format so a single person can handle many application at a time with more easy and comfortably. With the advent of modern technology, the human brain is working day by day to develop complex and more technology specific products which have multifarious applications in the different aspects of work field. This project deals with designing of one such product which can be used multifariously in various commercial and official activities. An introduction to the Project can be given as designing of an Automatic Car Parking controlled through a microcontroller. It consist of an panel which is attached to varies electrical devices from which a single person can handles all system from one position This operations are controlled by microcontroller. The desired physical results hence all operations can be easily managed with the PC.

5.

CAR LIFT There are many kinds of car lifts some of are defined as:

1. ELECTRO HYDRAULIC SCISSORS LIFT

This particular system is used for lifting distances of up to 6 meters (19'8'') or less. Preffered when there is not enough room for side posts to elevate with 4 post mechanical lifts or the cable lifts. Requires a pit of 10 cm up to 150 cm depending on the travel distance. Plese contact for quotes and more..

6. Technical Specs:  lifting speed:  Hydraulic Pack: KLEEMANN T-600  Elevator cabin : DKP steel DIABAR model  Cabin Gate : WITTUR full automatic, central  Floor Gates : WITTUR full automatic, central 4 panel  Floor Gate Dimensions: 2300hx3000w mm.  Control Panel: PROKONT-WEBER,Wemin micro processor  Control installation : LAPP KABEL or DRAKA  Cabin control buttons: micro touch buton  floor control buttons: micro touch buton  Emergency control : 12 V.emergency and hand pump

7.

2. FULL AUTOMATIC ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CABLE LIFT

This is the most popular type for car lifting requirements especially for architectural projects where car parking has been designed within the basement floors of the buildings or old buildings rennovated with car parkings re-designed to be above or below the street level. Available for lifting distances of up to 40 meters ( 130 feet )

8. Technical Specs: • Lifting speed: 31cm /sec ( 12'' / sec) • Hydraulic Pack : KLEEMANN T-600 • elevator cabin : DKP steel DIABAR model • Cabin Gate : WITTUR full automatic, central • Floor Gates : WITTUR full automatic, central 4 panel • Floor Gate Dimensions: 2300hx3000w mm. • Control Panel: PROKONT-WEBER,Wemin micro processor • Control installation : LAPP KABEL or DRAKA • Cabin control buttons: micro touch buton • floor control buttons: micro touch buton • Emergency control : 12 V.emergency and hand pump

3.

POST MECHANICAL VEHICLE LIFT

9.

System is good for elevatons up to only 3.5 meters ( 11'6''). This is an economical type of vehicle lifting: The drawback of the system is that it requires 4 posts and lifting speed is relatively slow due to its mechanical working principle. Technical Specs: • Lifting speed: cm /sec ( / sec) • elevator cabin : DKP steel DIABAR model • Cabin Gate : WITTUR full automatic, central • Floor Gates : WITTUR full automatic, central 4 panel • Floor Gate Dimensions: 2300hx3000w mm. • Control Panel: PROKONT-WEBER,Wemin micro processor • Control installation : LAPP KABEL or DRAKA • Cabin control buttons: micro touch buton • floor control buttons: micro touch buton • Emergency control : 12 V.emergency and hand pump

10.

OTHER TYPES CAR LIFTING SYSTEM 1.

SUB LIFT

Each vehicle can move in and out of the system independently without disturbing the others. vehicles on the lower layer(s) can be parked when the system is raised.  Roller Chain drive  Operation; touch screen / push button / IC card  max retrieval time: 45 seconds for the 2 layer system and 70 seconds for the 3 layer system 11.

12.

2. OPTI LIFT

Ideal to double existing parking spaces for offices, residential homes, apartments,

hotels, public and private parking lots, car collectors car rentals and dealers, for both indoor and outdoor installations. Highly suitable for places with low height constraints (Height clearance as low as 270 cm / 106”) No site building works required for installation. Where there is a large parking requirement, using low cost commercial power units, these lifts can be positioned next to each other for maximum space utilization. Being a dependent type parking system, makes this unit suitable for valet operation. Please view "lifting up short movie" at the bottom of the page under the heading "related downloads" . Adjustable height clearance with electric switch. This particular model comes in 4 different sizes: 1) HIGH WIDE 2) HIGH NARROW 3) LOW WIDE 4) LOW NARROW Typically electro-static owen painted but also can be completely hot dip galvanized on demand. 13.

