project report

July 19, 2017 | Author: shivakumar | Category: Photovoltaics, Photovoltaic System, Solar Energy, Solar Cell, Direct Current
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM...

Description

A PROJECT REPORT ON SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM Submitted by

ANSARI KAUSHARALI N.

106470319130

SHAH AKSHIT

096470319051

PANCHAL DHAVAL H

096470319126

In partial fulfillment for the award of the

DIPLOMA ENGINEERING In Mechanical engineering department

S.T.B.S. College of Diploma Engineering, Surat

Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad April/May , 2013 S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 1

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that above listed students from S.T.B.S.COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING COLLEGE have completed Report on the Problem Definition Semester VI Project Report having title “SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM”. They supported to carry out reduced UDP Part-I work on during semester-VI for the partial fulfillment of the UDP work which is prerequisite to completed diploma engineering.

Institute Guide

Industry Guide

Mr. H.V.GOHIL Mr. S. V. BALLAR Mr. R.R PATEL

Head of Department

Mr. S. V. BALLAR

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 2

EXAMINER’S CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

This is to certify that the project entitled “SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM” submitted by following students in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the diploma in Mechanical Engineering in the S.T.B.S. College of Diploma Engineering, Surat during academic year 2013.

ANSARI KAUSHARALI.N

106470319130

SHAH AKSHIT

096470319051

PANCHAL DHAVAL.H

096470319126

Internal Examiners

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

External Examiners

Page 3

INDEX SR. NO

CHAPTER NAME

1

INTRODUCTION

2

WORKING PRINCIPLES AND OPERATION 2.11.1 Battery Storage 2.2 Inverters SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY 3 .1 Application Of Solar Photovoltaic System 3 .2 Solar Electric Power Generation: Solar Photo-Voltaic 3 .3 Solar Cell Principles

3

4

CHARGE CONTROLLER

PAGE NO

1 2

5

11

5

DESIGN AND FABRICATION

12

6

TEST AND RESULT

15

Efficiencies Of Solar Panel 7

GLOBAL ENERGY RESOURCES 17

9

Advantages & Disadvantages Solar Lighting System BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM COST CALCULATION

23

10

ABOUT THE PROJECT

24

8

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

21

Page 4

SR. NO

1.1

FIGURE NAME

SOLAR PANELS

2.1

WORKING PRINCIPLES

3.1

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY

4.1

CHARGE CONTROLLER

8.1

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 5

ABSTRACT A solar lighting system which can make a 18x3 w lamp glow continuously for about (7) hours if the battery is fully charged has been constructed. Here, solar energy is collected with the aid of a solar panel and thus, a battery is charged during day time with the help of a simple charging circuit. During night time, this stored energy is used to light. The device can be used for small-scale lighting applications in remote areas that are far away from the power grid. The system has a panel to collect the sun’s energy, a battery to store that energy and a light source to use the energy. The system operates like a bank account. Withdrawals from the battery to power the light source must be compensated for by commensurate deposits of energy form the solar panels.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 6

Any piece of research, being a team work, is almost impossible to complete without the help of others. This study also becomes possible through the whole – hearted co-operations of many persons and well wishers. We deem it an act of immense pleasure to acknowledge them here. We would like to give sincere thanks to my respectable guides Mr. H.V. GOHIL & Mr. R.R PATEL for their advice and suggestions to my study. Their continuous encouragement and perseverance were constant sources of inspiration for us. We gained a lot of invaluable guidance and promote suggestion from them during entire study. We are grateful to them for guiding us extending their cooperation for providing us with necessary information. We are thankful to all other teaching as well as non teaching staff of college for helping and sharing information to complete my project. We are also thankful to my colleagues for sharing responsibilities of whole project. Without their support and team work this project wouldn’t be possible. Last but not least, we would like to thanks God and us family members for their love, support, and excellent co-operation to build my morale and support at the time of hardships, agony and anguish during the entire work. Throughout our project work, a number of people provided us support, encouragement and constructive criticism. We would like my gratitude acknowledge to all of them.

CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 7

Fig.1.1 Solar Panels

These early solar panels were first used in space in 1958. 

Solar lighting system is the use of natural light to provide

illumination. Solar lighting system is the technology of obtaining usable energy from the light of the sun using semi conductor materials and this is energy efficient lighting technology. Solar panels are devices that generate power from the sun by converting sunlight into electricity with no moving parts, zero emissions and no maintenance. They are used in residential, commercial, institutional and light industrial applications. 

