Practical Goat Raising_GOAT CONGRESS 2012
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Practical Goat Raising
GOATS ARE COMMONLY KNOWN AS
“POOR MAN’S COW” “LIVING MOWERS” NOW
“LIVING ASSETS” (GOAT IS GOLD)
POTENTIALS OF GOAT RAISING Animals
Contri. in Nutrition
GOAT INVENTORY (as of 2010)
Population („000 head)
Total Head Count: 4250 4200 4150
4100 4050 4000 3950
By Farm Type:
3900 3850 3800
Goat Inventories 2010 (BAS) %Share Total 100.00 Backyard 98.53 Commercial 1.47
Source: FGASPAPI, 2010
GOAT: Quarterly Inventory by Region, 2009-2010 (in heads) (BAS, 2010) PERCENT CHANGE
REGION JAN 1 PHILIPPINES
2010 JUL 1
JUL 1 P 3,929,167
JUL 1 P
LUZON CAR REGION I REGION II REGION III CALABARZON MIMAROPA REGION V
1,561,804 62,478 527,761 137,453 321,286 222,857 168,396 121,573
1,577,936 67,290 520,350 131,253 345,556 223,941 162,729 126,817
1,573,670 64,659 494,057 130,485 349,823 231,167 173,682 129,797
1,483,506 65,118 455,208 116,853 354,683 220,363 159,213 112,068
0.76 3.49 (6.39) (5.07) 8.88 3.73 3.14 6.76
(5.98) (3.23) (12.52) (10.97) 2.64 (1.60) (2.16) (11.63)
VISAYAS REGION VI REGION VII REGION VIII
1,258,269 606,039 533,949 118,281
1,256,326 603,327 540,972 112,027
1,265,291 604,618 550,889 109,784
1,180,099 574,408 507,162 98,529
0.56 (0.23) 3.17 (7.18)
(6.07) (4.79) (6.25) (12.05)
MINDANAO REGION IX REGION X REGION XI REGION XII CARAGA A R M M
1,402,161 160,460 239,847 374,783 293,958 71,490 261,623
1,389,955 155,223 240,674 384,899 271,185 65,852 272,122
1,338,760 118,869 241,955 391,559 256,718 61,143 268,516
1,265,562 114,415 236,342 383,410 249,028 56,277 226,090
(4.52) (25.92) 0.88 4.48 (12.67) (14.47) 2.63
(8.95) (26.29) (1.80) (0.39) (8.17) (14.54) (16.92)
Current Situation Goat population – 3.929M goats (BAS, July 2010)
Ave. Mature Live Weight of Philippine goat – 18 to 20kilos Average Carcass Weight at 2 years old Per Capita consumption
Annual Goat Meat Production – 78K MT LW(BAS) No. of heads slaughtered - 9,750 heads/yr
Production Estimates by Region % Share 36.95
- 14,446K MT
Top Goat Producing Regions*: REGION
Region VI (Western Visayas)
Region I (Ilocos Region)
Region VII (Central Visayas)
Region XI (Davao Region)
Region IV (Southern Tagalog)
*- Regions Producing the top 58% of the total Philippine Goat Population
Introduction • Goats are important elements on the pathway out of poverty for people in Central Luzon; • Important for the poorest livestock keepers and for the landless who could start to raise livestock; • With the presence of SRC, CLSU, TCA, SUCs, DA-RFU 3, OPVets, LGUs, strong support to farmers were given on integrated goat management (FLS-IGM); • Linkage with PCARRD, BAI, LDC and other gov‟t agencies were tapped.
Uses of Goats
Add-in Enterprises Meat Products
Organic Manure Milk Source
Current Status of the Goat Industry in the Philippines
For family use
Limited buck Low reproduction
The National Goat S&T Program ISP Targets 2020 i preweaning mortality 25 – 10 % h slaughter weight 15 – 30 kg i kidding interval 9 – 8 mos. Regional h natural conception rate 80 – 95 % National R&D Programs on Goats R&D Programs on Goats
RED Program Goat Farm Performance Alternative Program Technology Options Development of Herbal Drugs Halal Project Goat Program
Private sector-led programs
Breeder Meat cut importation Goat Goat fabrication congresses shows
Enhancing demand for ANFR grads thru S&T
(Feed resources & technology Transfer) CVARRD (AI & Chevon Processing)
Other goat-focused programs IEC, CIN Supply Chain
Elearning Impact Assess. STBFgoat
making Goats RED... a community-based approach to the transformation of rural assets Courtesy of Dr. Wilson Cervito
Why Raise Goats?
