Pre-Colonial Architecture Lecture2b
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COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE University of Santo Tomas HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 4 2nd Semester AY 2007-2008 Lecture 2b PRE-COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE IN MINDANAO People of Mindanao: 1. Lumad 2. Muslims LUMAD • Katawhang lumad - Cebuano term meaning native or indigenous. • Group of non-Islamized (neither Muslim or Christian) indigenous peoples of the southern Philippines. • Considered as "vulnerable groups", they live in hinterlands, forests, lowlands and coastal areas • 18 Lumad ethno-linguistic groups in 19 provinces namely: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Ata Bagobo Banwaon B’laan Bukidnon Dibabawon Higaonon Mamanwa Mandaya
10. Manguwangan 11. Manobo 12. Mansaka 13. Subanon 14. Tagakaolo 15. Tasaday 16. Tboli 17. Teduray 18. Ubo.
T’BOLI • • • • •
Known as Toboli, T'boli, Tböli, Tiboli, Tibole, Tagabili, Tagabeli, and Tagabulu; Lives in the high elevation of the mountain ranges of South Cotobato and Sultan Kudarat Provinces, south of Mindanao Live in harmony with nature with a colorful lifestyle through their outfits, dances and music Tiboli women are fully ornamented - Tinalak - unusual tie-dyed and woven abaca cloth used for dresses during ceremonies and festivities. Use a variety of musical instruments: 1. drum, 2. agong, 3. kulintang, 4. bamboo zither, 5. flute, 6. hegalong (a long, slender and spindle-shaped two stringed guitar). 1
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Women are not allowed to flirt or they will be killed – express it in music, and with their body movement. Men can have 5-6 wives, depending on his income. - Wives can all stay in one house together. - If a wife wants to be independent, she may move to a different house. T’boli house in general - Located near the banks of scenic Lake Sebu or on a hilly portions - House vary according to difference in economic stability - Polygamy is practiced and adds to the number of residents in a house. - Three or four houses form a cluster - Remains cool in tropical weather because it is elevated on stilts and has a roof with overhang.
GUNU BONG – T’boli house Located near the banks of Lake Sebu or on a hilly portions; House vary according to difference in economic stability; As polygamy is practiced - adds to the number of residents in a house; 3 - 4 houses form a cluster. Large two-level house is home to an extended family averaging between 8-16 persons. Remain cool in tropical weather because it is elevated on stilts and has a roof with overhang. Plan and Structural Elements: - Laid out on rectangular plan of about 14.0 x 8.0 m. - 2.0 m. above - bamboo stilts or timber post support with additional poles for stability - Lower central space is integrated with the elevated side areas: o Area for honor o Sleeping o Vestibule - Shape of house is appropriate for the weaving area of the sacred tinalak fabric - Animals are kept underneath the houses such as chickens and pigs. - Tree stumps - used posts in the interior. Protective and Circulatory Elements: - Dos aguas roof made of bamboo frames and thatch, not steep - Walls are made of split bamboo finely worked into a flat wall - Few openings. Awning doors and windows opening outward with hinge at the bottom - Ladders - made of bamboo or wood are drawn up at night to keep animals and intruders out. MUSLIM/MORO • Multilingual ethnic group and the largest mainly non-Christian ethnic group in the Philippine. • Moor – Spanish word who lived in a region dubbed as Bangsamoro. • Led by the sultans or datu. Islamic influence brought the concept of having a sultan as leader in the community. • Polygamy is permitted but rarely practiced • Pork is not eaten, considered as taboo under the Quran • MORO ETHNIC GROUP 1. Iranun – coasts of Illana Bay and border towns between maguindanao and Lanao del Sur 2. Jama Mapun – Cagayan de Sulu ad South Palawan 3. Kalagan – Davao del sur 4. Kalibugan – Zamboanga del Sur and Norte 5. Magindanao – Pulangi valley , Cotobato, Maguindanao, Sultan Kudarat, South Cotobato. Coasts from Tamontaka down to Glan, South Cotobato and cost of Zamboanga del sur from Sibugay eastward to Tukuran 6. Maranao – Lake lanao region faling within the Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte 7. Molbog – South Palawan 8. Palawani- South Palawan 2
9. Sama - Archipelago of Sulu 10. Sangil - davao del Sur and South Cotobato 11. Tausug – Archipelago of Sulu 12. Yakan – Island of Basilan
BADJAO – archipelago of Sulu, Tawi-tawi Some Badjaos are Muslims and many are not. Badjaos’ concerns center on daily survival so that they hardly know Islam. Badjaos are discriminated upon by both the Christians and the Moros.
