Preparation of Load Line Survey
INDEX: 1. Classification Surveys 2. Preparation For A Load Line Survey 3. Cargo Ship Construction and Survey 4. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Survey 5. Steering Gear and Automatic Pilot Steering Procedures
Classification Surveys An annual survey must be carried out on all ships within three months before or after each anniversary date of the completion of building, commissioning or special survey. Docking survey are carried out at intervals not exceeding 2 yrs, except that where high resistance paint has been applied to the hull the intervals may be extended to 2.5 yrs. At annual and docking surveys, the surveyor examines the ship and machinery so that he may satisfy himself with regard to their general condition. Special survey’s are carried out at four years intervals in a dry dock, the surveys becoming more stringent as the age of the ship increases. On the request of the owner a continuous survey may be carried out on the hull which all compartment of the hull are opened for survey and testing in rotation, with a five year interval between examination of each part. Complete surveys of machinery are carried out at four yearly intervals. However, a continuous survey of machinery in which the various items are opened for survey in rotation may be conducted. In general, 1/5 of the machinery is examined each year with a five year interval between examination of each item.
Preparation For A Load Line Survey Particulars relating to the conditions of assignment can be found in a form, commonly known as the Load line record Which is carried on board. The Chief Officer should study the carefully to ensure that all the appropriate particulars have been incorporated into the Planned Maintenance
schedule. The detailed preparations should commence three months before the expected date of survey. 1. Check that all access openings at ends of enclosed structures are in good condition. All dogs, clamps and hinges should be free and well greased. All gaskets and water tight seals should be crack free. Ensure that the doors open from both sides. 2. Check all cargo hatches and access to holds for watertightness especially battening devices such as cleats and wedges. 3. Check the efficiency and securing of portable beams. 4. If portable wooden hatch covers are used, check that they are in good condition and that the steel binding bands are well secured. 5. If tarpaulins are used at least two should be provided for each hatch. The tarpaulins must be in good condition, waterproof, of ample strength and an approved material. 6. Hatches which are closed by portable covers and made weather-tight by tarpaulins must have a steel locking bar across each section. Covers more than 1.5 m in length must be secured with two locking bars. 7. Inspect all machinery space openings on exposed decks. 8. Check that any manholes and flush scuttles are capable of being made water-tight. 9. Check that all ventilator openings are provided with efficient weather-tight closing appliances and repair any defects. 10.All airpipes must be provided with permanently attached satisfactory means for closing openings. 11.Inspect any cargo ports below the freeboard deck and ensure that all of them are watertight. 12.Ensure that the non return valves on board discharge are operating in a satisfactory manner. 13.Side scuttles below the freeboard deck or to spaces within enclosed superstructures must have efficient internal watertight deadlights. Inspect the deadlight ‘rubbers’.
14.Check that all freeing ports are in a satisfactory condition e.g. shutters are not jammed, hinges are free and that pins are of non corroding material. Check that any securing appliances, if fitted, work correctly. 15.All guard rails and bulwarks should be in satisfactory condition, e.g. all fractured rails should be re-welded. 16.If the lines are required to be fitted in certain areas, rig the lines and overhaul as necessary. 17.De-rust and paint the deck line, load line mark, load lines and the draught marks. In brief ensure that the hull is water-tight below the freeboard deck and watertight above the freeboard deck. On the day of the survey have the certificate and record ready for the surveyor’s inspection. The master should have sufficient stability information to show that the vessel can be loaded and ballasted correctly. Have all the necessary key areas which surveyor may want to inspect e.g. store rooms. Sufficient men should be available for work such as opening cargo hatches, and ladders and stages should be ready for the surveyors to view the load line marks.
Cargo Ship Construction and Survey The owner of everyship to which the regulation apply must arrange for the ship to be surveyed on completion thereafter at intervals not exceeding five years. Application must be made to a certifying authority, such as Lloyds register of shipping, who arrange for the ship to be surveyed. The surveyors must satisfy himself that the arrangements, materials and scantlings of the structure, boilers and other pressure vessels, may and auxiliary machinery (including steering gear), electrical installations, and other equipment comply with the regulations. In the case of tankers outside of the ships bottom, the pump rooms, cargo and bunker piping system, vent piping, pressure / vacuum valves and flame screen must also be inspected. The owner of everyship to which this regulations apply must arrange for the ship to be periodically surveyed in the manner specified in regulation 72 (3) and (4) with regards to ship side fittings (such as overboard discharge valves), boilers, screw propeller shafts, and tube shafts.
The owner of every ship to which part iii of the regulation apply, i.e. tankers, must arrange for an additional survey not more than 6 months before, nor later than 6 months after the half-way date of the period of validity of the certificate. This intermediate survey deals with the material and equipment in Or associated with, fire-retarding bulk heads. In addition the owner of every tanker of ten year of age and over shall arrange for an intermediate survey at least ones during the period of validity of certificate. If only one such intermediate survey is made, it must be carried out not more than 6 months before not later than 6 months after, the half-way date of the period of validity. This intermediate survey must be in accordance with the procedures specified in M 1134 which states that in addition to the requirements for the annual survey noted below, and examination of shell plating, sea connections and overboard discharges, anchors and mooring equipment, the interior of at least two cargo tanks, rudder bearing clearance, propeller and shaft, boilers, electrical equipment in hazardous zone, and deck piping must be carried out. Cargo ship safety construction certificate shall be subjected to an annual survey which must be carried out within 3 months before or after the anniversary of the certificate. The survey should be carried out in accordance with the procedures specified in M 1134 in brief, the surveyor will examine, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
The ship certificate . The hull and closing appliance Anchoring and mooring equipment The operation of watertight doors Watertight bulkheads. Structural fire protection arrangements. The operation of fire doors. The machinery and electrical installations such as the propulsion system, steering arrangements, bilge pumping systems, boilers and emergency sources of power.