3. MAJOR LIFT

 Industrial type prefabricated park-lifts can be used by Municipalities in hightraffic city centers to deminish traffic caused by parking-space searching cars and increase parking capacities..  Increase the car parking capacity of your office building.  At an auto gallery to demo more cars to get extra attention at the showroom.  At a pay parking lot to increase the capacity of the premises..  At a city centrum hotel garden, airport, shopping mall to increase the parking capacity. Cars at a parklift is extremely secure. Getting extra space is major advantage but there are other advantages; Cars are much safer at the parklift against burglary or theft. The chance of getting hit by other cars up above is simply none. Systems can be used indoors or out. Needs almost no maintenance.. Just like the Opti-lift; Major lift is a dependent type parking mechanism; Please review files at "related downloads" section at the bottom of this page. Hot dip galvanizing of all steel components protects these lifts for life. 14.

4. IDEA LIFT

These independent type lifts are suitable for new housing and commercial developments.. This lift will allow all vehicles to be removed freely without disturbance of the others. The IDEA lifts come in 3 different models each with various height clearance options: • 1) IDEA STANDART: Most popular type. Comes in various headroom options suited for various size vehicles • 2) IDEA LOW: Suitable, if overall height clearance is limited 3) IDEA 3-HIGH: To stack 3 high independently Each of these models have mono versions (picture on the right)and duo versions(picture on the left).Idea 3-high is only supplied in mono version (single deck) All our idea models are typically completely hot-dip galvanized. Suitable for both indoors and outdoors. 15. Technical Specifications:  Completely hot dip Galvanized for better protection.  steelcable safety system against chain failure.  Dual opposite gear safety mechanism to ensure balanced lifting  Hydraulic security system: 1) stop valves for emergency use 2) parachute valves/hose rupture valves  adjustable wheel stoppers for parking  Installation time: 4-6 hours w/ 4 men  Removable key control panel  Bosh-Rexroth Power Packs

5. HIGH-Lift

16. They are engineered to lift motor vehicles for parking purposes but also suitable for car dealers to use as a showcase with glasscover around the steel construction.. Structural Analysis for these lifts has been carried out in accordance with UBC-97 (Uniform Building Code) & ASCE-7(American Society of Civil Engineers) with EQ and wind loads taken into consideration. Systems are approved by City of New York/Dept. of Buildings.

During manufacture, these units are sand blasted, treated with an anti- corrosion coating and then painted giving a long operational life.. 4 highs and 3 highs come in 2 different height versions for sedans and suvs.

Technical Specifications: • Hydraulic engine Triple Phase. • Multiple units can be linked together for commercial applications. • Lifting capacity is 5500Kg /13750 lbs for the 3 HIGHs and 7500Kg / 18750 lbs for the 4 HIGHS • NEW security system against steel cable failure. • Has mechanical security system that prevents undesired moves. • Can be lifted up or down manually in case of power failure. • 45 seconds lifting time for each deck • Lifting height 2m each deck /78" or optional 60" for low height clearances. • Can be installed indoors or out. • Endurance approval issued by The City of New York Department of Buildings - MEA PARKING SYSTEM:

17.

There are many types of parking system. Some of are as follows 1. MULTI PARKING

• Because each elevator and cart is operated independently on each level, entry and exit is quick. Retrieval time of a vehicle is less than two minutes.

• Low noise and vibration. Elevators never touch guide rails, use of urethane rollers minimize noise when transferring pallets from elevator to carts and then to parking slot. • Entry and exit is very quick and convenient. We incorporate a built in turntable on each elevator. • Completely equipped with multiple sensors and triple safety devices. A self malfunction diagnostic control provides you with an excellent level of safety and reliability. •

The Multi-Parking system has been designed to automatically move the vehicles by lift which then transfers it to a waiting cart on one of the multi- levels. The carts then travel horizontally and place the vehicle in its appropriate slot. This system is suitable for middle and large-scale buildings as well as independent public parking garage. The multi-parker can accommodate as little as 20 vehicles to several thousand units. It is therefore suitable for large scale projects. It can move more than 2 vehicles at the same time for maximum efficiency. 18.

19.

2.