Why Raise Goats? Small initial investment; Can integrate with crop-based farming system;
Provides meat, milk and skin for processing into high-value products; Short period of getting the ROI; Goat manure is used as fertilizer; They thrive in marginal vegetations; fodder in rainy days; Wives and children can handle goats; they docile.
Why Raise Goats?cont.. Have inherent advantages over other ruminants Mature earlier; higher fertility (8 months); Capable of multiple births; have shorter gestation period Can be milked for 5 months First kid crop-less than a year Popular for kilawen, papaitan, caldereta
Increasing demand for goat and sheep meat
Prospects and Opportunities:
- Demand for meat, milk and products are increasing but supply is low. - Price is increasing every year - Chevon has a high water holding capacity and is therefore very suitable in meat processing. - Offers a good source of sustained income - Technologies on improved goat production and processing are now being available
History of the Goat The modern domesticated goat is believed to be the first livestock domesticated by man about 10,000 years ago.
It descended from the Bezoar goat Capra aegagrus from South West Asia.
The Goat Breeds Over the years, goats were bred according to the type or product they are about to produce: - Meat (Chevon) - Dairy - Cashmere/ Leather - Miscellaneous Breeds
Some Exotic Breeds Angora Goats -bred for their fine cashmere that is processed into various kinds of apparel -can also be made as pets.
Pygmy Goats - miniature goats most suitable as pets - only stands 16-23 inches at the whithers.
Playing Dead? Fainting Goats -More or less the size of a native goat. -Meat breed
Goat Breeds Commonly Found in the Philippines Anglo- Nubian
• developed in Great •
Britain of native milking stock and goats from the Middle East and North Africa due to Middle-Eastern heritage, can live in very hot climates and have longer breeding season
• distinguishing •
characteristics: large, pendulous ears and a "Roman" nose Because of its elongated ears and sleek body, the Nubian has a variety of nicknames, including "Lopeared Goat", "Rabbit Goat", "Long-eared Goat" and "Greyhound Goat"
• has different colors with long, • •
floppy ears, convex nose, and large structure; large in size and carries more flesh than other dairy breeds temperament is sociable, outgoing, and vocal
• Large; size makes it a
very useful dual purpose animal does – 60 kg, 30 inches (76 cm) bucks –75 kg, 35 inches (88 cm) high butterfat, 5% or more; but produces less volume of milk than other dairy breeds
o o •
- Meat Type, Originated from Southern Africa - Fast growth rate, good mothering ability, docile. - Mature bucks weighs about 110-135kg; does 90-110kg. - Characteristic white body and red head
SAANEN • white or cream-colored • large and big-boned, but graceful and refined in bone • largest of the dairy goat breeds Does: 150 lb(68 kg) ↑ Bucks: 200 lb (91 kg) ↑ • ears are erect, nose straight or dished • usually have beards and horns
• commonly used for • • • •
commercial milking “Queen of dairy goats” produces the most milk on average Saanen nanny: 1 gal (3.8 li.) a day Milk has lower butterfat content, 2.5%-3.0%
• breed is usually pure white in color; • medium to heavy built, with straight or dished face; • heavy milk producers; • yield best in much cooler environment.
• Named after Saanen valley in Switzerland • “Sable Saanen” is the term for nonwhite Saanen • calm and mild mannered • typically breed every year, producing one or two kids • Sensitive to too much sunlight, performs best in cooler regions
• Oldest known goat dairy breed from Switzerland • Performs well on cool climates • Smaller built
varies in color from light fawn to dark chocolate; • medium built, sturdy, energetic, and active; • highly developed udder ; • high level of milk production.