In addition to machinery records the official log book will be examined to establish that the steering gear has been tested in accordance with the merchant shipping (steering gear and automatic pilot testing procedures) regulations 1981. Tankers will also have weather deck survey in which the cargo tank openings, P/V Valves, Flame arresting screens, piping and electrical appliance will be examined. The cargo p/p rooms will also be surveyed. The above construction regulation incorporate the tanker steering gear arrangement promulgated by the 78 SOLAS protocol.
Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Survey The owner of every ship to which a certificate has been issued must cause a survey to be carried out within 3 months before or after the anniversary date of the certificate. The survey is termed and intermediate survey in respect of tankers of 10 yrs of age and over and an annual survey in respect of other ships. Preparations Of Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Survey All safety equipment should be kept in excellent condition and a “Planned Maintenance Schedule” which includes the safety equipment will ensure that a satisfactory survey can be carried out at any time. The official log book will also be examined to establish whether the 1986 Muster regulation have been adhered to. The following preparation should be carried out shortly before the expected survey date : 1. Inspect all the lifeboat stores and equipment. Overhaul and renew as necessary. 2. Inspect the lifeboats, pay particular attention to buoyancy material and check that bottom boards and thwarts are not cracked. Repaint the ship’s name, port of registery, and the life boat numbers, and ensure that the lifeboat particulars on the bow have not been obliterated. 3. Throughly overhaul davits, winches, and blocks and grease all moving parts. Renew or ‘End for End’ the Falls. Inspect lifeboat embarkation arrangements and launching arrangements and lower the boats into the water. 4. When the boats are in the water run any lifeboat engine both ahead and astern. 5. Check that the inflatable liferaft have been serviced within the previous 12 months. Inspect the stowage, release, launching and embarkation arrangements of the liferafts and if necessary, renew the launching instructions. Inspect any rigid liferafts. 6. Inspect the survival craft portable radio equipment. 7. Overhaul the lifebuoys, especially the self-igniting light and self activating smoke signals, and ensure that the life buoys are correctly located throughout the ship. 8. Examine the lifejackets and check that they are correctly distributed throughout the vessel.
9. Ensure that all pyrotechnics, including the linethrowing appliance, rockets are not out of date. Inspect the linethrowing appliance. 10.Test the emergency lighting at one of the times that the general alarm system is tested. 11.Check that the Fire control plans are still posted and clearly eligible. 12.Test, where possible, the fire/ and smoke detection system. 13.Run each fire pump including the emergency fire pump, to check that each pump can supply via the fire main the required two jets of water simultaneously from separate hydrants. 14.Check that fire hoses, nozzles and applicators are in good condition and correctly located. 15.Test and overhaul the fixed fire fighting system. Note that the instruction are posted and that controls and pipes are correctly marked. 16.Overhaul portable and non portable extinguishers and check the securing arrangements. Ensure that the extinguishers are correctly located and that spare charges are available. 17.Where possible, confirm that all remote controls are operable. 18.Overhaul any applicable closing arrangements for ventilators, skylights, doorways, funnel spaces, and the tunnel. 19.Overhaul the fireman’s outfit and recharge, when possible the compressed air cylinders. 20.Inspect the pilot ladders, pilot host, if carried and all ancillary equipment. 21.Remember that the navigation equipment is also surveyed, e.g. Navigation lights, shapes, sound signaling equipments, Day light signaling lamp, Radar, Echo sounder, Gyro Compass, and Direction Finder. The compass deviation book, charts and the publications that are required by the merchant shipping. (carriage of nautical publications) rules 1975, S.I. 1975 NO. 700, are also inspected. Tanker have an additional survey which covers : 1. The piping of the fixed fire fighting system of the cargo pump room. 2. The deck foam system and the deck sprinkler system.
3. The inert gas system. The intermediate of a tanker of ten years and over should includes as a minimum all the relevant items mentioned above but it should also be ‘sufficiently’ extensive to ensure that the ships degree of compliance with the cargo ship safety equipment certificate warrants the ships continued possession of that certificate and that the ship can continue to be operated with safety. On the day of the survey the relevant certificate and publication should be gathered together in one location for case of examination. Life jackets should not be assembled in one place but should be distributed throughout the ship in normal stowage positions. Check the international shore connection, nozzles etc.
Steering Gear and Automatic Pilot Steering Procedures Officers should ensure that the test and checks of the steering gear should include : 1. The full rudder movement. 2. a visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage. 3. The communication between the navigating bridge and the steering gear compartment. Simple operating instructions, which include a block diagram showing the changeover procedures, for the steering gear control systems and power units must be permanently displayed on the navigating bridge and in the steering gear compartment. The details of routine check and emergency steering gear drills must be recorded in the official log book.