Practical Research 2
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I Content: Nature of Inquiry and Research Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of: 1. the characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative research 2. the importance of quantitative research across fields 3. the nature of variables Performance Standard: The learner is able to decide on suitable quantitative research in different areas of interest Learning Competencies: --Describes characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative research CS_RS12-Ia-c-1
LESSON 1: Characteristics, Strengths, Weaknesses, and Kinds Of Quantitative Research Time Frame: Week One OVERVIEW
Humans are 'intuitive' scientists ....always asking questions and testing theories about themselves, others, events, the environment and the world around them. Research is asking a question and finding out the answer… 1. It is looking into something. 2. It is looking for something. 3. It is comparing and contrasting things. 4. It is finding out more information...it is counting things ...making inquiries...being curious...finding out what people think...finding out what people do....finding out what works.... finding out what doesn't work...finding out what people want... What research have you conducted recently? 1. What decisions have you made about your day? 2. What decisions have you made today? 3. What influenced your decision to take this course? 4. How do you prepare and write assignments? 5. How do you decide how to provide the best quality of service for your service users? We all engage in or do social research as we act on the basis and results of our own research and theorizing, therefore, what we think affects the way we behave.... What do we research? We research people and their behaviour, opinions, attitudes, trends and patterns, also politics, animals, health and illness. Research can be conducted either informally for our own benefit, through asking questions, watching, counting or reading and formally, for medical or academic purposes, as a marketing strategy, to inform and influence politics and policy. Research may be carried out in our own lives, through the media, in our place of work, with our friends and family or through reading past research. Our views - personal, social, community and worldwide and our own identities are socially constructed through our own theorizing. Research gives us information about: 1. Thoughts and opinions 5. Norms 2. Attitudes 6. Scientific facts 3. Habits 7. Medical information 4. Culture What do we do with research? 1. Have it as interesting fact 2. Use it to make decisions 3. Use it to persuade influence others
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I 4. Use it to affect change 5. Use it to change behaviour 6. Use it to better use...medical ...improve customer care...write better funding applications....monitor and evaluate our provision.... We research in order to understand society and social processes, as well as to test and or create theories in order that we are better able to inform about social action and potentially 'improve' social conditions. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Quantitative research is defined by Bryman and Bell (2005, p. 154) that ‘entailing the collection of numerical data and exhibiting the view of relationship between theory and research as deductive, a predilection for natural science approach, and as having an objectivist conception of social reality’. Quantitative research is influenced by the empiricist paradigm, which means that it is concerned with cause and effect of social phenomena and uses the data - which is based on empirical observation and their critical interpretation. Quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics, percentages, etc. The researcher analyzes the data with the help of statistics. The researcher is hoping the numbers will yield an unbiased result that can be generalized to some larger population. "Qualitative research, on the other hand, asks broad questions and collects word data from phenomena or participants. The researcher looks for themes and describes the information in themes and patterns exclusive to that set of participants. " This research method is used: to describe variables; to examine relationships among variables; to determine cause-and-effect interactions between variables.' (Burns & Grove 2005:23) Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include: The generation of models, theories and hypotheses The development of instruments and methods for measurement Experimental control and manipulation of variables Collection of empirical data Modeling and analysis of data Use of statistics Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research outside of the physical sciences, and also finds applications within the physical sciences. Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory. Usually a big sample of data is collected – this would require verification, validation and recording before the analysis can take place. Software packages such as SPSS and R are typically used for this purpose.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I SPSS Statistics is a software package used for logical batched and nonbatched statistical analysis. Long produced by SPSS Inc., it was acquired by IBM in 2009. The current versions (2015) are officially named IBM SPSS Statistics. Companion products in the same family are used for survey authoring and deployment (IBM SPSS Data Collection), data mining (IBM SPSS Modeler), text analytics, and collaboration and deployment (batch and automated scoring services). The software name originally stood for Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), reflecting the original market, although the software is now popular in other fields as well, including the health sciences and marketing. International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an Americ an multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries. R is an open source programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.  The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. Polls, surveys of data miners, and studies of scholarly literature databases show that R's popularity has increased substantially in recent years. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.e., the generation of a variety of ideas about a research problem in a spontaneous, freeflowing manner]. Its main characteristics are: The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms. Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.