The construction of a solar lighting system serves as a means of

reducing energy imports and dependence upon oil and gas, which mitigate the risk of fuel-price volatility and supplies energy for small-scale lighting applications when and where electricity is most limited and most expensive. CHAPTER - 2 WORKING PRINCIPLES AND OPERATION: S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 8

Fig:2.1 Working Principles

 The solar energy can be directly converted into electrical energy by means of photovoltaic effect, i.e. conversion of light into electricity. Generation of an electromotive force due to absorption of ionizing radiation is known as photovoltaic effect.  The energy conversion devices which are used to convert sunlight to electricity by use of the photovoltaic effect are called solar cells.  Photo voltaic energy conversion is one of the most popular nonconventional energy source. The photovoltaic cell offers an existing potential for capturing solar energy in a way that will S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 9

provide clean, versatile, renewable energy. This simple device has no moving parts, negligible maintenance costs, produces no pollution and has a lifetime equal to that of a conventional fossil fuel.  Photovoltaic cells capture solar energy and convert it directly to electrical current by separating electrons from their parent atoms and accelerating them across a one way electrostatic barrier formed by the function between two different types of semiconductor material. 

Battery storage: the simplest means of storage on a smaller

moderate scale is in electric storage batteries, especially as solar cells produce the direct electric current required for battery charging. The stored energy can then be delivered as electricity upon discharge. The common iead acid storage batteries, such as are used in automobiles, are not ideal for this purpose, but they are probably the best presently available. Extensive research in progress should lead to the development of more suitable batteries.  A possible alternative is to use the direct current from solar cells to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. These gases would be stored in a suitable form and utilized as needed to generate electricity in a fuel cell.  Inverters: these are the devices usually solid state, which change the array DC output to AC of suitable voltage, frequency, and phase to feed photo voltaically generated power into the power grid or local load, as shown in figure. These functional blocks are sometimes referred to as power conditioning.

 A general type of inverter circuit which is found best suitable for the utility application is shown in fig. the current can be used in

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 10

two modes: (1) as an inverter changing DC to AC or (2) as a rectifier changing AC to DC, thus charging the battery.  It is clear that the system photovoltaic offers the option of DC power, AC power, hydrogen and oxygen fuels in either gas or liquid forms from which electricity can be generated. The system has many advantages and disadvantages.

CHAPTER - 3 S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 11

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY:

Fig 3.1 Solar Photovoltaic Array

 The solar photovoltaic array consists of an appropriate number of solar cells connected in series and or parallel to provide the required current and voltage. The array is so oriented as to collect the maximum solar radiation throughout the year.  There may be tracking arrays or modules or fixed arrays. A tracking array is defined as one which is always kept mechanically perpendicular to the sun array line so that all times it intercepts the maximum isolation. Such arrays must be physically movable by a suitable prime mover and are generally considerably more complex than fixed arrays. A fixed array is usually oriented east west and tilted up at an angle approximately equal to the latitude of the site. Thus the array design falls into two broad classes.

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 12

application of solar photovoltaic system: Various solar photovoltaic systems have been developed and installed at different sites for demonstration and field trial purposes. The terrestrial applications of these include provision of power supply to: 1. Water pumping sets for micro irrigation and drinking water supply, 2. Radio beacons for ship navigation at ports, 3. Community radio and television sets, 4. Cathodic protection of oil pipe lines, 5. Weather monitoring, 6. Railway signaling equipment, 7. Battery charging, 8. Street lighting. The major application of photovoltaic systems lies in water pumping for drinking water supply and irrigation in rural areas. The photovoltaic water pumping system essentially consists of: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

A photovoltaic (PV) array, Storage battery, Power control equipment, Motor pump sets, and Water storage tank.

Solar electric power generation: solar photo-voltaic: 1. The direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy by means of the photovoltaic effect, that is the conversion of light into electricity. The photovoltaic effect is defined as the generation of an electromotive force as the result of the absorption of S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 13

ionizing radiation. Energy conversion devices which are used to convert sunlight to electricity by the use of the photovoltaic effect are called solar cells. A single converter cell is called a solar or, more generally, a photovoltaic cell, and combination of such cells; designed to increase the electric power output is called a solar module or solar array. 2. Photovoltaic cells are made of semiconductors that generate electricity when they absorb light. As photons are received, free electrical charges are generated that can be collected on contacts applied to the surfaces of the semiconductors. Because solar cells are not heat engines, and therefore do not need to operate at high temperatures, they are adopted to the weak energy flux of solar radiation, operating at room temperature. These devices have theoretical efficiencies are less than half this value, and decrease fairly rapidly with increasing temperature. (I) Flat Plate Arrays 3. Where in solar cells are attached with a adhesive to some kind of substrate structure usually semi prevent cells being cracked. 4. This technology springs from the space photovoltaic technology and many such arrays have been various power sizes.