TOWER PARKING

• Minimal land use. An area of 7mx7m can park up to 50 vehicles. • Low noise and vibration. Elevators never touch guide rails, use of urethane rollers minimize noise when transferring pallets from elevator to storage area. • Entry and exit is very quick and convenient. We incorporate a built in turntable on the elevator and retrieval time is less than two minutes. • Completely equipped with multiple sensors and triple safety devices. A self malfunction diagnostic control provides you with an excellent level of safety. •

Has the capability of holding cue memory when multiple patrons come to retrieve there vehicles during rush hours. The elevator type often called the Parking Tower, is designed to automatically move the vehicles on a pallet vertically on the elevator, it then transfers it horizontally left or right for storage. Very fast retrieval time is 20.

accomplished in less than two minutes. This system is suitable for medium or large scale buildings. It can also be used as a stand alone tower for a parking garage business. Since it is controlled by an integrated computer system, the overall operation can be viewed with one screen and its operation is very user friendly. We incorporate German motors and components are used in every system by world known SEW Eurodrive.

21.

3.

SQUARE PARKING

• With eight times the space efficiency of a ramped garage, this system can use the narrow basement spaces to its maximum capacity. • Up to six levels can be equipped with this new technology. • With the adoption of the high speed lifting mechanism, the elevating speed has become very quick, thereby significantly shortening the time required for entering and leaving. •

With our upper entrance design, it is convenient because the built-in turntable allows for easy entry and exit. After entering the vehicle in the parking garage, the parking system is designed to move the vehicles vertically with elevators on each end. The garage consists of several levels where the vehicles are moved horizontally which rotate the pallets in conjunction with the elevators.. The multi floor circulation type is suitable for small and mid-sized buildings because of its high space efficiency.

22.

23.

4.

Puzzle Parking in 2, 3, 4 or 5 HIGH versions

• Independent parking • The top layer pallets can move up and down lower layer pallets can move either left to right or up and down. • Max time to retrive cars is 60 sec with 2 & 3 high systems and 90 sec with 4 & 5 High systems • PLC control, easy operation, push button • lifting with chain at 2 & 3 highs and steel cables at 4 & 5 High systems • Built in drop-protection, prevents failure and accidents. • Photoelectric checking system which controls vehicle size • Emergency stop pushbutton • Steel construction with complete galvanization • Safe operation, low maintenance

24.

25.

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED

1. Wooden Pulley 2. Wood 3. Voltage Regulator 7805 4. Capacitors 5. Transistors 6. Light Dependent Resistor – LDR 7. Light Emitting Diode 8. Crystal Oscillator 9. Steeper motor 10. 2x16 Characters LCD Display

1. Wooden pulley Wooden pulleys, available in a range of diameters. • • •

4mm centre hole Supplied in packs of 10 Cams, Gears & Pulleys, RVFM, Systems & Control, Wooden pulleys

26.

2. Wood There are many types of woods we can used some of as follows

3. Voltage Regulater 7805 This is usually having three legs, converts varying input voltage and produces a constant regulated output voltage. They are available in a variety of outputs. The most common part numbers start with the numbers 78 or 79 and finish with two digits indicating the output voltage.

4. Capacitors Capacitors store electrons by attracting them to a positive voltage. When the voltage is reduced or removed, the electrons move off. When a capacitor removes or adds electrons to the circuit in this fashion, it can work to smooth out voltage fluctuations.

27.

5. Transistors The transistor is an arrangement of semiconductor materials that share common physical boundaries. Materials most commonly used are silicon, gallium-arsenide, and germanium, into which impurities have been introduced by a process called “doping.”

6. Light Dependent Resistor – LDR:Two cadmium sulphide(cds) photoconductive cells with spectral responses similar to that of the human eye. The cell resistance falls with increasing light intensity. Applications include smoke detection, automatic lighting control, batch counting and burglar alarm systems.

5. Light emitting diode: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode.

6. Crystal Oscillator One of the most important features of an oscillator is its Frequency Stability, or in other words its ability to provide a constant frequency output under varying conditions. 28.

7.

Steeper motor:A type of motor which takes DC pulse input and gives rotating motion in steps . Stepper Motors operate in DC voltage and rotate in steps. The rotation is very precise and can be made to stop at an angle. They are of two types

8.