The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I
The weight of a person (in kilograms) The height of a person (in metres) The age of a person (in years and months) The gender of a person (using a numerical system of categorisation, e.g. 1 for female, 2 for male) A person’s education (e.g. number and grade of school certificates; classification of undergraduate degree) A person’s political views (e.g. using a scale that goes from 0 for extreme left-wing to 10 for extreme right-wing) STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Allows for a broader study, involving a greater number of subjects, and enhancing the generalization of the results; Allows for greater objectivity and accuracy of results. Generally, quantitative methods are designed to provide summaries of data that support generalizations about the phenomenon under study. In order to accomplish this, quantitative research usually involves few variables and many cases, and employs prescribed procedures to ensure validity and reliability; Applying well-establshed standards means that the research can be replicated, and then analyzed and compared with similar studies; You can summarize vast sources of information and make comparisons across categories and over time; and, Personal bias can be avoided by keeping a 'distance' from participating subjects and using accepted computational techniques.
Quantitative data is more efficient and able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail; Uses a static and rigid approach and so employs an inflexible process of discovery; The development of standard questions by researchers can lead to "structural bias" and false representation, where the data actually reflects the view of the researcher instead of the participating subject; Results provide less detail on behavior, attitudes, and motivation; Researcher may collect a much narrower and sometimes superficial dataset; Results are limited as they provide numerical descriptions rather than detailed narrative and generally provide less elaborate accounts of human perception; The research is often carried out in an unnatural, artificial environment so that a level of control can be applied to the exercise. This level of control might not normally be in place in the real world thus yielding "laboratory results" as opposed to "real world results"; and, Preset answers will not necessarily reflect how people really feel about a subject and, in some cases, might just be the closest match to the preconceived hypothesis.
KINDS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I
There are four (4) main types of quantitative designs: descriptive, correlational, quasi-experimental, and experimental.
Descriptive research is a study designed to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive research is all about describing people who take part in the study. There are three ways a researcher can go about doing a descriptive research project, and they are: Observational, defined as a method of viewing and recording the participants Case study, defined as an in-depth study of an individual or group of individuals Survey, defined as a brief interview or discussion with an individual about a specific topic Correlational study is a quantitative method of research in which you have 2 or more quantitative variables from the same group of subjects, & you are trying to determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the 2 variables (a similarity between them, not a difference between their means). Theoretically, any 2 quantitative variables can be correlated (for example, midterm scores & number of body piercings!) as long as you have scores on these variables from the same participants; however, it is probably a waste of time to collect & analyze data when there is little reason to think these two variables would be related to each other. Quasi-experimental design involves selecting groups, upon which a variable is tested, without any random pre-selection processes. For example, to perform an educational experiment, a class might be arbitrarily divided by alphabetical selection or by seating arrangement. The division is often convenient and, especially in an educational situation, causes as little disruption as possible. After this selection, the experiment proceeds in a very similar way to any other experiment, with a variable being compared between different groups, or over a period of time. Experimental research is commonly used in sciences such as sociology and psychology, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine etc. It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and controlled testing to understand causal processes. Generally, one or more variables are manipulated to determine their effect on a dependent variable. The experimental method is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables. The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the strict sense, experimental research is what we call a true experiment. This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time. It is also important to know what variable(s) you want to test and measure.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I ACTIVITY 1A.1.1
Direction: Put a tick (/) if it describes the characteristics of a Quantitative Research. *
1. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. 2. The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. 3. It is not based upon numerical measurements and does not use numbers and statistical methods as key research indicators and tools. 4. It tends to be associated with small-scale studies and a holistic perspective, often studying a single occurrence or small number of occurrences/case studies in great depth. 5. The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. 6. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms. 7. Emphasis is on discovery rather than proof. 8. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population. 9. It tends to be associated with emergent research design, using a wide range of approaches 10. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought. SCORE: ____________________ Corrected by: __________________
Answer the following questions comprehensively. 1. Discuss the strengths of a Quantitative Research. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Discuss the weaknesses of a Quantitative Research. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ SCORE: ____________________ Corrected by: __________________ ACTIVITY 1A.1.3
Describe the following Kinds of Quantitative Research. 1. Descriptive - __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Correlational - ________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Quasi-experimental - _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Experimental - _______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________
SCORE: ____________________ Corrected by: __________________ TOTAL SCORE
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I REFERENCES