suitable rigid to related built in

(II) Concentrating Arrays: 5. Where in suitable optics, e.g. Fresnel lenses, parabolic mirrors are combined with photovoltaic cells in an array fashion. This technology is relatively new to photovoltaic in terms of hardware development and comparatively fewer such arrays have actually been built. S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 14

Crystalline silicon modules: 6. Most solar modules are currently produced from silicon photovoltaic cells. These are typically categorized as monocrystalline or polycrystalline modules. Solar cell modules (solar photovoltaic arrays): 7. There may be tracking arrays or modules or fixed arrays. A tracking array is defined as one which is always kept mechanically perpendicular to the sun-array line so that all times it intercepts the maximum insolation. Such arrays must be physically movable by a suitable prime mover and are generally considerably more complex then fixed arrays. A fixed array is usually oriented east west and tilted up at an angle approximately equal to the latitude of the site. Fixed arrays are mechanically simpler then tracking arrays. Thus the array designs fall into two broad classes: 8. Flat-plate arrays: Wherein solar cells are attached with a suitable adhesive to some kind of substrats structure usually semirigid to prevent cells being cracked. This technology springs from the space-related photovoltaic technology, and many such arrays have been built in various power sizes. 9. Concentrating arrays: Wherein suitable option, e.g. Fresnel lenses, parabolic mirrors, compound parabolic concentrators(CPC), and others, are combined with photovoltaic cells in an array fashion. This technology is relatively new to photovoltaic in terms of hardware development, and comparatively fewer such arrays have actually been built.

Solar cell principles: S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 15

The photo-voltaic effect can be observed in nature in a variety of materials, but the materials that have shown the best performance in sunlight are the semi-conductors as stated above. When photons from the sun are absorbed in a semiconductor, they create free electrons with higher energies than the electrons which provide the bonding in the base crystal. Once these electrons are created, there must be an electric field to induce these higher energy electrons to flow out of the semi-conductor to do useful work. The electric field in most solar cells is provided by a junction of materials which have different electrical properties. To obtain a useful power output from photon interaction in a semi-conductor three processes are required. The photons have to be absorbed in the active part of the material and result in electrons being excited to a higher energy potential. The electron-hole charge carrier created by the absorption must be physically separated and moved to the edge of the cell. The charge carriers must be removed from the cell and delivered to a useful load before they loose their extra potential.

Advantages and disadvantages of photovoltaic solar energy conversion Advantages:

 Direct room temperature conversion of light to electricity through a simple solid state device.  Absence of moving parts.  Ability to function unattended for long periods as evidence in space program me. S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 16

 Modular nature in which desired currents, voltages and power levels can be achieved by mere integration.  Maintenance cost is low as they are easy to operate.  They do not create pollution.  They have a long effective life.  They are highly reliable.  They consume no fuel to operate as the sun’s energy is free.  They have rapid response in output to input radiation changes; no long-time constant is involved, as on thermal systems, before steady state is reached.  They are easy to fabricate, being one of the simplest of semi conductor devices.  They can be used with or without sun tracking, making possible a wide range of application possibilities.  Their principal disadvantages are their high cost, and the fact that, in many applications, energy storage is required because of no isolation at night. Efforts are being made world-wide to reduce costs through various technological innovations. For completing the above processes, a solar cell consists of:  Semi-conductor in which electron hole pairs are created by absorption of incident solar radiation.  Region containing a drift field for charge separation, and  Charge collecting front and back electrodes.

CHAPTER - 4 S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 17

CHARGE CONTROLLER:

Fig:4.1 Charge Controller

 Overcharging of some batteries results in loss of electrolytic, corrosion, plate growth and loss of active material from the plates, causing reduction in battery life. Also, the repeated failure to reach full charge also leads to stratification of electrolyte.  Thus, there is a need of charge regulators to optimize the battery life. Most charge regulators start the charging process with a high current and reduce it to a very low level when a certain battery voltage is reached. A digital based charge regulator monitors the battery current, and voltage computes the level of charge and regulates the input and output currents so as to avoid both overcharging and excessive discharge.

CHAPTER - 5 S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 18

DESIGN AND FABRICATION:  The design and fabrication of a typical solar powered fan can be explained with the help of a block diagram. The block diagram describes a simple solar powered fan with a manual. Let us study the block diagram in detail by classifying it into three sections. I) Input Section a)

Photovoltaic array

II) Storage Section a)

Battery bank

III) Output Section a)

controller

b)

Dc Bulb

c)

Connecting wires

I) Input Section The input section includes photovoltaic arrays consisting of solar cells. The solar cells are connected in parallel to get the maximum current.