Unipolar : which moves in one direction only



Bipolar : which moves in both directions

2x16 Characters LCD Display It is a display device used in Embedded system to display information .It contains 32 character space on screen arranged in 16 columns and 2 rows. A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat Electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid cryseals(LCs).

WORKING The initial condition for the lift is at ground. At the ground controller always check for the car to park and to retrieve car. Car Parking – Parking process starts with the car enters in the slot. Each floor consist of two sensors, upper extreme & lower extreme to set/stop the position of the lift.A display is provided at the ground floor which is basically a counter that displays number of cars in each floor. It informs whether the floors are 29.

fully filled with the cars or is it having place in a particular floor or not. There is facility of lift to carry the car to up and down. Movement of Lift is controlled by stepper motor.When the lift reaches the first floor, the processor compares the filled amount to that of the already fed capacity of that floor, and if it finds that the first floor is fully filled , it goes to the second floor and thus the procedure stops here. As soon as a car is placed in a particular floor, the display counter at the ground floor increments as to indicate the floor capacity has decreased by one. After the lift places the car in a particular floor, it comes back to its normal position and that time, the motor that drives it , also stops.When a person needs to come down from a particular floor to ground floor, he is expected to focus the headlight onto the LDR placed in that floor. Now sensor section sends signal to motor that the lift has to be send back to that particular floor and sends a signal to glow RED LED indicating that the lift is busy. As soon as the lift reaches that particular floor car should come inside the lift, the display counter at the ground floor decrements by one as to indicate the floor capacity has increased by one. Lift comes back to its normal position and that time, the motor that drives it , also stops.

30.

LITERATURE REVIEW

This article by Smith and Roth (2003), talks about how advanced Car Park techniques are being implemented using the SMS services available on cellular phones. It describes how useful these advanced car parking systems are in providing drivers with information about the structure of the car park system and the spaces available for them to park their cars. The availability of the vacant parking spaces is calculated by means of sensors installed in the parking areas, which count the number of cars that enter and exit from the parking space. Also, the number of parking tickets issued at the ticket counter can be used to calculate the vacant spaces. All this information from the sensors and the ticket counters is used to update a central database which stores all the information about the areas of the parking space which is vacant or occupied. Smith and Roth (2003) also compare the parking techniques used at various airports in the United States. Among these, the notable ones are Houston International airport and the Baltimore airport at Massachusetts. The parking spaces at Houston international airport have wires embedded at the entry, exits and the various levels of the parking lots. These wires act as sensors and record the entry and exit of the card to update the central database. At the Baltimore airport, there are ultrasonic sensors at the top of each parking space which sense the availability or unavailability of each space. These sensors update the central database. Information from this central database is used to display information at the “way-find” signs at the end of each row of the parking area and advise the drivers whether parking space is available or unavailable in that particular row. These advanced car park systems also provide advanced, electronic payment options for the customers. The idea behind these electronic payment options is to

prevent the customers from having to wait in long queues to but a ticket. “Queues can cause congestion in areas within and outside of parking facilities” [1]. Smith and Roth (2003), in their article, cite examples of mobile parking or “mparking” facilities that are being used in Vienna (Austria) and Melbourne (Australia). Under the m-parking technology, customers initially register their mobile number, the license plate number of the car and their credit card number with the car park authorities, to create what is called a “virtual parking ticket account” [2]. This completes the initial, one-time registration process. Whenever the customer needs to park, they would send an SMS text message to the number provided by the car park authorities. The SMS message would consist of the license plate number of the car, the location code of the parking area where they want to park and the time duration (in minutes) for which the customer wants to park. In return, the customer would then receive a text message from the car park message centre, with the confirmation and the expiry time of their electronic parking ticket. The customer would be sent a reminder SMS, 10 minutes before the parking time expires. The bill for the parking ticket would come up on the customer’s mobile bill. Thus, these advanced car park techniques provide the car parking authorities as well as the customers with the following advantages (Smith and Roth, 2003):  Reduction in time spent and fuel consumed while searching for available parking space.  Reduction in congestion due to fewer cars driving around searching for spaces.  Elimination of queues entering parking facilities because drivers will not go to a facility where there is no available space.  Reduction in illegally parked vehicles.  Better distribution of flow and parking demand through the area.

 APS systems result in higher revenues and profitability for the parking facilities.

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.