Burns N, Grove SK (2005) The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, and Utilization (5th Ed.). St. Louis, Elsevier Saunders http://research-methodology.net/research-methods/quantitative-research/ https://cirt.gcu.edu/blogs/quantitative-methods/characteristics-of-quantitative-research http://spalding.libguides.com/c.php?g=461133&p=3153088 http://www.erm.ecs.soton.ac.uk/theme4/quantitative_research.html http://spalding.libguides.com/c.php?g=461133&p=3153088 http://researchguides.ebling.library.wisc.edu/samples.jbpub.com/9780763780586/80586_CH03_Keele.pdf http://study.com/academy/lesson/descriptive-research-design-definition-examples-types.html
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I Content: Nature of Inquiry and Research Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of: 1. the characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of quantitative research 2. the importance of quantitative research across fields 3. the nature of variables Performance Standard: The learner is able to decide on suitable quantitative research in different areas of interest Learning Competencies: --Illustrates the importance of quantitative research across fields CS_RS12-Ia-c-2 LESSON 1: Importance of Quantitative Research Time Frame: Week Two Importance of Quantitative Research
1. More reliable and objective 2. Can use statistics to generalise a finding 3. Often reduces and restructures a complex problem to a limited number of variables 4. Looks at relationships between variables and can establish cause and effect in highly controlled circumstances 5. Tests theories or hypotheses 6. Assumes sample is representative of the population 7. Subjectivity of researcher in methodology is recognized less 8. Less detailed than qualitative data and may miss a desired response from the participant Importance of Quantitative Research across fields
In the social sciences, it is also common to count frequencies of observations; i.e. frequencies of observable outcomes in an experiment. Examples include the number of correct scores on an assessment of an ability, and the number of statements on a questionnaire endorsed by respondents. Provided each observable outcome is the manifestation of an underlying quantitative attribute, such frequencies will generally indicate relative magnitudes of that attribute. Strictly speaking, however, counts and frequencies do not constitute measurement in terms of a unit of continuous quantity. Use in prosody and poetry In prosody and poetic meter, syllable weight can be a governing principle. Many linguists use morae as a unit of syllable weight—a syllable with more morae is heavier than one with fewer morae. Commonly, syllables with naturally long vowels, diphthongs, and vowels followed by two or more consonants are said to be “heavy”, “long”, or “bimoraic”, whereas syllables with naturally short vowels, followed by only one or no consonant, are said to be “light”, “short”, or “monomoraic”. Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural and social sciences, from physics and biology to sociology and journalism. It is also used as a way to research different aspects of music education. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. The term quantitative research is most often used in the social sciences in contrast to qualitative research. Virtually all research in physics is quantitative whereas research in other scientific disciplines, such as taxonomy and anatomy, may involve a combination of quantitative and other analytic approaches and methods.
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I In the social sciences particularly, quantitative research is often contrasted with qualitative research which is the examination, analysis and interpretation of observations for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships, …… …….. including classifications of types of phenomena and entities, in a manner that does not involve mathematical models. Approaches to quantitative psychology were first modelled on quantitative approaches in the physical sciences by Gustav Fechner in his work on psychophysics, which built on the work of Ernst Heinrich Weber. Although a distinction is commonly drawn between qualitative and quantitative aspects of scientific investigation, it has been argued that the two go hand in hand. For example, based on analysis of the history of science, Kuhn (1961, p. 162) concludes that “large amounts of qualitative work have usually been prerequisite to fruitful quantification in the physical sciences”. Qualitative research is often used to gain a general sense of phenomena and to form theories that can be tested using further quantitative research. For instance, in the social sciences qualitative research methods are often used to gain better understanding of such things as intentionality (from the speech response of the researchee) and meaning (why did this person/group say something and what did it mean to them?). Although quantitative investigation of the world has existed since people first began to record events or objects that had been counted, the modern idea of quantitative processes have their roots in Auguste Comte's positivist framework. Quantitative research using statistical methods typically begins with the collection of data based on a theory or hypothesis, followed by the application of descriptive or inferential statistical methods. Causal relationships are studied by manipulating factors thought to influence the phenomena of interest while controlling other variables relevant to the experimental outcomes. In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such as exercise. Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported. In opinion surveys, respondents are asked a set of structured questions and their responses are tabulated. In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Examples of Quantitative research 1. Has the change in household size over the years affected the economy? 2. Is the price of gasoline related to demand or price of oil? 3. Has public consumption changed over the years? 4. How has the increase in minimum wage affected small business? 5. Has the new health insurance laws threatening small business? 6. What happens to student loans if students fail to graduate from college? 7. Does unemployment directly affect changes in consumption? 8. Is the economy causing some home health care workers to disappear? REFERENCES
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I ACTIVITY 1A.2.1
Explain the importance of Quantitative research. Answer in 3 to 5 sentences. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ SCORE: ____________________ Corrected by: __________________
Choose one field and explain the importance of quantitative research. _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ SCORE: ____________________ Corrected by: __________________
PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 Linabuan National High School – Senior High Ma. Nelyn Amor I. Ricarto, T-I