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 19

Type of semi conductor used for cell

Silicon

Number of arrays

Power

Open circuit voltage

Short circuit current

21v

3.6 ampere

36 watt x 2 =72 watt

2

Storage Section: d)

The storage section includes a battery.

e)

The characteristics of the battery are as below:

Type of battery Lead acid tubular battery

Ampere hour efficiency

Watt hour efficiency

Capacity

90 to 95%

70 to 80%

90 AH, 18V

The characteristics of controller are as below: 

Low voltage cut off



Over charge disconnect



Operating current : 10 ampere

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 20

2)

(iii) Output Section

 Output system includes various devices and equipments used for the distribution of the power. 3)

Switch



Manual ON/OFF

4)

Wires



Type: 2 core with sleeve



Quantity: 10 meters



High copper rich 10amp wire for minimum power loss.

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 21

CHAPTER - 6

TEST AND RESULT:

Conversion Efficiency and Power Output:  For both practical and theoretical reasons, not all of the solar radiation energy falling on a solar cell can be converted into electrical energy. A specific amount of energy is required to produce a free electron and a hole in a semiconductor. Consequently infrared radiation of longer wavelength has no photovoltaic effect and energy radiation with shorter wavelength cannot be completely utilized.  The maximum energy in radiation that is capable of producing free electrons and holes in silicon is only about 45%. The maximum practical efficiency for conversion of solar energy into electrical energy in a silicon solar cell is estimated to be about 10%

Amount of electricity produced 

Conversion Efficiency = -------------------------------------------Total input of solar energy radiation

Efficiencies of solar panel:

 Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 22

another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges.  his has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%.  Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel efficiency) is around 20.1% in new commercial products   typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The most efficient mass-produced solar panels[disputed – discuss] have energy density values of up to 16.22 W/ft 2 (175 W/m2)

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 23

CHAPTER - 7

GLOBAL ENERGY RESOURCES:  Current global energy consumption is 4.1*1020J annually, which is equivalent to an instantaneous yearly-averaged consumption rate of 13*1012 W (13 trillion watts, or 13 terawatts TW). Projected population and economic growth will more than double this global energy consumption rate by the mid -21st century and more than triple rate by 2100, even with aggressive conservation efforts. Hence to contribute significantly to global primary energy supply, a prospective resource has to be capable of providing at least 1-10TW of power for an extended period of time. The threat of climate change imposes a second requirement on prospective energy resource. They must produce energy without the emission of additional greenhouse gases. Stabilization of atmospheric CO2 level at even twice their preanthropogenic value will require amounts of carbon-neutral energy by mid-century. The needed levels are in excess of 10 TW, increasing after 2050 to support economic growth for an expanding population.  The three prominent options to meet this demand for carbon-neutral energy are fossil fuel use in conjunction with carbon sequestration, nuclear power, and solar power. The challenge for carbon sequestration is finding secure storage for the 25 billion metric tons of CO2 produced annually on earth. At atmospheric pressure, this yearly global emission of CO2 would occupy 12500 km3, equal to the volume of lake superior, it is 600 times the amount of CO2 injected every year into oil wells to super productions, 100 times amount of natural gas the industry draws in and out of geologic storage in the united states each year to smooth seasonal demand, and 20,000 times the amount of CO2 stored annually in Norway‘s S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 24

sleipner reservoir. Beyond finding storage volume carbon sequestration also must prevent leakage. A 1%leak rate would nullified the sequestration effort in a century, far too short a time to have lasting impact on climate change. Although many scientists are optimistic, the success of carbon sequestration on the required scale for sufficiently long time has not yet been demonstrated. Nuclear power is a second conceptually viable option. Producing 10TW of nuclear power would required construction of a new 1 giga-wattelectric nuclear fission plant somewhere in the world every other day for the next 50 year. Once that level of deployment was reached, the terrestrial uranium resource base would be exhausted in 10 years. The required fuel would the have to be mined from sea water or else breeder reactor technology would have to be developed and disseminated to countries wishing to meet their additional demand in this way. The third option is to exploit renewable energy sources, of which solar energy is by far the most prominent. The remaining global practically exploitable hydroelectric sources is less than 0.5TW. the cumulative energy in all the tides and ocean current in the world amounts to less than 2TW. The total geothermal energy at the surface of earth,integrated over all the land area of the continents, is 12TW, of which only a small fraction could be practically extracted. the amount of globally extractable wind power has been estimated by the IPCC and others to be 2-4TWe.for comparison the solar constant at the top of the atmosphere is 170,000TW, of which on average, 120,000TW strikes the earth. It is clear that solar energy can be exploited on the needed scale to meet global energy demand in a carbon- neutral fashion without significantly affecting the solar resource.