MARANAO • Ma + ranao (lake) - "lake-like“, "by or near the lake, " or "lake dwellers". • term refers to the native people living around Lake Lanao. • Live in settlements of the shores of Lake Lanao, or an the hilly ‘dry rice areas” near a water source; REGION 10 - Pagalunan, Taraka, Marantao, Lanao del Sur • Homes are lined along rivers, lake shores and roads; • Three major typology of a Maranao House: 1. Lawig or small house 2. Mala-a walai or large houses, a necessity in the polygamous culture; 3. Torogan or great house - ancestral home of the upper-class.
Ranggar/langgar– small Islamic prayer housed would be located in the community. Kota/Kuta or fortress – early Filipino constructed forts in Mindanao, Sulu as well as in Manila and Mindoro against enemy attacks. Inside the Kota is the Torogan
Plan and Structural Elements: - Made of lumber and raised on piling from 0.3 – 2.10 m. above ground. - Usually has 9 to 12 posts and a rectangular room covered by a steep roof sometimes shaped like a carabao horn. - Rectangular measuring about 7.5 x 18 m. (25 x 60 ft) - One big room with no ceiling and no permanent partitions. 3
o Spatial divisions and functions are marked by movable objects such as chest, mats, brass trays. o Sleeping area is filled with bundles of rice stalks which are changed every harvest, covered with riyara (woven mat) to prevent mildew. o Diverse spaces are created by means of several chest used as dividers or by using sapiyay (wooden split rattan) and the kulambo (mosquito bar or screen) - Porch (kinansad) – usually fenced with bamboo to prevent children from falling off. - Silong (space below the house) – walled with split bamboo woven in crisscross pattern. o Women weave mats during daytime when it is hot upstairs o Storage for farming and fishing equipments, plow, harrow, mortar and pestle and big vessel for storing rice. Protective and Circulatory Elements: - Steep roof o thick cogon grass o sometimes bamboos which are cut into halves called rangeb o Wood shingles but uncommon today. - Roofs, walls, floorings, doors and windows are made of bamboo materials latched together by rattan strips. - Two windows o Front – watch neighbors pass by o right side. – to check on the carabao which isusually kept in the corral below the house at night.