• named after Toggenburg valley, Switzerland • medium in size • have compact bodies • does have high, well-attached udders • straight or dished faces, but never roman noses • generally a friendly, quiet and gentle breed, and are good as pets • moderate in production, and have relatively low butterfat content (2-3%) in their milk
• color is solid varying from light fawn to dark chocolate • With distinct white markings as follows: owhite ears with dark spot in middle otwo white stripes down the face from above each eye to the muzzle; ohind legs white from hocks to hooves; oforelegs white from knees downward with a dark line (band) below knee acceptable; oa white triangle on either side of the tail.
Alpine • Rock alpines; • Swiss alpines; • US alpines
• with 4.8 butterfat content;
• larger, stronger, and healthier than many other goat breeds; • they tolerate heat better than Saanens and Toggenburgs.
Alpine • breed can have different colors except all white and light brown with white markings;
• It has a straight face, standing ears, and medium body built; • It is a common dairy goat breed because of the amount of milk it is able to produce.
• a medium to large size animal; • does - 57 kg 0.8 meters or 30 inches tall • alertly graceful • hardy, adaptable animals • hair is medium to short • have erect ears, horns, and have a dish-face (straight)
• aka “French Alpine;” originated in the French Alps • can range in color from white or gray to brown and black • have no set markings • heavy milkers • milk can be made into any dairy product
ALPINE Alpine colors are described by using the following terms: Cou Blanc (coo blanc) - white neck & front quarters, black hindquarters, black or gray markings on the head Cou Clair (coo clair) - "clear neck," front quarters tan, saffron, off-white, or shading to gray with black hindquarters. Cou Noir (coo nwah) - literally "black neck" black front quarters and white hindquarters Sundgau (sundgow) - black with white markings such as underbody, facial stripes, etc.
• • • •
What’s missing? La Mancha • “earless” goat which was developed from several goats from Spain;
• a dairy goat which can thrive under harsh conditions
• have ears, but pinna is shrunken; 2 types of ears • Gopher ear: very small,
'shriveled„; no fold, must not exceed 1 inch (2.5 cm). (This is the only type of ear which will make bucks eligible for registration. ) Elf ear: max. length 2 inches; end of the ear must be turned up or down, and cartilage shaping the small ear is allowed.
ear tags or ear tattoos are not used; tattoos are normally placed on the tail web
La Mancha • breed can be of any color; • one of its distinct characteristics is that it has almost unnoticeable ear ; • relatively small but very sturdy ; • its milk is high in butterfat.
• noted for its apparent • • • • •
lack of, or much reduced, external ears medium in size generally calm, quiet, and gentle in temperament comes in just about any color hair is short, fine and glossy dairy breed with high butterfat
PHIL. NATIVE GOAT
• not a dairy breed but for • • • • •
upgrading (e.g. with AngloNubian) increases milk yield small, stocky and low set red, white or black or combination of these colors Mature weight: 20 – 25 kilograms Ave. milk prod‟n: 0.4 liter Lactation Period: 187 days
Pix courtesy of SRC, CLSU
25% Native and 75% Anglonubian
Breeds Raised in the Philippines
Upgrades/ Triple crosses
DISHES OUT OF GOAT’S MEAT • • • • • • • •
Tapa Adobo Kilawin Papait Goat steak Braised meat chop Higado Sinampalukan
• • • • • • •
Barbeque Caldereta Asado Menudo Pochero Afritada Cocido
SELECTION OF FOUNDATION STOCKS
SELECTION AND CULLING
• Selection – choosing animals with desirable traits that are fit for production • Culling –removing animals that are below average in production, unsound or undesirable
Traits to consider for selection: growth rate, milk yield, prolificacy, body size, resistance to disease, adaptability to environment, and production conditions
Characteristics of Male Breeding Stock 1.Healthy with no deformities 2.Straight and strong legs 3.Active and with high libido 4.Normal testicles 5.With good pedigree 6.Clean, shiny,healthy coat 7.6-8 months and not < 25 kg
Characteristics of Female Breeding Stock
• Healthy with no deformities • Straight and strong legs • Normal genitals • With good mothering ability • Normal teats(smooth, firm, no infection and swelling) • Good pedigree • 6-8 months of age & not