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 25

 Solar energy storage and distribution are critical to match demand. The amount of produced by covering 0.16% of the earth’s land area with 10% efficient solar cell is equal to that produced by 20000 1-GWe nuclear fission plants.

ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM:

 Solar cells directly convert the solar radiation into electricity using photovoltaic effect without going through a thermal process.  Solar cells are reliable, modular, durable and generally maintenance free and therefore, suitable even in isolated and remote areas.  Solar cells are quiet, benign, and compatible with almost all environments, respond instantaneously with solar radiation and have an expected life time of 20 or more years.  Solar cells can be located at the place of use and hence no distribution network is required. DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM:  The conversion efficiency of solar cells is limited to 10 percent. Large areas of solar cell modular are required to generate sufficient useful power.  The present costs of solar cells are comparatively high, making them economically uncompetitive with other conventional power generation methods for terrestrial applications, particularly where the demand of power is very large. S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 26

 Solar energy is intermittent and solar cells produce electricity when sun shines and in proportion to solar intensity. Hence, some kind of electric storage is required making the whole system more costly. However, in large installations, the electricity generated by solar cells can be fed directly into the electric grid system.  Battery charge level maintenance and discharge limit and life shortened

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 27

CHAPTER - 8 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SOLAR LIGHTING SYSTEM

Fig:8.1 Block Diagram Of Solar Lighting System

A Basic Photovoltaic System For Power Generation: A basic photovoltaic system integrated with the utility grid is shown in fig. It permits solarly generated electrical power to be delivered to a local load. It consists of: Solar array, large or small, which converts the insolation to useful DC electrical power. A blocking diode which lets the array-generated power flow only toward the battery or grid. Without a blocking diode the battery would discharge back through the solar array during times of no insolation. S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 28

Battery storage, in which the solarly generated electric energy may be stored. Inverter, usually solid state which converts the battery bus voltage to AC of frequency and phase to match that needed to integrate with the utility grid. Thus it is typically a DC,AC inverter. It may also contain a suitable output step up transformer, perhaps some filtering and power factor correction circuits and perhaps some power cpnditioning, circuitry to initiate battery charging and to prevent over charging. Power conditioning may be shown as a separate system functional block. This block may also be used in figure shown to function as a rectifier to charge the battery from the utility feeder when needed and when no insolation was present. Appropriate switches and circuit breakers, to permit isolating parts of the system, as the battery. One would also want to include breakers and fusing protection between the inverter output and the utility grid to protect both the photovoltaic system and the grid.

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 29

CHAPTER - 9 COST CALCULATION:

Used Equipment 100 w Panel 90 Ah Battery 6 Amp Switch Switch Board Panel Stand Tube Tube Bucket Patti Dc Wire Labour Charger Controller

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Quantity 100*75 1 4*15 1*30 1 3*300 3*10 3*30 50*25

Rupees 7500 7500 60 30 1200 900 30 90 1200

-

700

1

1250 TOTAL=20460 Rs

Page 30

CHAPTER - 10 ABOUT THE PROJECT:

This project is designed to improve existing solar collection system to provide higher efficiency for lower cost. The existing system receives sun energy only for new hours, which is really not economical when compare the cost, which we are spending. Here the proposed system is designed to observe the sun light for the available maximum hours, for example – 12 hours a day. This project operates a solar panel to constantly face sun at 90 degrees to produce maximum voltage. It will move the solar panel from east to west to correct for the durational movement of the Sun in the sky. The set of Light Intensify Sensors give the input to the and it operates Stepper motors with mechanism

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 31

PROJECT WORK

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 32

REFERENCE 1.

non-conventional energy sources By - GD RAI

2.

non-conventional energy sources By - Atul Prakashan

3.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_System

4.

http://www.sanjaymarketing.com/solarlightingsystem.htm

5.

http://www.dcmsme.gov.in/reports/electronic/SOLARLIGHTSYSTEMS.pdf

6.

http://mnre.gov.in/file-manager/UserFiles/pdf/Trainers%20Textbook%20%20Solar%20Lighting%20Systems.pdf

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 33

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 34

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 35

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 36

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 37

S.T.B.S COLLEGE OF DIPLOMA ENGINEERING,SURAT

Page 38

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.