Kota/Kuta or fortress - early Filipino constructed forts in Mindanao, similar to Sulu as well as in Manila and Mindoro against enemy attacks • Inside the Kota is the TOROGAN TOROGAN Ancestral home of the upper class People. - Kept their young daughters hidden - Exclusive right to the okir Residence of the Muslim chief – datu or sultan - Sovereignty over the sultanates includes: 1. Pegawidan (royalty) 2. Pegawid (governed) 3. Oripen bisaya (slaves)
Each torogan is occupied by at least two families sometimes and as many as ten. Three – four would be the normal number of families. Plan and Structural Elements: - No structure should be larger than the torogan - Large, noble and dominating house with a single large room - Torogan is a multi-purpose building which also serves as: o Residence of the royal family o Conference hall where a datu holds an important meeting o Social hall during community gathering like wedding, coronation of datu or when a member of the royal clan dies o Place for settling disputes o storage house, ammunition areas - Character and Construction Method o Appearance of floating like a royal vessel. o Sculptured to look like the prow of a boat. o Has a soaring, salakot-shaped or ceremonial umbrella design roof, ornate beams and massive posts, to identify status of its occupants. o Floor beams are supported by around 25 thk posts or trunks not buried into the ground but are freely standing on large stones to allow the house flexibility to sway with earthquake tremor. 1. Bunga trees – posts 2. Barimbingan – flooring 3. Gisuk - walls o Huge posts made from tree trunks signify power. Plain and massive or may be carved to look like clay pots or huge chess pieces. 1 o Center post or tapuwilih is put first followed by the ffour big tukud (corner posts). o Center beam or tinai a walai or “intestine of the house” holds up the king post of the roof. - Panolong - one of the most important feature. o Row of carved projecting beam ends in ornate motifs usually five in front and two smaller ones on the sides, o Protrude from the side with the configuration of giant nagas (snakes) outline in fernlike motifs. Appear in high spirited wavelike patterns of okir/okil/okkill design and are sculptured to look like the prow of a boat. It gives the torogan the appearance of floating like a royal vessel.
TOROGAN’S ADDITIONAL FEATURES o Gibon – special space for the daughter of the datu. - 5.0 x 10 m. temporary room, has one entrance (front) and exit (back) near the kitchen. o Lamin – lady’s dormitory which serve as another hideaway for the datu’s daughter and her manga raga or ladies. - Used only when there are important gatherings in the torogan. - Way of announcing the presence of a royal lady in the community and serves to preserve and protect the girl’s modesty, virtue, virginity and chastity. - Constructed atop the torogan. Entrance is located near the datu’s bed. Protective and Circulatory Elements: High steep roof similar to a Malacca house at the Batak and Minagkabau houses of Sumatra. o Ceremonial umbrella design for its roof, soaring and flaring to identify status of its occupants. o Windows are narrow horizontal slits from 2 m. long and about 15 cm. wide between the panalongs. o Cloth that hangs from the rafters were used as ceiling which also absorbs heat from roof. Decorative Elements: - Extensive of okir designs: o Internal and external beams, o Posts, o Floor panels and sidings of windows – sometimes painted.
OKIR, OKIL, UKKIL • Central to all visual arts of the Muslim groups; • Refers to both the act of carving or engraving and to a particular type of curvilinear design which combines scrolls, leaf and vine elements organized in varying methods of abstract compositions; • Include geometrical and angular decorative woven designs on various surfaces. - Siyabit design on cloth and mats from Sulu • Two types 1. Okir-a-dato (gentlemen’s art) – curvilinear motif on a man’s work on wood and other hard surfaces and engraving on metal. o Motifs found carved on houses, boats, working tools, weapons, grave markers, saddle looms. 2. Okir-a-bai (ladies’ art) – geometrical configurations found on the hand-woven textiles or mats produced by women. o Motifs embroidered on blankets, pillow cases, and canopies, or painted on various surfaces
Abraham P. Sakili, SPACE AND IDENTITY, 2003
Abraham P. Sakili, SPACE AND IDENTITY, 2003
Elements of Okir (Ukkil) 7
Abraham P. Sakili, SPACE AND IDENTITY, 2003
Basic Maranao Okir (Ukkil) compositions
Maranoas used different dugout canoes for varied reasons: Awang Rabor or raraboren
MAGUINDANAO • Two principal groups, with its own dialect and traditional location: 1. Tau-sa Ilud (people of the lower valley) o primarily sedentary wet rice agriculturists. o Constituted the Sultanate of Maguindanao based near present day Cotabato City. 2. Tau-sa Laya (people of the upper valley) HOUSES OF POLITICAL LEADERS OF MUSLIM GROUPS 1. Astanah of the Sultan of Sulu • Protected by stone forts (kota/kuta) managed by secondary datus and in located in the Jolo interior. 2. Royal house of Maguindanao Sultanate o Use of okir carving and cloth decoration o Big size structures o No more existing samples 8